2015 CMB and astrophysical component maps
Contents
 1 Overview
 2 CMB maps
 3 Astrophysical foregrounds from parametric component separation
 4 CO emission maps
 5 Modelling of the thermal dust emission with the Draine and Li dust model
 6 Thermal dust and CIB allsky maps from GNILC component separation
 7 References
Overview
This section describes the maps of astrophysical components produced from the Planck data. These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps described above using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of each product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification file containing the data and associated information. All the details can be found in Planck2015A09^{[1]} and Planck2015A10^{[2]}.
CMBCosmic Microwave background maps
CMBCosmic Microwave background maps have been produced using four different methods: COMMANDER, NILC, SEVEM, and SMICA, as described in the CMB and foreground separation section and also in Appendices AD of Planck2015A09^{[1]} and references therein.
As discussed extensively in Planck2015A01^{[3]}, Planck2015A06^{[4]}, Planck2015A08^{[5]}, and Planck2015A09^{[1]}, the residual systematics in the Planck 2015 polarization maps have been dramatically reduced compared to 2013, by as much as two orders of magnitude on large angular scales. Nevertheless, on angular scales greater than 10 degrees, correponding to l < 20, systematics are still nonnegligible compared to the expected cosmological signal.
It was not possible, for this data release, to fully characterize the largescale residuals from the data or from simulations. Therefore all results published by the Planck Collaboration in 2015 which are based on CMBCosmic Microwave background polarization have used maps which have been highpass filtered to remove the large angular scales. We warn all users of the CMBCosmic Microwave background polarization maps that they cannot yet be used for cosmological studies at large angular scales.
For convenience, we provide as default polarized CMBCosmic Microwave background maps from which all angular scales at l < 30 have been filtered out.
For each method we provide the following:
 Fullmission CMBCosmic Microwave background intensity map, confidence mask and beam transfer function.
 Fullmission CMBCosmic Microwave background polarisation map,
 A confidence mask.
 A beam transfer function.
In addition, and for characterisation purposes, we include six other sets of maps from three data splits: first/second halfring, odd/even years and first/second halfmission. For the year1,2 and halfmission1,2 data splits we provide halfsum and halfdifference maps which are produced by running the corresponding sums and differences inputs through the pipelines. The halfdifference maps can be used to provide an approximate noise estimates for the full mission, but they should be used with caution. Each split has caveats in this regard: there are noise correlations between the halfring maps, and missing pixels in the other splits. The Intensity maps are provided at Nside = 2048, at 5 arcmin resolution, while the Polarisation ones are provided at Nside = 1024, at 10 arcmin resolution. All maps are in units of K_{cmb}.
In addition, for each method we provide three sets of files, each categorized by the "R2.0X" label as follows:
 R2.02
This set of intensity and polarisation maps are provided at a resolution of Nside=1024. The Stokes Q and U maps are highpass filtered to contain only modes above l > 30, as explained above and as used for analysis by the Planck Collaboration; THESE ARE THE POLARISATION MAPS WHICH SHOULD BE USED FOR COSMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS. Each type of map is packaged into a separate fits file (as for "R2.01"), resulting in file sizes which are easier to download (as opposed to the "R2.00" files), and more convenient to use with commonly used analysis software.
 R2.01
This is the most complete set of 2015 CMB maps, containing Intensity products at a resolution of Nside=2048, and both Intensity and Polarisation at resolution of Nside=1024. For polarisation (Q and U), they contain all angular resolution modes. WE CAUTION USERS ONCE AGAIN THAT THE STOKES Q AND U MAPS ARE NOT CONSIDERED USEABLE FOR COSMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS AT l < 30. The structure of these files is the same as for "R2.02".
 R2.00
This set of files is equivalent to the "R2.01" set, but are packaged into only two large files. Warning: downloading these files could be very lengthy...
For a complete description of the above data structures, see below; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.
The gallery below shows the Intensity, noise from halfmission, halfdifference, and confidence mask for the four pipelines, in the order COMMANDER, NILC, SEVEM and SMICA, from top to bottom. The Intensity maps' scale is [–500.+500] μK, and the noise spans [–25,+25] μK. We do not show the Q and U maps since they have no significant visible structure to contemplate.
Product description
COMMANDER
 Principle
 COMMANDER is a Planck software code implementing pixel based Bayesian parametric component separation. Each astrophysical signal component is modelled in terms of a small number of free parameters per pixel, typically in terms of an amplitude at a given reference frequency and a small set of spectral parameters, and these are fitted to the data with an MCMC Gibbs sampling algorithm. Instrumental parameters, including calibration[LFI meaning]: absolute calibration refers to the 0th order calibration for each channel, 1 single number, while the relative calibration refers to the component of the calibration that varies pointing period by pointing period., bandpass corrections, monopole and dipoles, are fitted jointly with the astrophysical components. A new feature in the Planck 2015 analysis is that the astrophysical model is derived from a combination of Planck, WMAP and a 408 MHz (Haslam et al. 1982) survey, providing sufficient frequency support to resolve the lowfrequency components into synchrotron, freefree and spinning dust. For full details, see Planck2015A10^{[2]}.
 Resolution (effective beam)
 The Commander sky maps have different angular resolutions depending on data products:
 The components of the full astrophysical sky model derived from the complete data combination (Planck, WMAP, 408 MHz) have a 1 degree FWHMFullWidthatHalfMaximum resolution, and are pixelized at N_{side}=256. The corresponding CMBCosmic Microwave background map defines the input map for the lowl Planck 2015 temperature likelihood.
 The Commander CMBCosmic Microwave background temperature map derived from Planckonly observations has an angular resolution of ~5 arcmin and is pixelized at N_{side}=2048. This map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30857 GHz data), 7.5 arcmin (using 143857 GHz data), and 5 arcmin (using 217857 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.
 The Commander CMBCosmic Microwave background polarization map has an angular resolution of 10 arcmin and is pixelized at N_{side}=1024. As for the temperature case, this map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30353 GHz data) and 10 arcmin (using 100353 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.
 Confidence mask
 The Commander confidence masks are produced by thresholding the chisquare map characterizing the global fits, combined with direct CO amplitude thresholding to eliminate known leakage effects. In addition, we exclude the 9year WMAP point source mask in the temperature mask. For full details, see Sections 5 and 6 in Planck2015A10^{[2]}. A total of 81% of the sky is admitted for highresolution temperature analysis, and 83% for polarization analysis. For lowresolution temperature analysis, for which the additional WMAP and 408 MHz observations improve foreground constraints, a total of 93% of the sky is admitted.
NILC
 Principle
 The NeedletILC (hereafter NILC) CMBCosmic Microwave background map is constructed both in total intensity as well as polarization: Q and U Stokes parameters. For total intensity, all Planck frequency channels are included. For polarization, all polarization sensitive frequency channels are included, from 30 to 353 GHz. The solution, for T, Q and U is obtained by applying the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) technique in needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range.
 Resolution (effective beam)
 The spectral analysis, and estimation of the NILC coefficients, is performed up to a maximum [math]\ell=4000[/math]. The effective beam is equivalent to a Gaussian circular beam with FWHMFullWidthatHalfMaximum=5 arcminutes.
 Confidence mask
 The same procedure is followed by SMICA and NILC for producing confidence masks, though with different parametrizations. A low resolution smoothed version of the NILC map, noise subtracted, is thresholded to 73.5 squared microK for T, and 6.75 squared microK for Q and U.
SEVEM
 Principle
 SEVEM produces clean CMBCosmic Microwave background maps at several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting in real space. The templates are typically constructed from the lowest and highest Planck frequencies and then subtracted from the CMBCosmic Microwave backgrounddominated channels, with coefficients that are chosen to minimize the variance of the clean map outside a considered mask. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. Two single frequency clean maps are then combined to obtain the final CMBCosmic Microwave background map.
 Resolution
 For intensity the clean CMBCosmic Microwave background map is constructed up to a maximum [math]\ell=4000[/math] at Nside=2048 and at the standard resolution of 5 arcminutes (Gaussian beam).
 For polarization the clean CMBCosmic Microwave background map is produced at Nside=1024 with a resolution of 10 arcminutes (Gaussian beam) and a maximum [math]\ell=3071[/math].
 Confidence masks
 The confidence masks cover the most contaminated regions of the sky, leaving approximately 85 per cent of useful sky for intensity, and 80 per cent for polarization.
Foregroundssubtracted maps
In addition to the regular CMBCosmic Microwave background maps, SEVEM provides maps cleaned of the foregrounds for selected frequency channels (categorized as fgsubsevem in the archive). In particular, for intensity there are clean CMBCosmic Microwave background maps available at 100, 143 and 217 GHz, provided at the original resolution of the uncleaned channel and at Nside=2048. For polarization, there are Q/U clean CMBCosmic Microwave background maps for the 70, 100 and 143 GHz (at Nside=1024). The 70 GHz clean map is provided at its original resolution, whereas the 100 and 143 GHz maps have a resolution given by a Gaussian beam with fwhm=10 arcminutes.
SMICA
 Principle
 SMICA produces CMBCosmic Microwave background maps by linearly combining all Planck input channels with multipoledependent weights. It includes multipoles up to [math]\ell = 4000[/math]. Temperature and polarization maps are produced independently.
 Resolution (effective beam)
 The SMICA intensity map has an effective beam window function of 5 arcminutes which is truncated at [math]\ell=4000[/math] and is not deconvolved from the pixel window function. Thus the delivered beam window function is the product of a Gaussian beam at 5 arcminutes and the pixel window function for [math]N_{side}[/math]=2048.
 The SMICA Q and U maps are obtained similarly but are produced at [math]N_{side}[/math]=1024 with an effective beam of 10 arcminutes (to be multiplied by the pixel window function, as for the intensity map).
 Confidence mask
 A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. See section below detailing the production process.
Common Masks
A number of common masks have been defined for analysis of the CMBCosmic Microwave background temperature and polarization maps. They are based on the confidence masks provided by the component separation methods. One mask for temperature and one mask for polarization have been chosen as the preferred masks based on subsequent analyses.
The common masks for the CMBCosmic Microwave background temperature maps are:
 UT78: union of the Commander, SEVEM, and SMICA temperature confidence masks (the NILC mask was not included since it masks much less of the sky). It has f_{sky} = 77.6%. This is the preferred mask for temperature.
 UTA76: in addition to the UT78 mask, it masks pixels where standard deviation between the four CMBCosmic Microwave background maps is greater than 10 μK. It has f_{sky} = 76.1%.
The common masks for the CMBCosmic Microwave background polarization maps are:
 UP78: the union of the Commander, SEVEM and SMICA polarization confidence masks (the NILC mask was not included since it masks much less of the sky). It has f_{sky} = 77.6%.
 UPA77: In addition to the UP78 mask, it masks pixels where the standard deviation between the four CMBCosmic Microwave background maps, averaged in Q and U, is greater than 4 μK. It has f_{sky} = 76.7%.
 UPB77: in addition to the UP78 mask, it masks polarized point sources detected in the frequency channel maps. It has f_{sky} = 77.4%. This is the preferred mask for polarization.
CMBCosmic Microwave backgroundsubtracted frequency maps ("Foreground maps")
These are the fullsky, fullmission frequency maps in intensity from which the CMBCosmic Microwave background has been subtracted. The maps contain foregrounds and noise. They are provided for each frequency channel and for each component separation method. They are grouped into 8 files, two for each method of which there is one for each instrument. The maps are are at N_{side} = 1024 for the three LFI(Planck) Low Frequency Instrument channels and at N_{side} = 2048 for the six HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument channels. The filenames are:
 LFI(Planck) Low Frequency Instrument_Foregrounds{method}_1024_Rn.nn.fits (145 MB each)
 HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument_Foregrounds{method}_2048_Rn.nn.fits (1.2 GB each)
To remove the CMBCosmic Microwave background, the respective CMBCosmic Microwave background map was first deconvolved with the 5 arcmin beam, then convolved with the beam of the frequency channel, and finally subtracted from the frequency map. This was done using the [math]B_\rm{l}[/math] in harmonic space, assuming a symmetric beam.
The CMBCosmic Microwave backgroundsubtracted maps have complicated noise properties. The CMBCosmic Microwave background maps contain a noise contribution from each of the frequency maps, depending on the weights with which they were combined. Therefore subtracting the CMBCosmic Microwave background map from a frequency channel contributes additional noise from the other frequency channels.
The frequency maps from which the CMBCosmic Microwave background have been subtracted are:
 LFI(Planck) Low Frequency Instrument_SkyMap_0nn_1024_R2.01_full.fits
 HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument_SkyMap_nnn_2048_R2.0n_full.fits
Note that the temperature column in the HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument R2.00, R2.01 and R2.02 is the same, since the changes in these maps involved the polarization columns only. Also note that the zodiacal light correction described here was applied to the HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument temperature maps before the CMBCosmic Microwave background subtraction.
Quadrupole Residual Maps
The secondorder (kinematic) quadrupole is a frequencydependent effect. During the production of the frequency maps the frequencyindependent part was subtracted, which leaves a frequencydependent residual quadrupole. The residuals in the componentseparated CMBCosmic Microwave background temperature maps have been estimated by simulating the effect in the frequency maps and propagating it through the component separation pipelines. The residuals have an amplitude of around 2 μK peaktopeak. The maps of the estimated residuals can be used to remove the effect by subtracting them from the CMBCosmic Microwave background maps.
Production process
COMMANDER
 Preprocessing
 All sky maps are first convolved to a common resolution that is larger than the largest beam of any frequency channel. For the combined Planck, WMAP and 408 MHz temperature analysis, the common resolution is 1 degree FWHMFullWidthatHalfMaximum; for the Planckonly, allfrequency analysis it is 40 arcmin FWHMFullWidthatHalfMaximum; and for the intermediateresolution analysis it is 7.5 arcmin; while for the fullresolution analysis, we assume all frequencies between 217 and 857 GHz have a common resolution, and no additional convolution is performed. For polarization, only two smoothing scales are employed, 40 and 10 arcmin, respectively. The instrumental noise rms maps are convolved correspondingly, properly accouting for their matrixlike nature.
 Priors
 The following priors are enforced in the Commander analysis:
 All foreground amplitudes are enforced to be positive definite in the lowresolution analysis, while no amplitude priors are enforced in the highresolution analyses
 Monopoles and dipoles are fixed to nominal values for a small set of reference frequencies
 Gaussian priors are enforced on spectral parameters, with values informed by the values derived in the high signaltonoise areas of the sky
 The Jeffreys ignorance prior is enforced on spectral parameters in addition to the informative Gaussian priors
 Fitting procedure
 Given data and priors, Commander either maximizes, or samples from, the Bayesian posterior, P(thetadata). Because this is a highly nonGaussian and correlated distribution, involving millions of parameters, these operations are performed by means of the Gibbs sampling algorithm, in which joint samples from the full distributions are generated by iteratively sampling from the corresponding conditional posterior distributions, P(theta_i data, theta_{j/=i}). For the lowresolution analysis, all parameters are optimized jointly, while in the highresolution analyses, which employs fewer frequency channels, low signaltonoise parameters are fixed to those derived at low resolution. Examples of such parameters include monopoles and dipoles, calibration and bandpass parameters, thermal dust temperature etc.
NILC
 Preprocessing
 All sky frequency maps are deconvolved using the DPCData Processing Center beam transfer function provided, and reconvolved with a 5 arcminutes FWHMFullWidthatHalfMaximum circular Gaussian beam. In polarization, prior to the smoothing process, all sky E and B maps are derived from Q and U using standard HEALPix([http://healpix.sourceforge.net Hierarchical Equal Area isoLatitude Pixelation of a sphere], {{BibCitegorski2005}}) pixelation used to produce Planck sky maps (and HFI HPR). tools from each individual frequency channels
 Linear combination
 Preprocessed input frequency maps are decomposed in needlet coefficients, specified in the Appendix B of the Planck A11 paper, with shape given by Table B.1. Minimum variance coefficients are then obtained, using all channels for T, from 30 to 353 for E and B.
 Postprocessing
 E and B maps are recombined into Q and U products using standard HEALPix([http://healpix.sourceforge.net Hierarchical Equal Area isoLatitude Pixelation of a sphere], {{BibCitegorski2005}}) pixelation used to produce Planck sky maps (and HFI HPR). tools.
SEVEM
The templates used in the SEVEM pipeline are typically constructed by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMBCosmic Microwave background signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates [math]t_j[/math] is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMBCosmic Microwave background map at that frequency. This is done in real space at each position on the sky: [math] T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) [/math] where [math]n_t[/math] is the number of templates. The [math]α_j[/math] coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map [math]T_c[/math] outside a given mask. Note that the same expression applies for I, Q and U. Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the fullsky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of clean maps at different frequencies is of great interest in order to test the robustness of the results, and these intermediate products (clean maps at individual frequencies for intensity and polarization) are also provided in the archive. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned independently and the number of templates that can be constructed.
 Intensity
For the CMBCosmic Microwave background intensity map, we have cleaned the 100 GHz, 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps using a total of four templates. Three of them are constructed as the difference of two consecutive Planck channels smoothed to a common resolution (3044, 4470 and 545353) while the 857 GHz channel is chosen as the fourth template. First of all, the six frequency channels which are going to be part of the templates are inpainted at the point source positions detected using the Mexican Hat Wavelet algorithm. The size of the holes to be inpainted is determined taking into account the beam size of the channel as well as the flux of each source. The inpainting algorithm is based on simple diffuse inpainting, which fills one pixel with the mean value of the neighbouring pixels in an iterative way. To avoid inconsistencies when subtracting two channels, each frequency map is inpainted on the sources detected in that map and on the second map (if any) used to construct the template. Then the maps are smoothed to a common resolution (the first channel in the subtraction is smoothed with the beam of the second map and viceversa). For the 857 GHz template, we simply filter the inpainted map with the 545 GHz beam.
The coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance outside the analysis mask, that covers the 1 per cent brightest emission of the sky as well as point sources detected at all frequency channels. Once the maps are cleaned, each of them is inpainted on the point sources positions detected at that (raw) channel. Then, the MHW algorithm is run again, now on the clean maps. A relatively small number of new sources are found and are also inpainted at each channel. The resolution of the clean map is the same as that of the original data. Our final CMBCosmic Microwave background map is then constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.
In addition, the clean CMBCosmic Microwave background maps produced at 100, 143 and 217 GHz frequencies are also provided. The resolution of these maps is the same as that of the uncleaned frequency channels and have been constructed at Nside=2048. They have been inpainted at the position of the detected point sources. Note that these three clean maps should be close to independent, although some level of correlation will be present since the same templates have been used to clean the maps.
The confidence mask is produced by studying the differences between several SEVEM CMBCosmic Microwave background reconstructions, which correspond to maps cleaned at different frequencies or using different analysis masks. The obtained mask leaves a useful sky fraction of approximately 85 per cent.
 Polarization
To clean the polarization maps, a procedure similar to the one used for intensity data is applied to the Q and U maps independently. However, given that a narrower frequency coverage is available for polarization, the selected templates and maps to be cleaned are different. In particular, we clean the 70, 100 and 143 GHz using three templates for each channel. The first step of the pipeline is to inpaint the positions of the point sources using the MHW, in those channels which are going to be used in the construction of templates, following the same procedure as for the intensity case. The inpainting is performed in the frequency maps at their native resolution. These inpainted maps are then used to construct a total of four templates. To trace the synchrotron emission, we construct a template as the subtraction of the 30 GHz minus the 44 GHz map, after being convolved with the beam of each other. For the dust emission, the following templates are considered: 353217 GHz (smoothed at 10' resolution), 217143 GHz (used to clean 70 and 100 GHz) and 217100 GHz (to clean 143 GHz). These two last templates are constructed at 1 degree resolution since an additional smoothing becomes necessary in order to increase the signaltonoise ratio of the template. Conversely to the intensity case and due to the lower availability of frequency channels, it becomes necessary to use the maps to be cleaned as part of one of the templates. In this way, the 100 GHz map is used to clean the 143 GHz frequency channel and viceversa, making the clean maps less independent between them than in the intensity case.
These templates are then used to clean the noninpainted 70 (at its native resolution), 100 (at 10' resolution) and 143 GHz maps (also at 10'). The corresponding linear coefficients are estimated independently for Q and U by minimising the variance of the clean maps outside a mask, that covers point sources and the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission. Once the maps have been cleaned, inpainting of the point sources detected at the corresponding raw maps is carried out. The size of the holes to be inpainted takes into account the additional smoothing of the 100 and 143 GHz maps. The 100 and 143 GHz clean maps are then combined in harmonic space, using E and B decomposition, to produce the final CMBCosmic Microwave background maps for the Q and U components at a resolution of 10' (Gaussian beam) for a HEALPix([http://healpix.sourceforge.net Hierarchical Equal Area isoLatitude Pixelation of a sphere], {{BibCitegorski2005}}) pixelation used to produce Planck sky maps (and HFI HPR). parameter Nside=1024. Each map is weighted taking into account its corresponding noise level at each multipole. Finally, before applying the postprocessing HPF to the clean polarization data, the region with the brightest Galactic residuals is inpainted (5 per cent of the sky) to avoid the introduction of ringing around the Galactic centre in the filtering process.
The clean CMBCosmic Microwave background maps at individual frequency channels produced as intermediate steps of SEVEM are also provided for Q and U, constructed at Nside=1024. The clean 70 GHz map is provided at its native resolution, while the clean maps at 100 and 143 GHz frequencies have a resolution of 10 arcminutes (Gaussian beam). The three maps have been inpainted in the positions of the detected point sources. Note that, due to the availability of a smaller number of templates for polarization than for intensity, these maps are less independent than for the temperature case, since, for instance, the 100 GHz map is used to clean the 143 GHz one and viceversa.
The confidence mask includes all the pixels above a given threshold in a smoothed version of the clean CMBCosmic Microwave background map, the regions more contaminated by the CO emission and those pixels more affected by the highpass filtering, leaving a useful sky fraction of approximately 80 per cent.
SMICA
A) Production of the intensity map.
 1) Preprocessing
 Before computing spherical harmonic coefficients, all input maps undergo a preprocessing step to deal with regions of very strong emission (such as the Galactic center) and point sources. The point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue are fitted in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole is filled in by a simple diffusive process to ensure a smooth transition and mitigate spectral leakage. The diffusive inpainting process is also applied to some regions of very strong emissions. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, here all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and filledin similarly.
 2) Linear combination
 The nine preprocessed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHz are harmonically transformed up to [math]\ell = 4000[/math] and coadded with multipoledependent weights as shown in the figure.
 3) Postprocessing
 A confidence mask is determined (see the Planck paper) and all regions which have been masked in the preprocessing step are added to it.
B) Production of the Q and U polarisation maps.
The SMICA pipeline for polarization uses all the 7 polarized Planck channels. The production of the Q and U maps is similar to the production of the intensity map. However, there is no input point source preprocessing of the input maps. The regions of very strong emission are masked out using an apodized mask before computing the E and B modes of the input maps and combining them to produce the E and B modes of the CMBCosmic Microwave background map. Those modes are then used to synthesize the U and Q CMBCosmic Microwave background maps. The E and B parts of the input frequency maps being processed jointly, there are, at each multipole, 2*7=14 coefficients (weights) defined to produce the E modes of the CMBCosmic Microwave background map and as many to produce the B part. The weights are displayed in the figure below. The Q and U maps were originally produced at Nside=2048 with a 5arcminute resolution, but were downgraded to Nside=1024 with a 10 arcminute resolution for this release.
Masks
Summary table with the different masks that have been used by the component separation methods to preprocess and to process the frequency maps and the CMBCosmic Microwave background maps.
Commander 2015 (PR2)  Used for diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps  Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMBCosmic Microwave background map  Description 

