https://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/api.php?action=feedcontributions&user=Heriksen&feedformat=atomPlanck PLA 2015 Wiki - User contributions [en-gb]2022-01-17T22:30:01ZUser contributionsMediaWiki 1.31.6https://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=CMB_spectrum_%26_Likelihood_Code&diff=11288CMB spectrum & Likelihood Code2015-02-04T18:48:26Z<p>Heriksen: </p>
<hr />
<div>{{DISPLAYTITLE:CMB spectrum and likelihood code}}<br />
<br />
==CMB spectra==<br />
<br />
<br />
===General description===<br />
====TT====<br />
The Planck best-fit CMB temperature power spectrum, shown in figure below, covers the wide range of multipoles <math> \ell </math> = 2-2508. Over the multipole range <math> \ell </math> = 2–29, the power spectrum is derived from the ''Commander'': component separation algorithm applied to the combination of Planck 2015 temperature data between 30 and 857 GHz, the 9-year WMAP sky maps, and the 408 MHz Haslam et al. (1982) survey, including 93% of the sky {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}} . The asymmetric error bars associated to this spectrum are the 68% confidence limits and include the uncertainties due to foreground subtraction.<br />
<br />
For multipoles equal or greater than <math>\ell=30</math>, instead, the spectrum is derived from the ''Plik'' likelihood {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a13}} by optimally combining the spectra in the frequency range 100-217 GHz, and correcting them for unresolved foregrounds using the best-fit foreground solution from a Planck TT+lowP <math>\Lambda</math>CDM run. Associated 1-sigma errors include beam uncertainties. Both ''Commander'' and ''Plik'' are described in more details in the sections below.<br />
<br />
[[File: Planck2014 TT Dl NORES bin30 w180mm.jpeg|thumb|center|700px|'''CMB TT spectrum. Logarithmic x-scale up to <math>\ell=30</math>, linear at higher <math>\ell</math>; all points with error bars. The red line is the Planck best-fit primordial power spectrum (cf Planck TT+lowP in Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a15}}). The blue shaded area shows the uncertainties due to cosmic variance alone.''']]<br />
<br />
====TE and EE====<br />
The Planck best-fit CMB polarization and temperature-polarization cross-correlation power spectra, shown in the figure below, cover the multipole range <math> \ell </math> = 30-1996. The data points relative to the multipole range <math> \ell </math> = 2-29 will be released in a second moment.<br />
Analogously to the TT case, the <math> \ell\ge 30 </math> spectrum is derived from the ''Plik'' likelihood {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a13}} by optimally combining the spectra in the frequency range 100-217 GHz, and correcting them for unresolved foregrounds using the best-fit foreground solution from a Planck TT,TE,EE+lowP <math>\Lambda</math>CDM run. <br />
<br />
{|style="margin: 0 auto;"<br />
|[[File: Planck2014 EE Dl NORES bin30 w180mm.jpeg|thumb|center|500px|'''CMB EE spectrum. The red line is the Planck best-fit primordial power spectrum (cf Planck TT+lowP in Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a15}}). The blue shaded area shows the uncertainties due to cosmic variance alone.''']]<br />
|[[File: Planck2014 TE Dl NORES bin30 w180mm.jpeg|thumb|center|500px|'''CMB TE spectrum. The red line is the Planck best-fit primordial power spectrum (cf Planck TT+lowP in Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a15}}). The blue shaded area shows the uncertainties due to cosmic variance alone.''']]<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Production process===<br />
The <math>\ell</math> < 30 part of the Planck TT power spectrum is derived from the Commander approach, which implements Bayesian component separation in pixel space, fitting a parametric model to the data by sampling the posterior distribution for the model parameters {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}. The power spectrum at any multipole <math>\ell</math> is given as the maximum probability point for the posterior <math>C_\ell</math> distribution, marginalized over the other multipoles, and the error bars are 68% confidence level {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}. <br />
<br />
The <math>\ell \ge 30</math> part of the TT, TE and EE power spectra have been derived by the Plik likelihood, a code that implements a pseudo-Cl based technique, extensively described in Sec. 2 and the Appendix of {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a13}}. Frequency spectra are computed as cross-spectra between half-mission maps. Mask and multipole range choices for each frequency spectrum are summarized in Section 3.3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a15}} and in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a13}}. The final power spectrum is an optimal combination of the 100, 143, 143x217 and 217 GHz spectra, corrected for the best-fit unresolved foregrounds and inter-frequency calibration factors, as derived from the full likelihood analysis (for TT we use the best-fit solutions for the nuisance parameters from the Planck+TT+lowP data combination, while for TE and EE we use the best fit from Planck+TT+lowP, cf Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a15}}). A thorough description of the models of unresolved foregrounds is given in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a13}}. The spectrum covariance matrix accounts for cosmic variance and noise contributions, together with beam uncertainties. The <math>\ell \ge 30</math> CMB TT spectrum and associated covariance matrix are available in two formats:<br />
#Unbinned. TT: 2479 bandpowers (<math>\ell=30-2508</math>); TE or EE: 1697 bandpowers (<math>\ell=30-1996</math>).<br />
#Binned, in bins of <math> \Delta\ell=30 </math>. TT: 83 bandpowers. TE or EE: 66 bandpowers. We bin the <math> C_\ell </math> power spectrum with a weight proportional to <math> \ell (\ell+1) </math>, so that the <math> C_{\ell_b} </math> binned bandpower centered in <math> \ell_b </math> is: <math> \\ C_{\ell_b}=\Sigma_{\ell \in b} w_{\ell_b\ell} C_\ell \quad \text{with} \quad w_{\ell_b\ell}=\frac{\ell (\ell+1)}{\Sigma_{\ell \in b} \ell (\ell+1)}. \\</math> Equivalently, using the matrix formalism, we can construct the binning matrix B as: <math>\\ B_{\ell_b \ell}=w_{\ell_b\ell} \\ </math> where B is a <math> n_b\times n_\ell</math> matrix, with <math>n_b=83</math> the number of bins and <math>n_\ell=2479</math> the number of unbinned multipoles. Thus: <math> \\ \vec{C}_\mathrm{binned}=B \, \vec{C} \\ \mathrm{cov_\mathrm{binned}}= B\, \mathrm{cov}\, B^T \\ \ell_b=B\, \ell \\ </math> Here, <math> \vec{C}_{binned}\, (\vec{C}) </math> is the vector containing all the binned (unbinned) <math>C_\ell</math> bandpowers, <math>\mathrm{cov} </math> is the covariance matrix and <math>\ell_b</math> is the weighted average multipole in each bin. Note that following this definition, <math>\ell_b</math> can be a non-integer. The binned <math>D_{\ell_B}</math> power spectrum is then calculated as: <math> \\ D_{\ell_b}=\frac{\ell_b (\ell_b+1)}{2\pi} C_{\ell_b} </math>.<br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
<br />
; Low-l spectrum (<math>\ell < 30</math>):<br />
* Planck 30 and 44 GHz frequency maps<br />
* Planck 70 to 857 GHz detector and detector set maps<br />
* 9-year WMAP temperature sky maps between 23 and 94 GHz<br />
* 408 MHz survey by Haslam et al. (1982) <br />
* Commander <math>\chi^2</math> based LM93 confidence mask {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}<br />
<br />
; High-l spectrum (<math>30 \ge \ell \le 2500</math>): <br />
<br />
* 100, 143, 143x217 and 217 GHz spectra and their covariance matrix (Sec. 3.3 {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a15}})<br />
* best-fit foreground templates and inter-frequency calibration factors (Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a15}})<br />
* Beam transfer function uncertainties {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}}<br />
=== File names and Meta data ===<br />
<br />
The CMB spectrum and its covariance matrix are distributed in a single FITS file named <br />
<!--- * ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=cosmo | name=COM_PowerSpect_CMB_R2.00.fits | link=COM_PowerSpect_CMB_R1.10.fits}}'' ---><br />
* ''COM_PowerSpect_CMB_R2.nn.fits''<br />
which contains 7 ''BINTABLE'' extensions<br />
<br />
; 1. TT low-ell, unbinned (TTLOLUNB)<br />
: with the low ell part of the spectrum, not binned, and for l=2-49. The table columns are<br />
# ''ELL'' (integer): multipole number<br />
# ''D_ELL'' (float): <math>D_ell</math> as described above<br />
# ''ERRUP'' (float): the upward uncertainty<br />
# ''ERRDOWN'' (float): the downward uncertainty<br />
<br />
; 2. TT high-ell, binned (TTHILBIN)<br />
: with the high-ell part of the spectrum, binned into 83 bins covering <math>\langle l \rangle = 47-2499\ </math> in bins of width <math>l=30</math> (with the exception of the last bin that is smaller). The table columns are as follows:<br />
# ''ELL'' (integer): mean multipole number of bin<br />
# ''L_MIN'' (integer): lowest multipole of bin<br />
# ''L_MAX'' (integer): highest multipole of bin<br />
# ''D_ELL'' (float): <math>D_\ell</math> as described above<br />
# ''ERR'' (float): the uncertainty<br />
<br />
; 3. TT high-ell unbinned (TTHILUNB) <br />
: with the high-ell part of the spectrum, unbinned, in 2979 bins covering <math>\langle l \rangle = 30-2508\ </math>. The table columns are as follows:<br />
# ''ELL'' (integer): multipole <br />
# ''D_ELL'' (float): <math>D_\ell</math> as described above<br />
# ''ERR'' (float): the uncertainty<br />
<br />
; 4. TE high-ell, binned (TEHILBIN) <br />
: with the high-ell part of the spectrum, binned into 83 bins covering <math>\langle l \rangle = 47-1988\ </math> in bins of width <math>l=30</math> (with the exception of the last bin that is smaller). The table columns are as follows:<br />
# ''ELL'' (integer): mean multipole number of bin<br />
# ''L_MIN'' (integer): lowest multipole of bin<br />
# ''L_MAX'' (integer): highest multipole of bin<br />
# ''D_ELL'' (float): <math>D_\ell</math> as described above<br />
# ''ERR'' (float): the uncertainty<br />
<br />
; 5. TE high-ell, unbinned (TEHILUNB) <br />
: with the high-ell part of the spectrum, unbinned, in 2979 bins covering <math>\langle l \rangle = 30-1996\ </math>. The table columns are as follows:<br />
# ''ELL'' (integer): multipole <br />
# ''D_ELL'' (float): <math>D_\ell</math> as described above<br />
# ''ERR'' (float): the uncertainty<br />
<br />
; 6. EE high-ell, binned (EELOLBIN) <br />
: with the high-ell part of the spectrum, binned into 83 bins covering <math>\langle l \rangle = 47-1988\ </math> in bins of width <math>l=30</math> (with the exception of the last bin that is smaller). The table columns are as follows:<br />
# ''ELL'' (integer): mean multipole number of bin<br />
# ''L_MIN'' (integer): lowest multipole of bin<br />
# ''L_MAX'' (integer): highest multipole of bin<br />
# ''D_ELL'' (float): <math>D_\ell</math> as described above<br />
# ''ERR'' (float): the uncertainty<br />
<br />
; 7. EE high-ell, unbinned (EEHILUNB) <br />
: with the high-ell part of the spectrum, unbinned, in 2979 bins covering <math>\langle l \rangle = 30-1996\ </math>. The table columns are as follows:<br />
# ''ELL'' (integer): multipole <br />
# ''D_ELL'' (float): <math>D_\ell</math> as described above<br />
# ''ERR'' (float): the uncertainty<br />
<br />
<br />
The spectra give <math>D_\ell = \ell(\ell+1)C_\ell / 2\pi </math> in units of <math>\mu\, K^2</math>. The covariance matrices of the spectra will be released in a second moment.<br />
<!-- <br />
<br />
The CMB spectrum is also given in a simple text comma-separated file:<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=cosmo | name=COM_PowerSpect_CMB_R1.10.txt |link=COM_PowerSpect_CMB_R1.10.txt}}''<br />
<br />
--><br />
<br />
==Likelihood==<br />
The likelihood will soon be released with an accompanying paper and an Explanatory Supplement update. <br />
<!-- <br />
===Likelihood===<br />
<span style="color:red"> ALL OF THE FOLLOWING IN THE LIKELIHOOD SECTION IS OLD. </span><br />
The likelihood code (and the data that comes with it) used to compute the likelihood of a model that predicts the CMB power spectra, lensing power spectrum, together with some foreground and some instrumental parameters. The data files are built primarily from the Planck mission results, but include also some results from the WMAP-9 data release. The data files are written in a specific format that can only be read by the code. The code consists in a c/f90 library, along with some optional tools in python. The code is used to read the data files, and given model power spectra and nuisance parameters it computes the log likelihood of that model. <br />
<br />
Detailed description of the installation and usage of the likelihood code and data is provided in the package. The package includes five data files: four for the CMB likelihoods and one for the lensing likelihood. All of the likelihoods delivered are described in detail in the {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08|1|Power spectrum & Likelihood Paper}} (for the CMB based likelihood) and in the {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p12|1|Lensing Paper}} (for the lensing likelihood) .<br />
<br />
The CMB full likelihood has been divided into four parts to allow using selectively different ranges of multipoles. It also reflects the fact that the mathematical approximations used for those different parts are very different, as is the underlying data. In detail, we distribute<br />
* one low-<math>\ell</math> temperature only likelihood (commander), <br />
* one low-<math>\ell</math> temperature and polarisation likelihood (lowlike), and <br />
* one higl-<math>\ell</math> likelihood CAMspec. <br />
<br />
The ''Commander'' likelihood covers the multipoles 2 to 49. It uses a semi-analytic method to sample the low-<math>\ell</math> temperature likelihood on an intermediate product of one of the component separated maps. The samples are used along with an analytical approximation of the likelihood posterior to perform the likelihood computation in the code. See {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08}} section 8.1 for more details.<br />
<br />
The ''lowlike'' likelihood covers the multipoles 2 to 32 for temperature and polarization data. Since Planck is not releasing polarisation data at this time, the polarization map from WMAP9 is used instead. A temperature map is needed to perform the computation nevertheless, and we use here the same commander map. The likelihood is computed using a map-based approximation at low resolution and a master one at intermediate resolution, as in WMAP. The likelihood code actually calls a very slightly modified version of the WMAP9 code. This piece of the likelihood essentially provides a prior on the optical depth and has almost no other impact on cosmological parameter estimation. As such it could be replaced by a simple prior, and a user can decide to do so, which is one of the motivation to leave the three pieces of the CMB likelihood as different data packages; see {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08}} section 8.3 for more details. Note that the version of the WMAP code used here (code version v1.0) does not perform any test on the positive definiteness of the TT, TE, EE covariance matrices, and will return a null log likelihood in the unphysical cases where the absolute value of TE is too large. This will be corrected in a later version.<br />
<br />
The ''CAMspec'' likelihood covers the multipoles 50 to 2500 for temperature only. The likelihood is computed using a quadratic approximation, including mode to mode correlations that have been precomputed on a fiducial model. The likelihood uses data from the 100, 143 and 217 GHz channels. To do so it models the foreground at each frequency using the model described in the likelihood paper. Uncertainties on the relative calibration and on the beam transfer functions are included either as parametric models, or marginalized and integrated in the covariance matrix. Detailed description of the different nuisance parameters is given below. Priors are included in the likelihood on the CIB spectral index, relative calibration factors and beam error eigenmodes. See {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08}} section 2.1 for more details.<br />
<br />
The ''act/spt'' likelihood covers the multipoles 1500 to 10000 for temperature. It is described in{{BibCite|dun2013}}{{BibCite|Keis2011}}{{BibCite|Reic2012}}. It uses the code and data that can be retrieved from the [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/ Lambda archive] for [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/act/act_prod_table.cfm ACT] and [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/spt/spt_prod_table.cfm SPT]. It has been slightly modified to use a thermal and kinetic SZ model that matches the one used in CAMspec. As stated in{{BibCite|dun2013}}, the dust parameters a_ge and a_gs must be explored with the following priors: a_ge = 0.8 ± 0.2 and a_gs = 0.4 ± 0.2. Those priors are not included in the log likelihood computed by the code.<br />
<br />
The ''lensing'' likelihood covers the multipoles 40 to 400 using the result of the [[Specially_processed_maps | lensing reconstruction]]. It uses a quadratic approximation for the likelihood, with a covariance matrix including the marginalized contribution of the beam transfer function uncertainties, the diffuse point source correction uncertainties and the cosmological model uncertainty affecting the first order non-gaussian bias (N1). The correlation between temperature and lensing is not taken into account. Cosmological uncertainty effects on the normalization are dealt with using a first order renormalization procedure. This means that the code will need both the TT and $\phi\phi$ power spectrum up to <math>\ell</math> = 2048 to correctly perform the integrals needed for the renormalization. Nevertheless, the code will only produce an estimate based on the data between <math>\ell</math> = 40 to 400. See {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p12}} section 6.1 for more details.<br />
</span><br />
<span style="color:red">OUTSTANDING: description of likelihood masks </span><br />
==Production process==<br />
<br />
===Likelihood===<br />
<span style="color:red"> ALL OF THE FOLLOWING IN THE LIKELIHOOD SECTION IS OLD. </span><br />
The code is based on some basic routines from the libpmc library in the [http://arxiv.org/abs/1101.0950 cosmoPMC] code. It also uses some code from the [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/likelihood_get.cfm WMAP9 likelihood] for the lowlike likelihood and{{BibCite|dun2013}}{{BibCite|Keis2011}}{{BibCite|Reic2012}} for the act/spt one. The rest of the code has been specifically written for the Planck data. Each likelihood file has been processed using a different and dedicated pipeline as described in the likelihood paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08}} (section 2 and 8) and in the lensing paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p12}} (section 6.1). We refer the reader to those papers for full details. The data are then encapsulated into the specific file format.<br />
<br />
Each dataset comes with its own self check. Whenever the code is used to read a data file, a computation will be done against an included test spectrum/nuisance parameter, and the log-likelihood will be displayed along with the expected result. Difference of the order of 10<math>^{-6}</math> or less are expected depending of the architecture.<br />
<br />
==Inputs==<br />
<br />
===Likelihood===<br />
<br />
; ''commander'' :<br />
* all Planck channels maps<br />
* compact source catalogs<br />
* common masks<br />
* beam transfer functions for all channels<br />
<br />
; ''lowlike'' :<br />
* WMAP9 likelihood data<br />
* Low-<math>\ell</math> Commander map<br />
<br />
; ''CAMspec'' :<br />
* 100, 143 and 217 GHz detector and detsets maps<br />
* 857GHz channel map<br />
* compact source catalog<br />
* common masks (0,1 & 3)<br />
* beam transfer function and error eigenmodes and covariance for 100, 143 and 217 GHz detectors & detsets<br />
* theoretical templates for the tSZ and kSZ contributions<br />
* color corrections for the CIB emission for the 143 and 217GHz detectors and detsets<br />
* fiducial CMB model (bootstrapped from WMAP7 best fit spectrum) estimated noise contribution from the half-ring maps for 100, 143 and 217 GHz<br />
<br />
; ''lensing'' :<br />
* the lensing map<br />
* beam error eigenmodes and covariance for the 143 and 217GHz channel maps<br />
* fiducial CMB model (from Planck cosmological parameter best fit)<br />
<br />
; ''act/spt'' :<br />
* data and code from [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/act/act_fulllikelihood_get.cfm here]<br />
* the tSZ andkSZ template are changed to match those of CAMspec<br />
<br />
== File names and Meta data ==<br />
<br />
===Likelihood===<br />
<span style="color:red"> ALL OF THE FOLLOWING IN THE LIKELIHOOD SECTION IS OLD. </span><br />
<br />
'''Likelihood source code'''<br />
<br />
The source code is in the file<br />
: {{PLASingleFile |fileType=cosmo|name=COM_Code_Likelihood-v1.0_R1.10.tar.gz|link=COM_Code_Likelihood-v1.0_R1.10.tar.gz}} (C, f90 and python likelihood library and tools)<br />
<br />
'''Likelihood data packages'''<br />
<br />
The {{PLALikelihood|type=Data|link=data packages}} are<br />
: ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=cosmo | name=COM_Data_Likelihood-commander_R1.10.tar.gz | link=COM_Data_Likelihood-commander_R1.10.tar.gz}}'' (low-ell TT likelihood)<br />
: ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=cosmo | name=COM_Data_Likelihood-lowlike_R1.10.tar.gz | link=COM_Data_Likelihood-lowlike_R1.10.tar.gz}}'' (low-ell TE,EE,BB likelihood)<br />
: ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=cosmo | name=COM_Data_Likelihood-CAMspec_R1.10.tar.gz | link=COM_Data_Likelihood-CAMspec_R1.10.tar.gz}}'' (high-ell TT likelihood)<br />
: ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=cosmo | name=COM_Data_Likelihood-actspt_R1.10.tar | link=COM_Data_Likelihood-actspt_R1.10.tar.gz}}'' (high-ell TT likelihood)<br />
: ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=cosmo | name=COM_Data_Likelihood-lensing_R1.10.tar.gz | link=COM_Data_Likelihood-lensing_R1.10.tar.gz}}'' (lensing likelihood)<br />
<br />
Untar and unzip all files to recover the code and likelihood data. Each package comes with a README file; follow the instructions inclosed to<br />
build the code and use it. To compute the CMB likelihood one has to sum the log likelihood of each of the commander_v4.1_lm49.clik, lowlike_v222.clik and CAMspec_v6.2TN_2013_02_26.clik, actspt_2013_01.clik. To compute the CMB+lensing likelihood, one has to sum the log likelihood of all 5 files.<br />
<br />
The CMB and lensing likelihood format are different. The CMB files have the termination .clik, the lensing one .clik_lensing. The lensing data being simpler (due to the less detailled modeling permitted by the lower signal-noise), the file is a simple ascii file containing all the data along with comments describing it, and linking the different quantities to the lensing paper. The CMB file format is more complex and must accommodate different forms of data (maps, power spectrum, distribution samples, covariance matrices...). It consists of a tree structure containing the data. At each level of the tree structure a given directory can contain array data (in the form of FITS files or ascii files for strings) and scalar data (joined in a single ascii file "_mdb"). Those files are not user modifiable and do not contain interesting meta data for the user. Tools to manipulate those files are included in the code package as optional python tools. They are documented in the code package.<br />
<br />
'''Likelihood masks'''<br />
<br />
The masks used in the Likelihood paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08}} are found in<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_Likelihood_2048_R1.10.fits|link=COM_Mask_Likelihood_2048_R1.10.fits}}<br />
<br />
which contains ten masks which are written into a single ''BINTABLE'' extension of 10 columns by 50331648 rows (the number of Healpix pixels in an Nside = 2048 map). The structure is as follows, where the column names are the names of the masks: <br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Likelihodd masks file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'MSK-LIKE' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|CL31 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|CL39 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|CL49 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|G22 || Real*4 || none || mask <br />
|-<br />
|G35 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|G45 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|G56 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|G65 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|PS96 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|PSA82 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 50331647 || Last pixel number, for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
<br />
|}<br />
--><br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|008]]</div>Heriksenhttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=CMB_and_astrophysical_component_maps&diff=10829CMB and astrophysical component maps2015-02-01T12:22:49Z<p>Heriksen: /* Inputs */</p>
<hr />
<div>== Overview ==<br />
This section describes the maps of astrophysical components produced from the Planck data. These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps described above using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of the product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITS file containing the data and associated information.<br />
All the details can be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
==CMB maps==<br />
CMB maps have been produced by the COMMANDER, NILC, SEVEM, and SMICA pipelines, which are described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation | CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and references therein.. For each pipeline we provide:<br />
* Full-mission CMB intensity map, confidence mask and beam transfer function.<br />
* Full-mission high-pass filtered CMB polarisation map, <br />
* A confidence mask.<br />
* A beam transfer function.<br />
In addition, and for characterisation purposes, there are six other sets of maps from three data splits: first/second half-ring, odd/even years and first/second half-mission. And for each of these data splits we provide half-sum and half-difference maps. The half-difference maps can be used to provide an approximate noise estimate for the full mission, but they should be used with caution. Each split has caveats in this regard: there are noise correlations between the half-ring maps, and missing pixels in the other splits. The Intensity maps are provided at Nside = 2048, at 5 arcmin resolution, while the Polarisation ones are provided at Nside = 1024 at 10 arcmin resolution. All maps are in units of K<sub>cmb</sub>.<br />
<br />
These maps can be found in the files <br />
* ''COM_CMB_IQU-{pipeline}-field-{Int/Pol}_Nside_R2.00.fits''. <br />
The ''Int'' files have two extensions, for the Intensity maps and the beam transfer function, the ''Pol'' files have three extensions, for Q and U maps, and for the beam transfer function.<br />
For a complete description of the data structure, see the [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
The gallery below shows the Intensity, noise from half-mission, half-difference, and confidence mask for the four pipelines, in the order SMICA, SEVEM, NILC and COMMANDER, from top to bottom. The Intensity maps scale is [–500.+500] μK, and the noise are between [–25,+25] μK. We do not show the Q and U maps since they have no significant visible structure to contemplate.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=300px heights=180> <br />
File:CMB_commander_tsig.png | '''commander temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tnoi.png | '''commander noise'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tmask.png | '''commander mask'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tsig.png | '''nilc temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tnoi.png | '''nilc noise'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tmask.png | '''nilc mask'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tsig.png | '''sevem temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tnoi.png | '''sevem noise'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tmask.png | '''sevem mask'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tsig.png | '''smica temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tnoi.png | '''smica noise'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tmask.png | '''smica mask'''</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
===Product description ===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: COMMANDER is a Planck software code implementing pixel based Bayesian parametric component separation. Each astrophysical signal component is modelled in terms of a small number of free parameters per pixel, typically in terms of an amplitude at a given reference frequency and a small set of spectral parameters, and these are fitted to the data with an MCMC Gibbs sampling algorithm. Instrumental parameters, including calibration, bandpass corrections, monopole and dipoles, are fitted jointly with the astrophysical components. A new feature in the Planck 2015 analysis is that the astrophysical model is derived from a combination of Planck, WMAP and a 408 MHz (Haslam et al. 1982) survey, providing sufficient frequency support to resolve the low-frequency components into synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust. For full details, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The Commander sky maps have different angular resolutions depending on data products:<br />
* The components of the full astrophysical sky model derived from the complete data combination (Planck, WMAP, 408 MHz) have a 1 degree FWHM resolution, and are pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=256. The corresponding CMB map defines the input map for the low-l Planck 2015 temperature likelihood. <br />
* The Commander CMB temperature map derived from Planck-only observations have an angular resolution of ~5 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=2048. This map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-857 GHz data), 7.5 arcmin (using 143-857 GHz data), and 5 arcmin (using 217-857 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
* The Commander CMB polarization map has an angular resolution of 10 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=1024. As for the temperature case, this map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-353 GHz data) and 10 arcmin (using 100-353 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The Commander confidence masks are produced by thresholding the chi-square map characterizing the global fits, combined with direct CO amplitude thresholding to eliminate known leakage effects. In addition, we exclude the 9-year WMAP point source mask in the temperature mask. For full details, see Sections 5 and 6 in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}. A total of 81% of the sky is admitted for high-resolution temperature analysis, and 83% for polarization analysis. For low-resolution temperature analysis, for which the additional WMAP and 408 MHz observations improve foreground constraints, a total of 93% of the sky is admitted. <br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: The Needlet-ILC (hereafter NILC) CMB map is constructed both in total intensity as well as polarization, Q and U Stokes parameters. For total intensity, all Planck frequency channels are included. For polarization, all polarization sensitive frequency channels are included, from 30 to 353 GHz. The solution, for T, Q and U is obtained by applying the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) technique in needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range. <br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The spectral analysis, and estimation of the NILC coefficients, is performed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math>. The effective beam is equivalent of a Gaussian circular beam with FWHM=5 arcminutes. <br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The same procedure is followed by SMICA and NILC for producing confidence masks, though with different parametrizations. A low resolution smoothed version of the NILC map, noise subtracted, is thresholded to 73.5 squared micro-K for T, and 6,75 squared micro-K for Q and U.<br />
<br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
:SEVEM produces clean CMB maps at several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting in real space. The templates are typically constructed from the lowest and highest Planck frequencies and then subtracted from the CMB-dominated channels, with coefficients that are chosen to minimize the variance of the clean map outside a considered mask. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. Two single frequency clean maps are then combined to obtain the final CMB map.<br />
<br />
;Resolution<br />
<br />
:For intensity the clean CMB map is constructed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math> at Nside=2048 and at the standard resolution of 5 arcminutes (Gaussian beam).<br />
:For polarization the clean CMB map is produced at Nside=1024 with a resolution of 10 arcminutes (Gaussian beam) and a maximum <math>\ell=3071</math>.<br />
<br />
;Confidence masks<br />
<br />
:The confidence masks cover the most contaminated regions of the sky, leaving approximately 85 per cent of useful sky for intensity and 80 per cent for polarization.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces CMBs map by linearly combining all Planck input channels with multipole-dependent weights. It includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>. Temperature and polarization maps are produced independently.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA intensity map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes which is truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math> and is '''not''' deconvolved from the pixel window function. Thus the delivered beam window function is the product of a Gaussian beam at 5 arcminutes and the pixel window function for Nside=2048.<br />
: The SMICA Q and U maps are obtained similarly but are produced at Nside=1024 with an effective beam of 10 arc-minutes (to be multiplied by the pixel window function, as for the intensity map).<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. See section below detailing the production process.<br />
<br />
===Production process===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky maps are first convolved to a common resolution that is larger than the largest beam of any frequency channel. For the combined Planck, WMAP and 408 MHz temperature analysis, the common resolution is 1 degree FWHM; for the Planck-only all-frequency analysis it is 40 arcmin FWHM; and for the intermediate-resolution analysis it is 7.5 arcmin; while for the full-resolution analysis, we assume all frequencies between 217 and 857 GHz have a common resolution, and no additional convolution is performed. For polarization, only two smoothing scales are employed, 40 and 10 arcmin, respectively. The instrumental noise rms maps are convolved correspondingly, properly accouting for their matrix-like nature. <br />
<br />
; Priors<br />
<br />
: The following priors are enforced in the Commander analysis:<br />
* All foreground amplitudes are enforced to be positive definite in the low-resolution analysis, while no amplitude priors are enforced in the high-resolution analyses<br />
* Monopoles and dipoles are fixed to nominal values for a small set of reference frequencies<br />
* Gaussian priors are enforced on spectral parameters, with values informed by the values derived in the high signal-to-noise areas of the sky<br />
* The Jeffreys ignorance prior is enforced on spectral parameters in addition to the informative Gaussian priors<br />
<br />
; Fitting procedure<br />
<br />
: Given data and priors, Commander either maximizes, or samples from, the Bayesian posterior, P(theta|data). Because this is a highly non-Gaussian and correlated distribution, involving millions of parameters, these operations are performed by means of the Gibbs sampling algorithm, in which joint samples from the full distributions are generated by iteratively sampling from the corresponding conditional posterior distributions, P(theta_i| data, theta_{j/=i}). For the low-resolution analysis, all parameters are optimized jointly, while in the high-resolution analyses, which employs fewer frequency channels, low signal-to-noise parameters are fixed to those derived at low resolution. Examples of such parameters include monopoles and dipoles, calibration and bandpass parameters, thermal dust temperature etc.<br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky frequency maps are deconvolved using the DPC beam transfer function provided, and re-convolved with a 5 arcminutes FWHM circular Gaussian beam. In polarization, prior to the smoothing process, all sky E and B maps are derived from Q and U using standard HEALPix tools from each individual frequency channels <br />
<br />
; Linear combination<br />
<br />
: Pre-processed input frequency maps are decomposed in needlet coefficients, specified in the Appendix B of the Planck A11 paper, with shape given by Table B.1. Minimum variance coefficients are then obtained, using all channels for T, from 30 to 353 for E and B. <br />
<br />
; Post-processing<br />
<br />
: E and B maps are re-combined into Q and U products using standard HEALPix tools. <br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
<br />
The templates used in the SEVEM pipeline are typically constructed by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMB map at that frequency. This is done in real space at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. The <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. Note that the same expression applies for I, Q and U. Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of clean maps at different frequencies is of great interest in order to test the robustness of the results. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned independently and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
;Intensity<br />
<br />
For the CMB intensity map, we have cleaned the 100 GHz, 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps using a total of four templates. Three of them are constructed as the difference of two consecutive Planck channels smoothed to a common resolution (30-44, 44-70 and 545-353) while the 857 GHz channel is chosen as the fourth template. First of all, the six frequency channels which are going to be part of the templates are inpainted at the point source positions detected using the Mexican Hat Wavelet algorithm. The size of the holes to be inpainted is determined taking into account the beam size of the channel as well as the flux of each source. The inpainting algorithm is based on simple diffuse inpainting, which fills one pixel with the mean value of the neighbouring pixels in an iterative way. To avoid inconsistencies when subtracting two channels, each frequency map is inpainted on the sources detected in that map and on the second map (if any) used to construct the template. Then the maps are smoothed to a common resolution (the first channel in the subtraction is smoothed with the beam of the second map and viceversa). For the 857 GHz template, we simply filter the inpainted map with the 545 GHz beam.<br />
<br />
The coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance outside the analysis mask, that covers the 1 per cent brightest emission of the sky as well as point sources detected at all frequency channels. Once the maps are cleaned, each of them is inpainted on the point sources positions detected at that (raw) channel. Then, the MHW algorithm is run again, now on the clean maps. A relatively small number of new sources are found and are also inpainted at each channel. The resolution of the clean map is the same as that of the original data. Our final CMB map is then constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask is produced by studying the differences between several SEVEM CMB reconstructions, which correspond to maps cleaned at different frequencies or using different analysis masks. The obtained mask leaves a useful sky fraction of approximately 85 per cent.<br />
<br />
;Polarization<br />
<br />
<br />
To clean the polarization maps, a procedure similar to the one used for intensity data is applied to the $Q$ and $U$ maps independently. However, given that a narrower frequency coverage is available for polarization, the selected templates and maps to be cleaned are different. In particular, we clean the 70, 100 and 143 GHz using three templates for each channel. The first step of the pipeline is to inpaint the positions of the point sources using the MHW, in those channels which are going to be used in the construction of templates, following the same procedure as for the intensity case. The inpainting is performed in the frequency maps at their native resolution. These inpainted maps are then used to construct a total of four templates. To trace the synchrotron emission, we construct a template as the subtraction of the 30 GHz minus the 44 GHz <br />
map, after being convolved with the beam of each other. For the dust emission, the following templates are considered: 353--217 GHz (smoothed at 10$'$ resolution), 217--143 GHz (used <br />
to clean 70 and 100 GHz) and 217--100 GHz (to clean 143 GHz). These two last templates are constructed at 1 degree resolution since an additional smoothing becomes necessary in<br />
order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the template. Conversely to the <br />
intensity case and due to the lower availability of frequency channels, it becomes necessary to use the maps to be cleaned as part of one of the templates. In this way, the 100 GHz <br />
map is used to clean the 143 GHz frequency channel and viceversa, making the clean maps less independent between them than in the intensity case.<br />
<br />
These templates are then used to clean the non-inpainted 70 (at its native resolution), 100 (at 10$'$ resolution) and 143 GHz maps (also at 10$'$). The corresponding linear coefficients are estimated independently for $Q$ and $U$ by minimising the variance of the clean maps outside a mask, that covers point sources and the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission. Once the maps have been cleaned, inpainting of the point sources detected at the corresponding raw maps is carried out. The size of the holes to be inpainted takes<br />
into account the additional smoothing of the 100 and 143 GHz maps. The 100 and 143 GHz clean maps are then combined in harmonic space, using $E$ and $B$ decomposition, to produce the final CMB maps for the $Q$ and $U$ components at a resolution of 10$'$ (Gaussian beam) for a HEALPix parameter Nside=1024. Each map is weighted taking into account its <br />
corresponding noise level at each multipole. Finally, before applying the post-processing HPF to the clean polarization data, the region with the brightest Galactic residuals is inpainted (5 per cent of the sky) to avoid the introduction of ringing around the Galactic centre in the filtering process.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask includes all the pixels above a given threshold in a smoothed version of the clean CMB map, the regions more contaminated by the CO emission and those pixels more affected by the high-pass filtering, leaving a useful sky fraction of approximately 80 per cent.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
<br />
A) Production of the intensity map.<br />
<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: Before computing spherical harmonic coefficients, all input maps undergo a pre-processing step to deal with regions of very strong emission (such as the Galactic center) and point sources. The point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue are fitted in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole is filled in by a simple diffusive process to ensure a smooth transition and mitigate spectral leakage. The diffusive inpainting process is also applied to some regions of very strong emissions. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, here all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and filled-in similarly.<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHz are harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> and co-added with multipole-dependent weights as shown in the figure.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: A confidence mask is determined (see the Planck paper) and all regions which have been masked in the pre-processing step are added to it.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filter_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input intensity maps (after they are re-beamed to 5 arc-minutes and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), as a function of multipole.''']]--><br />
<br />
B) Production of the Q and U polarisation maps.<br />
<br />
The production of the Q and U maps is similar to the production of the intensity map. The SMICA pipeline uses all the 7 polarized Planck channels. After point source masking and diffusive inpainting, the E and B modes are computed and combined to produce E and B modes of the CMB map. Those combined modes are then used to synthesize the U and Q CMB maps. The E and B parts of the input frequency maps being processed jointly, there are, at each multipole, 2*7=14 coefficients (weights) defined to produce the E modes of the CMB map and as many to produce the B part. The weights are displayed in the figure below. The Q and U maps were originally produced at Nside=2048 with a 5-arc-minute resolution, but were downgraded to Nside=1024 with a 10 arc-minute resolution for this release.<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filterEB_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input E and B modes (after they are re-beamed to 5 arcmin and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), in order to produce the E and B modes of the CMB map. A given frequency channel is encoded in a given color. Solid lines are for E modes and dashed lines are for B modes. The thick lines are for the EE or BB weights; the thin lines are for the EB or BE weights. See the paper for more details.''']]--><br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. SMICA and SEVEM use all the maps between 30 and 857 GHz; NILC uses the ones between 44 and 857 GHz. Commander-Ruler uses frequency channel maps from 30 to 353 GHz. <br />
<br />
===File names and structure===<br />
The FITS files corresponding to the three CMB products are the following:<br />
<br />
''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}-field-{Int,Pol}_Nside_R2.nn.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''method'' is mica, nilc, sevem, or commander, and Int and Pol indicate whether the file contains the temperature (Int) or the polarisation (Pol) maps. For this release the temperature maps are provided at Nside = 2048, and the polarisation maps at Nside = 1024. <br />
<br />
The files contain <br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data;<br />
* one or two ''BINTABLE'' data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 14 columns in which the first 13 columns is a CMB maps produced from the full or a subset of the data, as described in the table below, and the last column in a confidence mask. There is a single extension for ''Int'' files, and two, for Q and U, for ''Pol'' files. <br />
* a ''BINTABLE'' extension containing the beam window function.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I or Q or U || Real*4 || uK_cmb || I or Q or U map <br />
|- <br />
|HM1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HM2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 2 <br />