TMASK  NO  NO  TMASK (the equivalent to PR1 VALMASK) is the confidence mask in temperature that defines the region where the reconstructed CMBCosmic Microwave background is trusted. It can be found inside COM_CMB_IQUcommanderfieldInt_2048_R2.01_full.fits. 
PMASK  NO  NO  PMASK is the confidence mask in polarization that defines the region where the reconstructed CMBCosmic Microwave background is trusted. It can be found inside COM_CMB_IQUcommander_1024_R2.02_full.fits. 
INP_MASK_T  NO  YES  Three masks have been used for inpaiting of CMBCosmic Microwave background maps for specific [math]\ell[/math] ranges: three different angular resolution maps (40 arcmin, 7.5 arcmin and full resolution), are produced using different data combinations and foreground models. Each of these are inpainted with their own masks with a constrained Gaussian realization before coadding the three maps in harmonic space. 
INP_MASK_P  NO  YES  Mask used for inpainting of the CMBCosmic Microwave background map in polarization. 
SEVEM 2015 (PR2)  Used for Diffuse Inpainting of foregorund subtracted CMBCosmic Microwave background maps (fgsubsevem)  Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMBCosmic Microwave background map  Description 
TMASK  NO  NO  TMASK (the equivalent to PR1 VALMASK) is the confidence mask in temperature that defines the region where the reconstructed CMBCosmic Microwave background is trusted. It can be found inside COM_CMB_IQUsevemfieldInt_2048_R2.01_full.fits. 
PMASK  NO  NO  PMASK is the confidence mask in polarization that defines the region where the reconstructed CMBCosmic Microwave background is trusted. It can be found inside COM_CMB_IQUsevem_1024_R2.02_full.fits. 
INP_MASK_T  YES  NO  Point source mask for temperature. This mask is the combination of the 143 and 217 T point source masks used for the inpainting of the foreground subtracted CMBCosmic Microwave background maps at those two frequencies. These two maps have been combined to produce the final CMBCosmic Microwave background map. 
INP_MASK_P  YES  NO  Point source mask for polarization. This mask is the combination of the 100 and 143 point source masks used for the inpainting of the foreground subtracted CMBCosmic Microwave background maps at those two frequencies. These two maps have been combined to produce the final CMBCosmic Microwave background map. 
INP_MASK_T for the cleaned 100, 143 and 217 GHz CMBCosmic Microwave background  YES  NO  Three temperature point source masks used for the inpainting of the foreground subtracted CMBCosmic Microwave background maps at the considered frequencies:

INP_MASK_P for the cleaned 70, 100 and 143 GHz CMBCosmic Microwave background  YES  NO  Three polarization point source masks used for the inpainting of the foreground subtracted CMBCosmic Microwave background maps at the considered frequencies: 
NILC 2015 (PR2)  Used for diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps  Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMBCosmic Microwave background map  Description 
TMASK  NO  NO  TMASK (the equivalent to PR1 VALMASK) is the confidence mask in temperature that defines the region where the reconstructed CMBCosmic Microwave background is trusted. It can be found inside COM_CMB_IQUnilcfieldInt_2048_R2.01_full.fits. 
PMASK  NO  NO  PMASK is the confidence mask in polarization that defines the region where the reconstructed CMBCosmic Microwave background is trusted. It can be found inside COM_CMB_IQUnilc_1024_R2.02_full.fits. 
INP_MASK  YES  NO  The preprocessing involves inpainting of the holes in INP_MASK in the frequency maps prior to applying NILC on them. The first mask (nside 2048) has been used for the preprocessing of sky maps for HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument channels and second one for LFI(Planck) Low Frequency Instrument channels (nside 1024). They can downloaded here:
COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_nilc_dx11_preproc_1024_R2.00.fits COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_nilc_dx11_preproc_2048_R2.00.fits 
SMICA 2015 (PR2)  Used for diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps  Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMBCosmic Microwave background map  Description 
TMASK  NO  YES  TMASK (the equivalent to PR1 VALMASK) is the confidence mask in temperature that defines the region where the reconstructed CMBCosmic Microwave background is trusted. It can be found inside COM_CMB_IQUsmicafieldInt_2048_R2.01_full.fits. 
PMASK  NO  YES  PMASK is the confidence mask in polarization that defines the region where the reconstructed CMBCosmic Microwave background is trusted. It can be found inside COM_CMB_IQUsmica_1024_R2.02_full.fits. 
I_MASK  YES  NO  I_MASK, as in PR1, defines the regions over which CMBCosmic Microwave background is not built. It is a combination of point source masks, Galactic plane mask and other bright regions like LMC, SMC, etc. It can downloaded here: COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_smica_harmonic_mask_2048_R2.00.fits 
Inputs
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the Sky temperature maps section. SMICA and SEVEM use all the maps between 30 and 857 GHz; NILC uses the ones between 44 and 857 GHz. CommanderRuler uses frequency channel maps from 30 to 353 GHz.
File names and structure
Three sets of files FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification files containing the CMBCosmic Microwave background products are available. In the first set all maps (i.e., covering different parts of the mission) and all characterisation products for a given method and a given Stokes parameter are grouped into a single extension, and there are two files per method (smica, nilc, sevem, and commander), one for the high resolution data (I only, Nside=2048) and one for low resolution data (Q and U only, Nside=1024). Each file also contains the associated confidence mask(s) and beam transfer function. These are the R2.00 files which have names like
 COM_CMBCosmic Microwave background_IQU{method}field{Int,Pol}_Nside_R2.00.fits
There are 7 coverage periods:full, halfyear1,2, halfmission1,2, or ringhalf1,2, and 4 characterisation products: halfsum and halfdifference for the year and the halfmission periods.
In the second second set the different coverages are split into different files which in most cases have a single extension with I only (Nside=1024) and I, Q, and U (Nside=1024). This second set was built in order to allow users to use standard codes like spice or anafast on them, directly. So this set contains the I maps at Nside=1024, which are not contained in the R2.00; on the other hand this set does not contain the halfsum and halfdifference maps. These are the 2.01 files which have names like
 COM_CMBCosmic Microwave background_IQU{method}{fieldIntPol}_Nside_R2.01_{coverage}.fits for the regular CMBCosmic Microwave background maps, and
 COM_CMBCosmic Microwave background_IQU{fff}{fgsubsevem}{fieldIntPol}_Nside_R2.01_{coverage}.fits for the sevem frequencydependent, foregroundssubtracted maps,
where fieldIntPol is used to indicate that only Int or only Pol data are contained (at present only fieldInt is used for the highres data), and is not included in the lowres data which contains all three Stokes parameters, and coverage is one of full, halfyear1,2, halfmission1,2, or ringhalf1,2. Also, the coverage=full files contain also the confidence mask(s) and beam transfer function(s) which are valid for all products of the same method (one for Int and one for Pol when both are available).
The third set has the same structure as the Nside=1024 products of R2.01, but the Q and U maps have been highpass filtered to remove modes at l < 30 for the reasons indicated earlier. These are the default products for use in polarisation studies. They are the R2.02 files which have names like:
 COM_CMBCosmic Microwave background_IQU{method}_1024_R2.02_{coverage}.fits
Version 2.00 files
These have names like
 COM_CMBCosmic Microwave background_IQU{method}field{Int,Pol}_Nside_R2.00.fits,
as indicated above. They contain:
 a minimal primary extension with no data;
 one or two BINTABLE data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 14 columns in which the first 13 columns is a CMBCosmic Microwave background maps produced from the full or a subset of the data, as described in the table below, and the last column in a confidence mask. There is a single extension for Int files, and two, for Q and U, for Pol files.
 a BINTABLE extension containing the beam transfer function (mistakenly called window function in the files).
If Nside=1024 the files contain I, Q and U maps, whereas if Nside=2048 only the I map is given.
Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = COMPMAP (BINTABLE)  

Column Name  Data Type  Units  Description 
I or Q or U  Real*4  uK_cmb  I or Q or U map 
HM1  Real*4  uK_cmb  Halfmiss 1 
HM2  Real*4  uK_cmb  Halfmiss 2 
YR1  Real*4  uK_cmb  Year 1 
YR2  Real*4  uK_cmb  Year 2 
HR1  Real*4  uK_cmb  Halfring 1 
HR2  Real*4  uK_cmb  Halfring 2 
HMHS  Real*4  uK_cmb  Halfmiss, half sum 
HMHD  Real*4  uK_cmb  Halfmiss, half diff 
YRHS  Real*4  uK_cmb  Year, half sum 
YRHD  Real*4  uK_cmb  Year, half diff 
HRHS  Real*4  uK_cmb  Halfring half sum 
HRHD  Real*4  uK_cmb  Halfring half diff 
MASK  BYTE  Confidence mask  
Keyword  Data Type  Value  Description 
ASTCOMP  String  CMBCosmic Microwave background  Astrophysical compoment name 
PIXTYPE  String  HEALPIX  
COORDSYS  String  GALACTIC  Coordinate system 
POLCCONV  String  COSMO  Polarization convention 
ORDERING  String  NESTED  Healpix ordering 
NSIDE  Int  1024 or 2048  Healpix Nside 
METHOD  String  name  Cleaning method (smica/nilc/sevem/commander) 
Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = BEAM_WF (BINTABLE) . See Note 1  
Column Name  Data Type  Units  Description 
BEAMWF  Real*4  none  The effective beam transfer function, including the pixel window function. See Note 2. 
Keyword  Data Type  Value  Description 
LMIN  Int  value  First multipole of beam TF 
LMAX  Int  value  Last multipole of beam TF 
METHOD  String  name  Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDERRuler) 
Notes:
 Actually this is a beam transfer function, so BEAM_TF would have been more appropriate.
 The beam transfer function [math]B_\ell[/math] given here includes the pixel window function [math]p_\ell[/math] for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, [math]C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2[/math]. The beam Window function is given by [math]W_\ell = B_\ell^2[/math]
Version 2.01 files
These files have names like:
 COM_CMBCosmic Microwave background_IQU{method}{fieldIntPol}_Nside_R2.01_{coverage}.fits for the regular CMBCosmic Microwave background maps, and
 COM_CMBCosmic Microwave background_IQU{fff}{fgsubsevem}{fieldIntPol}_Nside_R2.01_{coverage}.fits for the sevem frequencydependent, foregroundssubtracted maps,
as indicated above. They contain:
 a minimal primary extension with no data, but with a NUMEXT keyword giving the number of extensions contained.
 one or two BINTABLE data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 15 columns depending on the file, as described above: the minimum begin I only, the maximum begin I, Q, U, and confidence masks for I and P.
 a BINTABLE extension containing the beam transfer function(s): one for I, and a second one that applies to both Q and U, if Nslde=1024.
If Nside=1024 the files contain I, Q and U maps, whereas if Nside=2048 only the I map is given. The basic structure, including information on the most important keywords, is given in the table below. For full details, see the FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification header.
Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = COMPMAP (BINTABLE)  