|-<br />
|YR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 1 <br />
|-<br />
|YR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HMHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HMHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|YRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|YRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|HRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half diff <br />
|-<br />
|MASK || BYTE || || Confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (smica/nilc/sevem/commander)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Notes:<br />
# The beam window function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>.<br />
<br />
<!--- mi sembra che questa non serva più <br />
The low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler CMB product is organized in the following way:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK_cmb || CMB temperature map obtained as average over 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Corresponding Standard deviation amongst the 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Confidence mask<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. EXTNAME = ''CMB-Sample'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM01 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM02 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM03 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM04 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM05 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM06 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM07 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM08 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM09 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM10 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
<!---- anche queste non servono più <br />
<br />
The FITS files containing the ''union'' (or common) maks is:<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-union_2048_R1.10.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common}}<br />
which contains a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with a single column (named ''U73'') for the mask, which is boolean (FITS ''TFORM = B''), in GALACTIC coordinates, NESTED ordering, and Nside=2048.<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for a small file containing the SMICA cmb map with no additional information (noise or masks) we provide such a file here<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
This file contains a single extension with a single column containing the SMICA cmb temperature map.<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
== Astrophysical foregrounds from parametric component separation ==<br />
We describe diffuse foreground products for the Planck 2015 release. See the Planck Foregrounds Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}} for a detailed description of these products. Further scientific discussion and interpretation may be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a31}}.<br />
<br />
===Low-resolution temperature products===<br />
<br />
: The Planck 2015 astrophysical component separation analysis combines Planck observations with the 9-year WMAP temperature sky maps (Bennett et al. 2013) and the 408 MHz survey by Haslam et al. (1982). This allows a direct decomposition of the low-frequency foregrounds into separate synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust components without strong spatial priors. <br />
<br />
====Inputs====<br />
<br />
The following data products are used for the low-resolution analysis:<br />
* Full-mission 30 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=30|period=Full|link=LFI 30 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 44 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=44|period=Full|link=LFI 44 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 70 GHz ds1 (18+23), ds2 (19+22), and ds3 (20+21) detector-set maps<br />
* Full-mission 100 GHz ds1 and ds2 detector set maps<br />
* Full-mission 143 GHz ds1 and ds2 detector set maps and detectors 5, 6, and 7 maps<br />
* Full-mission 217 GHz detector 1, 2, 3 and 4 maps<br />
* Full-mission 353 GHz detector set ds2 and detector 1 maps<br />
* Full-mission 545 GHz detector 2 and 4 maps<br />
* Full-mission 857 GHz detector 2 map<br />
* Beam-symmetrized 9-year WMAP K-band map [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/skymap_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
* Beam-symmetrized 9-year WMAP Ka-band map [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/skymap_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
* Default 9-year WMAP Q1 and Q2 differencing assembly maps [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/skymap_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
* Default 9-year WMAP V1 and V2 differencing assembly maps [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/skymap_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
* Default 9-year WMAP W1, W2, W3, and W4 differencing assembly maps [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/skymap_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
* Re-processed 408 MHz survey map, Remazeilles et al. (2014) [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/foreground/2014_haslam_408_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
All maps are smoothed to a common resolution of 1 degree FWHM by deconvolving their original instrumental beam and pixel window, and convolving with the new common Gaussian beam, and repixelizing at Nside=256.<br />
<br />
====Outputs====<br />
<br />
=====Synchrotron emission=====<br />
<br />
<!--<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=800px heights=500px> <br />
File:commander_synch_amp.png | '''Commander low-resolution synchrotron amplitude'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center>--><br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: 408 MHz<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-Synchrotron<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Free-free emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: NA<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-freefree<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|EM_ML || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|EM_MEAN || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|EM_RMS || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_ML || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_MEAN || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_RMS || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Spinning dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The spinning dust component has two independent constituents, each corresponding to one spdust2 component, but with different peak frequencies. The two components are stored in the two first FITS extensions, and the template frequency spectrum is stored in the third extension. <br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 22.8 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-AME1<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_ML || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_MEAN || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_RMS || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 41.0 GHz<br />
: Peak frequency: 33.35 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- COMP-MAP-AME2<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 2 -- SPINNING-DUST-TEMP<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|nu || Real*4 || GHz || Frequency <br />
|-<br />
|j_nu/nH || Real*4 || Jy sr-1 cm2/H || spdust2 spectrum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====CO line emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CO-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CO-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The CO line emission component has three independent objects, corresponding to the J1->0, 2->1 and 3->2 lines, stored in separate extensions. <br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-co10<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- COMP-MAP-co21<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 2 -- COMP-MAP-co32<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====94/100 GHz line emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_xline-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_xline-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-xline<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Note: The amplitude of this component is normalized according to the 100-ds1 detector set map, ie., it is the amplitude as measured by this detector combination.<br />
<br />
=====Thermal dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_dust-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_dust-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 545 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-dust<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_ML || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_MEAN || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_RMS || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_MEAN || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_RMS || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====Thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich emission around the Coma and Virgo clusters=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_SZ-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_SZ-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-SZ<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Y_ML || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Y_MEAN || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|Y_RMS || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===High-resolution temperature products===<br />
<br />
High-resolution foreground products at 7.5 arcmin FWHM are derived with the same algorithm as for the low-resolution analyses, but including frequency channels above (and including) 143 GHz. <br />
<br />
====Inputs====<br />
<br />
The following data products are used for the low-resolution analysis:<br />
* Full-mission 143 GHz ds1 and ds2 detector set maps and detectors 5, 6, and 7 maps<br />
* Full-mission 217 GHz detector 1, 2, 3 and 4 maps<br />
* Full-mission 353 GHz detector set ds2 and detector 1 maps<br />
* Full-mission 545 GHz detector 2 and 4 maps<br />
* Full-mission 857 GHz detector 2 map<br />
All maps are smoothed to a common resolution of 7.5 arcmin FWHM by deconvolving their original instrumental beam and pixel window, and convolving with the new common Gaussian beam, and repixelizing at Nside=2048.<br />
<br />
====Outputs====<br />
<br />
=====CO J2->1 emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CO21-commander_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CO21-commander_2048_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 7.5 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-CO21<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_FULL || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Full-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "First year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "Second year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Thermal dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_ThermalDust-commander_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_ThermalDust-commander_2048_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 7.5 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 545 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-dust<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_FULL || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Full-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "First year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "Second year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_FULL || Real*4 || NA || Full-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || NA || First half-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || NA || Second half-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || NA || First half-ring emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || NA || Second half-ring emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || NA || "First year" emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || NA || "Second year" emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Polarization products===<br />
<br />
Two polarization foreground products are provided, namely synchrotron and thermal dust emission. The spectral models are assumed identical to the corresponding temperature spectral models.<br />
<br />
====Inputs====<br />
<br />
The following data products are used for the polarization analysis:<br />
* (Only low-resolution analysis) Full-mission 30 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=30|period=Full|link=LFI 30 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* (Only low-resolution analysis) Full-mission 44 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=44|period=Full|link=LFI 44 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* (Only low-resolution analysis) Full-mission 70 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=70|period=Full|link=LFI 70 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 100 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=100|period=Full|link=HFI 100 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 143 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=143|period=Full|link=HFI 143 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 217 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=217|period=Full|link=HFI 217 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 353 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=353|period=Full|link=HFI 353 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
In the low-resolution analysis, all maps are smoothed to a common resolution of 40 arcmin FWHM by deconvolving their original instrumental beam and pixel window, and convolving with the new common Gaussian beam, and repixelizing at Nside=256. In the high-resolution analysis (including only CMB and thermal dust emission), the corresponding resolution is 10 arcmin FWHM and Nside=1024.<br />
<br />
====Outputs====<br />
=====Synchrotron emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_SynchrotronPol-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_SynchrotronPol-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 40 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 30 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-SynchrotronPol<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_FULL || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Full-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_FULL || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Full-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "First year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "First year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "Second year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "Second year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Thermal dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_DustPol-commander_1024_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_DustPol-commander_1024_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 1024<br />
: Angular resolution = 10 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 353 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-DustPol<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_FULL || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Full-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_FULL || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Full-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "First year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "First year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "Second year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "Second year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|007]]</div>Heriksenhttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=CMB_and_astrophysical_component_maps&diff=10828CMB and astrophysical component maps2015-02-01T12:19:53Z<p>Heriksen: /* Polarization products */</p>
<hr />
<div>== Overview ==<br />
This section describes the maps of astrophysical components produced from the Planck data. These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps described above using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of the product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITS file containing the data and associated information.<br />
All the details can be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
==CMB maps==<br />
CMB maps have been produced by the COMMANDER, NILC, SEVEM, and SMICA pipelines, which are described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation | CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and references therein.. For each pipeline we provide:<br />
* Full-mission CMB intensity map, confidence mask and beam transfer function.<br />
* Full-mission high-pass filtered CMB polarisation map, <br />
* A confidence mask.<br />
* A beam transfer function.<br />
In addition, and for characterisation purposes, there are six other sets of maps from three data splits: first/second half-ring, odd/even years and first/second half-mission. And for each of these data splits we provide half-sum and half-difference maps. The half-difference maps can be used to provide an approximate noise estimate for the full mission, but they should be used with caution. Each split has caveats in this regard: there are noise correlations between the half-ring maps, and missing pixels in the other splits. The Intensity maps are provided at Nside = 2048, at 5 arcmin resolution, while the Polarisation ones are provided at Nside = 1024 at 10 arcmin resolution. All maps are in units of K<sub>cmb</sub>.<br />
<br />
These maps can be found in the files <br />
* ''COM_CMB_IQU-{pipeline}-field-{Int/Pol}_Nside_R2.00.fits''. <br />
The ''Int'' files have two extensions, for the Intensity maps and the beam transfer function, the ''Pol'' files have three extensions, for Q and U maps, and for the beam transfer function.<br />
For a complete description of the data structure, see the [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
The gallery below shows the Intensity, noise from half-mission, half-difference, and confidence mask for the four pipelines, in the order SMICA, SEVEM, NILC and COMMANDER, from top to bottom. The Intensity maps scale is [–500.+500] μK, and the noise are between [–25,+25] μK. We do not show the Q and U maps since they have no significant visible structure to contemplate.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=300px heights=180> <br />
File:CMB_commander_tsig.png | '''commander temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tnoi.png | '''commander noise'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tmask.png | '''commander mask'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tsig.png | '''nilc temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tnoi.png | '''nilc noise'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tmask.png | '''nilc mask'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tsig.png | '''sevem temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tnoi.png | '''sevem noise'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tmask.png | '''sevem mask'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tsig.png | '''smica temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tnoi.png | '''smica noise'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tmask.png | '''smica mask'''</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
===Product description ===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: COMMANDER is a Planck software code implementing pixel based Bayesian parametric component separation. Each astrophysical signal component is modelled in terms of a small number of free parameters per pixel, typically in terms of an amplitude at a given reference frequency and a small set of spectral parameters, and these are fitted to the data with an MCMC Gibbs sampling algorithm. Instrumental parameters, including calibration, bandpass corrections, monopole and dipoles, are fitted jointly with the astrophysical components. A new feature in the Planck 2015 analysis is that the astrophysical model is derived from a combination of Planck, WMAP and a 408 MHz (Haslam et al. 1982) survey, providing sufficient frequency support to resolve the low-frequency components into synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust. For full details, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The Commander sky maps have different angular resolutions depending on data products:<br />
* The components of the full astrophysical sky model derived from the complete data combination (Planck, WMAP, 408 MHz) have a 1 degree FWHM resolution, and are pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=256. The corresponding CMB map defines the input map for the low-l Planck 2015 temperature likelihood. <br />
* The Commander CMB temperature map derived from Planck-only observations have an angular resolution of ~5 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=2048. This map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-857 GHz data), 7.5 arcmin (using 143-857 GHz data), and 5 arcmin (using 217-857 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
* The Commander CMB polarization map has an angular resolution of 10 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=1024. As for the temperature case, this map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-353 GHz data) and 10 arcmin (using 100-353 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The Commander confidence masks are produced by thresholding the chi-square map characterizing the global fits, combined with direct CO amplitude thresholding to eliminate known leakage effects. In addition, we exclude the 9-year WMAP point source mask in the temperature mask. For full details, see Sections 5 and 6 in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}. A total of 81% of the sky is admitted for high-resolution temperature analysis, and 83% for polarization analysis. For low-resolution temperature analysis, for which the additional WMAP and 408 MHz observations improve foreground constraints, a total of 93% of the sky is admitted. <br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: The Needlet-ILC (hereafter NILC) CMB map is constructed both in total intensity as well as polarization, Q and U Stokes parameters. For total intensity, all Planck frequency channels are included. For polarization, all polarization sensitive frequency channels are included, from 30 to 353 GHz. The solution, for T, Q and U is obtained by applying the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) technique in needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range. <br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The spectral analysis, and estimation of the NILC coefficients, is performed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math>. The effective beam is equivalent of a Gaussian circular beam with FWHM=5 arcminutes. <br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The same procedure is followed by SMICA and NILC for producing confidence masks, though with different parametrizations. A low resolution smoothed version of the NILC map, noise subtracted, is thresholded to 73.5 squared micro-K for T, and 6,75 squared micro-K for Q and U.<br />
<br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
:SEVEM produces clean CMB maps at several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting in real space. The templates are typically constructed from the lowest and highest Planck frequencies and then subtracted from the CMB-dominated channels, with coefficients that are chosen to minimize the variance of the clean map outside a considered mask. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. Two single frequency clean maps are then combined to obtain the final CMB map.<br />
<br />
;Resolution<br />
<br />
:For intensity the clean CMB map is constructed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math> at Nside=2048 and at the standard resolution of 5 arcminutes (Gaussian beam).<br />
:For polarization the clean CMB map is produced at Nside=1024 with a resolution of 10 arcminutes (Gaussian beam) and a maximum <math>\ell=3071</math>.<br />
<br />
;Confidence masks<br />
<br />
:The confidence masks cover the most contaminated regions of the sky, leaving approximately 85 per cent of useful sky for intensity and 80 per cent for polarization.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces CMBs map by linearly combining all Planck input channels with multipole-dependent weights. It includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>. Temperature and polarization maps are produced independently.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA intensity map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes which is truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math> and is '''not''' deconvolved from the pixel window function. Thus the delivered beam window function is the product of a Gaussian beam at 5 arcminutes and the pixel window function for Nside=2048.<br />
: The SMICA Q and U maps are obtained similarly but are produced at Nside=1024 with an effective beam of 10 arc-minutes (to be multiplied by the pixel window function, as for the intensity map).<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. See section below detailing the production process.<br />
<br />
===Production process===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky maps are first convolved to a common resolution that is larger than the largest beam of any frequency channel. For the combined Planck, WMAP and 408 MHz temperature analysis, the common resolution is 1 degree FWHM; for the Planck-only all-frequency analysis it is 40 arcmin FWHM; and for the intermediate-resolution analysis it is 7.5 arcmin; while for the full-resolution analysis, we assume all frequencies between 217 and 857 GHz have a common resolution, and no additional convolution is performed. For polarization, only two smoothing scales are employed, 40 and 10 arcmin, respectively. The instrumental noise rms maps are convolved correspondingly, properly accouting for their matrix-like nature. <br />
<br />
; Priors<br />
<br />
: The following priors are enforced in the Commander analysis:<br />
* All foreground amplitudes are enforced to be positive definite in the low-resolution analysis, while no amplitude priors are enforced in the high-resolution analyses<br />
* Monopoles and dipoles are fixed to nominal values for a small set of reference frequencies<br />
* Gaussian priors are enforced on spectral parameters, with values informed by the values derived in the high signal-to-noise areas of the sky<br />
* The Jeffreys ignorance prior is enforced on spectral parameters in addition to the informative Gaussian priors<br />
<br />
; Fitting procedure<br />
<br />
: Given data and priors, Commander either maximizes, or samples from, the Bayesian posterior, P(theta|data). Because this is a highly non-Gaussian and correlated distribution, involving millions of parameters, these operations are performed by means of the Gibbs sampling algorithm, in which joint samples from the full distributions are generated by iteratively sampling from the corresponding conditional posterior distributions, P(theta_i| data, theta_{j/=i}). For the low-resolution analysis, all parameters are optimized jointly, while in the high-resolution analyses, which employs fewer frequency channels, low signal-to-noise parameters are fixed to those derived at low resolution. Examples of such parameters include monopoles and dipoles, calibration and bandpass parameters, thermal dust temperature etc.<br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky frequency maps are deconvolved using the DPC beam transfer function provided, and re-convolved with a 5 arcminutes FWHM circular Gaussian beam. In polarization, prior to the smoothing process, all sky E and B maps are derived from Q and U using standard HEALPix tools from each individual frequency channels <br />
<br />
; Linear combination<br />
<br />
: Pre-processed input frequency maps are decomposed in needlet coefficients, specified in the Appendix B of the Planck A11 paper, with shape given by Table B.1. Minimum variance coefficients are then obtained, using all channels for T, from 30 to 353 for E and B. <br />
<br />
; Post-processing<br />
<br />
: E and B maps are re-combined into Q and U products using standard HEALPix tools. <br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
<br />
The templates used in the SEVEM pipeline are typically constructed by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMB map at that frequency. This is done in real space at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. The <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. Note that the same expression applies for I, Q and U. Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of clean maps at different frequencies is of great interest in order to test the robustness of the results. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned independently and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
;Intensity<br />
<br />
For the CMB intensity map, we have cleaned the 100 GHz, 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps using a total of four templates. Three of them are constructed as the difference of two consecutive Planck channels smoothed to a common resolution (30-44, 44-70 and 545-353) while the 857 GHz channel is chosen as the fourth template. First of all, the six frequency channels which are going to be part of the templates are inpainted at the point source positions detected using the Mexican Hat Wavelet algorithm. The size of the holes to be inpainted is determined taking into account the beam size of the channel as well as the flux of each source. The inpainting algorithm is based on simple diffuse inpainting, which fills one pixel with the mean value of the neighbouring pixels in an iterative way. To avoid inconsistencies when subtracting two channels, each frequency map is inpainted on the sources detected in that map and on the second map (if any) used to construct the template. Then the maps are smoothed to a common resolution (the first channel in the subtraction is smoothed with the beam of the second map and viceversa). For the 857 GHz template, we simply filter the inpainted map with the 545 GHz beam.<br />
<br />
The coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance outside the analysis mask, that covers the 1 per cent brightest emission of the sky as well as point sources detected at all frequency channels. Once the maps are cleaned, each of them is inpainted on the point sources positions detected at that (raw) channel. Then, the MHW algorithm is run again, now on the clean maps. A relatively small number of new sources are found and are also inpainted at each channel. The resolution of the clean map is the same as that of the original data. Our final CMB map is then constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask is produced by studying the differences between several SEVEM CMB reconstructions, which correspond to maps cleaned at different frequencies or using different analysis masks. The obtained mask leaves a useful sky fraction of approximately 85 per cent.<br />
<br />
;Polarization<br />
<br />
<br />
To clean the polarization maps, a procedure similar to the one used for intensity data is applied to the $Q$ and $U$ maps independently. However, given that a narrower frequency coverage is available for polarization, the selected templates and maps to be cleaned are different. In particular, we clean the 70, 100 and 143 GHz using three templates for each channel. The first step of the pipeline is to inpaint the positions of the point sources using the MHW, in those channels which are going to be used in the construction of templates, following the same procedure as for the intensity case. The inpainting is performed in the frequency maps at their native resolution. These inpainted maps are then used to construct a total of four templates. To trace the synchrotron emission, we construct a template as the subtraction of the 30 GHz minus the 44 GHz <br />
map, after being convolved with the beam of each other. For the dust emission, the following templates are considered: 353--217 GHz (smoothed at 10$'$ resolution), 217--143 GHz (used <br />
to clean 70 and 100 GHz) and 217--100 GHz (to clean 143 GHz). These two last templates are constructed at 1 degree resolution since an additional smoothing becomes necessary in<br />
order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the template. Conversely to the <br />
intensity case and due to the lower availability of frequency channels, it becomes necessary to use the maps to be cleaned as part of one of the templates. In this way, the 100 GHz <br />
map is used to clean the 143 GHz frequency channel and viceversa, making the clean maps less independent between them than in the intensity case.<br />
<br />
These templates are then used to clean the non-inpainted 70 (at its native resolution), 100 (at 10$'$ resolution) and 143 GHz maps (also at 10$'$). The corresponding linear coefficients are estimated independently for $Q$ and $U$ by minimising the variance of the clean maps outside a mask, that covers point sources and the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission. Once the maps have been cleaned, inpainting of the point sources detected at the corresponding raw maps is carried out. The size of the holes to be inpainted takes<br />
into account the additional smoothing of the 100 and 143 GHz maps. The 100 and 143 GHz clean maps are then combined in harmonic space, using $E$ and $B$ decomposition, to produce the final CMB maps for the $Q$ and $U$ components at a resolution of 10$'$ (Gaussian beam) for a HEALPix parameter Nside=1024. Each map is weighted taking into account its <br />
corresponding noise level at each multipole. Finally, before applying the post-processing HPF to the clean polarization data, the region with the brightest Galactic residuals is inpainted (5 per cent of the sky) to avoid the introduction of ringing around the Galactic centre in the filtering process.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask includes all the pixels above a given threshold in a smoothed version of the clean CMB map, the regions more contaminated by the CO emission and those pixels more affected by the high-pass filtering, leaving a useful sky fraction of approximately 80 per cent.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
<br />
A) Production of the intensity map.<br />
<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: Before computing spherical harmonic coefficients, all input maps undergo a pre-processing step to deal with regions of very strong emission (such as the Galactic center) and point sources. The point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue are fitted in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole is filled in by a simple diffusive process to ensure a smooth transition and mitigate spectral leakage. The diffusive inpainting process is also applied to some regions of very strong emissions. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, here all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and filled-in similarly.<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHz are harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> and co-added with multipole-dependent weights as shown in the figure.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: A confidence mask is determined (see the Planck paper) and all regions which have been masked in the pre-processing step are added to it.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filter_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input intensity maps (after they are re-beamed to 5 arc-minutes and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), as a function of multipole.''']]--><br />
<br />
B) Production of the Q and U polarisation maps.<br />
<br />
The production of the Q and U maps is similar to the production of the intensity map. The SMICA pipeline uses all the 7 polarized Planck channels. After point source masking and diffusive inpainting, the E and B modes are computed and combined to produce E and B modes of the CMB map. Those combined modes are then used to synthesize the U and Q CMB maps. The E and B parts of the input frequency maps being processed jointly, there are, at each multipole, 2*7=14 coefficients (weights) defined to produce the E modes of the CMB map and as many to produce the B part. The weights are displayed in the figure below. The Q and U maps were originally produced at Nside=2048 with a 5-arc-minute resolution, but were downgraded to Nside=1024 with a 10 arc-minute resolution for this release.<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filterEB_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input E and B modes (after they are re-beamed to 5 arcmin and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), in order to produce the E and B modes of the CMB map. A given frequency channel is encoded in a given color. Solid lines are for E modes and dashed lines are for B modes. The thick lines are for the EE or BB weights; the thin lines are for the EB or BE weights. See the paper for more details.''']]--><br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. SMICA and SEVEM use all the maps between 30 and 857 GHz; NILC uses the ones between 44 and 857 GHz. Commander-Ruler uses frequency channel maps from 30 to 353 GHz. <br />
<br />
===File names and structure===<br />
The FITS files corresponding to the three CMB products are the following:<br />
<br />
''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}-field-{Int,Pol}_Nside_R2.nn.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''method'' is mica, nilc, sevem, or commander, and Int and Pol indicate whether the file contains the temperature (Int) or the polarisation (Pol) maps. For this release the temperature maps are provided at Nside = 2048, and the polarisation maps at Nside = 1024. <br />
<br />
The files contain <br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data;<br />
* one or two ''BINTABLE'' data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 14 columns in which the first 13 columns is a CMB maps produced from the full or a subset of the data, as described in the table below, and the last column in a confidence mask. There is a single extension for ''Int'' files, and two, for Q and U, for ''Pol'' files. <br />
* a ''BINTABLE'' extension containing the beam window function.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I or Q or U || Real*4 || uK_cmb || I or Q or U map <br />
|- <br />
|HM1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HM2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 2 <br />
|-<br />
|YR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 1 <br />
|-<br />
|YR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HMHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HMHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|YRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|YRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|HRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half diff <br />
|-<br />
|MASK || BYTE || || Confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (smica/nilc/sevem/commander)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Notes:<br />
# The beam window function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>.<br />
<br />
<!--- mi sembra che questa non serva più <br />
The low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler CMB product is organized in the following way:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK_cmb || CMB temperature map obtained as average over 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Corresponding Standard deviation amongst the 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Confidence mask<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. EXTNAME = ''CMB-Sample'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM01 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM02 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM03 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM04 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM05 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM06 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM07 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM08 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM09 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM10 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
<!---- anche queste non servono più <br />
<br />
The FITS files containing the ''union'' (or common) maks is:<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-union_2048_R1.10.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common}}<br />
which contains a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with a single column (named ''U73'') for the mask, which is boolean (FITS ''TFORM = B''), in GALACTIC coordinates, NESTED ordering, and Nside=2048.<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for a small file containing the SMICA cmb map with no additional information (noise or masks) we provide such a file here<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
This file contains a single extension with a single column containing the SMICA cmb temperature map.<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
== Astrophysical foregrounds from parametric component separation ==<br />
We describe diffuse foreground products for the Planck 2015 release. See the Planck Foregrounds Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}} for a detailed description of these products. Further scientific discussion and interpretation may be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a31}}.<br />
<br />
===Low-resolution temperature products===<br />
<br />
: The Planck 2015 astrophysical component separation analysis combines Planck observations with the 9-year WMAP temperature sky maps (Bennett et al. 2013) and the 408 MHz survey by Haslam et al. (1982). This allows a direct decomposition of the low-frequency foregrounds into separate synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust components without strong spatial priors. <br />
<br />
====Inputs====<br />
<br />
The following data products are used for the low-resolution analysis:<br />
* Full-mission 30 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=30|period=Full|link=LFI 30 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 44 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=44|period=Full|link=LFI 44 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 70 GHz ds1 (18+23), ds2 (19+22), and ds3 (20+21) detector-set maps<br />
* Full-mission 100 GHz ds1 and ds2 detector set maps<br />
* Full-mission 143 GHz ds1 and ds2 detector set maps and detectors 5, 6, and 7 maps<br />
* Full-mission 217 GHz detector 1, 2, 3 and 4 maps<br />
* Full-mission 353 GHz detector set ds2 and detector 1 maps<br />
* Full-mission 545 GHz detector 2 and 4 maps<br />
* Full-mission 857 GHz detector 2 map<br />
* Beam-symmetrized 9-year WMAP K-band map [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/skymap_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
* Beam-symmetrized 9-year WMAP Ka-band map [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/skymap_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
* Default 9-year WMAP Q1 and Q2 differencing assembly maps [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/skymap_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
* Default 9-year WMAP V1 and V2 differencing assembly maps [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/skymap_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
* Default 9-year WMAP W1, W2, W3, and W4 differencing assembly maps [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/skymap_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
* Re-processed 408 MHz survey map, Remazeilles et al. (2014) [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/foreground/2014_haslam_408_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
All maps are smoothed to a common resolution of 1 degree FWHM by deconvolving their original instrumental beam and pixel window, and convolving with the new common Gaussian beam, and repixelizing at Nside=256.<br />
<br />
====Outputs====<br />
<br />
=====Synchrotron emission=====<br />
<br />
<!--<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=800px heights=500px> <br />
File:commander_synch_amp.png | '''Commander low-resolution synchrotron amplitude'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center>--><br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: 408 MHz<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-Synchrotron<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Free-free emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: NA<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-freefree<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|EM_ML || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|EM_MEAN || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|EM_RMS || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_ML || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_MEAN || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_RMS || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Spinning dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The spinning dust component has two independent constituents, each corresponding to one spdust2 component, but with different peak frequencies. The two components are stored in the two first FITS extensions, and the template frequency spectrum is stored in the third extension. <br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 22.8 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-AME1<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_ML || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_MEAN || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_RMS || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 41.0 GHz<br />
: Peak frequency: 33.35 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- COMP-MAP-AME2<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 2 -- SPINNING-DUST-TEMP<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|nu || Real*4 || GHz || Frequency <br />
|-<br />
|j_nu/nH || Real*4 || Jy sr-1 cm2/H || spdust2 spectrum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====CO line emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CO-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CO-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The CO line emission component has three independent objects, corresponding to the J1->0, 2->1 and 3->2 lines, stored in separate extensions. <br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-co10<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- COMP-MAP-co21<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 2 -- COMP-MAP-co32<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====94/100 GHz line emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_xline-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_xline-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-xline<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Note: The amplitude of this component is normalized according to the 100-ds1 detector set map, ie., it is the amplitude as measured by this detector combination.<br />
<br />