Column Name  Data Type  Units  Description 
I_Stokes  Real*4  uK_cmb  I map (Nside=1024,2048) 
Q_Stokes  Real*4  uK_cmb  Q map (Nside=1024) 
U_Stokes  Real*4  uK_cmb  U map (Nside=2048) 
TMASK  Int  none  optional Temperature confidence mask 
PMASK  Int  none  optional Polarisation confidence mask 
Keyword  Data Type  Value  Description 
ASTCOMP  String  CMBCosmic Microwave background  Astrophysical compoment name 
PIXTYPE  String  HEALPIX  
COORDSYS  String  GALACTIC  Coordinate system 
POLCCONV  String  COSMO  Polarization convention 
ORDERING  String  NESTED  Healpix ordering 
NSIDE  Int  1024 or 2048  Healpix Nside 
METHOD  String  name  Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM) 
Optional Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = BEAM_TF (BINTABLE)  
Column Name  Data Type  Units  Description 
INT_BEAM  Real*4  none  Effective beam transfer function. See Note 1. 
POL_BEAM  Real*4  none  Effective beam transfer function. See Note 1. 
Keyword  Data Type  Value  Description 
LMIN  Int  value  First multipole of beam WF 
LMAX_I  Int  value  Last multipole for Int beam TF 
LMAX_P  Int  value  Last multipole for Pol beam TF 
METHOD  String  name  Cleaning method 
Notes:
 The beam transfer function [math]B_\ell[/math] given here includes the pixel window function [math]p_\ell[/math] for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, [math]C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2[/math]. The beam Window function is given by [math]W_\ell = B_\ell^2[/math]
Version 2.02 files
For polarisation work, this is the default set of files to be used for cosmological analysis. Their content is identical to the "R2.01" files, except that angular scales above l < 30 have been filtered out of the Q and U maps.
These files have names like:
 COM_CMBCosmic Microwave background_IQU{method}_1024_R2.02_{coverage}.fits
as indicated above. They contain: The files contain
 a minimal primary extension with no data, but with a NUMEXT keyword giving the number of extensions contained.
 one or two BINTABLE data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 15 columns depending on the file, as described above: the minimum begin I only, the maximum begin I, Q, U, and confidence masks for I and P.
 a BINTABLE extension containing 2 beam transfer functions: one for I and one that applies to both Q and U.
If Nside=1024 the files contain I, Q and U maps, whereas if Nside=2048 only the I map is given. The basic structure, including information on the most important keywords, is given in the table below. For full details, see the FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification header.
Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = COMPMAP (BINTABLE)  

Column Name  Data Type  Units  Description 
I_Stokes  Real*4  uK_cmb  I map (Nside=1024) 
Q_Stokes  Real*4  uK_cmb  Q map (Nside=1024) 
U_Stokes  Real*4  uK_cmb  U map (Nside=2048) 
TMASK  Int  none  optional Temperature confidence mask 
PMASK  Int  none  optional Polarisation confidence mask 
Keyword  Data Type  Value  Description 
ASTCOMP  String  CMBCosmic Microwave background  Astrophysical compoment name 
PIXTYPE  String  HEALPIX  
COORDSYS  String  GALACTIC  Coordinate system 
POLCCONV  String  COSMO  Polarization convention 
ORDERING  String  NESTED  Healpix ordering 
NSIDE  Int  1024 or 2048  Healpix Nside 
METHOD  String  name  Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM) 
Optional Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = BEAM_TF (BINTABLE)  
Column Name  Data Type  Units  Description 
INT_BEAM  Real*4  none  Effective beam transfer function. See Note 1. 
POL_BEAM  Real*4  none  Effective beam transfer function. See Note 1. 
Keyword  Data Type  Value  Description 
LMIN  Int  value  First multipole of beam WF 
LMAX_I  Int  value  Last multipole for Int beam TF 
LMAX_P  Int  value  Last multipole for Pol beam TF 
METHOD  String  name  Cleaning method 
Notes:
 The beam transfer function [math]B_\ell[/math] given here includes the pixel window function [math]p_\ell[/math] for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, [math]C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2[/math]. The beam Window function is given by [math]W_\ell = B_\ell^2[/math]
The Common Masks
The common masks are stored into two different files for Temperature and Polarisation respectively:
 COM_CMBCosmic Microwave background_IQUcommonfieldMaskInt_2048_R2.nn.fits with the UT78 and UTA76 masks
 COM_CMBCosmic Microwave background_IQUcommonfieldMaskPol_1024_R2.nn.fits with the UP78, UPA77, and UPB77 masks
Both files contain also a map of the missing pixels for the half mission and year coverage periods. The 2 (for Temp) or 3 (for Pol) masks and the missing pixels maps are stored in 4 or 5 column a BINTABLE extension 1 of each file, named MASKINT and MASKPOL, respectively. See the FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification file headers for details.
Quadrupole residual maps
The quadrupole residual maps are stored in files called:
 COM_CMBCosmic Microwave background_IQUkqresid{method}fieldInt_2048_R2.02.fits
They contain:
 a minimal primary extension with no data, but with a NUMEXT keyword giving the number of extensions contained.
 a single BINTABLE extension with a single column of Npix lines containing the HEALPIX map indicated
The basic structure of the data extension is shown below. For full details see the extension header.
Ext. 1. EXTNAME = COMPMAP (BINTABLE)  

Column Name  Data Type  Units  Description 
INTENSITY  Real*4  K_cmb  the residual map 
Keyword  Data Type  Value  Description 
ASTCOMP  String  KQRESID  Astrophysical compoment name 
PIXTYPE  String  HEALPIX  
COORDSYS  String  GALACTIC  Coordinate system 
POLCCONV  String  COSMO  Polarization convention 
ORDERING  String  NESTED  Healpix ordering 
NSIDE  Int  2048  Healpix Nside 
METHOD  String  name  Cleaning method 
Astrophysical foregrounds from parametric component separation
We describe diffuse foreground products for the Planck 2015 release. See the Planck Foregrounds Component Separation paper Planck2015A10^{[2]} for a detailed description of these products. Further scientific discussion and interpretation may be found in Planck2015A25^{[6]}.
Lowresolution temperature products
 The Planck 2015 astrophysical component separation analysis combines Planck observations with the 9year WMAP temperature sky maps (Bennett et al. 2013) and the 408 MHz survey by Haslam et al. (1982). This allows a direct decomposition of the lowfrequency foregrounds into separate synchrotron, freefree and spinning dust components without strong spatial priors.
Inputs
The following data products are used for the lowresolution analysis:
 Fullmission 30 GHz frequency map, LFI 30 GHz frequency maps
 Fullmission 44 GHz frequency map, LFI 44 GHz frequency maps
 Fullmission 70 GHz ds1 (18+23), ds2 (19+22), and ds3 (20+21) detectorset maps
 Fullmission 100 GHz ds1 and ds2 detector set maps
 Fullmission 143 GHz ds1 and ds2 detector set maps and detectors 5, 6, and 7 maps
 Fullmission 217 GHz detector 1, 2, 3 and 4 maps
 Fullmission 353 GHz detector set ds2 and detector 1 maps
 Fullmission 545 GHz detector 2 and 4 maps
 Fullmission 857 GHz detector 2 map
 Beamsymmetrized 9year WMAP Kband map (Lambda)
 Beamsymmetrized 9year WMAP Kaband map (Lambda)
 Default 9year WMAP Q1 and Q2 differencing assembly maps (Lambda)
 Default 9year WMAP V1 and V2 differencing assembly maps (Lambda)
 Default 9year WMAP W1, W2, W3, and W4 differencing assembly maps (Lambda)
 Reprocessed 408 MHz survey map, Remazeilles et al. (2014) (Lambda)
All maps are smoothed to a common resolution of 1 degree FWHMFullWidthatHalfMaximum by deconvolving their original instrumental beam and pixel window, and convolving with the new common Gaussian beam, and repixelizing at Nside=256.
Outputs
Synchrotron emission
 File name: COM_CompMap_Synchrotroncommander_0256_R2.00.fits
 Reference frequency: 408 MHz
 Nside = 256
 Angular resolution = 60 arcmin
Column Name  Data Type  Units  Description 

I_ML  Real*4  uK_RJ  Amplitude posterior maximum 
I_MEAN  Real*4  uK_RJ  Amplitude posterior mean 
I_RMS  Real*4  uK_RJ  Amplitude posterior rms 
Column Name  Data Type  Units  Description 

nu  Real*4  Hz  Frequency 
intensity  Real*4  W/Hz/m2/sr  GALPROP z10LMPD_SUNfE spectrum 
Freefree emission
 File name: COM_CompMap_freefreecommander_0256_R2.00.fits
 Reference frequency: NA
 Nside = 256
 Angular resolution = 60 arcmin
Column Name  Data Type  Units  Description 

EM_ML  Real*4  cm^6 pc  Emission measure posterior maximum 
EM_MEAN  Real*4  cm^6 pc  Emission measure posterior mean 
EM_RMS  Real*4  cm^6 pc  Emission measure posterior rms 
TEMP_ML  Real*4  K  Electron temperature posterior maximum 
TEMP_MEAN  Real*4  K  Electron temperature posterior mean 
TEMP_RMS  Real*4  K  Electron temperature posterior rms 
Spinning dust emission
 File name: COM_CompMap_AMEcommander_0256_R2.00.fits
 Nside = 256
 Angular resolution = 60 arcmin
Note: The spinning dust component has two independent constituents, each corresponding to one spdust2 component, but with different peak frequencies. The two components are stored in the two first FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification extensions, and the template frequency spectrum is stored in the third extension.
 Reference frequency: 22.8 GHz
Column Name  Data Type  Units  Description 

I_ML  Real*4  uK_RJ  Primary amplitude posterior maximum 
I_MEAN  Real*4  uK_RJ  Primary amplitude posterior mean 
I_RMS  Real*4  uK_RJ  Primary amplitude posterior rms 
FREQ_ML  Real*4  GHz  Primary peak frequency posterior maximum 
FREQ_MEAN  Real*4  GHz  Primary peak frequency posterior mean 
FREQ_RMS  Real*4  GHz  Primary peak frequency posterior rms 
 Reference frequency: 41.0 GHz
 Peak frequency: 33.35 GHz
Column Name  Data Type  Units  Description 