=====Thermal dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_dust-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_dust-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 545 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-dust<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_ML || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_MEAN || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_RMS || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_MEAN || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_RMS || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====Thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich emission around the Coma and Virgo clusters=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_SZ-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_SZ-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-SZ<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Y_ML || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Y_MEAN || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|Y_RMS || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===High-resolution temperature products===<br />
<br />
High-resolution foreground products at 7.5 arcmin FWHM are derived with the same algorithm as for the low-resolution analyses, but including frequency channels above (and including) 143 GHz. <br />
<br />
====Inputs====<br />
<br />
The following data products are used for the low-resolution analysis:<br />
* Full-mission 143 GHz ds1 and ds2 detector set maps and detectors 5, 6, and 7 maps<br />
* Full-mission 217 GHz detector 1, 2, 3 and 4 maps<br />
* Full-mission 353 GHz detector set ds2 and detector 1 maps<br />
* Full-mission 545 GHz detector 2 and 4 maps<br />
* Full-mission 857 GHz detector 2 map<br />
All maps are smoothed to a common resolution of 7.5 arcmin FWHM by deconvolving their original instrumental beam and pixel window, and convolving with the new common Gaussian beam, and repixelizing at Nside=2048.<br />
<br />
====Outputs====<br />
<br />
=====CO J2->1 emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CO21-commander_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CO21-commander_2048_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 7.5 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-CO21<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_FULL || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Full-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "First year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "Second year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Thermal dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_ThermalDust-commander_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_ThermalDust-commander_2048_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 7.5 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 545 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-dust<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_FULL || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Full-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "First year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "Second year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_FULL || Real*4 || NA || Full-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || NA || First half-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || NA || Second half-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || NA || First half-ring emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || NA || Second half-ring emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || NA || "First year" emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || NA || "Second year" emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Polarization products===<br />
<br />
Two polarization foreground products are provided, namely synchrotron and thermal dust emission. The spectral models are assumed identical to the corresponding temperature spectral models.<br />
<br />
====Inputs====<br />
<br />
The following data products are used for the low-resolution analysis:<br />
* Full-mission 30 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=30|period=Full|link=LFI 30 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 44 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=44|period=Full|link=LFI 44 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 70 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=70|period=Full|link=LFI 70 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 100 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=100|period=Full|link=HFI 100 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 143 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=143|period=Full|link=HFI 143 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 217 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=217|period=Full|link=HFI 217 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 353 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=353|period=Full|link=HFI 353 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
All maps are smoothed to a common resolution of 40 arcmin FWHM by deconvolving their original instrumental beam and pixel window, and convolving with the new common Gaussian beam, and repixelizing at Nside=1024.<br />
<br />
====Outputs====<br />
=====Synchrotron emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_SynchrotronPol-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_SynchrotronPol-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 40 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 30 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-SynchrotronPol<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_FULL || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Full-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_FULL || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Full-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "First year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "First year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "Second year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "Second year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Thermal dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_DustPol-commander_1024_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_DustPol-commander_1024_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 1024<br />
: Angular resolution = 10 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 353 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-DustPol<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_FULL || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Full-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_FULL || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Full-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "First year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "First year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "Second year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "Second year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|007]]</div>Heriksenhttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=CMB_and_astrophysical_component_maps&diff=10827CMB and astrophysical component maps2015-02-01T12:15:25Z<p>Heriksen: /* High-resolution temperature products */</p>
<hr />
<div>== Overview ==<br />
This section describes the maps of astrophysical components produced from the Planck data. These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps described above using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of the product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITS file containing the data and associated information.<br />
All the details can be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
==CMB maps==<br />
CMB maps have been produced by the COMMANDER, NILC, SEVEM, and SMICA pipelines, which are described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation | CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and references therein.. For each pipeline we provide:<br />
* Full-mission CMB intensity map, confidence mask and beam transfer function.<br />
* Full-mission high-pass filtered CMB polarisation map, <br />
* A confidence mask.<br />
* A beam transfer function.<br />
In addition, and for characterisation purposes, there are six other sets of maps from three data splits: first/second half-ring, odd/even years and first/second half-mission. And for each of these data splits we provide half-sum and half-difference maps. The half-difference maps can be used to provide an approximate noise estimate for the full mission, but they should be used with caution. Each split has caveats in this regard: there are noise correlations between the half-ring maps, and missing pixels in the other splits. The Intensity maps are provided at Nside = 2048, at 5 arcmin resolution, while the Polarisation ones are provided at Nside = 1024 at 10 arcmin resolution. All maps are in units of K<sub>cmb</sub>.<br />
<br />
These maps can be found in the files <br />
* ''COM_CMB_IQU-{pipeline}-field-{Int/Pol}_Nside_R2.00.fits''. <br />
The ''Int'' files have two extensions, for the Intensity maps and the beam transfer function, the ''Pol'' files have three extensions, for Q and U maps, and for the beam transfer function.<br />
For a complete description of the data structure, see the [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
The gallery below shows the Intensity, noise from half-mission, half-difference, and confidence mask for the four pipelines, in the order SMICA, SEVEM, NILC and COMMANDER, from top to bottom. The Intensity maps scale is [–500.+500] μK, and the noise are between [–25,+25] μK. We do not show the Q and U maps since they have no significant visible structure to contemplate.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=300px heights=180> <br />
File:CMB_commander_tsig.png | '''commander temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tnoi.png | '''commander noise'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tmask.png | '''commander mask'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tsig.png | '''nilc temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tnoi.png | '''nilc noise'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tmask.png | '''nilc mask'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tsig.png | '''sevem temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tnoi.png | '''sevem noise'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tmask.png | '''sevem mask'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tsig.png | '''smica temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tnoi.png | '''smica noise'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tmask.png | '''smica mask'''</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
===Product description ===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: COMMANDER is a Planck software code implementing pixel based Bayesian parametric component separation. Each astrophysical signal component is modelled in terms of a small number of free parameters per pixel, typically in terms of an amplitude at a given reference frequency and a small set of spectral parameters, and these are fitted to the data with an MCMC Gibbs sampling algorithm. Instrumental parameters, including calibration, bandpass corrections, monopole and dipoles, are fitted jointly with the astrophysical components. A new feature in the Planck 2015 analysis is that the astrophysical model is derived from a combination of Planck, WMAP and a 408 MHz (Haslam et al. 1982) survey, providing sufficient frequency support to resolve the low-frequency components into synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust. For full details, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The Commander sky maps have different angular resolutions depending on data products:<br />
* The components of the full astrophysical sky model derived from the complete data combination (Planck, WMAP, 408 MHz) have a 1 degree FWHM resolution, and are pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=256. The corresponding CMB map defines the input map for the low-l Planck 2015 temperature likelihood. <br />
* The Commander CMB temperature map derived from Planck-only observations have an angular resolution of ~5 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=2048. This map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-857 GHz data), 7.5 arcmin (using 143-857 GHz data), and 5 arcmin (using 217-857 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
* The Commander CMB polarization map has an angular resolution of 10 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=1024. As for the temperature case, this map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-353 GHz data) and 10 arcmin (using 100-353 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The Commander confidence masks are produced by thresholding the chi-square map characterizing the global fits, combined with direct CO amplitude thresholding to eliminate known leakage effects. In addition, we exclude the 9-year WMAP point source mask in the temperature mask. For full details, see Sections 5 and 6 in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}. A total of 81% of the sky is admitted for high-resolution temperature analysis, and 83% for polarization analysis. For low-resolution temperature analysis, for which the additional WMAP and 408 MHz observations improve foreground constraints, a total of 93% of the sky is admitted. <br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: The Needlet-ILC (hereafter NILC) CMB map is constructed both in total intensity as well as polarization, Q and U Stokes parameters. For total intensity, all Planck frequency channels are included. For polarization, all polarization sensitive frequency channels are included, from 30 to 353 GHz. The solution, for T, Q and U is obtained by applying the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) technique in needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range. <br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The spectral analysis, and estimation of the NILC coefficients, is performed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math>. The effective beam is equivalent of a Gaussian circular beam with FWHM=5 arcminutes. <br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The same procedure is followed by SMICA and NILC for producing confidence masks, though with different parametrizations. A low resolution smoothed version of the NILC map, noise subtracted, is thresholded to 73.5 squared micro-K for T, and 6,75 squared micro-K for Q and U.<br />
<br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
:SEVEM produces clean CMB maps at several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting in real space. The templates are typically constructed from the lowest and highest Planck frequencies and then subtracted from the CMB-dominated channels, with coefficients that are chosen to minimize the variance of the clean map outside a considered mask. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. Two single frequency clean maps are then combined to obtain the final CMB map.<br />
<br />
;Resolution<br />
<br />
:For intensity the clean CMB map is constructed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math> at Nside=2048 and at the standard resolution of 5 arcminutes (Gaussian beam).<br />
:For polarization the clean CMB map is produced at Nside=1024 with a resolution of 10 arcminutes (Gaussian beam) and a maximum <math>\ell=3071</math>.<br />
<br />
;Confidence masks<br />
<br />
:The confidence masks cover the most contaminated regions of the sky, leaving approximately 85 per cent of useful sky for intensity and 80 per cent for polarization.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces CMBs map by linearly combining all Planck input channels with multipole-dependent weights. It includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>. Temperature and polarization maps are produced independently.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA intensity map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes which is truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math> and is '''not''' deconvolved from the pixel window function. Thus the delivered beam window function is the product of a Gaussian beam at 5 arcminutes and the pixel window function for Nside=2048.<br />
: The SMICA Q and U maps are obtained similarly but are produced at Nside=1024 with an effective beam of 10 arc-minutes (to be multiplied by the pixel window function, as for the intensity map).<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. See section below detailing the production process.<br />
<br />
===Production process===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky maps are first convolved to a common resolution that is larger than the largest beam of any frequency channel. For the combined Planck, WMAP and 408 MHz temperature analysis, the common resolution is 1 degree FWHM; for the Planck-only all-frequency analysis it is 40 arcmin FWHM; and for the intermediate-resolution analysis it is 7.5 arcmin; while for the full-resolution analysis, we assume all frequencies between 217 and 857 GHz have a common resolution, and no additional convolution is performed. For polarization, only two smoothing scales are employed, 40 and 10 arcmin, respectively. The instrumental noise rms maps are convolved correspondingly, properly accouting for their matrix-like nature. <br />
<br />
; Priors<br />
<br />
: The following priors are enforced in the Commander analysis:<br />
* All foreground amplitudes are enforced to be positive definite in the low-resolution analysis, while no amplitude priors are enforced in the high-resolution analyses<br />
* Monopoles and dipoles are fixed to nominal values for a small set of reference frequencies<br />
* Gaussian priors are enforced on spectral parameters, with values informed by the values derived in the high signal-to-noise areas of the sky<br />
* The Jeffreys ignorance prior is enforced on spectral parameters in addition to the informative Gaussian priors<br />
<br />
; Fitting procedure<br />
<br />
: Given data and priors, Commander either maximizes, or samples from, the Bayesian posterior, P(theta|data). Because this is a highly non-Gaussian and correlated distribution, involving millions of parameters, these operations are performed by means of the Gibbs sampling algorithm, in which joint samples from the full distributions are generated by iteratively sampling from the corresponding conditional posterior distributions, P(theta_i| data, theta_{j/=i}). For the low-resolution analysis, all parameters are optimized jointly, while in the high-resolution analyses, which employs fewer frequency channels, low signal-to-noise parameters are fixed to those derived at low resolution. Examples of such parameters include monopoles and dipoles, calibration and bandpass parameters, thermal dust temperature etc.<br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky frequency maps are deconvolved using the DPC beam transfer function provided, and re-convolved with a 5 arcminutes FWHM circular Gaussian beam. In polarization, prior to the smoothing process, all sky E and B maps are derived from Q and U using standard HEALPix tools from each individual frequency channels <br />
<br />
; Linear combination<br />
<br />
: Pre-processed input frequency maps are decomposed in needlet coefficients, specified in the Appendix B of the Planck A11 paper, with shape given by Table B.1. Minimum variance coefficients are then obtained, using all channels for T, from 30 to 353 for E and B. <br />
<br />
; Post-processing<br />
<br />
: E and B maps are re-combined into Q and U products using standard HEALPix tools. <br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
<br />
The templates used in the SEVEM pipeline are typically constructed by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMB map at that frequency. This is done in real space at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. The <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. Note that the same expression applies for I, Q and U. Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of clean maps at different frequencies is of great interest in order to test the robustness of the results. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned independently and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
;Intensity<br />
<br />
For the CMB intensity map, we have cleaned the 100 GHz, 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps using a total of four templates. Three of them are constructed as the difference of two consecutive Planck channels smoothed to a common resolution (30-44, 44-70 and 545-353) while the 857 GHz channel is chosen as the fourth template. First of all, the six frequency channels which are going to be part of the templates are inpainted at the point source positions detected using the Mexican Hat Wavelet algorithm. The size of the holes to be inpainted is determined taking into account the beam size of the channel as well as the flux of each source. The inpainting algorithm is based on simple diffuse inpainting, which fills one pixel with the mean value of the neighbouring pixels in an iterative way. To avoid inconsistencies when subtracting two channels, each frequency map is inpainted on the sources detected in that map and on the second map (if any) used to construct the template. Then the maps are smoothed to a common resolution (the first channel in the subtraction is smoothed with the beam of the second map and viceversa). For the 857 GHz template, we simply filter the inpainted map with the 545 GHz beam.<br />
<br />
The coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance outside the analysis mask, that covers the 1 per cent brightest emission of the sky as well as point sources detected at all frequency channels. Once the maps are cleaned, each of them is inpainted on the point sources positions detected at that (raw) channel. Then, the MHW algorithm is run again, now on the clean maps. A relatively small number of new sources are found and are also inpainted at each channel. The resolution of the clean map is the same as that of the original data. Our final CMB map is then constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask is produced by studying the differences between several SEVEM CMB reconstructions, which correspond to maps cleaned at different frequencies or using different analysis masks. The obtained mask leaves a useful sky fraction of approximately 85 per cent.<br />
<br />
;Polarization<br />
<br />
<br />
To clean the polarization maps, a procedure similar to the one used for intensity data is applied to the $Q$ and $U$ maps independently. However, given that a narrower frequency coverage is available for polarization, the selected templates and maps to be cleaned are different. In particular, we clean the 70, 100 and 143 GHz using three templates for each channel. The first step of the pipeline is to inpaint the positions of the point sources using the MHW, in those channels which are going to be used in the construction of templates, following the same procedure as for the intensity case. The inpainting is performed in the frequency maps at their native resolution. These inpainted maps are then used to construct a total of four templates. To trace the synchrotron emission, we construct a template as the subtraction of the 30 GHz minus the 44 GHz <br />
map, after being convolved with the beam of each other. For the dust emission, the following templates are considered: 353--217 GHz (smoothed at 10$'$ resolution), 217--143 GHz (used <br />
to clean 70 and 100 GHz) and 217--100 GHz (to clean 143 GHz). These two last templates are constructed at 1 degree resolution since an additional smoothing becomes necessary in<br />
order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the template. Conversely to the <br />
intensity case and due to the lower availability of frequency channels, it becomes necessary to use the maps to be cleaned as part of one of the templates. In this way, the 100 GHz <br />
map is used to clean the 143 GHz frequency channel and viceversa, making the clean maps less independent between them than in the intensity case.<br />
<br />
These templates are then used to clean the non-inpainted 70 (at its native resolution), 100 (at 10$'$ resolution) and 143 GHz maps (also at 10$'$). The corresponding linear coefficients are estimated independently for $Q$ and $U$ by minimising the variance of the clean maps outside a mask, that covers point sources and the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission. Once the maps have been cleaned, inpainting of the point sources detected at the corresponding raw maps is carried out. The size of the holes to be inpainted takes<br />
into account the additional smoothing of the 100 and 143 GHz maps. The 100 and 143 GHz clean maps are then combined in harmonic space, using $E$ and $B$ decomposition, to produce the final CMB maps for the $Q$ and $U$ components at a resolution of 10$'$ (Gaussian beam) for a HEALPix parameter Nside=1024. Each map is weighted taking into account its <br />
corresponding noise level at each multipole. Finally, before applying the post-processing HPF to the clean polarization data, the region with the brightest Galactic residuals is inpainted (5 per cent of the sky) to avoid the introduction of ringing around the Galactic centre in the filtering process.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask includes all the pixels above a given threshold in a smoothed version of the clean CMB map, the regions more contaminated by the CO emission and those pixels more affected by the high-pass filtering, leaving a useful sky fraction of approximately 80 per cent.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
<br />
A) Production of the intensity map.<br />
<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: Before computing spherical harmonic coefficients, all input maps undergo a pre-processing step to deal with regions of very strong emission (such as the Galactic center) and point sources. The point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue are fitted in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole is filled in by a simple diffusive process to ensure a smooth transition and mitigate spectral leakage. The diffusive inpainting process is also applied to some regions of very strong emissions. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, here all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and filled-in similarly.<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHz are harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> and co-added with multipole-dependent weights as shown in the figure.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: A confidence mask is determined (see the Planck paper) and all regions which have been masked in the pre-processing step are added to it.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filter_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input intensity maps (after they are re-beamed to 5 arc-minutes and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), as a function of multipole.''']]--><br />
<br />
B) Production of the Q and U polarisation maps.<br />
<br />
The production of the Q and U maps is similar to the production of the intensity map. The SMICA pipeline uses all the 7 polarized Planck channels. After point source masking and diffusive inpainting, the E and B modes are computed and combined to produce E and B modes of the CMB map. Those combined modes are then used to synthesize the U and Q CMB maps. The E and B parts of the input frequency maps being processed jointly, there are, at each multipole, 2*7=14 coefficients (weights) defined to produce the E modes of the CMB map and as many to produce the B part. The weights are displayed in the figure below. The Q and U maps were originally produced at Nside=2048 with a 5-arc-minute resolution, but were downgraded to Nside=1024 with a 10 arc-minute resolution for this release.<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filterEB_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input E and B modes (after they are re-beamed to 5 arcmin and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), in order to produce the E and B modes of the CMB map. A given frequency channel is encoded in a given color. Solid lines are for E modes and dashed lines are for B modes. The thick lines are for the EE or BB weights; the thin lines are for the EB or BE weights. See the paper for more details.''']]--><br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. SMICA and SEVEM use all the maps between 30 and 857 GHz; NILC uses the ones between 44 and 857 GHz. Commander-Ruler uses frequency channel maps from 30 to 353 GHz. <br />
<br />
===File names and structure===<br />
The FITS files corresponding to the three CMB products are the following:<br />
<br />
''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}-field-{Int,Pol}_Nside_R2.nn.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''method'' is mica, nilc, sevem, or commander, and Int and Pol indicate whether the file contains the temperature (Int) or the polarisation (Pol) maps. For this release the temperature maps are provided at Nside = 2048, and the polarisation maps at Nside = 1024. <br />
<br />
The files contain <br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data;<br />
* one or two ''BINTABLE'' data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 14 columns in which the first 13 columns is a CMB maps produced from the full or a subset of the data, as described in the table below, and the last column in a confidence mask. There is a single extension for ''Int'' files, and two, for Q and U, for ''Pol'' files. <br />
* a ''BINTABLE'' extension containing the beam window function.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I or Q or U || Real*4 || uK_cmb || I or Q or U map <br />
|- <br />
|HM1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HM2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 2 <br />
|-<br />
|YR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 1 <br />
|-<br />
|YR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HMHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HMHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|YRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|YRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|HRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half diff <br />
|-<br />
|MASK || BYTE || || Confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (smica/nilc/sevem/commander)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Notes:<br />
# The beam window function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>.<br />
<br />
<!--- mi sembra che questa non serva più <br />
The low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler CMB product is organized in the following way:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK_cmb || CMB temperature map obtained as average over 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Corresponding Standard deviation amongst the 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Confidence mask<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. EXTNAME = ''CMB-Sample'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM01 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM02 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM03 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM04 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM05 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM06 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM07 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM08 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM09 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM10 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
<!---- anche queste non servono più <br />
<br />
The FITS files containing the ''union'' (or common) maks is:<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-union_2048_R1.10.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common}}<br />
which contains a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with a single column (named ''U73'') for the mask, which is boolean (FITS ''TFORM = B''), in GALACTIC coordinates, NESTED ordering, and Nside=2048.<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for a small file containing the SMICA cmb map with no additional information (noise or masks) we provide such a file here<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
This file contains a single extension with a single column containing the SMICA cmb temperature map.<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
== Astrophysical foregrounds from parametric component separation ==<br />
We describe diffuse foreground products for the Planck 2015 release. See the Planck Foregrounds Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}} for a detailed description of these products. Further scientific discussion and interpretation may be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a31}}.<br />
<br />
===Low-resolution temperature products===<br />
<br />
: The Planck 2015 astrophysical component separation analysis combines Planck observations with the 9-year WMAP temperature sky maps (Bennett et al. 2013) and the 408 MHz survey by Haslam et al. (1982). This allows a direct decomposition of the low-frequency foregrounds into separate synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust components without strong spatial priors. <br />
<br />
====Inputs====<br />
<br />
The following data products are used for the low-resolution analysis:<br />
* Full-mission 30 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=30|period=Full|link=LFI 30 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 44 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=44|period=Full|link=LFI 44 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 70 GHz ds1 (18+23), ds2 (19+22), and ds3 (20+21) detector-set maps<br />
* Full-mission 100 GHz ds1 and ds2 detector set maps<br />
* Full-mission 143 GHz ds1 and ds2 detector set maps and detectors 5, 6, and 7 maps<br />
* Full-mission 217 GHz detector 1, 2, 3 and 4 maps<br />
* Full-mission 353 GHz detector set ds2 and detector 1 maps<br />
* Full-mission 545 GHz detector 2 and 4 maps<br />
* Full-mission 857 GHz detector 2 map<br />
* Beam-symmetrized 9-year WMAP K-band map [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/skymap_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
* Beam-symmetrized 9-year WMAP Ka-band map [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/skymap_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
* Default 9-year WMAP Q1 and Q2 differencing assembly maps [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/skymap_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
* Default 9-year WMAP V1 and V2 differencing assembly maps [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/skymap_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
* Default 9-year WMAP W1, W2, W3, and W4 differencing assembly maps [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/skymap_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
* Re-processed 408 MHz survey map, Remazeilles et al. (2014) [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/foreground/2014_haslam_408_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
All maps are smoothed to a common resolution of 1 degree FWHM by deconvolving their original instrumental beam and pixel window, and convolving with the new common Gaussian beam, and repixelizing at Nside=256.<br />
<br />
====Outputs====<br />
<br />
=====Synchrotron emission=====<br />
<br />
<!--<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=800px heights=500px> <br />
File:commander_synch_amp.png | '''Commander low-resolution synchrotron amplitude'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center>--><br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: 408 MHz<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-Synchrotron<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Free-free emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: NA<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-freefree<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|EM_ML || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|EM_MEAN || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|EM_RMS || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_ML || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_MEAN || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_RMS || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Spinning dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The spinning dust component has two independent constituents, each corresponding to one spdust2 component, but with different peak frequencies. The two components are stored in the two first FITS extensions, and the template frequency spectrum is stored in the third extension. <br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 22.8 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-AME1<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_ML || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_MEAN || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_RMS || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 41.0 GHz<br />
: Peak frequency: 33.35 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- COMP-MAP-AME2<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 2 -- SPINNING-DUST-TEMP<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|nu || Real*4 || GHz || Frequency <br />
|-<br />
|j_nu/nH || Real*4 || Jy sr-1 cm2/H || spdust2 spectrum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====CO line emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CO-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CO-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The CO line emission component has three independent objects, corresponding to the J1->0, 2->1 and 3->2 lines, stored in separate extensions. <br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-co10<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- COMP-MAP-co21<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 2 -- COMP-MAP-co32<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====94/100 GHz line emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_xline-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_xline-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-xline<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Note: The amplitude of this component is normalized according to the 100-ds1 detector set map, ie., it is the amplitude as measured by this detector combination.<br />
<br />
=====Thermal dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_dust-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_dust-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 545 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-dust<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_ML || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_MEAN || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_RMS || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_MEAN || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_RMS || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====Thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich emission around the Coma and Virgo clusters=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_SZ-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_SZ-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-SZ<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Y_ML || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Y_MEAN || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|Y_RMS || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===High-resolution temperature products===<br />
<br />
High-resolution foreground products at 7.5 arcmin FWHM are derived with the same algorithm as for the low-resolution analyses, but including frequency channels above (and including) 143 GHz. <br />
<br />
====Inputs====<br />
<br />
The following data products are used for the low-resolution analysis:<br />
* Full-mission 143 GHz ds1 and ds2 detector set maps and detectors 5, 6, and 7 maps<br />
* Full-mission 217 GHz detector 1, 2, 3 and 4 maps<br />
* Full-mission 353 GHz detector set ds2 and detector 1 maps<br />
* Full-mission 545 GHz detector 2 and 4 maps<br />
* Full-mission 857 GHz detector 2 map<br />
All maps are smoothed to a common resolution of 7.5 arcmin FWHM by deconvolving their original instrumental beam and pixel window, and convolving with the new common Gaussian beam, and repixelizing at Nside=2048.<br />
<br />
====Outputs====<br />
<br />
=====CO J2->1 emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CO21-commander_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CO21-commander_2048_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 7.5 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-CO21<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_FULL || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Full-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "First year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "Second year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Thermal dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_ThermalDust-commander_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_ThermalDust-commander_2048_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 7.5 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 545 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-dust<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_FULL || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Full-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "First year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "Second year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_FULL || Real*4 || NA || Full-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || NA || First half-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || NA || Second half-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || NA || First half-ring emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || NA || Second half-ring emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || NA || "First year" emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || NA || "Second year" emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Polarization products===<br />
<br />
Two polarization foreground products are provided, namely synchrotron and thermal dust emission. The spectral models are assumed identical to the corresponding temperature spectral models.<br />
<br />
====Synchrotron emission====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_SynchrotronPol-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_SynchrotronPol-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 40 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 30 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-SynchrotronPol<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_FULL || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Full-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_FULL || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Full-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "First year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "First year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "Second year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "Second year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
====Thermal dust emission====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_DustPol-commander_1024_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_DustPol-commander_1024_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 1024<br />
: Angular resolution = 10 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 353 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-DustPol<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_FULL || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Full-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_FULL || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Full-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "First year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "First year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "Second year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "Second year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|007]]</div>Heriksenhttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=CMB_and_astrophysical_component_maps&diff=10826CMB and astrophysical component maps2015-02-01T12:13:41Z<p>Heriksen: /* Low-resolution temperature products */</p>
<hr />
<div>== Overview ==<br />
This section describes the maps of astrophysical components produced from the Planck data. These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps described above using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of the product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITS file containing the data and associated information.<br />
All the details can be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
==CMB maps==<br />
CMB maps have been produced by the COMMANDER, NILC, SEVEM, and SMICA pipelines, which are described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation | CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and references therein.. For each pipeline we provide:<br />
* Full-mission CMB intensity map, confidence mask and beam transfer function.<br />
* Full-mission high-pass filtered CMB polarisation map, <br />
* A confidence mask.<br />
* A beam transfer function.<br />
In addition, and for characterisation purposes, there are six other sets of maps from three data splits: first/second half-ring, odd/even years and first/second half-mission. And for each of these data splits we provide half-sum and half-difference maps. The half-difference maps can be used to provide an approximate noise estimate for the full mission, but they should be used with caution. Each split has caveats in this regard: there are noise correlations between the half-ring maps, and missing pixels in the other splits. The Intensity maps are provided at Nside = 2048, at 5 arcmin resolution, while the Polarisation ones are provided at Nside = 1024 at 10 arcmin resolution. All maps are in units of K<sub>cmb</sub>.<br />
<br />
These maps can be found in the files <br />
* ''COM_CMB_IQU-{pipeline}-field-{Int/Pol}_Nside_R2.00.fits''. <br />
The ''Int'' files have two extensions, for the Intensity maps and the beam transfer function, the ''Pol'' files have three extensions, for Q and U maps, and for the beam transfer function.<br />
For a complete description of the data structure, see the [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
The gallery below shows the Intensity, noise from half-mission, half-difference, and confidence mask for the four pipelines, in the order SMICA, SEVEM, NILC and COMMANDER, from top to bottom. The Intensity maps scale is [–500.+500] μK, and the noise are between [–25,+25] μK. We do not show the Q and U maps since they have no significant visible structure to contemplate.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=300px heights=180> <br />
File:CMB_commander_tsig.png | '''commander temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tnoi.png | '''commander noise'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tmask.png | '''commander mask'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tsig.png | '''nilc temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tnoi.png | '''nilc noise'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tmask.png | '''nilc mask'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tsig.png | '''sevem temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tnoi.png | '''sevem noise'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tmask.png | '''sevem mask'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tsig.png | '''smica temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tnoi.png | '''smica noise'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tmask.png | '''smica mask'''</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
===Product description ===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: COMMANDER is a Planck software code implementing pixel based Bayesian parametric component separation. Each astrophysical signal component is modelled in terms of a small number of free parameters per pixel, typically in terms of an amplitude at a given reference frequency and a small set of spectral parameters, and these are fitted to the data with an MCMC Gibbs sampling algorithm. Instrumental parameters, including calibration, bandpass corrections, monopole and dipoles, are fitted jointly with the astrophysical components. A new feature in the Planck 2015 analysis is that the astrophysical model is derived from a combination of Planck, WMAP and a 408 MHz (Haslam et al. 1982) survey, providing sufficient frequency support to resolve the low-frequency components into synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust. For full details, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The Commander sky maps have different angular resolutions depending on data products:<br />
* The components of the full astrophysical sky model derived from the complete data combination (Planck, WMAP, 408 MHz) have a 1 degree FWHM resolution, and are pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=256. The corresponding CMB map defines the input map for the low-l Planck 2015 temperature likelihood. <br />
* The Commander CMB temperature map derived from Planck-only observations have an angular resolution of ~5 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=2048. This map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-857 GHz data), 7.5 arcmin (using 143-857 GHz data), and 5 arcmin (using 217-857 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
* The Commander CMB polarization map has an angular resolution of 10 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=1024. As for the temperature case, this map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-353 GHz data) and 10 arcmin (using 100-353 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The Commander confidence masks are produced by thresholding the chi-square map characterizing the global fits, combined with direct CO amplitude thresholding to eliminate known leakage effects. In addition, we exclude the 9-year WMAP point source mask in the temperature mask. For full details, see Sections 5 and 6 in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}. A total of 81% of the sky is admitted for high-resolution temperature analysis, and 83% for polarization analysis. For low-resolution temperature analysis, for which the additional WMAP and 408 MHz observations improve foreground constraints, a total of 93% of the sky is admitted. <br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: The Needlet-ILC (hereafter NILC) CMB map is constructed both in total intensity as well as polarization, Q and U Stokes parameters. For total intensity, all Planck frequency channels are included. For polarization, all polarization sensitive frequency channels are included, from 30 to 353 GHz. The solution, for T, Q and U is obtained by applying the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) technique in needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range. <br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The spectral analysis, and estimation of the NILC coefficients, is performed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math>. The effective beam is equivalent of a Gaussian circular beam with FWHM=5 arcminutes. <br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The same procedure is followed by SMICA and NILC for producing confidence masks, though with different parametrizations. A low resolution smoothed version of the NILC map, noise subtracted, is thresholded to 73.5 squared micro-K for T, and 6,75 squared micro-K for Q and U.<br />
<br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
:SEVEM produces clean CMB maps at several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting in real space. The templates are typically constructed from the lowest and highest Planck frequencies and then subtracted from the CMB-dominated channels, with coefficients that are chosen to minimize the variance of the clean map outside a considered mask. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. Two single frequency clean maps are then combined to obtain the final CMB map.<br />
<br />
;Resolution<br />
<br />
:For intensity the clean CMB map is constructed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math> at Nside=2048 and at the standard resolution of 5 arcminutes (Gaussian beam).<br />
:For polarization the clean CMB map is produced at Nside=1024 with a resolution of 10 arcminutes (Gaussian beam) and a maximum <math>\ell=3071</math>.<br />
<br />
;Confidence masks<br />
<br />
:The confidence masks cover the most contaminated regions of the sky, leaving approximately 85 per cent of useful sky for intensity and 80 per cent for polarization.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces CMBs map by linearly combining all Planck input channels with multipole-dependent weights. It includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>. Temperature and polarization maps are produced independently.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA intensity map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes which is truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math> and is '''not''' deconvolved from the pixel window function. Thus the delivered beam window function is the product of a Gaussian beam at 5 arcminutes and the pixel window function for Nside=2048.<br />
: The SMICA Q and U maps are obtained similarly but are produced at Nside=1024 with an effective beam of 10 arc-minutes (to be multiplied by the pixel window function, as for the intensity map).<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. See section below detailing the production process.<br />
<br />
===Production process===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky maps are first convolved to a common resolution that is larger than the largest beam of any frequency channel. For the combined Planck, WMAP and 408 MHz temperature analysis, the common resolution is 1 degree FWHM; for the Planck-only all-frequency analysis it is 40 arcmin FWHM; and for the intermediate-resolution analysis it is 7.5 arcmin; while for the full-resolution analysis, we assume all frequencies between 217 and 857 GHz have a common resolution, and no additional convolution is performed. For polarization, only two smoothing scales are employed, 40 and 10 arcmin, respectively. The instrumental noise rms maps are convolved correspondingly, properly accouting for their matrix-like nature. <br />
<br />
; Priors<br />
<br />
: The following priors are enforced in the Commander analysis:<br />
* All foreground amplitudes are enforced to be positive definite in the low-resolution analysis, while no amplitude priors are enforced in the high-resolution analyses<br />
* Monopoles and dipoles are fixed to nominal values for a small set of reference frequencies<br />
* Gaussian priors are enforced on spectral parameters, with values informed by the values derived in the high signal-to-noise areas of the sky<br />
* The Jeffreys ignorance prior is enforced on spectral parameters in addition to the informative Gaussian priors<br />
<br />
; Fitting procedure<br />
<br />
: Given data and priors, Commander either maximizes, or samples from, the Bayesian posterior, P(theta|data). Because this is a highly non-Gaussian and correlated distribution, involving millions of parameters, these operations are performed by means of the Gibbs sampling algorithm, in which joint samples from the full distributions are generated by iteratively sampling from the corresponding conditional posterior distributions, P(theta_i| data, theta_{j/=i}). For the low-resolution analysis, all parameters are optimized jointly, while in the high-resolution analyses, which employs fewer frequency channels, low signal-to-noise parameters are fixed to those derived at low resolution. Examples of such parameters include monopoles and dipoles, calibration and bandpass parameters, thermal dust temperature etc.<br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky frequency maps are deconvolved using the DPC beam transfer function provided, and re-convolved with a 5 arcminutes FWHM circular Gaussian beam. In polarization, prior to the smoothing process, all sky E and B maps are derived from Q and U using standard HEALPix tools from each individual frequency channels <br />
<br />
; Linear combination<br />
<br />
: Pre-processed input frequency maps are decomposed in needlet coefficients, specified in the Appendix B of the Planck A11 paper, with shape given by Table B.1. Minimum variance coefficients are then obtained, using all channels for T, from 30 to 353 for E and B. <br />
<br />
; Post-processing<br />
<br />
: E and B maps are re-combined into Q and U products using standard HEALPix tools. <br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
<br />
The templates used in the SEVEM pipeline are typically constructed by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMB map at that frequency. This is done in real space at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. The <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. Note that the same expression applies for I, Q and U. Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of clean maps at different frequencies is of great interest in order to test the robustness of the results. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned independently and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
;Intensity<br />
<br />
For the CMB intensity map, we have cleaned the 100 GHz, 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps using a total of four templates. Three of them are constructed as the difference of two consecutive Planck channels smoothed to a common resolution (30-44, 44-70 and 545-353) while the 857 GHz channel is chosen as the fourth template. First of all, the six frequency channels which are going to be part of the templates are inpainted at the point source positions detected using the Mexican Hat Wavelet algorithm. The size of the holes to be inpainted is determined taking into account the beam size of the channel as well as the flux of each source. The inpainting algorithm is based on simple diffuse inpainting, which fills one pixel with the mean value of the neighbouring pixels in an iterative way. To avoid inconsistencies when subtracting two channels, each frequency map is inpainted on the sources detected in that map and on the second map (if any) used to construct the template. Then the maps are smoothed to a common resolution (the first channel in the subtraction is smoothed with the beam of the second map and viceversa). For the 857 GHz template, we simply filter the inpainted map with the 545 GHz beam.<br />
<br />
The coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance outside the analysis mask, that covers the 1 per cent brightest emission of the sky as well as point sources detected at all frequency channels. Once the maps are cleaned, each of them is inpainted on the point sources positions detected at that (raw) channel. Then, the MHW algorithm is run again, now on the clean maps. A relatively small number of new sources are found and are also inpainted at each channel. The resolution of the clean map is the same as that of the original data. Our final CMB map is then constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask is produced by studying the differences between several SEVEM CMB reconstructions, which correspond to maps cleaned at different frequencies or using different analysis masks. The obtained mask leaves a useful sky fraction of approximately 85 per cent.<br />
<br />
;Polarization<br />
<br />
<br />
To clean the polarization maps, a procedure similar to the one used for intensity data is applied to the $Q$ and $U$ maps independently. However, given that a narrower frequency coverage is available for polarization, the selected templates and maps to be cleaned are different. In particular, we clean the 70, 100 and 143 GHz using three templates for each channel. The first step of the pipeline is to inpaint the positions of the point sources using the MHW, in those channels which are going to be used in the construction of templates, following the same procedure as for the intensity case. The inpainting is performed in the frequency maps at their native resolution. These inpainted maps are then used to construct a total of four templates. To trace the synchrotron emission, we construct a template as the subtraction of the 30 GHz minus the 44 GHz <br />
map, after being convolved with the beam of each other. For the dust emission, the following templates are considered: 353--217 GHz (smoothed at 10$'$ resolution), 217--143 GHz (used <br />
to clean 70 and 100 GHz) and 217--100 GHz (to clean 143 GHz). These two last templates are constructed at 1 degree resolution since an additional smoothing becomes necessary in<br />
order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the template. Conversely to the <br />
intensity case and due to the lower availability of frequency channels, it becomes necessary to use the maps to be cleaned as part of one of the templates. In this way, the 100 GHz <br />
map is used to clean the 143 GHz frequency channel and viceversa, making the clean maps less independent between them than in the intensity case.<br />
<br />
These templates are then used to clean the non-inpainted 70 (at its native resolution), 100 (at 10$'$ resolution) and 143 GHz maps (also at 10$'$). The corresponding linear coefficients are estimated independently for $Q$ and $U$ by minimising the variance of the clean maps outside a mask, that covers point sources and the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission. Once the maps have been cleaned, inpainting of the point sources detected at the corresponding raw maps is carried out. The size of the holes to be inpainted takes<br />
into account the additional smoothing of the 100 and 143 GHz maps. The 100 and 143 GHz clean maps are then combined in harmonic space, using $E$ and $B$ decomposition, to produce the final CMB maps for the $Q$ and $U$ components at a resolution of 10$'$ (Gaussian beam) for a HEALPix parameter Nside=1024. Each map is weighted taking into account its <br />
corresponding noise level at each multipole. Finally, before applying the post-processing HPF to the clean polarization data, the region with the brightest Galactic residuals is inpainted (5 per cent of the sky) to avoid the introduction of ringing around the Galactic centre in the filtering process.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask includes all the pixels above a given threshold in a smoothed version of the clean CMB map, the regions more contaminated by the CO emission and those pixels more affected by the high-pass filtering, leaving a useful sky fraction of approximately 80 per cent.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
<br />
A) Production of the intensity map.<br />
<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: Before computing spherical harmonic coefficients, all input maps undergo a pre-processing step to deal with regions of very strong emission (such as the Galactic center) and point sources. The point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue are fitted in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole is filled in by a simple diffusive process to ensure a smooth transition and mitigate spectral leakage. The diffusive inpainting process is also applied to some regions of very strong emissions. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, here all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and filled-in similarly.<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHz are harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> and co-added with multipole-dependent weights as shown in the figure.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: A confidence mask is determined (see the Planck paper) and all regions which have been masked in the pre-processing step are added to it.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filter_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input intensity maps (after they are re-beamed to 5 arc-minutes and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), as a function of multipole.''']]--><br />
<br />
B) Production of the Q and U polarisation maps.<br />
<br />
The production of the Q and U maps is similar to the production of the intensity map. The SMICA pipeline uses all the 7 polarized Planck channels. After point source masking and diffusive inpainting, the E and B modes are computed and combined to produce E and B modes of the CMB map. Those combined modes are then used to synthesize the U and Q CMB maps. The E and B parts of the input frequency maps being processed jointly, there are, at each multipole, 2*7=14 coefficients (weights) defined to produce the E modes of the CMB map and as many to produce the B part. The weights are displayed in the figure below. The Q and U maps were originally produced at Nside=2048 with a 5-arc-minute resolution, but were downgraded to Nside=1024 with a 10 arc-minute resolution for this release.<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filterEB_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input E and B modes (after they are re-beamed to 5 arcmin and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), in order to produce the E and B modes of the CMB map. A given frequency channel is encoded in a given color. Solid lines are for E modes and dashed lines are for B modes. The thick lines are for the EE or BB weights; the thin lines are for the EB or BE weights. See the paper for more details.''']]--><br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. SMICA and SEVEM use all the maps between 30 and 857 GHz; NILC uses the ones between 44 and 857 GHz. Commander-Ruler uses frequency channel maps from 30 to 353 GHz. <br />
<br />
===File names and structure===<br />
The FITS files corresponding to the three CMB products are the following:<br />
<br />
''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}-field-{Int,Pol}_Nside_R2.nn.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''method'' is mica, nilc, sevem, or commander, and Int and Pol indicate whether the file contains the temperature (Int) or the polarisation (Pol) maps. For this release the temperature maps are provided at Nside = 2048, and the polarisation maps at Nside = 1024. <br />
<br />
The files contain <br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data;<br />
* one or two ''BINTABLE'' data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 14 columns in which the first 13 columns is a CMB maps produced from the full or a subset of the data, as described in the table below, and the last column in a confidence mask. There is a single extension for ''Int'' files, and two, for Q and U, for ''Pol'' files. <br />
* a ''BINTABLE'' extension containing the beam window function.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I or Q or U || Real*4 || uK_cmb || I or Q or U map <br />
|- <br />
|HM1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HM2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 2 <br />
|-<br />
|YR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 1 <br />
|-<br />
|YR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HMHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HMHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|YRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|YRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|HRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half diff <br />
|-<br />
|MASK || BYTE || || Confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (smica/nilc/sevem/commander)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Notes:<br />
# The beam window function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>.<br />
<br />
<!--- mi sembra che questa non serva più <br />
The low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler CMB product is organized in the following way:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK_cmb || CMB temperature map obtained as average over 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Corresponding Standard deviation amongst the 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Confidence mask<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. EXTNAME = ''CMB-Sample'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM01 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM02 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM03 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM04 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM05 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM06 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM07 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM08 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM09 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM10 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
<!---- anche queste non servono più <br />
<br />
The FITS files containing the ''union'' (or common) maks is:<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-union_2048_R1.10.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common}}<br />
which contains a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with a single column (named ''U73'') for the mask, which is boolean (FITS ''TFORM = B''), in GALACTIC coordinates, NESTED ordering, and Nside=2048.<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for a small file containing the SMICA cmb map with no additional information (noise or masks) we provide such a file here<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
This file contains a single extension with a single column containing the SMICA cmb temperature map.<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
== Astrophysical foregrounds from parametric component separation ==<br />
We describe diffuse foreground products for the Planck 2015 release. See the Planck Foregrounds Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}} for a detailed description of these products. Further scientific discussion and interpretation may be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a31}}.<br />
<br />
===Low-resolution temperature products===<br />
<br />
: The Planck 2015 astrophysical component separation analysis combines Planck observations with the 9-year WMAP temperature sky maps (Bennett et al. 2013) and the 408 MHz survey by Haslam et al. (1982). This allows a direct decomposition of the low-frequency foregrounds into separate synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust components without strong spatial priors. <br />
<br />
====Inputs====<br />
<br />
The following data products are used for the low-resolution analysis:<br />
* Full-mission 30 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=30|period=Full|link=LFI 30 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 44 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=44|period=Full|link=LFI 44 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 70 GHz ds1 (18+23), ds2 (19+22), and ds3 (20+21) detector-set maps<br />
* Full-mission 100 GHz ds1 and ds2 detector set maps<br />
* Full-mission 143 GHz ds1 and ds2 detector set maps and detectors 5, 6, and 7 maps<br />
* Full-mission 217 GHz detector 1, 2, 3 and 4 maps<br />
* Full-mission 353 GHz detector set ds2 and detector 1 maps<br />
* Full-mission 545 GHz detector 2 and 4 maps<br />
* Full-mission 857 GHz detector 2 map<br />
* Beam-symmetrized 9-year WMAP K-band map [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/skymap_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
* Beam-symmetrized 9-year WMAP Ka-band map [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/skymap_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
* Default 9-year WMAP Q1 and Q2 differencing assembly maps [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/skymap_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
* Default 9-year WMAP V1 and V2 differencing assembly maps [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/skymap_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
* Default 9-year WMAP W1, W2, W3, and W4 differencing assembly maps [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/skymap_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
* Re-processed 408 MHz survey map, Remazeilles et al. (2014) [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/foreground/2014_haslam_408_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
All maps are smoothed to a common resolution of 1 degree FWHM by deconvolving their original instrumental beam and pixel window, and convolving with the new common Gaussian beam, and repixelizing at Nside=256.<br />
<br />
====Outputs====<br />
<br />
=====Synchrotron emission=====<br />
<br />
<!--<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=800px heights=500px> <br />
File:commander_synch_amp.png | '''Commander low-resolution synchrotron amplitude'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center>--><br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: 408 MHz<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-Synchrotron<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Free-free emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: NA<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-freefree<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|EM_ML || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|EM_MEAN || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|EM_RMS || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_ML || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_MEAN || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_RMS || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Spinning dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The spinning dust component has two independent constituents, each corresponding to one spdust2 component, but with different peak frequencies. The two components are stored in the two first FITS extensions, and the template frequency spectrum is stored in the third extension. <br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 22.8 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-AME1<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_ML || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_MEAN || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_RMS || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 41.0 GHz<br />
: Peak frequency: 33.35 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- COMP-MAP-AME2<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 2 -- SPINNING-DUST-TEMP<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|nu || Real*4 || GHz || Frequency <br />
|-<br />
|j_nu/nH || Real*4 || Jy sr-1 cm2/H || spdust2 spectrum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====CO line emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CO-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CO-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The CO line emission component has three independent objects, corresponding to the J1->0, 2->1 and 3->2 lines, stored in separate extensions. <br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-co10<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- COMP-MAP-co21<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 2 -- COMP-MAP-co32<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====94/100 GHz line emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_xline-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_xline-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-xline<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Note: The amplitude of this component is normalized according to the 100-ds1 detector set map, ie., it is the amplitude as measured by this detector combination.<br />
<br />
=====Thermal dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_dust-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_dust-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 545 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-dust<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_ML || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_MEAN || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_RMS || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_MEAN || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_RMS || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====Thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich emission around the Coma and Virgo clusters=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_SZ-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_SZ-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-SZ<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Y_ML || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Y_MEAN || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|Y_RMS || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===High-resolution temperature products===<br />
<br />
High-resolution foreground products at 7.5 arcmin FWHM are derived with the same algorithm as for the low-resolution analyses, but including frequency channels above (and including) 143 GHz. These data products include the following:<br />
<br />
====CO J2->1 emission====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CO21-commander_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CO21-commander_2048_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 7.5 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-CO21<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_FULL || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Full-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "First year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "Second year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
====Thermal dust emission====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_ThermalDust-commander_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_ThermalDust-commander_2048_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 7.5 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 545 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-dust<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_FULL || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Full-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "First year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "Second year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_FULL || Real*4 || NA || Full-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || NA || First half-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || NA || Second half-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || NA || First half-ring emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || NA || Second half-ring emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || NA || "First year" emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || NA || "Second year" emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Polarization products===<br />
<br />
Two polarization foreground products are provided, namely synchrotron and thermal dust emission. The spectral models are assumed identical to the corresponding temperature spectral models.<br />
<br />
====Synchrotron emission====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_SynchrotronPol-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_SynchrotronPol-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 40 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 30 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-SynchrotronPol<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_FULL || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Full-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_FULL || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Full-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "First year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "First year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "Second year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "Second year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
====Thermal dust emission====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_DustPol-commander_1024_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_DustPol-commander_1024_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 1024<br />
: Angular resolution = 10 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 353 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-DustPol<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_FULL || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Full-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_FULL || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Full-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "First year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "First year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "Second year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "Second year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|007]]</div>Heriksenhttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=CMB_and_astrophysical_component_maps&diff=10825CMB and astrophysical component maps2015-02-01T12:12:11Z<p>Heriksen: /* Inputs */</p>
<hr />
<div>== Overview ==<br />
This section describes the maps of astrophysical components produced from the Planck data. These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps described above using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of the product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITS file containing the data and associated information.<br />
All the details can be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
==CMB maps==<br />
CMB maps have been produced by the COMMANDER, NILC, SEVEM, and SMICA pipelines, which are described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation | CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and references therein.. For each pipeline we provide:<br />
* Full-mission CMB intensity map, confidence mask and beam transfer function.<br />
* Full-mission high-pass filtered CMB polarisation map, <br />
* A confidence mask.<br />
* A beam transfer function.<br />
In addition, and for characterisation purposes, there are six other sets of maps from three data splits: first/second half-ring, odd/even years and first/second half-mission. And for each of these data splits we provide half-sum and half-difference maps. The half-difference maps can be used to provide an approximate noise estimate for the full mission, but they should be used with caution. Each split has caveats in this regard: there are noise correlations between the half-ring maps, and missing pixels in the other splits. The Intensity maps are provided at Nside = 2048, at 5 arcmin resolution, while the Polarisation ones are provided at Nside = 1024 at 10 arcmin resolution. All maps are in units of K<sub>cmb</sub>.<br />
<br />
These maps can be found in the files <br />
* ''COM_CMB_IQU-{pipeline}-field-{Int/Pol}_Nside_R2.00.fits''. <br />
The ''Int'' files have two extensions, for the Intensity maps and the beam transfer function, the ''Pol'' files have three extensions, for Q and U maps, and for the beam transfer function.<br />
For a complete description of the data structure, see the [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
The gallery below shows the Intensity, noise from half-mission, half-difference, and confidence mask for the four pipelines, in the order SMICA, SEVEM, NILC and COMMANDER, from top to bottom. The Intensity maps scale is [–500.+500] μK, and the noise are between [–25,+25] μK. We do not show the Q and U maps since they have no significant visible structure to contemplate.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=300px heights=180> <br />
File:CMB_commander_tsig.png | '''commander temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tnoi.png | '''commander noise'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tmask.png | '''commander mask'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tsig.png | '''nilc temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tnoi.png | '''nilc noise'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tmask.png | '''nilc mask'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tsig.png | '''sevem temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tnoi.png | '''sevem noise'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tmask.png | '''sevem mask'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tsig.png | '''smica temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tnoi.png | '''smica noise'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tmask.png | '''smica mask'''</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
===Product description ===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: COMMANDER is a Planck software code implementing pixel based Bayesian parametric component separation. Each astrophysical signal component is modelled in terms of a small number of free parameters per pixel, typically in terms of an amplitude at a given reference frequency and a small set of spectral parameters, and these are fitted to the data with an MCMC Gibbs sampling algorithm. Instrumental parameters, including calibration, bandpass corrections, monopole and dipoles, are fitted jointly with the astrophysical components. A new feature in the Planck 2015 analysis is that the astrophysical model is derived from a combination of Planck, WMAP and a 408 MHz (Haslam et al. 1982) survey, providing sufficient frequency support to resolve the low-frequency components into synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust. For full details, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The Commander sky maps have different angular resolutions depending on data products:<br />
* The components of the full astrophysical sky model derived from the complete data combination (Planck, WMAP, 408 MHz) have a 1 degree FWHM resolution, and are pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=256. The corresponding CMB map defines the input map for the low-l Planck 2015 temperature likelihood. <br />
* The Commander CMB temperature map derived from Planck-only observations have an angular resolution of ~5 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=2048. This map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-857 GHz data), 7.5 arcmin (using 143-857 GHz data), and 5 arcmin (using 217-857 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
* The Commander CMB polarization map has an angular resolution of 10 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=1024. As for the temperature case, this map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-353 GHz data) and 10 arcmin (using 100-353 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The Commander confidence masks are produced by thresholding the chi-square map characterizing the global fits, combined with direct CO amplitude thresholding to eliminate known leakage effects. In addition, we exclude the 9-year WMAP point source mask in the temperature mask. For full details, see Sections 5 and 6 in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}. A total of 81% of the sky is admitted for high-resolution temperature analysis, and 83% for polarization analysis. For low-resolution temperature analysis, for which the additional WMAP and 408 MHz observations improve foreground constraints, a total of 93% of the sky is admitted. <br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: The Needlet-ILC (hereafter NILC) CMB map is constructed both in total intensity as well as polarization, Q and U Stokes parameters. For total intensity, all Planck frequency channels are included. For polarization, all polarization sensitive frequency channels are included, from 30 to 353 GHz. The solution, for T, Q and U is obtained by applying the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) technique in needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range. <br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The spectral analysis, and estimation of the NILC coefficients, is performed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math>. The effective beam is equivalent of a Gaussian circular beam with FWHM=5 arcminutes. <br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The same procedure is followed by SMICA and NILC for producing confidence masks, though with different parametrizations. A low resolution smoothed version of the NILC map, noise subtracted, is thresholded to 73.5 squared micro-K for T, and 6,75 squared micro-K for Q and U.<br />
<br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
:SEVEM produces clean CMB maps at several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting in real space. The templates are typically constructed from the lowest and highest Planck frequencies and then subtracted from the CMB-dominated channels, with coefficients that are chosen to minimize the variance of the clean map outside a considered mask. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. Two single frequency clean maps are then combined to obtain the final CMB map.<br />
<br />
;Resolution<br />
<br />
:For intensity the clean CMB map is constructed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math> at Nside=2048 and at the standard resolution of 5 arcminutes (Gaussian beam).<br />
:For polarization the clean CMB map is produced at Nside=1024 with a resolution of 10 arcminutes (Gaussian beam) and a maximum <math>\ell=3071</math>.<br />
<br />
;Confidence masks<br />
<br />
:The confidence masks cover the most contaminated regions of the sky, leaving approximately 85 per cent of useful sky for intensity and 80 per cent for polarization.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces CMBs map by linearly combining all Planck input channels with multipole-dependent weights. It includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>. Temperature and polarization maps are produced independently.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA intensity map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes which is truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math> and is '''not''' deconvolved from the pixel window function. Thus the delivered beam window function is the product of a Gaussian beam at 5 arcminutes and the pixel window function for Nside=2048.<br />
: The SMICA Q and U maps are obtained similarly but are produced at Nside=1024 with an effective beam of 10 arc-minutes (to be multiplied by the pixel window function, as for the intensity map).<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. See section below detailing the production process.<br />
<br />
===Production process===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky maps are first convolved to a common resolution that is larger than the largest beam of any frequency channel. For the combined Planck, WMAP and 408 MHz temperature analysis, the common resolution is 1 degree FWHM; for the Planck-only all-frequency analysis it is 40 arcmin FWHM; and for the intermediate-resolution analysis it is 7.5 arcmin; while for the full-resolution analysis, we assume all frequencies between 217 and 857 GHz have a common resolution, and no additional convolution is performed. For polarization, only two smoothing scales are employed, 40 and 10 arcmin, respectively. The instrumental noise rms maps are convolved correspondingly, properly accouting for their matrix-like nature. <br />
<br />
; Priors<br />
<br />
: The following priors are enforced in the Commander analysis:<br />
* All foreground amplitudes are enforced to be positive definite in the low-resolution analysis, while no amplitude priors are enforced in the high-resolution analyses<br />
* Monopoles and dipoles are fixed to nominal values for a small set of reference frequencies<br />
* Gaussian priors are enforced on spectral parameters, with values informed by the values derived in the high signal-to-noise areas of the sky<br />
* The Jeffreys ignorance prior is enforced on spectral parameters in addition to the informative Gaussian priors<br />
<br />
; Fitting procedure<br />
<br />
: Given data and priors, Commander either maximizes, or samples from, the Bayesian posterior, P(theta|data). Because this is a highly non-Gaussian and correlated distribution, involving millions of parameters, these operations are performed by means of the Gibbs sampling algorithm, in which joint samples from the full distributions are generated by iteratively sampling from the corresponding conditional posterior distributions, P(theta_i| data, theta_{j/=i}). For the low-resolution analysis, all parameters are optimized jointly, while in the high-resolution analyses, which employs fewer frequency channels, low signal-to-noise parameters are fixed to those derived at low resolution. Examples of such parameters include monopoles and dipoles, calibration and bandpass parameters, thermal dust temperature etc.<br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky frequency maps are deconvolved using the DPC beam transfer function provided, and re-convolved with a 5 arcminutes FWHM circular Gaussian beam. In polarization, prior to the smoothing process, all sky E and B maps are derived from Q and U using standard HEALPix tools from each individual frequency channels <br />
<br />
; Linear combination<br />
<br />
: Pre-processed input frequency maps are decomposed in needlet coefficients, specified in the Appendix B of the Planck A11 paper, with shape given by Table B.1. Minimum variance coefficients are then obtained, using all channels for T, from 30 to 353 for E and B. <br />
<br />
; Post-processing<br />
<br />
: E and B maps are re-combined into Q and U products using standard HEALPix tools. <br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
<br />
The templates used in the SEVEM pipeline are typically constructed by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMB map at that frequency. This is done in real space at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. The <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. Note that the same expression applies for I, Q and U. Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of clean maps at different frequencies is of great interest in order to test the robustness of the results. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned independently and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
;Intensity<br />
<br />
For the CMB intensity map, we have cleaned the 100 GHz, 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps using a total of four templates. Three of them are constructed as the difference of two consecutive Planck channels smoothed to a common resolution (30-44, 44-70 and 545-353) while the 857 GHz channel is chosen as the fourth template. First of all, the six frequency channels which are going to be part of the templates are inpainted at the point source positions detected using the Mexican Hat Wavelet algorithm. The size of the holes to be inpainted is determined taking into account the beam size of the channel as well as the flux of each source. The inpainting algorithm is based on simple diffuse inpainting, which fills one pixel with the mean value of the neighbouring pixels in an iterative way. To avoid inconsistencies when subtracting two channels, each frequency map is inpainted on the sources detected in that map and on the second map (if any) used to construct the template. Then the maps are smoothed to a common resolution (the first channel in the subtraction is smoothed with the beam of the second map and viceversa). For the 857 GHz template, we simply filter the inpainted map with the 545 GHz beam.<br />
<br />
The coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance outside the analysis mask, that covers the 1 per cent brightest emission of the sky as well as point sources detected at all frequency channels. Once the maps are cleaned, each of them is inpainted on the point sources positions detected at that (raw) channel. Then, the MHW algorithm is run again, now on the clean maps. A relatively small number of new sources are found and are also inpainted at each channel. The resolution of the clean map is the same as that of the original data. Our final CMB map is then constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask is produced by studying the differences between several SEVEM CMB reconstructions, which correspond to maps cleaned at different frequencies or using different analysis masks. The obtained mask leaves a useful sky fraction of approximately 85 per cent.<br />
<br />
;Polarization<br />
<br />