I_ML  Real*4  uK_RJ  Secondary amplitude posterior maximum 
I_MEAN  Real*4  uK_RJ  Secondary amplitude posterior mean 
I_RMS  Real*4  uK_RJ  Secondary amplitude posterior rms 
Column Name  Data Type  Units  Description 

nu  Real*4  GHz  Frequency 
j_nu/nH  Real*4  Jy sr1 cm2/H  spdust2 spectrum 
CO line emission
 File name: COM_CompMap_COcommander_0256_R2.00.fits
 Nside = 256
 Angular resolution = 60 arcmin
Note: The CO line emission component has three independent objects, corresponding to the J1>0, 2>1 and 3>2 lines, stored in separate extensions.
Column Name  Data Type  Units  Description 

I_ML  Real*4  K_RJ km/s  CO(10) amplitude posterior maximum 
I_MEAN  Real*4  K_RJ km/s  CO(10) amplitude posterior mean 
I_RMS  Real*4  K_RJ km/s  CO(10) amplitude posterior rms 
Column Name  Data Type  Units  Description 

I_ML  Real*4  K_RJ km/s  CO(21) amplitude posterior maximum 
I_MEAN  Real*4  K_RJ km/s  CO(21) amplitude posterior mean 
I_RMS  Real*4  K_RJ km/s  CO(21) amplitude posterior rms 
Column Name  Data Type  Units  Description 

I_ML  Real*4  K_RJ km/s  CO(32) amplitude posterior maximum 
I_MEAN  Real*4  K_RJ km/s  CO(32) amplitude posterior mean 
I_RMS  Real*4  K_RJ km/s  CO(32) amplitude posterior rms 
94/100 GHz line emission
 File name: COM_CompMap_xlinecommander_0256_R2.00.fits
 Nside = 256
 Angular resolution = 60 arcmin
Column Name  Data Type  Units  Description 

I_ML  Real*4  uK_cmb  Amplitude posterior maximum 
I_MEAN  Real*4  uK_cmb  Amplitude posterior mean 
I_RMS  Real*4  uK_cmb  Amplitude posterior rms 
Note: The amplitude of this component is normalized according to the 100ds1 detector set map, ie., it is the amplitude as measured by this detector combination.
Thermal dust emission
 File name: COM_CompMap_dustcommander_0256_R2.00.fits
 Nside = 256
 Angular resolution = 60 arcmin
 Reference frequency: 545 GHz
Column Name  Data Type  Units  Description 

I_ML  Real*4  uK_RJ  Amplitude posterior maximum 
I_MEAN  Real*4  uK_RJ  Amplitude posterior mean 
I_RMS  Real*4  uK_RJ  Amplitude posterior rms 
TEMP_ML  Real*4  K  Dust temperature posterior maximum 
TEMP_MEAN  Real*4  K  Dust temperature posterior mean 
TEMP_RMS  Real*4  K  Dust temperature posterior rms 
BETA_ML  Real*4  NA  Emissivity index posterior maximum 
BETA_MEAN  Real*4  NA  Emissivity index posterior mean 
BETA_RMS  Real*4  NA  Emissivity index posterior rms 
Thermal SunyaevZeldovich emission around the Coma and Virgo clusters
 File name: COM_CompMap_SZcommander_0256_R2.00.fits
 Nside = 256
 Angular resolution = 60 arcmin
Column Name  Data Type  Units  Description 

Y_ML  Real*4  y_SZSunyaevZel'dovich  Y parameter posterior maximum 
Y_MEAN  Real*4  y_SZSunyaevZel'dovich  Y parameter posterior mean 
Y_RMS  Real*4  y_SZSunyaevZel'dovich  Y parameter posterior rms 
Highresolution temperature products
Highresolution foreground products at 7.5 arcmin FWHMFullWidthatHalfMaximum are derived with the same algorithm as for the lowresolution analyses, but including frequency channels above (and including) 143 GHz.
Inputs
The following data products are used for the lowresolution analysis:
 Fullmission 143 GHz ds1 and ds2 detector set maps and detectors 5, 6, and 7 maps
 Fullmission 217 GHz detector 1, 2, 3 and 4 maps
 Fullmission 353 GHz detector set ds2 and detector 1 maps
 Fullmission 545 GHz detector 2 and 4 maps
 Fullmission 857 GHz detector 2 map
All maps are smoothed to a common resolution of 7.5 arcmin FWHMFullWidthatHalfMaximum by deconvolving their original instrumental beam and pixel window, and convolving with the new common Gaussian beam, and repixelizing at Nside=2048.
Outputs
CO J2>1 emission
 File name: COM_CompMap_CO21commander_2048_R2.00.fits
 Nside = 2048
 Angular resolution = 7.5 arcmin
Column Name  Data Type  Units  Description 

I_ML_FULL  Real*4  K_RJ km/s  Fullmission amplitude posterior maximum 
I_ML_HM1  Real*4  K_RJ km/s  First halfmission amplitude posterior maximum 
I_ML_HM2  Real*4  K_RJ km/s  Second halfmission amplitude posterior maximum 
I_ML_HR1  Real*4  K_RJ km/s  First halfring amplitude posterior maximum 
I_ML_HR2  Real*4  K_RJ km/s  Second halfring amplitude posterior maximum 
I_ML_YR1  Real*4  K_RJ km/s  "First year" amplitude posterior maximum 
I_ML_YR2  Real*4  K_RJ km/s  "Second year" amplitude posterior maximum 
Thermal dust emission
 File name: COM_CompMap_ThermalDustcommander_2048_R2.00.fits
 Nside = 2048
 Angular resolution = 7.5 arcmin
 Reference frequency: 545 GHz
Column Name  Data Type  Units  Description 

I_ML_FULL  Real*4  uK_RJ  Fullmission amplitude posterior maximum 
I_ML_HM1  Real*4  uK_RJ  First halfmission amplitude posterior maximum 
I_ML_HM2  Real*4  uK_RJ  Second halfmission amplitude posterior maximum 
I_ML_HR1  Real*4  uK_RJ  First halfring amplitude posterior maximum 
I_ML_HR2  Real*4  uK_RJ  Second halfring amplitude posterior maximum 
I_ML_YR1  Real*4  uK_RJ  "First year" amplitude posterior maximum 
I_ML_YR2  Real*4  uK_RJ  "Second year" amplitude posterior maximum 
BETA_ML_FULL  Real*4  NA  Fullmission emissivity index posterior maximum 
BETA_ML_HM1  Real*4  NA  First halfmission emissivity index posterior maximum 
BETA_ML_HM2  Real*4  NA  Second halfmission emissivity index posterior maximum 
BETA_ML_HR1  Real*4  NA  First halfring emissivity index posterior maximum 
BETA_ML_HR2  Real*4  NA  Second halfring emissivity index posterior maximum 
BETA_ML_YR1  Real*4  NA  "First year" emissivity index posterior maximum 
BETA_ML_YR2  Real*4  NA  "Second year" emissivity index posterior maximum 
Polarization products
Two polarization foreground products are provided, namely synchrotron and thermal dust emission. The spectral models are assumed identical to the corresponding temperature spectral models.
Inputs
The following data products are used for the polarization analysis:
 (Only lowresolution analysis) Fullmission 30 GHz frequency map, LFI 30 GHz frequency maps
 (Only lowresolution analysis) Fullmission 44 GHz frequency map, LFI 44 GHz frequency maps
 (Only lowresolution analysis) Fullmission 70 GHz frequency map, LFI 70 GHz frequency maps
 Fullmission 100 GHz frequency map, HFI 100 GHz frequency maps
 Fullmission 143 GHz frequency map, HFI 143 GHz frequency maps
 Fullmission 217 GHz frequency map, HFI 217 GHz frequency maps
 Fullmission 353 GHz frequency map, HFI 353 GHz frequency maps
In the lowresolution analysis, all maps are smoothed to a common resolution of 40 arcmin FWHMFullWidthatHalfMaximum by deconvolving their original instrumental beam and pixel window, and convolving with the new common Gaussian beam, and repixelizing at Nside=256. In the highresolution analysis (including only CMBCosmic Microwave background and thermal dust emission), the corresponding resolution is 10 arcmin FWHMFullWidthatHalfMaximum and Nside=1024.
Outputs
Synchrotron emission
 File name: COM_CompMap_SynchrotronPolcommander_0256_R2.00.fits
 Nside = 256
 Angular resolution = 40 arcmin
 Reference frequency: 30 GHz
Column Name  Data Type  Units  Description 