<br />
To clean the polarization maps, a procedure similar to the one used for intensity data is applied to the $Q$ and $U$ maps independently. However, given that a narrower frequency coverage is available for polarization, the selected templates and maps to be cleaned are different. In particular, we clean the 70, 100 and 143 GHz using three templates for each channel. The first step of the pipeline is to inpaint the positions of the point sources using the MHW, in those channels which are going to be used in the construction of templates, following the same procedure as for the intensity case. The inpainting is performed in the frequency maps at their native resolution. These inpainted maps are then used to construct a total of four templates. To trace the synchrotron emission, we construct a template as the subtraction of the 30 GHz minus the 44 GHz <br />
map, after being convolved with the beam of each other. For the dust emission, the following templates are considered: 353--217 GHz (smoothed at 10$'$ resolution), 217--143 GHz (used <br />
to clean 70 and 100 GHz) and 217--100 GHz (to clean 143 GHz). These two last templates are constructed at 1 degree resolution since an additional smoothing becomes necessary in<br />
order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the template. Conversely to the <br />
intensity case and due to the lower availability of frequency channels, it becomes necessary to use the maps to be cleaned as part of one of the templates. In this way, the 100 GHz <br />
map is used to clean the 143 GHz frequency channel and viceversa, making the clean maps less independent between them than in the intensity case.<br />
<br />
These templates are then used to clean the non-inpainted 70 (at its native resolution), 100 (at 10$'$ resolution) and 143 GHz maps (also at 10$'$). The corresponding linear coefficients are estimated independently for $Q$ and $U$ by minimising the variance of the clean maps outside a mask, that covers point sources and the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission. Once the maps have been cleaned, inpainting of the point sources detected at the corresponding raw maps is carried out. The size of the holes to be inpainted takes<br />
into account the additional smoothing of the 100 and 143 GHz maps. The 100 and 143 GHz clean maps are then combined in harmonic space, using $E$ and $B$ decomposition, to produce the final CMB maps for the $Q$ and $U$ components at a resolution of 10$'$ (Gaussian beam) for a HEALPix parameter Nside=1024. Each map is weighted taking into account its <br />
corresponding noise level at each multipole. Finally, before applying the post-processing HPF to the clean polarization data, the region with the brightest Galactic residuals is inpainted (5 per cent of the sky) to avoid the introduction of ringing around the Galactic centre in the filtering process.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask includes all the pixels above a given threshold in a smoothed version of the clean CMB map, the regions more contaminated by the CO emission and those pixels more affected by the high-pass filtering, leaving a useful sky fraction of approximately 80 per cent.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
<br />
A) Production of the intensity map.<br />
<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: Before computing spherical harmonic coefficients, all input maps undergo a pre-processing step to deal with regions of very strong emission (such as the Galactic center) and point sources. The point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue are fitted in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole is filled in by a simple diffusive process to ensure a smooth transition and mitigate spectral leakage. The diffusive inpainting process is also applied to some regions of very strong emissions. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, here all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and filled-in similarly.<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHz are harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> and co-added with multipole-dependent weights as shown in the figure.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: A confidence mask is determined (see the Planck paper) and all regions which have been masked in the pre-processing step are added to it.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filter_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input intensity maps (after they are re-beamed to 5 arc-minutes and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), as a function of multipole.''']]--><br />
<br />
B) Production of the Q and U polarisation maps.<br />
<br />
The production of the Q and U maps is similar to the production of the intensity map. The SMICA pipeline uses all the 7 polarized Planck channels. After point source masking and diffusive inpainting, the E and B modes are computed and combined to produce E and B modes of the CMB map. Those combined modes are then used to synthesize the U and Q CMB maps. The E and B parts of the input frequency maps being processed jointly, there are, at each multipole, 2*7=14 coefficients (weights) defined to produce the E modes of the CMB map and as many to produce the B part. The weights are displayed in the figure below. The Q and U maps were originally produced at Nside=2048 with a 5-arc-minute resolution, but were downgraded to Nside=1024 with a 10 arc-minute resolution for this release.<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filterEB_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input E and B modes (after they are re-beamed to 5 arcmin and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), in order to produce the E and B modes of the CMB map. A given frequency channel is encoded in a given color. Solid lines are for E modes and dashed lines are for B modes. The thick lines are for the EE or BB weights; the thin lines are for the EB or BE weights. See the paper for more details.''']]--><br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. SMICA and SEVEM use all the maps between 30 and 857 GHz; NILC uses the ones between 44 and 857 GHz. Commander-Ruler uses frequency channel maps from 30 to 353 GHz. <br />
<br />
===File names and structure===<br />
The FITS files corresponding to the three CMB products are the following:<br />
<br />
''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}-field-{Int,Pol}_Nside_R2.nn.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''method'' is mica, nilc, sevem, or commander, and Int and Pol indicate whether the file contains the temperature (Int) or the polarisation (Pol) maps. For this release the temperature maps are provided at Nside = 2048, and the polarisation maps at Nside = 1024. <br />
<br />
The files contain <br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data;<br />
* one or two ''BINTABLE'' data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 14 columns in which the first 13 columns is a CMB maps produced from the full or a subset of the data, as described in the table below, and the last column in a confidence mask. There is a single extension for ''Int'' files, and two, for Q and U, for ''Pol'' files. <br />
* a ''BINTABLE'' extension containing the beam window function.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I or Q or U || Real*4 || uK_cmb || I or Q or U map <br />
|- <br />
|HM1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HM2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 2 <br />
|-<br />
|YR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 1 <br />
|-<br />
|YR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HMHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HMHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|YRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|YRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|HRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half diff <br />
|-<br />
|MASK || BYTE || || Confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (smica/nilc/sevem/commander)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Notes:<br />
# The beam window function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>.<br />
<br />
<!--- mi sembra che questa non serva più <br />
The low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler CMB product is organized in the following way:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK_cmb || CMB temperature map obtained as average over 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Corresponding Standard deviation amongst the 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Confidence mask<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. EXTNAME = ''CMB-Sample'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM01 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM02 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM03 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM04 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM05 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM06 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM07 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM08 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM09 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM10 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
<!---- anche queste non servono più <br />
<br />
The FITS files containing the ''union'' (or common) maks is:<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-union_2048_R1.10.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common}}<br />
which contains a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with a single column (named ''U73'') for the mask, which is boolean (FITS ''TFORM = B''), in GALACTIC coordinates, NESTED ordering, and Nside=2048.<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for a small file containing the SMICA cmb map with no additional information (noise or masks) we provide such a file here<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
This file contains a single extension with a single column containing the SMICA cmb temperature map.<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
== Astrophysical foregrounds from parametric component separation ==<br />
We describe diffuse foreground products for the Planck 2015 release. See the Planck Foregrounds Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}} for a detailed description of these products. Further scientific discussion and interpretation may be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a31}}.<br />
<br />
===Low-resolution temperature products===<br />
<br />
: The Planck 2015 astrophysical component separation analysis combines Planck observations with the 9-year WMAP temperature sky maps (Bennett et al. 2013) and the 408 MHz survey by Haslam et al. (1982). This allows a direct decomposition of the low-frequency foregrounds into separate synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust components without strong spatial priors. The full set of data products derived from the low-resolution joint analysis are the following:<br />
<br />
====Inputs====<br />
<br />
The following data products are used for the low-resolution analysis:<br />
* Full-mission 30 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=30|period=Full|link=LFI 30 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 44 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=44|period=Full|link=LFI 44 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 70 GHz ds1 (18+23), ds2 (19+22), and ds3 (20+21) detector-set maps<br />
* Full-mission 100 GHz ds1 and ds2 detector set maps<br />
* Full-mission 143 GHz ds1 and ds2 detector set maps and detectors 5, 6, and 7 maps<br />
* Full-mission 217 GHz detector 1, 2, 3 and 4 maps<br />
* Full-mission 353 GHz detector set ds2 and detector 1 maps<br />
* Full-mission 545 GHz detector 2 and 4 maps<br />
* Full-mission 857 GHz detector 2 map<br />
* Beam-symmetrized 9-year WMAP K-band map [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/skymap_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
* Beam-symmetrized 9-year WMAP Ka-band map [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/skymap_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
* Default 9-year WMAP Q1 and Q2 differencing assembly maps [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/skymap_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
* Default 9-year WMAP V1 and V2 differencing assembly maps [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/skymap_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
* Default 9-year WMAP W1, W2, W3, and W4 differencing assembly maps [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/skymap_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
* Re-processed 408 MHz survey map, Remazeilles et al. (2014) [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/foreground/2014_haslam_408_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
All maps are smoothed to a common resolution of 1 degree FWHM by deconvolving their original instrumental beam and pixel window, and convolving with the new common Gaussian beam, and repixelizing at Nside=256.<br />
<br />
====Synchrotron emission====<br />
<br />
<!--<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=800px heights=500px> <br />
File:commander_synch_amp.png | '''Commander low-resolution synchrotron amplitude'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center>--><br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: 408 MHz<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-Synchrotron<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
====Free-free emission====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: NA<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-freefree<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|EM_ML || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|EM_MEAN || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|EM_RMS || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_ML || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_MEAN || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_RMS || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
====Spinning dust emission====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The spinning dust component has two independent constituents, each corresponding to one spdust2 component, but with different peak frequencies. The two components are stored in the two first FITS extensions, and the template frequency spectrum is stored in the third extension. <br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 22.8 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-AME1<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_ML || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_MEAN || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_RMS || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 41.0 GHz<br />
: Peak frequency: 33.35 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- COMP-MAP-AME2<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 2 -- SPINNING-DUST-TEMP<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|nu || Real*4 || GHz || Frequency <br />
|-<br />
|j_nu/nH || Real*4 || Jy sr-1 cm2/H || spdust2 spectrum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
====CO line emission====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CO-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CO-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The CO line emission component has three independent objects, corresponding to the J1->0, 2->1 and 3->2 lines, stored in separate extensions. <br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-co10<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- COMP-MAP-co21<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 2 -- COMP-MAP-co32<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
====94/100 GHz line emission====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_xline-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_xline-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-xline<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Note: The amplitude of this component is normalized according to the 100-ds1 detector set map, ie., it is the amplitude as measured by this detector combination.<br />
<br />
====Thermal dust emission====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_dust-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_dust-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 545 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-dust<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_ML || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_MEAN || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_RMS || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_MEAN || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_RMS || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
====Thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich emission around the Coma and Virgo clusters====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_SZ-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_SZ-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-SZ<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Y_ML || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Y_MEAN || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|Y_RMS || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===High-resolution temperature products===<br />
<br />
High-resolution foreground products at 7.5 arcmin FWHM are derived with the same algorithm as for the low-resolution analyses, but including frequency channels above (and including) 143 GHz. These data products include the following:<br />
<br />
====CO J2->1 emission====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CO21-commander_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CO21-commander_2048_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 7.5 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-CO21<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_FULL || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Full-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "First year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "Second year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
====Thermal dust emission====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_ThermalDust-commander_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_ThermalDust-commander_2048_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 7.5 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 545 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-dust<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_FULL || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Full-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "First year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "Second year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_FULL || Real*4 || NA || Full-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || NA || First half-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || NA || Second half-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || NA || First half-ring emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || NA || Second half-ring emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || NA || "First year" emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || NA || "Second year" emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Polarization products===<br />
<br />
Two polarization foreground products are provided, namely synchrotron and thermal dust emission. The spectral models are assumed identical to the corresponding temperature spectral models.<br />
<br />
====Synchrotron emission====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_SynchrotronPol-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_SynchrotronPol-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 40 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 30 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-SynchrotronPol<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_FULL || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Full-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_FULL || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Full-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "First year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "First year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "Second year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "Second year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
====Thermal dust emission====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_DustPol-commander_1024_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_DustPol-commander_1024_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 1024<br />
: Angular resolution = 10 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 353 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-DustPol<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_FULL || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Full-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_FULL || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Full-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "First year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "First year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "Second year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "Second year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|007]]</div>Heriksenhttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=CMB_and_astrophysical_component_maps&diff=10824CMB and astrophysical component maps2015-02-01T12:10:16Z<p>Heriksen: /* Inputs */</p>
<hr />
<div>== Overview ==<br />
This section describes the maps of astrophysical components produced from the Planck data. These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps described above using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of the product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITS file containing the data and associated information.<br />
All the details can be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
==CMB maps==<br />
CMB maps have been produced by the COMMANDER, NILC, SEVEM, and SMICA pipelines, which are described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation | CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and references therein.. For each pipeline we provide:<br />
* Full-mission CMB intensity map, confidence mask and beam transfer function.<br />
* Full-mission high-pass filtered CMB polarisation map, <br />
* A confidence mask.<br />
* A beam transfer function.<br />
In addition, and for characterisation purposes, there are six other sets of maps from three data splits: first/second half-ring, odd/even years and first/second half-mission. And for each of these data splits we provide half-sum and half-difference maps. The half-difference maps can be used to provide an approximate noise estimate for the full mission, but they should be used with caution. Each split has caveats in this regard: there are noise correlations between the half-ring maps, and missing pixels in the other splits. The Intensity maps are provided at Nside = 2048, at 5 arcmin resolution, while the Polarisation ones are provided at Nside = 1024 at 10 arcmin resolution. All maps are in units of K<sub>cmb</sub>.<br />
<br />
These maps can be found in the files <br />
* ''COM_CMB_IQU-{pipeline}-field-{Int/Pol}_Nside_R2.00.fits''. <br />
The ''Int'' files have two extensions, for the Intensity maps and the beam transfer function, the ''Pol'' files have three extensions, for Q and U maps, and for the beam transfer function.<br />
For a complete description of the data structure, see the [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
The gallery below shows the Intensity, noise from half-mission, half-difference, and confidence mask for the four pipelines, in the order SMICA, SEVEM, NILC and COMMANDER, from top to bottom. The Intensity maps scale is [–500.+500] μK, and the noise are between [–25,+25] μK. We do not show the Q and U maps since they have no significant visible structure to contemplate.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=300px heights=180> <br />
File:CMB_commander_tsig.png | '''commander temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tnoi.png | '''commander noise'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tmask.png | '''commander mask'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tsig.png | '''nilc temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tnoi.png | '''nilc noise'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tmask.png | '''nilc mask'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tsig.png | '''sevem temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tnoi.png | '''sevem noise'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tmask.png | '''sevem mask'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tsig.png | '''smica temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tnoi.png | '''smica noise'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tmask.png | '''smica mask'''</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
===Product description ===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: COMMANDER is a Planck software code implementing pixel based Bayesian parametric component separation. Each astrophysical signal component is modelled in terms of a small number of free parameters per pixel, typically in terms of an amplitude at a given reference frequency and a small set of spectral parameters, and these are fitted to the data with an MCMC Gibbs sampling algorithm. Instrumental parameters, including calibration, bandpass corrections, monopole and dipoles, are fitted jointly with the astrophysical components. A new feature in the Planck 2015 analysis is that the astrophysical model is derived from a combination of Planck, WMAP and a 408 MHz (Haslam et al. 1982) survey, providing sufficient frequency support to resolve the low-frequency components into synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust. For full details, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The Commander sky maps have different angular resolutions depending on data products:<br />
* The components of the full astrophysical sky model derived from the complete data combination (Planck, WMAP, 408 MHz) have a 1 degree FWHM resolution, and are pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=256. The corresponding CMB map defines the input map for the low-l Planck 2015 temperature likelihood. <br />
* The Commander CMB temperature map derived from Planck-only observations have an angular resolution of ~5 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=2048. This map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-857 GHz data), 7.5 arcmin (using 143-857 GHz data), and 5 arcmin (using 217-857 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
* The Commander CMB polarization map has an angular resolution of 10 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=1024. As for the temperature case, this map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-353 GHz data) and 10 arcmin (using 100-353 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The Commander confidence masks are produced by thresholding the chi-square map characterizing the global fits, combined with direct CO amplitude thresholding to eliminate known leakage effects. In addition, we exclude the 9-year WMAP point source mask in the temperature mask. For full details, see Sections 5 and 6 in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}. A total of 81% of the sky is admitted for high-resolution temperature analysis, and 83% for polarization analysis. For low-resolution temperature analysis, for which the additional WMAP and 408 MHz observations improve foreground constraints, a total of 93% of the sky is admitted. <br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: The Needlet-ILC (hereafter NILC) CMB map is constructed both in total intensity as well as polarization, Q and U Stokes parameters. For total intensity, all Planck frequency channels are included. For polarization, all polarization sensitive frequency channels are included, from 30 to 353 GHz. The solution, for T, Q and U is obtained by applying the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) technique in needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range. <br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The spectral analysis, and estimation of the NILC coefficients, is performed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math>. The effective beam is equivalent of a Gaussian circular beam with FWHM=5 arcminutes. <br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The same procedure is followed by SMICA and NILC for producing confidence masks, though with different parametrizations. A low resolution smoothed version of the NILC map, noise subtracted, is thresholded to 73.5 squared micro-K for T, and 6,75 squared micro-K for Q and U.<br />
<br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
:SEVEM produces clean CMB maps at several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting in real space. The templates are typically constructed from the lowest and highest Planck frequencies and then subtracted from the CMB-dominated channels, with coefficients that are chosen to minimize the variance of the clean map outside a considered mask. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. Two single frequency clean maps are then combined to obtain the final CMB map.<br />
<br />
;Resolution<br />
<br />
:For intensity the clean CMB map is constructed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math> at Nside=2048 and at the standard resolution of 5 arcminutes (Gaussian beam).<br />
:For polarization the clean CMB map is produced at Nside=1024 with a resolution of 10 arcminutes (Gaussian beam) and a maximum <math>\ell=3071</math>.<br />
<br />
;Confidence masks<br />
<br />
:The confidence masks cover the most contaminated regions of the sky, leaving approximately 85 per cent of useful sky for intensity and 80 per cent for polarization.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces CMBs map by linearly combining all Planck input channels with multipole-dependent weights. It includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>. Temperature and polarization maps are produced independently.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA intensity map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes which is truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math> and is '''not''' deconvolved from the pixel window function. Thus the delivered beam window function is the product of a Gaussian beam at 5 arcminutes and the pixel window function for Nside=2048.<br />
: The SMICA Q and U maps are obtained similarly but are produced at Nside=1024 with an effective beam of 10 arc-minutes (to be multiplied by the pixel window function, as for the intensity map).<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. See section below detailing the production process.<br />
<br />
===Production process===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky maps are first convolved to a common resolution that is larger than the largest beam of any frequency channel. For the combined Planck, WMAP and 408 MHz temperature analysis, the common resolution is 1 degree FWHM; for the Planck-only all-frequency analysis it is 40 arcmin FWHM; and for the intermediate-resolution analysis it is 7.5 arcmin; while for the full-resolution analysis, we assume all frequencies between 217 and 857 GHz have a common resolution, and no additional convolution is performed. For polarization, only two smoothing scales are employed, 40 and 10 arcmin, respectively. The instrumental noise rms maps are convolved correspondingly, properly accouting for their matrix-like nature. <br />
<br />
; Priors<br />
<br />
: The following priors are enforced in the Commander analysis:<br />
* All foreground amplitudes are enforced to be positive definite in the low-resolution analysis, while no amplitude priors are enforced in the high-resolution analyses<br />
* Monopoles and dipoles are fixed to nominal values for a small set of reference frequencies<br />
* Gaussian priors are enforced on spectral parameters, with values informed by the values derived in the high signal-to-noise areas of the sky<br />
* The Jeffreys ignorance prior is enforced on spectral parameters in addition to the informative Gaussian priors<br />
<br />
; Fitting procedure<br />
<br />
: Given data and priors, Commander either maximizes, or samples from, the Bayesian posterior, P(theta|data). Because this is a highly non-Gaussian and correlated distribution, involving millions of parameters, these operations are performed by means of the Gibbs sampling algorithm, in which joint samples from the full distributions are generated by iteratively sampling from the corresponding conditional posterior distributions, P(theta_i| data, theta_{j/=i}). For the low-resolution analysis, all parameters are optimized jointly, while in the high-resolution analyses, which employs fewer frequency channels, low signal-to-noise parameters are fixed to those derived at low resolution. Examples of such parameters include monopoles and dipoles, calibration and bandpass parameters, thermal dust temperature etc.<br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky frequency maps are deconvolved using the DPC beam transfer function provided, and re-convolved with a 5 arcminutes FWHM circular Gaussian beam. In polarization, prior to the smoothing process, all sky E and B maps are derived from Q and U using standard HEALPix tools from each individual frequency channels <br />
<br />
; Linear combination<br />
<br />
: Pre-processed input frequency maps are decomposed in needlet coefficients, specified in the Appendix B of the Planck A11 paper, with shape given by Table B.1. Minimum variance coefficients are then obtained, using all channels for T, from 30 to 353 for E and B. <br />
<br />
; Post-processing<br />
<br />
: E and B maps are re-combined into Q and U products using standard HEALPix tools. <br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
<br />
The templates used in the SEVEM pipeline are typically constructed by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMB map at that frequency. This is done in real space at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. The <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. Note that the same expression applies for I, Q and U. Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of clean maps at different frequencies is of great interest in order to test the robustness of the results. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned independently and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
;Intensity<br />
<br />
For the CMB intensity map, we have cleaned the 100 GHz, 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps using a total of four templates. Three of them are constructed as the difference of two consecutive Planck channels smoothed to a common resolution (30-44, 44-70 and 545-353) while the 857 GHz channel is chosen as the fourth template. First of all, the six frequency channels which are going to be part of the templates are inpainted at the point source positions detected using the Mexican Hat Wavelet algorithm. The size of the holes to be inpainted is determined taking into account the beam size of the channel as well as the flux of each source. The inpainting algorithm is based on simple diffuse inpainting, which fills one pixel with the mean value of the neighbouring pixels in an iterative way. To avoid inconsistencies when subtracting two channels, each frequency map is inpainted on the sources detected in that map and on the second map (if any) used to construct the template. Then the maps are smoothed to a common resolution (the first channel in the subtraction is smoothed with the beam of the second map and viceversa). For the 857 GHz template, we simply filter the inpainted map with the 545 GHz beam.<br />
<br />
The coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance outside the analysis mask, that covers the 1 per cent brightest emission of the sky as well as point sources detected at all frequency channels. Once the maps are cleaned, each of them is inpainted on the point sources positions detected at that (raw) channel. Then, the MHW algorithm is run again, now on the clean maps. A relatively small number of new sources are found and are also inpainted at each channel. The resolution of the clean map is the same as that of the original data. Our final CMB map is then constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask is produced by studying the differences between several SEVEM CMB reconstructions, which correspond to maps cleaned at different frequencies or using different analysis masks. The obtained mask leaves a useful sky fraction of approximately 85 per cent.<br />
<br />
;Polarization<br />
<br />
<br />
To clean the polarization maps, a procedure similar to the one used for intensity data is applied to the $Q$ and $U$ maps independently. However, given that a narrower frequency coverage is available for polarization, the selected templates and maps to be cleaned are different. In particular, we clean the 70, 100 and 143 GHz using three templates for each channel. The first step of the pipeline is to inpaint the positions of the point sources using the MHW, in those channels which are going to be used in the construction of templates, following the same procedure as for the intensity case. The inpainting is performed in the frequency maps at their native resolution. These inpainted maps are then used to construct a total of four templates. To trace the synchrotron emission, we construct a template as the subtraction of the 30 GHz minus the 44 GHz <br />
map, after being convolved with the beam of each other. For the dust emission, the following templates are considered: 353--217 GHz (smoothed at 10$'$ resolution), 217--143 GHz (used <br />
to clean 70 and 100 GHz) and 217--100 GHz (to clean 143 GHz). These two last templates are constructed at 1 degree resolution since an additional smoothing becomes necessary in<br />
order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the template. Conversely to the <br />
intensity case and due to the lower availability of frequency channels, it becomes necessary to use the maps to be cleaned as part of one of the templates. In this way, the 100 GHz <br />
map is used to clean the 143 GHz frequency channel and viceversa, making the clean maps less independent between them than in the intensity case.<br />
<br />
These templates are then used to clean the non-inpainted 70 (at its native resolution), 100 (at 10$'$ resolution) and 143 GHz maps (also at 10$'$). The corresponding linear coefficients are estimated independently for $Q$ and $U$ by minimising the variance of the clean maps outside a mask, that covers point sources and the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission. Once the maps have been cleaned, inpainting of the point sources detected at the corresponding raw maps is carried out. The size of the holes to be inpainted takes<br />
into account the additional smoothing of the 100 and 143 GHz maps. The 100 and 143 GHz clean maps are then combined in harmonic space, using $E$ and $B$ decomposition, to produce the final CMB maps for the $Q$ and $U$ components at a resolution of 10$'$ (Gaussian beam) for a HEALPix parameter Nside=1024. Each map is weighted taking into account its <br />
corresponding noise level at each multipole. Finally, before applying the post-processing HPF to the clean polarization data, the region with the brightest Galactic residuals is inpainted (5 per cent of the sky) to avoid the introduction of ringing around the Galactic centre in the filtering process.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask includes all the pixels above a given threshold in a smoothed version of the clean CMB map, the regions more contaminated by the CO emission and those pixels more affected by the high-pass filtering, leaving a useful sky fraction of approximately 80 per cent.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
<br />
A) Production of the intensity map.<br />
<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: Before computing spherical harmonic coefficients, all input maps undergo a pre-processing step to deal with regions of very strong emission (such as the Galactic center) and point sources. The point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue are fitted in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole is filled in by a simple diffusive process to ensure a smooth transition and mitigate spectral leakage. The diffusive inpainting process is also applied to some regions of very strong emissions. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, here all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and filled-in similarly.<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHz are harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> and co-added with multipole-dependent weights as shown in the figure.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: A confidence mask is determined (see the Planck paper) and all regions which have been masked in the pre-processing step are added to it.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filter_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input intensity maps (after they are re-beamed to 5 arc-minutes and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), as a function of multipole.''']]--><br />
<br />
B) Production of the Q and U polarisation maps.<br />
<br />
The production of the Q and U maps is similar to the production of the intensity map. The SMICA pipeline uses all the 7 polarized Planck channels. After point source masking and diffusive inpainting, the E and B modes are computed and combined to produce E and B modes of the CMB map. Those combined modes are then used to synthesize the U and Q CMB maps. The E and B parts of the input frequency maps being processed jointly, there are, at each multipole, 2*7=14 coefficients (weights) defined to produce the E modes of the CMB map and as many to produce the B part. The weights are displayed in the figure below. The Q and U maps were originally produced at Nside=2048 with a 5-arc-minute resolution, but were downgraded to Nside=1024 with a 10 arc-minute resolution for this release.<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filterEB_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input E and B modes (after they are re-beamed to 5 arcmin and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), in order to produce the E and B modes of the CMB map. A given frequency channel is encoded in a given color. Solid lines are for E modes and dashed lines are for B modes. The thick lines are for the EE or BB weights; the thin lines are for the EB or BE weights. See the paper for more details.''']]--><br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. SMICA and SEVEM use all the maps between 30 and 857 GHz; NILC uses the ones between 44 and 857 GHz. Commander-Ruler uses frequency channel maps from 30 to 353 GHz. <br />
<br />
===File names and structure===<br />
The FITS files corresponding to the three CMB products are the following:<br />
<br />
''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}-field-{Int,Pol}_Nside_R2.nn.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''method'' is mica, nilc, sevem, or commander, and Int and Pol indicate whether the file contains the temperature (Int) or the polarisation (Pol) maps. For this release the temperature maps are provided at Nside = 2048, and the polarisation maps at Nside = 1024. <br />
<br />
The files contain <br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data;<br />
* one or two ''BINTABLE'' data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 14 columns in which the first 13 columns is a CMB maps produced from the full or a subset of the data, as described in the table below, and the last column in a confidence mask. There is a single extension for ''Int'' files, and two, for Q and U, for ''Pol'' files. <br />
* a ''BINTABLE'' extension containing the beam window function.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I or Q or U || Real*4 || uK_cmb || I or Q or U map <br />
|- <br />
|HM1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HM2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 2 <br />
|-<br />
|YR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 1 <br />
|-<br />
|YR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HMHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HMHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|YRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|YRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|HRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half diff <br />
|-<br />
|MASK || BYTE || || Confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (smica/nilc/sevem/commander)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Notes:<br />
# The beam window function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>.<br />
<br />
<!--- mi sembra che questa non serva più <br />
The low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler CMB product is organized in the following way:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK_cmb || CMB temperature map obtained as average over 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Corresponding Standard deviation amongst the 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Confidence mask<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. EXTNAME = ''CMB-Sample'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM01 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM02 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM03 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM04 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM05 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM06 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM07 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM08 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM09 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM10 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
<!---- anche queste non servono più <br />
<br />
The FITS files containing the ''union'' (or common) maks is:<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-union_2048_R1.10.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common}}<br />
which contains a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with a single column (named ''U73'') for the mask, which is boolean (FITS ''TFORM = B''), in GALACTIC coordinates, NESTED ordering, and Nside=2048.<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for a small file containing the SMICA cmb map with no additional information (noise or masks) we provide such a file here<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
This file contains a single extension with a single column containing the SMICA cmb temperature map.<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
== Astrophysical foregrounds from parametric component separation ==<br />
We describe diffuse foreground products for the Planck 2015 release. See the Planck Foregrounds Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}} for a detailed description of these products. Further scientific discussion and interpretation may be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a31}}.<br />
<br />
===Low-resolution temperature products===<br />
<br />
: The Planck 2015 astrophysical component separation analysis combines Planck observations with the 9-year WMAP temperature sky maps (Bennett et al. 2013) and the 408 MHz survey by Haslam et al. (1982). This allows a direct decomposition of the low-frequency foregrounds into separate synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust components without strong spatial priors. The full set of data products derived from the low-resolution joint analysis are the following:<br />
<br />
====Inputs====<br />
<br />
The following data products are used for the low-resolution analysis:<br />
* Full-mission 30 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=30|period=Full|link=LFI 30 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 44 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=44|period=Full|link=LFI 44 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 70 GHz ds1 (18+23), ds2 (19+22), and ds3 (20+21) detector-set maps<br />
* Full-mission 100 GHz ds1 and ds2 detector set maps<br />
* Full-mission 143 GHz ds1 and ds2 detector set maps and detectors 5, 6, and 7 maps<br />
* Full-mission 217 GHz detector 1, 2, 3 and 4 maps<br />
* Full-mission 353 GHz detector set ds2 and detector 1 maps<br />
* Full-mission 545 GHz detector 2 and 4 maps<br />
* Full-mission 857 GHz detector 2 map<br />
* Beam-symmetrized 9-year WMAP K-band map [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/skymap_info.cfm Lambda]<br />
* Beam-symmetrized 9-year WMAP Ka-band map<br />
* Default 9-year WMAP Q1 and Q2 differencing assembly maps<br />
* Default 9-year WMAP V1 and V2 differencing assembly maps<br />
* Default 9-year WMAP W1, W2, W3, and W4 differencing assembly maps<br />
* 408 MHz survey map, Haslam et al. (1982)<br />
All maps are smoothed to a common resolution of 1 degree FWHM by deconvolving their original instrumental beam and pixel window, and convolving with the new common Gaussian beam, and repixelizing at Nside=256.<br />
<br />
====Synchrotron emission====<br />
<br />
<!--<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=800px heights=500px> <br />
File:commander_synch_amp.png | '''Commander low-resolution synchrotron amplitude'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center>--><br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: 408 MHz<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-Synchrotron<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
====Free-free emission====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: NA<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-freefree<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|EM_ML || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|EM_MEAN || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|EM_RMS || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_ML || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_MEAN || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_RMS || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
====Spinning dust emission====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The spinning dust component has two independent constituents, each corresponding to one spdust2 component, but with different peak frequencies. The two components are stored in the two first FITS extensions, and the template frequency spectrum is stored in the third extension. <br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 22.8 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-AME1<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_ML || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_MEAN || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_RMS || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 41.0 GHz<br />
: Peak frequency: 33.35 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- COMP-MAP-AME2<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 2 -- SPINNING-DUST-TEMP<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|nu || Real*4 || GHz || Frequency <br />
|-<br />
|j_nu/nH || Real*4 || Jy sr-1 cm2/H || spdust2 spectrum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
====CO line emission====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CO-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CO-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The CO line emission component has three independent objects, corresponding to the J1->0, 2->1 and 3->2 lines, stored in separate extensions. <br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-co10<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- COMP-MAP-co21<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 2 -- COMP-MAP-co32<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
====94/100 GHz line emission====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_xline-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_xline-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-xline<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Note: The amplitude of this component is normalized according to the 100-ds1 detector set map, ie., it is the amplitude as measured by this detector combination.<br />
<br />
====Thermal dust emission====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_dust-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_dust-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 545 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-dust<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_ML || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_MEAN || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_RMS || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_MEAN || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_RMS || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
====Thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich emission around the Coma and Virgo clusters====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_SZ-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_SZ-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-SZ<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Y_ML || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Y_MEAN || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|Y_RMS || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===High-resolution temperature products===<br />
<br />
High-resolution foreground products at 7.5 arcmin FWHM are derived with the same algorithm as for the low-resolution analyses, but including frequency channels above (and including) 143 GHz. These data products include the following:<br />
<br />
====CO J2->1 emission====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CO21-commander_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CO21-commander_2048_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 7.5 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-CO21<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_FULL || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Full-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "First year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "Second year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
====Thermal dust emission====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_ThermalDust-commander_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_ThermalDust-commander_2048_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 7.5 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 545 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-dust<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_FULL || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Full-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "First year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "Second year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_FULL || Real*4 || NA || Full-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || NA || First half-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || NA || Second half-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || NA || First half-ring emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || NA || Second half-ring emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || NA || "First year" emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || NA || "Second year" emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Polarization products===<br />
<br />
Two polarization foreground products are provided, namely synchrotron and thermal dust emission. The spectral models are assumed identical to the corresponding temperature spectral models.<br />
<br />
====Synchrotron emission====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_SynchrotronPol-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_SynchrotronPol-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 40 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 30 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-SynchrotronPol<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_FULL || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Full-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_FULL || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Full-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "First year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "First year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "Second year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "Second year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
====Thermal dust emission====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_DustPol-commander_1024_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_DustPol-commander_1024_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 1024<br />
: Angular resolution = 10 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 353 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-DustPol<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_FULL || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Full-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_FULL || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Full-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "First year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "First year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "Second year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "Second year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|007]]</div>Heriksenhttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=CMB_and_astrophysical_component_maps&diff=10823CMB and astrophysical component maps2015-02-01T12:07:55Z<p>Heriksen: /* Astrophysical foregrounds from parametric component separation */</p>
<hr />
<div>== Overview ==<br />
This section describes the maps of astrophysical components produced from the Planck data. These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps described above using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of the product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITS file containing the data and associated information.<br />
All the details can be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
==CMB maps==<br />
CMB maps have been produced by the COMMANDER, NILC, SEVEM, and SMICA pipelines, which are described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation | CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and references therein.. For each pipeline we provide:<br />
* Full-mission CMB intensity map, confidence mask and beam transfer function.<br />
* Full-mission high-pass filtered CMB polarisation map, <br />
* A confidence mask.<br />
* A beam transfer function.<br />
In addition, and for characterisation purposes, there are six other sets of maps from three data splits: first/second half-ring, odd/even years and first/second half-mission. And for each of these data splits we provide half-sum and half-difference maps. The half-difference maps can be used to provide an approximate noise estimate for the full mission, but they should be used with caution. Each split has caveats in this regard: there are noise correlations between the half-ring maps, and missing pixels in the other splits. The Intensity maps are provided at Nside = 2048, at 5 arcmin resolution, while the Polarisation ones are provided at Nside = 1024 at 10 arcmin resolution. All maps are in units of K<sub>cmb</sub>.<br />
<br />
These maps can be found in the files <br />
* ''COM_CMB_IQU-{pipeline}-field-{Int/Pol}_Nside_R2.00.fits''. <br />
The ''Int'' files have two extensions, for the Intensity maps and the beam transfer function, the ''Pol'' files have three extensions, for Q and U maps, and for the beam transfer function.<br />
For a complete description of the data structure, see the [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
The gallery below shows the Intensity, noise from half-mission, half-difference, and confidence mask for the four pipelines, in the order SMICA, SEVEM, NILC and COMMANDER, from top to bottom. The Intensity maps scale is [–500.+500] μK, and the noise are between [–25,+25] μK. We do not show the Q and U maps since they have no significant visible structure to contemplate.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=300px heights=180> <br />
File:CMB_commander_tsig.png | '''commander temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tnoi.png | '''commander noise'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tmask.png | '''commander mask'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tsig.png | '''nilc temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tnoi.png | '''nilc noise'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tmask.png | '''nilc mask'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tsig.png | '''sevem temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tnoi.png | '''sevem noise'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tmask.png | '''sevem mask'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tsig.png | '''smica temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tnoi.png | '''smica noise'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tmask.png | '''smica mask'''</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
===Product description ===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: COMMANDER is a Planck software code implementing pixel based Bayesian parametric component separation. Each astrophysical signal component is modelled in terms of a small number of free parameters per pixel, typically in terms of an amplitude at a given reference frequency and a small set of spectral parameters, and these are fitted to the data with an MCMC Gibbs sampling algorithm. Instrumental parameters, including calibration, bandpass corrections, monopole and dipoles, are fitted jointly with the astrophysical components. A new feature in the Planck 2015 analysis is that the astrophysical model is derived from a combination of Planck, WMAP and a 408 MHz (Haslam et al. 1982) survey, providing sufficient frequency support to resolve the low-frequency components into synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust. For full details, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The Commander sky maps have different angular resolutions depending on data products:<br />
* The components of the full astrophysical sky model derived from the complete data combination (Planck, WMAP, 408 MHz) have a 1 degree FWHM resolution, and are pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=256. The corresponding CMB map defines the input map for the low-l Planck 2015 temperature likelihood. <br />
* The Commander CMB temperature map derived from Planck-only observations have an angular resolution of ~5 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=2048. This map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-857 GHz data), 7.5 arcmin (using 143-857 GHz data), and 5 arcmin (using 217-857 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
* The Commander CMB polarization map has an angular resolution of 10 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=1024. As for the temperature case, this map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-353 GHz data) and 10 arcmin (using 100-353 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The Commander confidence masks are produced by thresholding the chi-square map characterizing the global fits, combined with direct CO amplitude thresholding to eliminate known leakage effects. In addition, we exclude the 9-year WMAP point source mask in the temperature mask. For full details, see Sections 5 and 6 in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}. A total of 81% of the sky is admitted for high-resolution temperature analysis, and 83% for polarization analysis. For low-resolution temperature analysis, for which the additional WMAP and 408 MHz observations improve foreground constraints, a total of 93% of the sky is admitted. <br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: The Needlet-ILC (hereafter NILC) CMB map is constructed both in total intensity as well as polarization, Q and U Stokes parameters. For total intensity, all Planck frequency channels are included. For polarization, all polarization sensitive frequency channels are included, from 30 to 353 GHz. The solution, for T, Q and U is obtained by applying the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) technique in needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range. <br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The spectral analysis, and estimation of the NILC coefficients, is performed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math>. The effective beam is equivalent of a Gaussian circular beam with FWHM=5 arcminutes. <br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The same procedure is followed by SMICA and NILC for producing confidence masks, though with different parametrizations. A low resolution smoothed version of the NILC map, noise subtracted, is thresholded to 73.5 squared micro-K for T, and 6,75 squared micro-K for Q and U.<br />
<br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
:SEVEM produces clean CMB maps at several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting in real space. The templates are typically constructed from the lowest and highest Planck frequencies and then subtracted from the CMB-dominated channels, with coefficients that are chosen to minimize the variance of the clean map outside a considered mask. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. Two single frequency clean maps are then combined to obtain the final CMB map.<br />
<br />
;Resolution<br />
<br />
:For intensity the clean CMB map is constructed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math> at Nside=2048 and at the standard resolution of 5 arcminutes (Gaussian beam).<br />
:For polarization the clean CMB map is produced at Nside=1024 with a resolution of 10 arcminutes (Gaussian beam) and a maximum <math>\ell=3071</math>.<br />
<br />
;Confidence masks<br />
<br />
:The confidence masks cover the most contaminated regions of the sky, leaving approximately 85 per cent of useful sky for intensity and 80 per cent for polarization.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces CMBs map by linearly combining all Planck input channels with multipole-dependent weights. It includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>. Temperature and polarization maps are produced independently.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA intensity map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes which is truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math> and is '''not''' deconvolved from the pixel window function. Thus the delivered beam window function is the product of a Gaussian beam at 5 arcminutes and the pixel window function for Nside=2048.<br />
: The SMICA Q and U maps are obtained similarly but are produced at Nside=1024 with an effective beam of 10 arc-minutes (to be multiplied by the pixel window function, as for the intensity map).<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. See section below detailing the production process.<br />
<br />
===Production process===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky maps are first convolved to a common resolution that is larger than the largest beam of any frequency channel. For the combined Planck, WMAP and 408 MHz temperature analysis, the common resolution is 1 degree FWHM; for the Planck-only all-frequency analysis it is 40 arcmin FWHM; and for the intermediate-resolution analysis it is 7.5 arcmin; while for the full-resolution analysis, we assume all frequencies between 217 and 857 GHz have a common resolution, and no additional convolution is performed. For polarization, only two smoothing scales are employed, 40 and 10 arcmin, respectively. The instrumental noise rms maps are convolved correspondingly, properly accouting for their matrix-like nature. <br />
<br />
; Priors<br />
<br />
: The following priors are enforced in the Commander analysis:<br />
* All foreground amplitudes are enforced to be positive definite in the low-resolution analysis, while no amplitude priors are enforced in the high-resolution analyses<br />
* Monopoles and dipoles are fixed to nominal values for a small set of reference frequencies<br />
* Gaussian priors are enforced on spectral parameters, with values informed by the values derived in the high signal-to-noise areas of the sky<br />
* The Jeffreys ignorance prior is enforced on spectral parameters in addition to the informative Gaussian priors<br />
<br />
; Fitting procedure<br />
<br />
: Given data and priors, Commander either maximizes, or samples from, the Bayesian posterior, P(theta|data). Because this is a highly non-Gaussian and correlated distribution, involving millions of parameters, these operations are performed by means of the Gibbs sampling algorithm, in which joint samples from the full distributions are generated by iteratively sampling from the corresponding conditional posterior distributions, P(theta_i| data, theta_{j/=i}). For the low-resolution analysis, all parameters are optimized jointly, while in the high-resolution analyses, which employs fewer frequency channels, low signal-to-noise parameters are fixed to those derived at low resolution. Examples of such parameters include monopoles and dipoles, calibration and bandpass parameters, thermal dust temperature etc.<br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky frequency maps are deconvolved using the DPC beam transfer function provided, and re-convolved with a 5 arcminutes FWHM circular Gaussian beam. In polarization, prior to the smoothing process, all sky E and B maps are derived from Q and U using standard HEALPix tools from each individual frequency channels <br />
<br />
; Linear combination<br />
<br />
: Pre-processed input frequency maps are decomposed in needlet coefficients, specified in the Appendix B of the Planck A11 paper, with shape given by Table B.1. Minimum variance coefficients are then obtained, using all channels for T, from 30 to 353 for E and B. <br />
<br />
; Post-processing<br />
<br />
: E and B maps are re-combined into Q and U products using standard HEALPix tools. <br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
<br />
The templates used in the SEVEM pipeline are typically constructed by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMB map at that frequency. This is done in real space at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. The <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. Note that the same expression applies for I, Q and U. Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of clean maps at different frequencies is of great interest in order to test the robustness of the results. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned independently and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
;Intensity<br />
<br />
For the CMB intensity map, we have cleaned the 100 GHz, 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps using a total of four templates. Three of them are constructed as the difference of two consecutive Planck channels smoothed to a common resolution (30-44, 44-70 and 545-353) while the 857 GHz channel is chosen as the fourth template. First of all, the six frequency channels which are going to be part of the templates are inpainted at the point source positions detected using the Mexican Hat Wavelet algorithm. The size of the holes to be inpainted is determined taking into account the beam size of the channel as well as the flux of each source. The inpainting algorithm is based on simple diffuse inpainting, which fills one pixel with the mean value of the neighbouring pixels in an iterative way. To avoid inconsistencies when subtracting two channels, each frequency map is inpainted on the sources detected in that map and on the second map (if any) used to construct the template. Then the maps are smoothed to a common resolution (the first channel in the subtraction is smoothed with the beam of the second map and viceversa). For the 857 GHz template, we simply filter the inpainted map with the 545 GHz beam.<br />
<br />
The coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance outside the analysis mask, that covers the 1 per cent brightest emission of the sky as well as point sources detected at all frequency channels. Once the maps are cleaned, each of them is inpainted on the point sources positions detected at that (raw) channel. Then, the MHW algorithm is run again, now on the clean maps. A relatively small number of new sources are found and are also inpainted at each channel. The resolution of the clean map is the same as that of the original data. Our final CMB map is then constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask is produced by studying the differences between several SEVEM CMB reconstructions, which correspond to maps cleaned at different frequencies or using different analysis masks. The obtained mask leaves a useful sky fraction of approximately 85 per cent.<br />
<br />
;Polarization<br />
<br />
<br />
To clean the polarization maps, a procedure similar to the one used for intensity data is applied to the $Q$ and $U$ maps independently. However, given that a narrower frequency coverage is available for polarization, the selected templates and maps to be cleaned are different. In particular, we clean the 70, 100 and 143 GHz using three templates for each channel. The first step of the pipeline is to inpaint the positions of the point sources using the MHW, in those channels which are going to be used in the construction of templates, following the same procedure as for the intensity case. The inpainting is performed in the frequency maps at their native resolution. These inpainted maps are then used to construct a total of four templates. To trace the synchrotron emission, we construct a template as the subtraction of the 30 GHz minus the 44 GHz <br />
map, after being convolved with the beam of each other. For the dust emission, the following templates are considered: 353--217 GHz (smoothed at 10$'$ resolution), 217--143 GHz (used <br />
to clean 70 and 100 GHz) and 217--100 GHz (to clean 143 GHz). These two last templates are constructed at 1 degree resolution since an additional smoothing becomes necessary in<br />
order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the template. Conversely to the <br />
intensity case and due to the lower availability of frequency channels, it becomes necessary to use the maps to be cleaned as part of one of the templates. In this way, the 100 GHz <br />
map is used to clean the 143 GHz frequency channel and viceversa, making the clean maps less independent between them than in the intensity case.<br />
<br />
These templates are then used to clean the non-inpainted 70 (at its native resolution), 100 (at 10$'$ resolution) and 143 GHz maps (also at 10$'$). The corresponding linear coefficients are estimated independently for $Q$ and $U$ by minimising the variance of the clean maps outside a mask, that covers point sources and the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission. Once the maps have been cleaned, inpainting of the point sources detected at the corresponding raw maps is carried out. The size of the holes to be inpainted takes<br />
into account the additional smoothing of the 100 and 143 GHz maps. The 100 and 143 GHz clean maps are then combined in harmonic space, using $E$ and $B$ decomposition, to produce the final CMB maps for the $Q$ and $U$ components at a resolution of 10$'$ (Gaussian beam) for a HEALPix parameter Nside=1024. Each map is weighted taking into account its <br />
corresponding noise level at each multipole. Finally, before applying the post-processing HPF to the clean polarization data, the region with the brightest Galactic residuals is inpainted (5 per cent of the sky) to avoid the introduction of ringing around the Galactic centre in the filtering process.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask includes all the pixels above a given threshold in a smoothed version of the clean CMB map, the regions more contaminated by the CO emission and those pixels more affected by the high-pass filtering, leaving a useful sky fraction of approximately 80 per cent.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
<br />
A) Production of the intensity map.<br />
<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: Before computing spherical harmonic coefficients, all input maps undergo a pre-processing step to deal with regions of very strong emission (such as the Galactic center) and point sources. The point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue are fitted in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole is filled in by a simple diffusive process to ensure a smooth transition and mitigate spectral leakage. The diffusive inpainting process is also applied to some regions of very strong emissions. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, here all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and filled-in similarly.<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHz are harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> and co-added with multipole-dependent weights as shown in the figure.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: A confidence mask is determined (see the Planck paper) and all regions which have been masked in the pre-processing step are added to it.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filter_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input intensity maps (after they are re-beamed to 5 arc-minutes and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), as a function of multipole.''']]--><br />
<br />
B) Production of the Q and U polarisation maps.<br />
<br />
The production of the Q and U maps is similar to the production of the intensity map. The SMICA pipeline uses all the 7 polarized Planck channels. After point source masking and diffusive inpainting, the E and B modes are computed and combined to produce E and B modes of the CMB map. Those combined modes are then used to synthesize the U and Q CMB maps. The E and B parts of the input frequency maps being processed jointly, there are, at each multipole, 2*7=14 coefficients (weights) defined to produce the E modes of the CMB map and as many to produce the B part. The weights are displayed in the figure below. The Q and U maps were originally produced at Nside=2048 with a 5-arc-minute resolution, but were downgraded to Nside=1024 with a 10 arc-minute resolution for this release.<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filterEB_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input E and B modes (after they are re-beamed to 5 arcmin and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), in order to produce the E and B modes of the CMB map. A given frequency channel is encoded in a given color. Solid lines are for E modes and dashed lines are for B modes. The thick lines are for the EE or BB weights; the thin lines are for the EB or BE weights. See the paper for more details.''']]--><br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. SMICA and SEVEM use all the maps between 30 and 857 GHz; NILC uses the ones between 44 and 857 GHz. Commander-Ruler uses frequency channel maps from 30 to 353 GHz. <br />
<br />
===File names and structure===<br />
The FITS files corresponding to the three CMB products are the following:<br />
<br />
''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}-field-{Int,Pol}_Nside_R2.nn.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''method'' is mica, nilc, sevem, or commander, and Int and Pol indicate whether the file contains the temperature (Int) or the polarisation (Pol) maps. For this release the temperature maps are provided at Nside = 2048, and the polarisation maps at Nside = 1024. <br />
<br />
The files contain <br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data;<br />
* one or two ''BINTABLE'' data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 14 columns in which the first 13 columns is a CMB maps produced from the full or a subset of the data, as described in the table below, and the last column in a confidence mask. There is a single extension for ''Int'' files, and two, for Q and U, for ''Pol'' files. <br />
* a ''BINTABLE'' extension containing the beam window function.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I or Q or U || Real*4 || uK_cmb || I or Q or U map <br />
|- <br />
|HM1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HM2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 2 <br />
|-<br />
|YR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 1 <br />
|-<br />
|YR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HMHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HMHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|YRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|YRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|HRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half diff <br />
|-<br />
|MASK || BYTE || || Confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (smica/nilc/sevem/commander)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Notes:<br />
# The beam window function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>.<br />
<br />
<!--- mi sembra che questa non serva più <br />
The low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler CMB product is organized in the following way:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK_cmb || CMB temperature map obtained as average over 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Corresponding Standard deviation amongst the 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Confidence mask<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. EXTNAME = ''CMB-Sample'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM01 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM02 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM03 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM04 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM05 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM06 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM07 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM08 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM09 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM10 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
<!---- anche queste non servono più <br />
<br />
The FITS files containing the ''union'' (or common) maks is:<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-union_2048_R1.10.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common}}<br />
which contains a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with a single column (named ''U73'') for the mask, which is boolean (FITS ''TFORM = B''), in GALACTIC coordinates, NESTED ordering, and Nside=2048.<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for a small file containing the SMICA cmb map with no additional information (noise or masks) we provide such a file here<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
This file contains a single extension with a single column containing the SMICA cmb temperature map.<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
== Astrophysical foregrounds from parametric component separation ==<br />
We describe diffuse foreground products for the Planck 2015 release. See the Planck Foregrounds Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}} for a detailed description of these products. Further scientific discussion and interpretation may be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a31}}.<br />
<br />
===Low-resolution temperature products===<br />
<br />
: The Planck 2015 astrophysical component separation analysis combines Planck observations with the 9-year WMAP temperature sky maps (Bennett et al. 2013) and the 408 MHz survey by Haslam et al. (1982). This allows a direct decomposition of the low-frequency foregrounds into separate synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust components without strong spatial priors. The full set of data products derived from the low-resolution joint analysis are the following:<br />
<br />
====Inputs====<br />
<br />
The following data products are used for the low-resolution analysis:<br />
* Full-mission 30 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=30|period=Full|link=LFI 30 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 44 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=44|period=Full|link=LFI 44 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 70 GHz ds1 (18+23), ds2 (19+22), and ds3 (20+21) detector-set maps<br />
* Full-mission 100 GHz ds1 and ds2 detector set maps<br />
* Full-mission 143 GHz ds1 and ds2 detector set maps and detectors 5, 6, and 7 maps<br />
* Full-mission 217 GHz detector 1, 2, 3 and 4 maps<br />
* Full-mission 353 GHz detector set ds2 and detector 1 maps<br />
* Full-mission 545 GHz detector 2 and 4 maps<br />
* Full-mission 857 GHz detector 2 map<br />
* Beam-symmetrized 9-year WMAP K-band map<br />
* Beam-symmetrized 9-year WMAP Ka-band map<br />
* Default 9-year WMAP Q1 and Q2 differencing assembly maps<br />
* Default 9-year WMAP V1 and V2 differencing assembly maps<br />
* Default 9-year WMAP W1, W2, W3, and W4 differencing assembly maps<br />
* 408 MHz survey map, Haslam et al. (1982)<br />
All maps are smoothed to a common resolution of 1 degree FWHM by deconvolving their original instrumental beam and pixel window, and convolving with the new common Gaussian beam, and repixelizing at Nside=256. <br />
<br />
<br />
====Synchrotron emission====<br />
<br />
<!--<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=800px heights=500px> <br />
File:commander_synch_amp.png | '''Commander low-resolution synchrotron amplitude'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center>--><br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: 408 MHz<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-Synchrotron<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
====Free-free emission====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: NA<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-freefree<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|EM_ML || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|EM_MEAN || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|EM_RMS || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_ML || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_MEAN || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_RMS || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
====Spinning dust emission====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The spinning dust component has two independent constituents, each corresponding to one spdust2 component, but with different peak frequencies. The two components are stored in the two first FITS extensions, and the template frequency spectrum is stored in the third extension. <br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 22.8 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-AME1<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_ML || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_MEAN || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_RMS || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 41.0 GHz<br />
: Peak frequency: 33.35 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- COMP-MAP-AME2<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 2 -- SPINNING-DUST-TEMP<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|nu || Real*4 || GHz || Frequency <br />
|-<br />
|j_nu/nH || Real*4 || Jy sr-1 cm2/H || spdust2 spectrum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
====CO line emission====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CO-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CO-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The CO line emission component has three independent objects, corresponding to the J1->0, 2->1 and 3->2 lines, stored in separate extensions. <br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-co10<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- COMP-MAP-co21<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 2 -- COMP-MAP-co32<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
====94/100 GHz line emission====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_xline-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_xline-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-xline<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Note: The amplitude of this component is normalized according to the 100-ds1 detector set map, ie., it is the amplitude as measured by this detector combination.<br />
<br />
====Thermal dust emission====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_dust-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_dust-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 545 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-dust<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_ML || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_MEAN || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_RMS || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_MEAN || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_RMS || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
====Thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich emission around the Coma and Virgo clusters====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_SZ-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_SZ-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-SZ<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Y_ML || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Y_MEAN || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|Y_RMS || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===High-resolution temperature products===<br />
<br />
High-resolution foreground products at 7.5 arcmin FWHM are derived with the same algorithm as for the low-resolution analyses, but including frequency channels above (and including) 143 GHz. These data products include the following:<br />
<br />
====CO J2->1 emission====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CO21-commander_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CO21-commander_2048_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 7.5 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-CO21<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_FULL || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Full-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "First year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "Second year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
====Thermal dust emission====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_ThermalDust-commander_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_ThermalDust-commander_2048_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 7.5 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 545 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-dust<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_FULL || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Full-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "First year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "Second year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_FULL || Real*4 || NA || Full-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || NA || First half-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || NA || Second half-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || NA || First half-ring emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || NA || Second half-ring emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || NA || "First year" emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || NA || "Second year" emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Polarization products===<br />
<br />
Two polarization foreground products are provided, namely synchrotron and thermal dust emission. The spectral models are assumed identical to the corresponding temperature spectral models.<br />
<br />
====Synchrotron emission====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_SynchrotronPol-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_SynchrotronPol-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 40 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 30 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-SynchrotronPol<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_FULL || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Full-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_FULL || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Full-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "First year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "First year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "Second year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "Second year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
====Thermal dust emission====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_DustPol-commander_1024_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_DustPol-commander_1024_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 1024<br />
: Angular resolution = 10 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 353 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-DustPol<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_FULL || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Full-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_FULL || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Full-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "First year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "First year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "Second year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "Second year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|007]]</div>Heriksenhttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=CMB_and_astrophysical_component_maps&diff=10822CMB and astrophysical component maps2015-02-01T11:57:51Z<p>Heriksen: /* Synchrotron emission */</p>
<hr />
<div>== Overview ==<br />
This section describes the maps of astrophysical components produced from the Planck data. These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps described above using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of the product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITS file containing the data and associated information.<br />
All the details can be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
==CMB maps==<br />
CMB maps have been produced by the COMMANDER, NILC, SEVEM, and SMICA pipelines, which are described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation | CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and references therein.. For each pipeline we provide:<br />
* Full-mission CMB intensity map, confidence mask and beam transfer function.<br />
* Full-mission high-pass filtered CMB polarisation map, <br />
* A confidence mask.<br />
* A beam transfer function.<br />
In addition, and for characterisation purposes, there are six other sets of maps from three data splits: first/second half-ring, odd/even years and first/second half-mission. And for each of these data splits we provide half-sum and half-difference maps. The half-difference maps can be used to provide an approximate noise estimate for the full mission, but they should be used with caution. Each split has caveats in this regard: there are noise correlations between the half-ring maps, and missing pixels in the other splits. The Intensity maps are provided at Nside = 2048, at 5 arcmin resolution, while the Polarisation ones are provided at Nside = 1024 at 10 arcmin resolution. All maps are in units of K<sub>cmb</sub>.<br />
<br />
These maps can be found in the files <br />
* ''COM_CMB_IQU-{pipeline}-field-{Int/Pol}_Nside_R2.00.fits''. <br />
The ''Int'' files have two extensions, for the Intensity maps and the beam transfer function, the ''Pol'' files have three extensions, for Q and U maps, and for the beam transfer function.<br />