Q_ML_FULL  Real*4  μK_RJ  Fullmission Stokes Q posterior maximum 
U_ML_FULL  Real*4  μK_RJ  Fullmission Stokes U posterior maximum 
Q_ML_HM1  Real*4  μK_RJ  First halfmission Stokes Q posterior maximum 
U_ML_HM1  Real*4  μK_RJ  First halfmission Stokes U posterior maximum 
Q_ML_HM2  Real*4  μK_RJ  Second halfmission Stokes Q posterior maximum 
U_ML_HM2  Real*4  μK_RJ  Second halfmission Stokes U posterior maximum 
Q_ML_HR1  Real*4  μK_RJ  First halfring Stokes Q posterior maximum 
U_ML_HR1  Real*4  μK_RJ  First halfring Stokes U posterior maximum 
Q_ML_HR2  Real*4  μK_RJ  Second halfring Stokes Q posterior maximum 
U_ML_HR2  Real*4  μK_RJ  Second halfring Stokes U posterior maximum 
Q_ML_YR1  Real*4  μK_RJ  "First year" Stokes Q posterior maximum 
U_ML_YR1  Real*4  μK_RJ  "First year" Stokes U posterior maximum 
Q_ML_YR2  Real*4  μK_RJ  "Second year" Stokes Q posterior maximum 
U_ML_YR2  Real*4  μK_RJ  "Second year" Stokes U posterior maximum 
Thermal dust emission
 File name: COM_CompMap_DustPolcommander_1024_R2.00.fits
 Nside = 1024
 Angular resolution = 10 arcmin
 Reference frequency: 353 GHz
Column Name  Data Type  Units  Description 

Q_ML_FULL  Real*4  uK_RJ  Fullmission Stokes Q posterior maximum 
U_ML_FULL  Real*4  uK_RJ  Fullmission Stokes U posterior maximum 
Q_ML_HM1  Real*4  uK_RJ  First halfmission Stokes Q posterior maximum 
U_ML_HM1  Real*4  uK_RJ  First halfmission Stokes U posterior maximum 
Q_ML_HM2  Real*4  uK_RJ  Second halfmission Stokes Q posterior maximum 
U_ML_HM2  Real*4  uK_RJ  Second halfmission Stokes U posterior maximum 
Q_ML_HR1  Real*4  uK_RJ  First halfring Stokes Q posterior maximum 
U_ML_HR1  Real*4  uK_RJ  First halfring Stokes U posterior maximum 
Q_ML_HR2  Real*4  uK_RJ  Second halfring Stokes Q posterior maximum 
U_ML_HR2  Real*4  uK_RJ  Second halfring Stokes U posterior maximum 
Q_ML_YR1  Real*4  uK_RJ  "First year" Stokes Q posterior maximum 
U_ML_YR1  Real*4  uK_RJ  "First year" Stokes U posterior maximum 
Q_ML_YR2  Real*4  uK_RJ  "Second year" Stokes Q posterior maximum 
U_ML_YR2  Real*4  uK_RJ  "Second year" Stokes U posterior maximum 
CO emission maps
CO rotational transition line emission is present in all HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument bands except for the 143 GHz channel. It is especially significant in the 100, 217 and 353 GHz channels (due to the 115 (10), 230 (21) and 345 GHz (32) CO transitions). This emission comes essentially from the Galactic interstellar medium and is mainly located at low and intermediate Galactic latitudes. Three approaches (summarised below) have been used to extract CO velocityintegrated emission maps from HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument maps and to make three types of CO products. A full description of how these products were generated is given in Planck2013XIII^{[7]} and Planck2015A10^{[2]}.
 Type 1 product: it is based on a single channel approach using the fact that each CO line has a slightly different transmission in each bolometer at a given frequency channel. These transmissions can be evaluated from bandpass measurements that were performed on the ground or empirically determined from the sky using existing groundbased CO surveys. From these, the J=10, J=21 and J=32 CO lines can be extracted independently. As this approach is based on individual bolometer maps of a single channel, the resulting SignaltoNoise ratio (SNR) is relatively low. The benefit, however, is that these maps do not suffer from contamination from other HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument channels (as is the case for the other approaches) and are more reliable, especially in the Galactic Plane. The improvement relative to the 2013 release comes from the combined effect of the ADCanalog to digital converter correction, the VLTC correction, and the improved calibration scheme. As a result, the noise level is ~30% lower in the new products, and the maps are much better behaved at high latitudes.
 Type 2 product: this product is obtained using a multi frequency approach. Three frequency channel maps are combined to extract the J=10 (using the 100, 143 and 353 GHz channels) and J=21 (using the 143, 217 and 353 GHz channels) CO maps. Because frequency channels are combined, the spectral behaviour of other foregrounds influences the result. The two type 2 CO maps produced in this way have a higher SNR than the type 1 maps at the cost of a larger possible residual contamination from other diffuse foregrounds.
 Type 3 product: to generate this product, fixed CO line ratios are assumed and a highresolution parametric foreground model is fit. In 2013 this product was generated using the CommanderRuler technique. In 2015, this technique is superseded by the highresolution Commanderonly, used to produce the J=21 map presented in [1] and described in Section 5.4 of Planck2015A10^{[2]}.
Type 1 and 2 maps have been produced using the MILCA algorithm. Commander has been used to produce low resolution CO J=10,21,32 maps (here) and high resolution CO J=21 maps (here).
A summary of all the 2015 CO maps can be found in Table 9 from Planck2015A10^{[2]}, also shown here:
Characteristics of the released maps are the following. We provide Healpix maps with Nside=2048. For one transition, the CO velocityintegrated line signal map is given in K_RJ.km/s units. A conversion factor from this unit to the native unit of HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument maps (K_CMBCosmic Microwave background) is provided in the header of the data files and in the RIMOreduced IMO. Four maps are given per transition and per type:
 The signal map
 The standard deviation map (same unit as the signal),
 A null test noise map (same unit as the signal) with similar statistical properties. It is made out of half the difference of halfring maps.
 A mask map (0 or 1) giving the regions (1) where the CO measurement is not reliable because of some severe identified foreground contamination.
 File name: HFI_CompMap_COType1_2048_R2.00.fits
 Nside = 2048
1. EXTNAME = 'COMPMAP'  

Column Name  Data Type  Units  Description 
INTEN10  Real*4  K_RJ km/sec  The CO(10) intensity map 
ERR10  Real*4  K_RJ km/sec  Uncertainty in the CO(10) intensity 
NULL10  Real*4  K_RJ km/sec  Map built from the halfring difference maps 
MASK10  Byte  none  Region over which the CO(10) intensity is considered reliable 
INTEN21  Real*4  K_RJ km/sec  The CO(21) intensity map 
ERR21  Real*4  K_RJ km/sec  Uncertainty in the CO(21) intensity 
NULL21  Real*4  K_RJ km/sec  Map built from the halfring difference maps 
MASK21  Byte  none  Region over which the CO(21) intensity is considered reliable 
INTEN32  Real*4  K_RJ km/sec  The CO(32) intensity map 
ERR32  Real*4  K_RJ km/sec  Uncertainty in the CO(32) intensity 
NULL32  Real*4  K_RJ km/sec  Map built from the halfring difference maps 
MASK32  Byte  none  Region over which the CO(32) intensity is considered reliable 
Keyword  Data Type  Value  Description 
ASTCOMP  string  COTYPE1  Astrophysical compoment name 
PIXTYPE  String  HEALPIX  
COORDSYS  String  GALACTIC  Coordinate system 
ORDERING  String  NESTED  Healpix ordering 
NSIDE  Int  2048  Healpix Nside for LFI(Planck) Low Frequency Instrument and HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument, respectively 
FIRSTPIX  Int*4  0  First pixel number 
LASTPIX  Int*4  50331647  Last pixel number, for LFI(Planck) Low Frequency Instrument and HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument, respectively 
CNV 10  Real*4  value  Factor to convert CO(10) intensity to Kcmb (units Kcmb/(Krj*km/s)) 
CNV 21  Real*4  value  Factor to convert CO(21) intensityto Kcmb (units Kcmb/(Krj*km/s)) 
CNV 32  Real*4  value  Factor to convert CO(32) intensityto Kcmb (units Kcmb/(Krj*km/s)) 
 File name: HFI_CompMap_COType2_2048_R2.00.fits
 Nside = 2048
1. EXTNAME = 'COMPMAP'  