For a complete description of the data structure, see the [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
The gallery below shows the Intensity, noise from half-mission, half-difference, and confidence mask for the four pipelines, in the order SMICA, SEVEM, NILC and COMMANDER, from top to bottom. The Intensity maps scale is [–500.+500] μK, and the noise are between [–25,+25] μK. We do not show the Q and U maps since they have no significant visible structure to contemplate.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=300px heights=180> <br />
File:CMB_commander_tsig.png | '''commander temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tnoi.png | '''commander noise'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tmask.png | '''commander mask'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tsig.png | '''nilc temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tnoi.png | '''nilc noise'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tmask.png | '''nilc mask'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tsig.png | '''sevem temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tnoi.png | '''sevem noise'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tmask.png | '''sevem mask'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tsig.png | '''smica temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tnoi.png | '''smica noise'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tmask.png | '''smica mask'''</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
===Product description ===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: COMMANDER is a Planck software code implementing pixel based Bayesian parametric component separation. Each astrophysical signal component is modelled in terms of a small number of free parameters per pixel, typically in terms of an amplitude at a given reference frequency and a small set of spectral parameters, and these are fitted to the data with an MCMC Gibbs sampling algorithm. Instrumental parameters, including calibration, bandpass corrections, monopole and dipoles, are fitted jointly with the astrophysical components. A new feature in the Planck 2015 analysis is that the astrophysical model is derived from a combination of Planck, WMAP and a 408 MHz (Haslam et al. 1982) survey, providing sufficient frequency support to resolve the low-frequency components into synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust. For full details, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The Commander sky maps have different angular resolutions depending on data products:<br />
* The components of the full astrophysical sky model derived from the complete data combination (Planck, WMAP, 408 MHz) have a 1 degree FWHM resolution, and are pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=256. The corresponding CMB map defines the input map for the low-l Planck 2015 temperature likelihood. <br />
* The Commander CMB temperature map derived from Planck-only observations have an angular resolution of ~5 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=2048. This map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-857 GHz data), 7.5 arcmin (using 143-857 GHz data), and 5 arcmin (using 217-857 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
* The Commander CMB polarization map has an angular resolution of 10 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=1024. As for the temperature case, this map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-353 GHz data) and 10 arcmin (using 100-353 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The Commander confidence masks are produced by thresholding the chi-square map characterizing the global fits, combined with direct CO amplitude thresholding to eliminate known leakage effects. In addition, we exclude the 9-year WMAP point source mask in the temperature mask. For full details, see Sections 5 and 6 in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}. A total of 81% of the sky is admitted for high-resolution temperature analysis, and 83% for polarization analysis. For low-resolution temperature analysis, for which the additional WMAP and 408 MHz observations improve foreground constraints, a total of 93% of the sky is admitted. <br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: The Needlet-ILC (hereafter NILC) CMB map is constructed both in total intensity as well as polarization, Q and U Stokes parameters. For total intensity, all Planck frequency channels are included. For polarization, all polarization sensitive frequency channels are included, from 30 to 353 GHz. The solution, for T, Q and U is obtained by applying the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) technique in needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range. <br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The spectral analysis, and estimation of the NILC coefficients, is performed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math>. The effective beam is equivalent of a Gaussian circular beam with FWHM=5 arcminutes. <br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The same procedure is followed by SMICA and NILC for producing confidence masks, though with different parametrizations. A low resolution smoothed version of the NILC map, noise subtracted, is thresholded to 73.5 squared micro-K for T, and 6,75 squared micro-K for Q and U.<br />
<br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
:SEVEM produces clean CMB maps at several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting in real space. The templates are typically constructed from the lowest and highest Planck frequencies and then subtracted from the CMB-dominated channels, with coefficients that are chosen to minimize the variance of the clean map outside a considered mask. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. Two single frequency clean maps are then combined to obtain the final CMB map.<br />
<br />
;Resolution<br />
<br />
:For intensity the clean CMB map is constructed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math> at Nside=2048 and at the standard resolution of 5 arcminutes (Gaussian beam).<br />
:For polarization the clean CMB map is produced at Nside=1024 with a resolution of 10 arcminutes (Gaussian beam) and a maximum <math>\ell=3071</math>.<br />
<br />
;Confidence masks<br />
<br />
:The confidence masks cover the most contaminated regions of the sky, leaving approximately 85 per cent of useful sky for intensity and 80 per cent for polarization.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces CMBs map by linearly combining all Planck input channels with multipole-dependent weights. It includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>. Temperature and polarization maps are produced independently.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA intensity map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes which is truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math> and is '''not''' deconvolved from the pixel window function. Thus the delivered beam window function is the product of a Gaussian beam at 5 arcminutes and the pixel window function for Nside=2048.<br />
: The SMICA Q and U maps are obtained similarly but are produced at Nside=1024 with an effective beam of 10 arc-minutes (to be multiplied by the pixel window function, as for the intensity map).<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. See section below detailing the production process.<br />
<br />
===Production process===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky maps are first convolved to a common resolution that is larger than the largest beam of any frequency channel. For the combined Planck, WMAP and 408 MHz temperature analysis, the common resolution is 1 degree FWHM; for the Planck-only all-frequency analysis it is 40 arcmin FWHM; and for the intermediate-resolution analysis it is 7.5 arcmin; while for the full-resolution analysis, we assume all frequencies between 217 and 857 GHz have a common resolution, and no additional convolution is performed. For polarization, only two smoothing scales are employed, 40 and 10 arcmin, respectively. The instrumental noise rms maps are convolved correspondingly, properly accouting for their matrix-like nature. <br />
<br />
; Priors<br />
<br />
: The following priors are enforced in the Commander analysis:<br />
* All foreground amplitudes are enforced to be positive definite in the low-resolution analysis, while no amplitude priors are enforced in the high-resolution analyses<br />
* Monopoles and dipoles are fixed to nominal values for a small set of reference frequencies<br />
* Gaussian priors are enforced on spectral parameters, with values informed by the values derived in the high signal-to-noise areas of the sky<br />
* The Jeffreys ignorance prior is enforced on spectral parameters in addition to the informative Gaussian priors<br />
<br />
; Fitting procedure<br />
<br />
: Given data and priors, Commander either maximizes, or samples from, the Bayesian posterior, P(theta|data). Because this is a highly non-Gaussian and correlated distribution, involving millions of parameters, these operations are performed by means of the Gibbs sampling algorithm, in which joint samples from the full distributions are generated by iteratively sampling from the corresponding conditional posterior distributions, P(theta_i| data, theta_{j/=i}). For the low-resolution analysis, all parameters are optimized jointly, while in the high-resolution analyses, which employs fewer frequency channels, low signal-to-noise parameters are fixed to those derived at low resolution. Examples of such parameters include monopoles and dipoles, calibration and bandpass parameters, thermal dust temperature etc.<br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky frequency maps are deconvolved using the DPC beam transfer function provided, and re-convolved with a 5 arcminutes FWHM circular Gaussian beam. In polarization, prior to the smoothing process, all sky E and B maps are derived from Q and U using standard HEALPix tools from each individual frequency channels <br />
<br />
; Linear combination<br />
<br />
: Pre-processed input frequency maps are decomposed in needlet coefficients, specified in the Appendix B of the Planck A11 paper, with shape given by Table B.1. Minimum variance coefficients are then obtained, using all channels for T, from 30 to 353 for E and B. <br />
<br />
; Post-processing<br />
<br />
: E and B maps are re-combined into Q and U products using standard HEALPix tools. <br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
<br />
The templates used in the SEVEM pipeline are typically constructed by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMB map at that frequency. This is done in real space at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. The <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. Note that the same expression applies for I, Q and U. Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of clean maps at different frequencies is of great interest in order to test the robustness of the results. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned independently and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
;Intensity<br />
<br />
For the CMB intensity map, we have cleaned the 100 GHz, 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps using a total of four templates. Three of them are constructed as the difference of two consecutive Planck channels smoothed to a common resolution (30-44, 44-70 and 545-353) while the 857 GHz channel is chosen as the fourth template. First of all, the six frequency channels which are going to be part of the templates are inpainted at the point source positions detected using the Mexican Hat Wavelet algorithm. The size of the holes to be inpainted is determined taking into account the beam size of the channel as well as the flux of each source. The inpainting algorithm is based on simple diffuse inpainting, which fills one pixel with the mean value of the neighbouring pixels in an iterative way. To avoid inconsistencies when subtracting two channels, each frequency map is inpainted on the sources detected in that map and on the second map (if any) used to construct the template. Then the maps are smoothed to a common resolution (the first channel in the subtraction is smoothed with the beam of the second map and viceversa). For the 857 GHz template, we simply filter the inpainted map with the 545 GHz beam.<br />
<br />
The coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance outside the analysis mask, that covers the 1 per cent brightest emission of the sky as well as point sources detected at all frequency channels. Once the maps are cleaned, each of them is inpainted on the point sources positions detected at that (raw) channel. Then, the MHW algorithm is run again, now on the clean maps. A relatively small number of new sources are found and are also inpainted at each channel. The resolution of the clean map is the same as that of the original data. Our final CMB map is then constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask is produced by studying the differences between several SEVEM CMB reconstructions, which correspond to maps cleaned at different frequencies or using different analysis masks. The obtained mask leaves a useful sky fraction of approximately 85 per cent.<br />
<br />
;Polarization<br />
<br />
<br />
To clean the polarization maps, a procedure similar to the one used for intensity data is applied to the $Q$ and $U$ maps independently. However, given that a narrower frequency coverage is available for polarization, the selected templates and maps to be cleaned are different. In particular, we clean the 70, 100 and 143 GHz using three templates for each channel. The first step of the pipeline is to inpaint the positions of the point sources using the MHW, in those channels which are going to be used in the construction of templates, following the same procedure as for the intensity case. The inpainting is performed in the frequency maps at their native resolution. These inpainted maps are then used to construct a total of four templates. To trace the synchrotron emission, we construct a template as the subtraction of the 30 GHz minus the 44 GHz <br />
map, after being convolved with the beam of each other. For the dust emission, the following templates are considered: 353--217 GHz (smoothed at 10$'$ resolution), 217--143 GHz (used <br />
to clean 70 and 100 GHz) and 217--100 GHz (to clean 143 GHz). These two last templates are constructed at 1 degree resolution since an additional smoothing becomes necessary in<br />
order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the template. Conversely to the <br />
intensity case and due to the lower availability of frequency channels, it becomes necessary to use the maps to be cleaned as part of one of the templates. In this way, the 100 GHz <br />
map is used to clean the 143 GHz frequency channel and viceversa, making the clean maps less independent between them than in the intensity case.<br />
<br />
These templates are then used to clean the non-inpainted 70 (at its native resolution), 100 (at 10$'$ resolution) and 143 GHz maps (also at 10$'$). The corresponding linear coefficients are estimated independently for $Q$ and $U$ by minimising the variance of the clean maps outside a mask, that covers point sources and the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission. Once the maps have been cleaned, inpainting of the point sources detected at the corresponding raw maps is carried out. The size of the holes to be inpainted takes<br />
into account the additional smoothing of the 100 and 143 GHz maps. The 100 and 143 GHz clean maps are then combined in harmonic space, using $E$ and $B$ decomposition, to produce the final CMB maps for the $Q$ and $U$ components at a resolution of 10$'$ (Gaussian beam) for a HEALPix parameter Nside=1024. Each map is weighted taking into account its <br />
corresponding noise level at each multipole. Finally, before applying the post-processing HPF to the clean polarization data, the region with the brightest Galactic residuals is inpainted (5 per cent of the sky) to avoid the introduction of ringing around the Galactic centre in the filtering process.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask includes all the pixels above a given threshold in a smoothed version of the clean CMB map, the regions more contaminated by the CO emission and those pixels more affected by the high-pass filtering, leaving a useful sky fraction of approximately 80 per cent.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
<br />
A) Production of the intensity map.<br />
<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: Before computing spherical harmonic coefficients, all input maps undergo a pre-processing step to deal with regions of very strong emission (such as the Galactic center) and point sources. The point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue are fitted in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole is filled in by a simple diffusive process to ensure a smooth transition and mitigate spectral leakage. The diffusive inpainting process is also applied to some regions of very strong emissions. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, here all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and filled-in similarly.<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHz are harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> and co-added with multipole-dependent weights as shown in the figure.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: A confidence mask is determined (see the Planck paper) and all regions which have been masked in the pre-processing step are added to it.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filter_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input intensity maps (after they are re-beamed to 5 arc-minutes and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), as a function of multipole.''']]--><br />
<br />
B) Production of the Q and U polarisation maps.<br />
<br />
The production of the Q and U maps is similar to the production of the intensity map. The SMICA pipeline uses all the 7 polarized Planck channels. After point source masking and diffusive inpainting, the E and B modes are computed and combined to produce E and B modes of the CMB map. Those combined modes are then used to synthesize the U and Q CMB maps. The E and B parts of the input frequency maps being processed jointly, there are, at each multipole, 2*7=14 coefficients (weights) defined to produce the E modes of the CMB map and as many to produce the B part. The weights are displayed in the figure below. The Q and U maps were originally produced at Nside=2048 with a 5-arc-minute resolution, but were downgraded to Nside=1024 with a 10 arc-minute resolution for this release.<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filterEB_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input E and B modes (after they are re-beamed to 5 arcmin and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), in order to produce the E and B modes of the CMB map. A given frequency channel is encoded in a given color. Solid lines are for E modes and dashed lines are for B modes. The thick lines are for the EE or BB weights; the thin lines are for the EB or BE weights. See the paper for more details.''']]--><br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. SMICA and SEVEM use all the maps between 30 and 857 GHz; NILC uses the ones between 44 and 857 GHz. Commander-Ruler uses frequency channel maps from 30 to 353 GHz. <br />
<br />
===File names and structure===<br />
The FITS files corresponding to the three CMB products are the following:<br />
<br />
''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}-field-{Int,Pol}_Nside_R2.nn.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''method'' is mica, nilc, sevem, or commander, and Int and Pol indicate whether the file contains the temperature (Int) or the polarisation (Pol) maps. For this release the temperature maps are provided at Nside = 2048, and the polarisation maps at Nside = 1024. <br />
<br />
The files contain <br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data;<br />
* one or two ''BINTABLE'' data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 14 columns in which the first 13 columns is a CMB maps produced from the full or a subset of the data, as described in the table below, and the last column in a confidence mask. There is a single extension for ''Int'' files, and two, for Q and U, for ''Pol'' files. <br />
* a ''BINTABLE'' extension containing the beam window function.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I or Q or U || Real*4 || uK_cmb || I or Q or U map <br />
|- <br />
|HM1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HM2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 2 <br />
|-<br />
|YR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 1 <br />
|-<br />
|YR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HMHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HMHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|YRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|YRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|HRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half diff <br />
|-<br />
|MASK || BYTE || || Confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (smica/nilc/sevem/commander)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Notes:<br />
# The beam window function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>.<br />
<br />
<!--- mi sembra che questa non serva più <br />
The low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler CMB product is organized in the following way:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK_cmb || CMB temperature map obtained as average over 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Corresponding Standard deviation amongst the 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Confidence mask<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. EXTNAME = ''CMB-Sample'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM01 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM02 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM03 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM04 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM05 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM06 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM07 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM08 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM09 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM10 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
<!---- anche queste non servono più <br />
<br />
The FITS files containing the ''union'' (or common) maks is:<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-union_2048_R1.10.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common}}<br />
which contains a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with a single column (named ''U73'') for the mask, which is boolean (FITS ''TFORM = B''), in GALACTIC coordinates, NESTED ordering, and Nside=2048.<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for a small file containing the SMICA cmb map with no additional information (noise or masks) we provide such a file here<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
This file contains a single extension with a single column containing the SMICA cmb temperature map.<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
== Astrophysical foregrounds from parametric component separation ==<br />
We describe diffuse foreground products for the Planck 2015 release. See the Planck Foregrounds Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}} for a detailed description of these products. Further scientific discussion and interpretation may be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a31}}.<br />
<br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
Nominal frequency maps at 30, 44, 70, 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, 857 GHz ({{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=30|period=Nominal|link=LFI 30 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=44|period=Nominal|link=LFI 44 GHz frequency maps}} and {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=70|period=Nominal|link=LFI 70 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=100|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 100 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=143|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 143 GHz frequency maps}},{{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=217|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 217 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=353|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 353 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=545|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 545 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=857|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 857 GHz frequency maps}}) and their II column corresponding to the noise covariance matrix. <br />
Halfrings at the same frequencies. Beam window functions as reported in the [[The RIMO#Beam Window Functions|LFI and HFI RIMO]].<br />
<br />
<br />
===Low-resolution temperature products===<br />
<br />
: The Planck 2015 astrophysical component separation analysis combines Planck observations with the 9-year WMAP temperature sky maps (Bennett et al. 2013) and the 408 MHz survey by Haslam et al. (1982). This allows a direct decomposition of the low-frequency foregrounds into separate synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust components without strong spatial priors. The full set of data products derived from the low-resolution joint analysis are the following:<br />
<br />
=====Synchrotron emission=====<br />
<br />
<!--<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=800px heights=500px> <br />
File:commander_synch_amp.png | '''Commander low-resolution synchrotron amplitude'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center>--><br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: 408 MHz<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-Synchrotron<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Free-free emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: NA<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-freefree<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|EM_ML || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|EM_MEAN || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|EM_RMS || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_ML || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_MEAN || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_RMS || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Spinning dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The spinning dust component has two independent constituents, each corresponding to one spdust2 component, but with different peak frequencies. The two components are stored in the two first FITS extensions, and the template frequency spectrum is stored in the third extension. <br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 22.8 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-AME1<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_ML || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_MEAN || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_RMS || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 41.0 GHz<br />
: Peak frequency: 33.35 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- COMP-MAP-AME2<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 2 -- SPINNING-DUST-TEMP<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|nu || Real*4 || GHz || Frequency <br />
|-<br />
|j_nu/nH || Real*4 || Jy sr-1 cm2/H || spdust2 spectrum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====CO line emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CO-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CO-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The CO line emission component has three independent objects, corresponding to the J1->0, 2->1 and 3->2 lines, stored in separate extensions. <br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-co10<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- COMP-MAP-co21<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 2 -- COMP-MAP-co32<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====94/100 GHz line emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_xline-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_xline-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-xline<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Note: The amplitude of this component is normalized according to the 100-ds1 detector set map, ie., it is the amplitude as measured by this detector combination.<br />
<br />
=====Thermal dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_dust-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_dust-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 545 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-dust<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_ML || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_MEAN || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_RMS || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_MEAN || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_RMS || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====Thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich emission around the Coma and Virgo clusters=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_SZ-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_SZ-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-SZ<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Y_ML || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Y_MEAN || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|Y_RMS || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===High-resolution temperature products===<br />
<br />
High-resolution foreground products at 7.5 arcmin FWHM are derived with the same algorithm as for the low-resolution analyses, but including frequency channels above (and including) 143 GHz. These data products include the following:<br />
<br />
=====CO J2->1 emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CO21-commander_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CO21-commander_2048_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 7.5 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-CO21<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_FULL || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Full-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "First year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "Second year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Thermal dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_ThermalDust-commander_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_ThermalDust-commander_2048_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 7.5 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 545 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-dust<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_FULL || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Full-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "First year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "Second year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_FULL || Real*4 || NA || Full-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || NA || First half-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || NA || Second half-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || NA || First half-ring emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || NA || Second half-ring emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || NA || "First year" emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || NA || "Second year" emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Polarization products===<br />
<br />
Two polarization foreground products are provided, namely synchrotron and thermal dust emission. The spectral models are assumed identical to the corresponding temperature spectral models.<br />
<br />
=====Synchrotron emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_SynchrotronPol-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_SynchrotronPol-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 40 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 30 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-SynchrotronPol<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_FULL || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Full-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_FULL || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Full-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "First year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "First year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "Second year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "Second year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Thermal dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_DustPol-commander_1024_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_DustPol-commander_1024_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 1024<br />
: Angular resolution = 10 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 353 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-DustPol<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_FULL || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Full-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_FULL || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Full-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "First year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "First year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "Second year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "Second year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|007]]</div>Heriksenhttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=CMB_and_astrophysical_component_maps&diff=10821CMB and astrophysical component maps2015-02-01T11:55:33Z<p>Heriksen: /* High-resolution temperature products */</p>
<hr />
<div>== Overview ==<br />
This section describes the maps of astrophysical components produced from the Planck data. These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps described above using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of the product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITS file containing the data and associated information.<br />
All the details can be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
==CMB maps==<br />
CMB maps have been produced by the COMMANDER, NILC, SEVEM, and SMICA pipelines, which are described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation | CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and references therein.. For each pipeline we provide:<br />
* Full-mission CMB intensity map, confidence mask and beam transfer function.<br />
* Full-mission high-pass filtered CMB polarisation map, <br />
* A confidence mask.<br />
* A beam transfer function.<br />
In addition, and for characterisation purposes, there are six other sets of maps from three data splits: first/second half-ring, odd/even years and first/second half-mission. And for each of these data splits we provide half-sum and half-difference maps. The half-difference maps can be used to provide an approximate noise estimate for the full mission, but they should be used with caution. Each split has caveats in this regard: there are noise correlations between the half-ring maps, and missing pixels in the other splits. The Intensity maps are provided at Nside = 2048, at 5 arcmin resolution, while the Polarisation ones are provided at Nside = 1024 at 10 arcmin resolution. All maps are in units of K<sub>cmb</sub>.<br />
<br />
These maps can be found in the files <br />
* ''COM_CMB_IQU-{pipeline}-field-{Int/Pol}_Nside_R2.00.fits''. <br />
The ''Int'' files have two extensions, for the Intensity maps and the beam transfer function, the ''Pol'' files have three extensions, for Q and U maps, and for the beam transfer function.<br />
For a complete description of the data structure, see the [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
The gallery below shows the Intensity, noise from half-mission, half-difference, and confidence mask for the four pipelines, in the order SMICA, SEVEM, NILC and COMMANDER, from top to bottom. The Intensity maps scale is [–500.+500] μK, and the noise are between [–25,+25] μK. We do not show the Q and U maps since they have no significant visible structure to contemplate.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=300px heights=180> <br />
File:CMB_commander_tsig.png | '''commander temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tnoi.png | '''commander noise'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tmask.png | '''commander mask'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tsig.png | '''nilc temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tnoi.png | '''nilc noise'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tmask.png | '''nilc mask'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tsig.png | '''sevem temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tnoi.png | '''sevem noise'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tmask.png | '''sevem mask'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tsig.png | '''smica temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tnoi.png | '''smica noise'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tmask.png | '''smica mask'''</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
===Product description ===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: COMMANDER is a Planck software code implementing pixel based Bayesian parametric component separation. Each astrophysical signal component is modelled in terms of a small number of free parameters per pixel, typically in terms of an amplitude at a given reference frequency and a small set of spectral parameters, and these are fitted to the data with an MCMC Gibbs sampling algorithm. Instrumental parameters, including calibration, bandpass corrections, monopole and dipoles, are fitted jointly with the astrophysical components. A new feature in the Planck 2015 analysis is that the astrophysical model is derived from a combination of Planck, WMAP and a 408 MHz (Haslam et al. 1982) survey, providing sufficient frequency support to resolve the low-frequency components into synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust. For full details, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The Commander sky maps have different angular resolutions depending on data products:<br />
* The components of the full astrophysical sky model derived from the complete data combination (Planck, WMAP, 408 MHz) have a 1 degree FWHM resolution, and are pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=256. The corresponding CMB map defines the input map for the low-l Planck 2015 temperature likelihood. <br />
* The Commander CMB temperature map derived from Planck-only observations have an angular resolution of ~5 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=2048. This map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-857 GHz data), 7.5 arcmin (using 143-857 GHz data), and 5 arcmin (using 217-857 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
* The Commander CMB polarization map has an angular resolution of 10 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=1024. As for the temperature case, this map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-353 GHz data) and 10 arcmin (using 100-353 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The Commander confidence masks are produced by thresholding the chi-square map characterizing the global fits, combined with direct CO amplitude thresholding to eliminate known leakage effects. In addition, we exclude the 9-year WMAP point source mask in the temperature mask. For full details, see Sections 5 and 6 in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}. A total of 81% of the sky is admitted for high-resolution temperature analysis, and 83% for polarization analysis. For low-resolution temperature analysis, for which the additional WMAP and 408 MHz observations improve foreground constraints, a total of 93% of the sky is admitted. <br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: The Needlet-ILC (hereafter NILC) CMB map is constructed both in total intensity as well as polarization, Q and U Stokes parameters. For total intensity, all Planck frequency channels are included. For polarization, all polarization sensitive frequency channels are included, from 30 to 353 GHz. The solution, for T, Q and U is obtained by applying the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) technique in needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range. <br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The spectral analysis, and estimation of the NILC coefficients, is performed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math>. The effective beam is equivalent of a Gaussian circular beam with FWHM=5 arcminutes. <br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The same procedure is followed by SMICA and NILC for producing confidence masks, though with different parametrizations. A low resolution smoothed version of the NILC map, noise subtracted, is thresholded to 73.5 squared micro-K for T, and 6,75 squared micro-K for Q and U.<br />
<br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
:SEVEM produces clean CMB maps at several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting in real space. The templates are typically constructed from the lowest and highest Planck frequencies and then subtracted from the CMB-dominated channels, with coefficients that are chosen to minimize the variance of the clean map outside a considered mask. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. Two single frequency clean maps are then combined to obtain the final CMB map.<br />
<br />
;Resolution<br />
<br />
:For intensity the clean CMB map is constructed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math> at Nside=2048 and at the standard resolution of 5 arcminutes (Gaussian beam).<br />
:For polarization the clean CMB map is produced at Nside=1024 with a resolution of 10 arcminutes (Gaussian beam) and a maximum <math>\ell=3071</math>.<br />
<br />
;Confidence masks<br />
<br />
:The confidence masks cover the most contaminated regions of the sky, leaving approximately 85 per cent of useful sky for intensity and 80 per cent for polarization.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces CMBs map by linearly combining all Planck input channels with multipole-dependent weights. It includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>. Temperature and polarization maps are produced independently.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA intensity map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes which is truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math> and is '''not''' deconvolved from the pixel window function. Thus the delivered beam window function is the product of a Gaussian beam at 5 arcminutes and the pixel window function for Nside=2048.<br />
: The SMICA Q and U maps are obtained similarly but are produced at Nside=1024 with an effective beam of 10 arc-minutes (to be multiplied by the pixel window function, as for the intensity map).<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. See section below detailing the production process.<br />
<br />
===Production process===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky maps are first convolved to a common resolution that is larger than the largest beam of any frequency channel. For the combined Planck, WMAP and 408 MHz temperature analysis, the common resolution is 1 degree FWHM; for the Planck-only all-frequency analysis it is 40 arcmin FWHM; and for the intermediate-resolution analysis it is 7.5 arcmin; while for the full-resolution analysis, we assume all frequencies between 217 and 857 GHz have a common resolution, and no additional convolution is performed. For polarization, only two smoothing scales are employed, 40 and 10 arcmin, respectively. The instrumental noise rms maps are convolved correspondingly, properly accouting for their matrix-like nature. <br />
<br />
; Priors<br />
<br />
: The following priors are enforced in the Commander analysis:<br />
* All foreground amplitudes are enforced to be positive definite in the low-resolution analysis, while no amplitude priors are enforced in the high-resolution analyses<br />
* Monopoles and dipoles are fixed to nominal values for a small set of reference frequencies<br />
* Gaussian priors are enforced on spectral parameters, with values informed by the values derived in the high signal-to-noise areas of the sky<br />
* The Jeffreys ignorance prior is enforced on spectral parameters in addition to the informative Gaussian priors<br />
<br />
; Fitting procedure<br />
<br />
: Given data and priors, Commander either maximizes, or samples from, the Bayesian posterior, P(theta|data). Because this is a highly non-Gaussian and correlated distribution, involving millions of parameters, these operations are performed by means of the Gibbs sampling algorithm, in which joint samples from the full distributions are generated by iteratively sampling from the corresponding conditional posterior distributions, P(theta_i| data, theta_{j/=i}). For the low-resolution analysis, all parameters are optimized jointly, while in the high-resolution analyses, which employs fewer frequency channels, low signal-to-noise parameters are fixed to those derived at low resolution. Examples of such parameters include monopoles and dipoles, calibration and bandpass parameters, thermal dust temperature etc.<br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky frequency maps are deconvolved using the DPC beam transfer function provided, and re-convolved with a 5 arcminutes FWHM circular Gaussian beam. In polarization, prior to the smoothing process, all sky E and B maps are derived from Q and U using standard HEALPix tools from each individual frequency channels <br />
<br />
; Linear combination<br />
<br />
: Pre-processed input frequency maps are decomposed in needlet coefficients, specified in the Appendix B of the Planck A11 paper, with shape given by Table B.1. Minimum variance coefficients are then obtained, using all channels for T, from 30 to 353 for E and B. <br />
<br />
; Post-processing<br />
<br />
: E and B maps are re-combined into Q and U products using standard HEALPix tools. <br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
<br />
The templates used in the SEVEM pipeline are typically constructed by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMB map at that frequency. This is done in real space at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. The <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. Note that the same expression applies for I, Q and U. Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of clean maps at different frequencies is of great interest in order to test the robustness of the results. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned independently and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
;Intensity<br />
<br />
For the CMB intensity map, we have cleaned the 100 GHz, 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps using a total of four templates. Three of them are constructed as the difference of two consecutive Planck channels smoothed to a common resolution (30-44, 44-70 and 545-353) while the 857 GHz channel is chosen as the fourth template. First of all, the six frequency channels which are going to be part of the templates are inpainted at the point source positions detected using the Mexican Hat Wavelet algorithm. The size of the holes to be inpainted is determined taking into account the beam size of the channel as well as the flux of each source. The inpainting algorithm is based on simple diffuse inpainting, which fills one pixel with the mean value of the neighbouring pixels in an iterative way. To avoid inconsistencies when subtracting two channels, each frequency map is inpainted on the sources detected in that map and on the second map (if any) used to construct the template. Then the maps are smoothed to a common resolution (the first channel in the subtraction is smoothed with the beam of the second map and viceversa). For the 857 GHz template, we simply filter the inpainted map with the 545 GHz beam.<br />