Column Name  Data Type  Units  Description 
I10  Real*4  K_RJ km/sec  The CO(10) intensity map 
E10  Real*4  K_RJ km/sec  Uncertainty in the CO(10) intensity 
N10  Real*4  K_RJ km/sec  Map built from the halfring difference maps 
M10  Byte  none  Region over which the CO(10) intensity is considered reliable 
I21  Real*4  K_RJ km/sec  The CO(21) intensity map 
E21  Real*4  K_RJ km/sec  Uncertainty in the CO(21) intensity 
N21  Real*4  K_RJ km/sec  Map built from the halfring difference maps 
M21  Byte  none  Region over which the CO(21) intensity is considered reliable 
Keyword  Data Type  Value  Description 
ASTCOMP  String  COTYPE2  Astrophysical compoment name 
PIXTYPE  String  HEALPIX  
COORDSYS  String  GALACTIC  Coordinate system 
ORDERING  String  NESTED  Healpix ordering 
NSIDE  Int  2048  Healpix Nside for LFI(Planck) Low Frequency Instrument and HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument, respectively 
FIRSTPIX  Int*4  0  First pixel number 
LASTPIX  Int*4  50331647  Last pixel number, for LFI(Planck) Low Frequency Instrument and HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument, respectively 
CNV 10  Real*4  value  Factor to convert CO(10) intensity to Kcmb (units Kcmb/(Krj*km/s)) 
CNV 21  Real*4  value  Factor to convert CO(21) intensityto Kcmb (units Kcmb/(Krj*km/s)) 
Modelling of the thermal dust emission with the Draine and Li dust model
The Planck, IRAS, and WISE infrared observations were fit with the dust model presented by Draine & Li in 2007 (DL07). The input maps, the DL07 model, and the fitting procedure and results are presented in Planck2014XXIX^{[8]}. Here, we describe the input maps and the output maps, which are made available on the Planck Legacy Archive.
Inputs
The following data have been fit:
 WISE 12 micron map
 IRAS 60 micron map
 IRAS 100 micron map
 Fullmission 353 GHz PR2 map
 Fullmission 545 GHz PR2 map
 Fullmission 857 GHz PR2 map
The CIB monopole, the CMBCosmic Microwave background anisotropries and the zodiacal light were subtracted to obtain dust emission maps from the sky emission maps. All maps were smoothed to a common angular resolution of 5'.
Model Parameters
For each pixel of the inputs maps, we have fitted four parameters of the DL07 model:
 the dust mass surface density, Sigma_Mdust,
 the dust mass fraction in small PAH grains, q_PAH,
 the fraction of the total luminosity from dust heated by intense radiation fields, f_PDR,
 the starlight intensity heating the bulk of the dust, U_min.
The parameter maps and their uncertainties are gathered in one file. This file also includes the chi2 of the fit per degree of freedom.
 File name: COM_CompMap_DustDL07Parameters_2048_R2.00.fits
 Nside = 2048
 Angular resolution = 5 arcmin
Column Name  Data Type  Units  Description 

Sigma_Mdust  Real*4  Solar masses/kpc^2  Dust mass surface density 
Sigma_Mdust_unc  Real*4  Solar masses/kpc^2  Uncertainty (1 sigma) on Sigma_Mdust 
q_PAH  Real*4  dimensionless  Dust mass fraction in small PAH grains 
q_PAH_unc  Real*4  dimensionless  Uncertainty (1 sigma) on q_PAH 
f_PDR  Real*4  dimensionless  Fraction of the total luminosity from dust heated by intense radiation fields 
f_PDR_unc  Real*4  dimensionless  Uncertainty (1 sigma) on f_PDR 
U_min  Real*4  dimensionless  Starlight intensity heating the bulk of the dust 
U_min_unc  Real*4  dimensionless  Uncertainty (1 sigma) on U_min 
Chi2_DOF  Real*4  dimensionless  Chi2 of the fit per degree of freedom 
Visible extinction maps
We provide two exinctions maps at the visible V band: the value from the model (Av_DL) and the renormalized one (Av_RQ) that matches extinction estimates for quasars (QSOs) derived from the Sloan digital sky survey (SDSS) data.
 File name: COM_CompMap_DustDL07AvMaps_2048_R2.00.fits
 Nside = 2048
 Angular resolution = 5 arcmin
Column Name  Data Type  Units  Description 

Av_DL  Real*4  magnitude  Extinction in the V band from the DL model 
Av_DL_unc  Real*4  magnitude  Uncertainty (1 sigma) on Av_DL 
Av_RQ  Real*4  magnitude  Extinction in the V band renormalized to match estimates from QSO SDSS observations 
Av_RQ_unc  Real*4  magnitude  Uncertainty (1 sigma) on Av_RQ 
Model Fluxes
We provide the model predicted fluxes in the following file.
 File name: COM_CompMap_DustDL07ModelFluxes_2048_R2.00.fits
 Nside = 2048
 Angular resolution = 5 arcmin
Column Name  Data Type  Units  Description 

Planck_857  Real*4  MJy/sr  Model flux in the Planck 857 GHz band 
Planck_545  Real*4  MJy/sr  Model flux in the Planck 545 GHz band 
Planck_353  Real*4  MJy/sr  Model flux in the Planck 353 GHz band 
WISE_12  Real*4  MJy/sr  Model flux in the WISE 12 micron band 
IRAS_60  Real*4  MJy/sr  Model flux in the IRAS 60 micron band 
IRAS_100  Real*4  MJy/sr  Model flux in the IRAS 100 micron band 
Thermal dust and CIB allsky maps from GNILC component separation
We describe diffuse foreground products for the Planck 2015 release produced with the GNILC component separation method. See the Planck paper Planck2016XLVIII^{[9]} for a detailed discussion on these products.
Method
 The basic idea behind the Generalized Needlet Internal Linear Combination (GNILC) componentseparation method (Remazeilles et al, MNRAS 2011) is to disentangle specific components of emission not on the sole basis of the spectral (frequency) information but also on the basis of their distinct spatial information (angular power spectrum). The GNILC method has been applied to Planck data in order to disentangle Galactic dust emission and Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) anisotropies. Both components have a similar spectral signature but a distinct angular power spectrum (spatial signature). The spatial information used by GNILC is under the form of priors for the angular power spectra of the CIB, the CMBCosmic Microwave background, and the instrumental noise. No assumption is made on the Galactic signal, neither spectral or spatial. In that sense, GNILC is a blind componentseparation method. GNILC operates on a needlet (spherical wavelet) frame, therefore adapting the component separation to the local conditions of contamination both over the sky and over the angular scales.
Data
 The data used by GNILC for the analysis are the Planck data release 2 (PR2) frequency maps from 30 to 857 GHz, and a 100 micron hybrid map combined from the SFD map (Schlegel et al, ApJ 1998) at large angular scales (> 30') and the IRIS map (MivilleDeschênes et al, ApJS 2005) at small angular scales (< 30'). This special 100 micron map can be obtained in the External Maps section of the PLAPlanck Legacy Archive.
Preprocessing
 The pointsources with a signaltonoise ratio, S/N > 5, in each individual frequency map (30 to 857 GHz, and 100 micron) have been preprocessed by a minimum curvature surface inpainting technique (Remazeilles et al, MNRAS 2015) prior to performing component separation with GNILC.
GNILC thermal dust and CIB products
The result of GNILC component separation are thermal dust and CIB maps at 353, 545, and 857 GHz. In addition, by fitting a modified blackbody model to the GNILC thermal dust products at 353, 545, 857, and 100 micron, we have created allsky maps of the dust optical depth, dust temperature, and dust emmissivity index. Note that the thermal dust maps have a variable angular resolution over the sky with an effective beam FWHMFullWidthatHalfMaximum varying from 21.8' to 5'. The dust beam FWHMFullWidthatHalfMaximum map is also released as a product.
Thermal dust maps
CIB maps
File Name  Nside  Units  Reference frequency  Angular resolution  Description 

COM_CompMap_CIBGNILCF353_2048_R2.00.fits  2048  MJy/sr  353 GHz  5 arcmin  CIB amplitude at 353 GHz 
COM_CompMap_CIBGNILCF545_2048_R2.00.fits  2048  MJy/sr  545 GHz  5 arcmin  CIB amplitude at 545 GHz 
COM_CompMap_CIBGNILCF857_2048_R2.00.fits  2048  MJy/sr  857 GHz  5 arcmin  CIB amplitude at 857 GHz 
References
 ↑ ^{1.0} ^{1.1} ^{1.2} Planck 2015 results. XI. Diffuse component separation: CMB maps, Planck Collaboration, 2016, A&A, 594, A9.
 ↑ ^{2.0} ^{2.1} ^{2.2} ^{2.3} ^{2.4} ^{2.5} ^{2.6} Planck 2015 results. X. Diffuse component separation: Foreground maps, Planck Collaboration, 2016, A&A, 594, A10.
 ↑ Planck 2015 results. I. Overview of products and results, Planck Collaboration, 2016, A&A, 594, A1.
 ↑ Planck 2015 results. VI. LFI mapmaking, Planck Collaboration, 2016, A&A, 594, A6.
 ↑ Planck 2015 results. VIII. High Frequency Instrument data processing: Calibration and maps, Planck Collaboration, 2016, A&A, 594, A8.
 ↑ Planck 2015 results. XXV. Diffuse low frequency Galactic foregrounds, Planck Collaboration, 2016, A&A, 594, A25.
 ↑ Planck 2013 results. XIII. Galactic CO emission, Planck Collaboration, 2014, A&A, 571, A13
 ↑ Planck intermediate results. XXIX. Allsky dust modelling with Planck, IRAS, and WISE observations', Planck Collaboration Int. XXIX, A&A, 586, A132, (2016).
 ↑ Planck intermediate results. XLVIII. Disentangling Galactic dust emission and cosmic infrared background anisotropies, Planck Collaboration Int. XLVIII A&A, 596, A109, (2016).