<br />
The coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance outside the analysis mask, that covers the 1 per cent brightest emission of the sky as well as point sources detected at all frequency channels. Once the maps are cleaned, each of them is inpainted on the point sources positions detected at that (raw) channel. Then, the MHW algorithm is run again, now on the clean maps. A relatively small number of new sources are found and are also inpainted at each channel. The resolution of the clean map is the same as that of the original data. Our final CMB map is then constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask is produced by studying the differences between several SEVEM CMB reconstructions, which correspond to maps cleaned at different frequencies or using different analysis masks. The obtained mask leaves a useful sky fraction of approximately 85 per cent.<br />
<br />
;Polarization<br />
<br />
<br />
To clean the polarization maps, a procedure similar to the one used for intensity data is applied to the $Q$ and $U$ maps independently. However, given that a narrower frequency coverage is available for polarization, the selected templates and maps to be cleaned are different. In particular, we clean the 70, 100 and 143 GHz using three templates for each channel. The first step of the pipeline is to inpaint the positions of the point sources using the MHW, in those channels which are going to be used in the construction of templates, following the same procedure as for the intensity case. The inpainting is performed in the frequency maps at their native resolution. These inpainted maps are then used to construct a total of four templates. To trace the synchrotron emission, we construct a template as the subtraction of the 30 GHz minus the 44 GHz <br />
map, after being convolved with the beam of each other. For the dust emission, the following templates are considered: 353--217 GHz (smoothed at 10$'$ resolution), 217--143 GHz (used <br />
to clean 70 and 100 GHz) and 217--100 GHz (to clean 143 GHz). These two last templates are constructed at 1 degree resolution since an additional smoothing becomes necessary in<br />
order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the template. Conversely to the <br />
intensity case and due to the lower availability of frequency channels, it becomes necessary to use the maps to be cleaned as part of one of the templates. In this way, the 100 GHz <br />
map is used to clean the 143 GHz frequency channel and viceversa, making the clean maps less independent between them than in the intensity case.<br />
<br />
These templates are then used to clean the non-inpainted 70 (at its native resolution), 100 (at 10$'$ resolution) and 143 GHz maps (also at 10$'$). The corresponding linear coefficients are estimated independently for $Q$ and $U$ by minimising the variance of the clean maps outside a mask, that covers point sources and the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission. Once the maps have been cleaned, inpainting of the point sources detected at the corresponding raw maps is carried out. The size of the holes to be inpainted takes<br />
into account the additional smoothing of the 100 and 143 GHz maps. The 100 and 143 GHz clean maps are then combined in harmonic space, using $E$ and $B$ decomposition, to produce the final CMB maps for the $Q$ and $U$ components at a resolution of 10$'$ (Gaussian beam) for a HEALPix parameter Nside=1024. Each map is weighted taking into account its <br />
corresponding noise level at each multipole. Finally, before applying the post-processing HPF to the clean polarization data, the region with the brightest Galactic residuals is inpainted (5 per cent of the sky) to avoid the introduction of ringing around the Galactic centre in the filtering process.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask includes all the pixels above a given threshold in a smoothed version of the clean CMB map, the regions more contaminated by the CO emission and those pixels more affected by the high-pass filtering, leaving a useful sky fraction of approximately 80 per cent.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
<br />
A) Production of the intensity map.<br />
<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: Before computing spherical harmonic coefficients, all input maps undergo a pre-processing step to deal with regions of very strong emission (such as the Galactic center) and point sources. The point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue are fitted in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole is filled in by a simple diffusive process to ensure a smooth transition and mitigate spectral leakage. The diffusive inpainting process is also applied to some regions of very strong emissions. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, here all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and filled-in similarly.<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHz are harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> and co-added with multipole-dependent weights as shown in the figure.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: A confidence mask is determined (see the Planck paper) and all regions which have been masked in the pre-processing step are added to it.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filter_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input intensity maps (after they are re-beamed to 5 arc-minutes and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), as a function of multipole.''']]--><br />
<br />
B) Production of the Q and U polarisation maps.<br />
<br />
The production of the Q and U maps is similar to the production of the intensity map. The SMICA pipeline uses all the 7 polarized Planck channels. After point source masking and diffusive inpainting, the E and B modes are computed and combined to produce E and B modes of the CMB map. Those combined modes are then used to synthesize the U and Q CMB maps. The E and B parts of the input frequency maps being processed jointly, there are, at each multipole, 2*7=14 coefficients (weights) defined to produce the E modes of the CMB map and as many to produce the B part. The weights are displayed in the figure below. The Q and U maps were originally produced at Nside=2048 with a 5-arc-minute resolution, but were downgraded to Nside=1024 with a 10 arc-minute resolution for this release.<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filterEB_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input E and B modes (after they are re-beamed to 5 arcmin and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), in order to produce the E and B modes of the CMB map. A given frequency channel is encoded in a given color. Solid lines are for E modes and dashed lines are for B modes. The thick lines are for the EE or BB weights; the thin lines are for the EB or BE weights. See the paper for more details.''']]--><br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. SMICA and SEVEM use all the maps between 30 and 857 GHz; NILC uses the ones between 44 and 857 GHz. Commander-Ruler uses frequency channel maps from 30 to 353 GHz. <br />
<br />
===File names and structure===<br />
The FITS files corresponding to the three CMB products are the following:<br />
<br />
''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}-field-{Int,Pol}_Nside_R2.nn.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''method'' is mica, nilc, sevem, or commander, and Int and Pol indicate whether the file contains the temperature (Int) or the polarisation (Pol) maps. For this release the temperature maps are provided at Nside = 2048, and the polarisation maps at Nside = 1024. <br />
<br />
The files contain <br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data;<br />
* one or two ''BINTABLE'' data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 14 columns in which the first 13 columns is a CMB maps produced from the full or a subset of the data, as described in the table below, and the last column in a confidence mask. There is a single extension for ''Int'' files, and two, for Q and U, for ''Pol'' files. <br />
* a ''BINTABLE'' extension containing the beam window function.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I or Q or U || Real*4 || uK_cmb || I or Q or U map <br />
|- <br />
|HM1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HM2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 2 <br />
|-<br />
|YR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 1 <br />
|-<br />
|YR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HMHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HMHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|YRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|YRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|HRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half diff <br />
|-<br />
|MASK || BYTE || || Confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (smica/nilc/sevem/commander)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Notes:<br />
# The beam window function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>.<br />
<br />
<!--- mi sembra che questa non serva più <br />
The low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler CMB product is organized in the following way:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK_cmb || CMB temperature map obtained as average over 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Corresponding Standard deviation amongst the 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Confidence mask<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. EXTNAME = ''CMB-Sample'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM01 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM02 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM03 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM04 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM05 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM06 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM07 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM08 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM09 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM10 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
<!---- anche queste non servono più <br />
<br />
The FITS files containing the ''union'' (or common) maks is:<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-union_2048_R1.10.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common}}<br />
which contains a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with a single column (named ''U73'') for the mask, which is boolean (FITS ''TFORM = B''), in GALACTIC coordinates, NESTED ordering, and Nside=2048.<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for a small file containing the SMICA cmb map with no additional information (noise or masks) we provide such a file here<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
This file contains a single extension with a single column containing the SMICA cmb temperature map.<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
== Astrophysical foregrounds from parametric component separation ==<br />
We describe diffuse foreground products for the Planck 2015 release. See the Planck Foregrounds Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}} for a detailed description of these products. Further scientific discussion and interpretation may be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a31}}.<br />
<br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
Nominal frequency maps at 30, 44, 70, 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, 857 GHz ({{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=30|period=Nominal|link=LFI 30 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=44|period=Nominal|link=LFI 44 GHz frequency maps}} and {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=70|period=Nominal|link=LFI 70 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=100|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 100 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=143|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 143 GHz frequency maps}},{{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=217|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 217 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=353|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 353 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=545|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 545 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=857|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 857 GHz frequency maps}}) and their II column corresponding to the noise covariance matrix. <br />
Halfrings at the same frequencies. Beam window functions as reported in the [[The RIMO#Beam Window Functions|LFI and HFI RIMO]].<br />
<br />
<br />
===Low-resolution temperature products===<br />
<br />
: The Planck 2015 astrophysical component separation analysis combines Planck observations with the 9-year WMAP temperature sky maps (Bennett et al. 2013) and the 408 MHz survey by Haslam et al. (1982). This allows a direct decomposition of the low-frequency foregrounds into separate synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust components without strong spatial priors. The full set of data products derived from the low-resolution joint analysis are the following:<br />
<br />
=====Synchrotron emission=====<br />
<br />
<!--<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=800px heights=500px> <br />
File:commander_synch_amp.png | '''Commander low-resolution synchrotron amplitude'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center>--><br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: 408 MHz<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-Synchrotron<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Free-free emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: NA<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-freefree<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|EM_ML || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|EM_MEAN || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|EM_RMS || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_ML || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_MEAN || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_RMS || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Spinning dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The spinning dust component has two independent constituents, each corresponding to one spdust2 component, but with different peak frequencies. The two components are stored in the two first FITS extensions, and the template frequency spectrum is stored in the third extension. <br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 22.8 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-AME1<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_ML || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_MEAN || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_RMS || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 41.0 GHz<br />
: Peak frequency: 33.35 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- COMP-MAP-AME2<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 2 -- SPINNING-DUST-TEMP<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|nu || Real*4 || GHz || Frequency <br />
|-<br />
|j_nu/nH || Real*4 || Jy sr-1 cm2/H || spdust2 spectrum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====CO line emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CO-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CO-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The CO line emission component has three independent objects, corresponding to the J1->0, 2->1 and 3->2 lines, stored in separate extensions. <br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-co10<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- COMP-MAP-co21<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 2 -- COMP-MAP-co32<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====94/100 GHz line emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_xline-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_xline-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-xline<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Note: The amplitude of this component is normalized according to the 100-ds1 detector set map, ie., it is the amplitude as measured by this detector combination.<br />
<br />
=====Thermal dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_dust-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_dust-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 545 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-dust<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_ML || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_MEAN || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_RMS || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_MEAN || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_RMS || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====Thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich emission around the Coma and Virgo clusters=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_SZ-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_SZ-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-SZ<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Y_ML || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Y_MEAN || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|Y_RMS || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===High-resolution temperature products===<br />
<br />
High-resolution foreground products at 7.5 arcmin FWHM are derived with the same algorithm as for the low-resolution analyses, but including frequency channels above (and including) 143 GHz. These data products include the following:<br />
<br />
=====CO J2->1 emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CO21-commander_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CO21-commander_2048_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 7.5 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-CO21<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_FULL || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Full-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "First year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "Second year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Thermal dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_ThermalDust-commander_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_ThermalDust-commander_2048_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 7.5 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 545 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-dust<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_FULL || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Full-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "First year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "Second year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_FULL || Real*4 || NA || Full-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || NA || First half-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || NA || Second half-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || NA || First half-ring emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || NA || Second half-ring emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || NA || "First year" emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || NA || "Second year" emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Polarization products===<br />
<br />
Two polarization foreground products are provided, namely synchrotron and thermal dust emission. The spectral models are assumed identical to the corresponding temperature spectral models.<br />
<br />
=====Synchrotron emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_SynchrotronPol-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_SynchrotronPol-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 40 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 30 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-SynchrotronPol<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_FULL || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Full-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_FULL || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Full-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "First year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "First year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "Second year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "Second year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|007]]</div>Heriksenhttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=CMB_and_astrophysical_component_maps&diff=10820CMB and astrophysical component maps2015-02-01T11:49:25Z<p>Heriksen: /* High-resolution temperature products */</p>
<hr />
<div>== Overview ==<br />
This section describes the maps of astrophysical components produced from the Planck data. These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps described above using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of the product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITS file containing the data and associated information.<br />
All the details can be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
==CMB maps==<br />
CMB maps have been produced by the COMMANDER, NILC, SEVEM, and SMICA pipelines, which are described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation | CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and references therein.. For each pipeline we provide:<br />
* Full-mission CMB intensity map, confidence mask and beam transfer function.<br />
* Full-mission high-pass filtered CMB polarisation map, <br />
* A confidence mask.<br />
* A beam transfer function.<br />
In addition, and for characterisation purposes, there are six other sets of maps from three data splits: first/second half-ring, odd/even years and first/second half-mission. And for each of these data splits we provide half-sum and half-difference maps. The half-difference maps can be used to provide an approximate noise estimate for the full mission, but they should be used with caution. Each split has caveats in this regard: there are noise correlations between the half-ring maps, and missing pixels in the other splits. The Intensity maps are provided at Nside = 2048, at 5 arcmin resolution, while the Polarisation ones are provided at Nside = 1024 at 10 arcmin resolution. All maps are in units of K<sub>cmb</sub>.<br />
<br />
These maps can be found in the files <br />
* ''COM_CMB_IQU-{pipeline}-field-{Int/Pol}_Nside_R2.00.fits''. <br />
The ''Int'' files have two extensions, for the Intensity maps and the beam transfer function, the ''Pol'' files have three extensions, for Q and U maps, and for the beam transfer function.<br />
For a complete description of the data structure, see the [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
The gallery below shows the Intensity, noise from half-mission, half-difference, and confidence mask for the four pipelines, in the order SMICA, SEVEM, NILC and COMMANDER, from top to bottom. The Intensity maps scale is [–500.+500] μK, and the noise are between [–25,+25] μK. We do not show the Q and U maps since they have no significant visible structure to contemplate.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=300px heights=180> <br />
File:CMB_commander_tsig.png | '''commander temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tnoi.png | '''commander noise'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tmask.png | '''commander mask'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tsig.png | '''nilc temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tnoi.png | '''nilc noise'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tmask.png | '''nilc mask'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tsig.png | '''sevem temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tnoi.png | '''sevem noise'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tmask.png | '''sevem mask'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tsig.png | '''smica temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tnoi.png | '''smica noise'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tmask.png | '''smica mask'''</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
===Product description ===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: COMMANDER is a Planck software code implementing pixel based Bayesian parametric component separation. Each astrophysical signal component is modelled in terms of a small number of free parameters per pixel, typically in terms of an amplitude at a given reference frequency and a small set of spectral parameters, and these are fitted to the data with an MCMC Gibbs sampling algorithm. Instrumental parameters, including calibration, bandpass corrections, monopole and dipoles, are fitted jointly with the astrophysical components. A new feature in the Planck 2015 analysis is that the astrophysical model is derived from a combination of Planck, WMAP and a 408 MHz (Haslam et al. 1982) survey, providing sufficient frequency support to resolve the low-frequency components into synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust. For full details, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The Commander sky maps have different angular resolutions depending on data products:<br />
* The components of the full astrophysical sky model derived from the complete data combination (Planck, WMAP, 408 MHz) have a 1 degree FWHM resolution, and are pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=256. The corresponding CMB map defines the input map for the low-l Planck 2015 temperature likelihood. <br />
* The Commander CMB temperature map derived from Planck-only observations have an angular resolution of ~5 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=2048. This map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-857 GHz data), 7.5 arcmin (using 143-857 GHz data), and 5 arcmin (using 217-857 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
* The Commander CMB polarization map has an angular resolution of 10 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=1024. As for the temperature case, this map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-353 GHz data) and 10 arcmin (using 100-353 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The Commander confidence masks are produced by thresholding the chi-square map characterizing the global fits, combined with direct CO amplitude thresholding to eliminate known leakage effects. In addition, we exclude the 9-year WMAP point source mask in the temperature mask. For full details, see Sections 5 and 6 in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}. A total of 81% of the sky is admitted for high-resolution temperature analysis, and 83% for polarization analysis. For low-resolution temperature analysis, for which the additional WMAP and 408 MHz observations improve foreground constraints, a total of 93% of the sky is admitted. <br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: The Needlet-ILC (hereafter NILC) CMB map is constructed both in total intensity as well as polarization, Q and U Stokes parameters. For total intensity, all Planck frequency channels are included. For polarization, all polarization sensitive frequency channels are included, from 30 to 353 GHz. The solution, for T, Q and U is obtained by applying the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) technique in needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range. <br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The spectral analysis, and estimation of the NILC coefficients, is performed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math>. The effective beam is equivalent of a Gaussian circular beam with FWHM=5 arcminutes. <br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The same procedure is followed by SMICA and NILC for producing confidence masks, though with different parametrizations. A low resolution smoothed version of the NILC map, noise subtracted, is thresholded to 73.5 squared micro-K for T, and 6,75 squared micro-K for Q and U.<br />
<br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
:SEVEM produces clean CMB maps at several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting in real space. The templates are typically constructed from the lowest and highest Planck frequencies and then subtracted from the CMB-dominated channels, with coefficients that are chosen to minimize the variance of the clean map outside a considered mask. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. Two single frequency clean maps are then combined to obtain the final CMB map.<br />
<br />
;Resolution<br />
<br />
:For intensity the clean CMB map is constructed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math> at Nside=2048 and at the standard resolution of 5 arcminutes (Gaussian beam).<br />
:For polarization the clean CMB map is produced at Nside=1024 with a resolution of 10 arcminutes (Gaussian beam) and a maximum <math>\ell=3071</math>.<br />
<br />
;Confidence masks<br />
<br />
:The confidence masks cover the most contaminated regions of the sky, leaving approximately 85 per cent of useful sky for intensity and 80 per cent for polarization.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces CMBs map by linearly combining all Planck input channels with multipole-dependent weights. It includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>. Temperature and polarization maps are produced independently.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA intensity map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes which is truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math> and is '''not''' deconvolved from the pixel window function. Thus the delivered beam window function is the product of a Gaussian beam at 5 arcminutes and the pixel window function for Nside=2048.<br />
: The SMICA Q and U maps are obtained similarly but are produced at Nside=1024 with an effective beam of 10 arc-minutes (to be multiplied by the pixel window function, as for the intensity map).<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. See section below detailing the production process.<br />
<br />
===Production process===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky maps are first convolved to a common resolution that is larger than the largest beam of any frequency channel. For the combined Planck, WMAP and 408 MHz temperature analysis, the common resolution is 1 degree FWHM; for the Planck-only all-frequency analysis it is 40 arcmin FWHM; and for the intermediate-resolution analysis it is 7.5 arcmin; while for the full-resolution analysis, we assume all frequencies between 217 and 857 GHz have a common resolution, and no additional convolution is performed. For polarization, only two smoothing scales are employed, 40 and 10 arcmin, respectively. The instrumental noise rms maps are convolved correspondingly, properly accouting for their matrix-like nature. <br />
<br />
; Priors<br />
<br />
: The following priors are enforced in the Commander analysis:<br />
* All foreground amplitudes are enforced to be positive definite in the low-resolution analysis, while no amplitude priors are enforced in the high-resolution analyses<br />
* Monopoles and dipoles are fixed to nominal values for a small set of reference frequencies<br />
* Gaussian priors are enforced on spectral parameters, with values informed by the values derived in the high signal-to-noise areas of the sky<br />
* The Jeffreys ignorance prior is enforced on spectral parameters in addition to the informative Gaussian priors<br />
<br />
; Fitting procedure<br />
<br />
: Given data and priors, Commander either maximizes, or samples from, the Bayesian posterior, P(theta|data). Because this is a highly non-Gaussian and correlated distribution, involving millions of parameters, these operations are performed by means of the Gibbs sampling algorithm, in which joint samples from the full distributions are generated by iteratively sampling from the corresponding conditional posterior distributions, P(theta_i| data, theta_{j/=i}). For the low-resolution analysis, all parameters are optimized jointly, while in the high-resolution analyses, which employs fewer frequency channels, low signal-to-noise parameters are fixed to those derived at low resolution. Examples of such parameters include monopoles and dipoles, calibration and bandpass parameters, thermal dust temperature etc.<br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky frequency maps are deconvolved using the DPC beam transfer function provided, and re-convolved with a 5 arcminutes FWHM circular Gaussian beam. In polarization, prior to the smoothing process, all sky E and B maps are derived from Q and U using standard HEALPix tools from each individual frequency channels <br />
<br />
; Linear combination<br />
<br />
: Pre-processed input frequency maps are decomposed in needlet coefficients, specified in the Appendix B of the Planck A11 paper, with shape given by Table B.1. Minimum variance coefficients are then obtained, using all channels for T, from 30 to 353 for E and B. <br />
<br />
; Post-processing<br />
<br />
: E and B maps are re-combined into Q and U products using standard HEALPix tools. <br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
<br />
The templates used in the SEVEM pipeline are typically constructed by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMB map at that frequency. This is done in real space at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. The <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. Note that the same expression applies for I, Q and U. Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of clean maps at different frequencies is of great interest in order to test the robustness of the results. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned independently and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
;Intensity<br />
<br />
For the CMB intensity map, we have cleaned the 100 GHz, 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps using a total of four templates. Three of them are constructed as the difference of two consecutive Planck channels smoothed to a common resolution (30-44, 44-70 and 545-353) while the 857 GHz channel is chosen as the fourth template. First of all, the six frequency channels which are going to be part of the templates are inpainted at the point source positions detected using the Mexican Hat Wavelet algorithm. The size of the holes to be inpainted is determined taking into account the beam size of the channel as well as the flux of each source. The inpainting algorithm is based on simple diffuse inpainting, which fills one pixel with the mean value of the neighbouring pixels in an iterative way. To avoid inconsistencies when subtracting two channels, each frequency map is inpainted on the sources detected in that map and on the second map (if any) used to construct the template. Then the maps are smoothed to a common resolution (the first channel in the subtraction is smoothed with the beam of the second map and viceversa). For the 857 GHz template, we simply filter the inpainted map with the 545 GHz beam.<br />
<br />
The coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance outside the analysis mask, that covers the 1 per cent brightest emission of the sky as well as point sources detected at all frequency channels. Once the maps are cleaned, each of them is inpainted on the point sources positions detected at that (raw) channel. Then, the MHW algorithm is run again, now on the clean maps. A relatively small number of new sources are found and are also inpainted at each channel. The resolution of the clean map is the same as that of the original data. Our final CMB map is then constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask is produced by studying the differences between several SEVEM CMB reconstructions, which correspond to maps cleaned at different frequencies or using different analysis masks. The obtained mask leaves a useful sky fraction of approximately 85 per cent.<br />
<br />
;Polarization<br />
<br />
<br />
To clean the polarization maps, a procedure similar to the one used for intensity data is applied to the $Q$ and $U$ maps independently. However, given that a narrower frequency coverage is available for polarization, the selected templates and maps to be cleaned are different. In particular, we clean the 70, 100 and 143 GHz using three templates for each channel. The first step of the pipeline is to inpaint the positions of the point sources using the MHW, in those channels which are going to be used in the construction of templates, following the same procedure as for the intensity case. The inpainting is performed in the frequency maps at their native resolution. These inpainted maps are then used to construct a total of four templates. To trace the synchrotron emission, we construct a template as the subtraction of the 30 GHz minus the 44 GHz <br />
map, after being convolved with the beam of each other. For the dust emission, the following templates are considered: 353--217 GHz (smoothed at 10$'$ resolution), 217--143 GHz (used <br />
to clean 70 and 100 GHz) and 217--100 GHz (to clean 143 GHz). These two last templates are constructed at 1 degree resolution since an additional smoothing becomes necessary in<br />
order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the template. Conversely to the <br />
intensity case and due to the lower availability of frequency channels, it becomes necessary to use the maps to be cleaned as part of one of the templates. In this way, the 100 GHz <br />
map is used to clean the 143 GHz frequency channel and viceversa, making the clean maps less independent between them than in the intensity case.<br />
<br />
These templates are then used to clean the non-inpainted 70 (at its native resolution), 100 (at 10$'$ resolution) and 143 GHz maps (also at 10$'$). The corresponding linear coefficients are estimated independently for $Q$ and $U$ by minimising the variance of the clean maps outside a mask, that covers point sources and the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission. Once the maps have been cleaned, inpainting of the point sources detected at the corresponding raw maps is carried out. The size of the holes to be inpainted takes<br />
into account the additional smoothing of the 100 and 143 GHz maps. The 100 and 143 GHz clean maps are then combined in harmonic space, using $E$ and $B$ decomposition, to produce the final CMB maps for the $Q$ and $U$ components at a resolution of 10$'$ (Gaussian beam) for a HEALPix parameter Nside=1024. Each map is weighted taking into account its <br />
corresponding noise level at each multipole. Finally, before applying the post-processing HPF to the clean polarization data, the region with the brightest Galactic residuals is inpainted (5 per cent of the sky) to avoid the introduction of ringing around the Galactic centre in the filtering process.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask includes all the pixels above a given threshold in a smoothed version of the clean CMB map, the regions more contaminated by the CO emission and those pixels more affected by the high-pass filtering, leaving a useful sky fraction of approximately 80 per cent.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
<br />
A) Production of the intensity map.<br />
<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: Before computing spherical harmonic coefficients, all input maps undergo a pre-processing step to deal with regions of very strong emission (such as the Galactic center) and point sources. The point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue are fitted in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole is filled in by a simple diffusive process to ensure a smooth transition and mitigate spectral leakage. The diffusive inpainting process is also applied to some regions of very strong emissions. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, here all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and filled-in similarly.<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHz are harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> and co-added with multipole-dependent weights as shown in the figure.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: A confidence mask is determined (see the Planck paper) and all regions which have been masked in the pre-processing step are added to it.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filter_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input intensity maps (after they are re-beamed to 5 arc-minutes and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), as a function of multipole.''']]--><br />
<br />
B) Production of the Q and U polarisation maps.<br />
<br />
The production of the Q and U maps is similar to the production of the intensity map. The SMICA pipeline uses all the 7 polarized Planck channels. After point source masking and diffusive inpainting, the E and B modes are computed and combined to produce E and B modes of the CMB map. Those combined modes are then used to synthesize the U and Q CMB maps. The E and B parts of the input frequency maps being processed jointly, there are, at each multipole, 2*7=14 coefficients (weights) defined to produce the E modes of the CMB map and as many to produce the B part. The weights are displayed in the figure below. The Q and U maps were originally produced at Nside=2048 with a 5-arc-minute resolution, but were downgraded to Nside=1024 with a 10 arc-minute resolution for this release.<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filterEB_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input E and B modes (after they are re-beamed to 5 arcmin and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), in order to produce the E and B modes of the CMB map. A given frequency channel is encoded in a given color. Solid lines are for E modes and dashed lines are for B modes. The thick lines are for the EE or BB weights; the thin lines are for the EB or BE weights. See the paper for more details.''']]--><br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. SMICA and SEVEM use all the maps between 30 and 857 GHz; NILC uses the ones between 44 and 857 GHz. Commander-Ruler uses frequency channel maps from 30 to 353 GHz. <br />
<br />
===File names and structure===<br />
The FITS files corresponding to the three CMB products are the following:<br />
<br />
''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}-field-{Int,Pol}_Nside_R2.nn.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''method'' is mica, nilc, sevem, or commander, and Int and Pol indicate whether the file contains the temperature (Int) or the polarisation (Pol) maps. For this release the temperature maps are provided at Nside = 2048, and the polarisation maps at Nside = 1024. <br />
<br />
The files contain <br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data;<br />
* one or two ''BINTABLE'' data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 14 columns in which the first 13 columns is a CMB maps produced from the full or a subset of the data, as described in the table below, and the last column in a confidence mask. There is a single extension for ''Int'' files, and two, for Q and U, for ''Pol'' files. <br />
* a ''BINTABLE'' extension containing the beam window function.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I or Q or U || Real*4 || uK_cmb || I or Q or U map <br />
|- <br />
|HM1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HM2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 2 <br />
|-<br />
|YR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 1 <br />
|-<br />
|YR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HMHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HMHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|YRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|YRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|HRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half diff <br />
|-<br />
|MASK || BYTE || || Confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (smica/nilc/sevem/commander)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Notes:<br />
# The beam window function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>.<br />
<br />
<!--- mi sembra che questa non serva più <br />
The low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler CMB product is organized in the following way:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK_cmb || CMB temperature map obtained as average over 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Corresponding Standard deviation amongst the 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Confidence mask<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. EXTNAME = ''CMB-Sample'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM01 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM02 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM03 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM04 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM05 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM06 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM07 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM08 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM09 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM10 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
<!---- anche queste non servono più <br />
<br />
The FITS files containing the ''union'' (or common) maks is:<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-union_2048_R1.10.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common}}<br />
which contains a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with a single column (named ''U73'') for the mask, which is boolean (FITS ''TFORM = B''), in GALACTIC coordinates, NESTED ordering, and Nside=2048.<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for a small file containing the SMICA cmb map with no additional information (noise or masks) we provide such a file here<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
This file contains a single extension with a single column containing the SMICA cmb temperature map.<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
== Astrophysical foregrounds from parametric component separation ==<br />
We describe diffuse foreground products for the Planck 2015 release. See the Planck Foregrounds Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}} for a detailed description of these products. Further scientific discussion and interpretation may be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a31}}.<br />
<br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
Nominal frequency maps at 30, 44, 70, 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, 857 GHz ({{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=30|period=Nominal|link=LFI 30 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=44|period=Nominal|link=LFI 44 GHz frequency maps}} and {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=70|period=Nominal|link=LFI 70 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=100|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 100 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=143|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 143 GHz frequency maps}},{{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=217|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 217 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=353|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 353 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=545|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 545 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=857|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 857 GHz frequency maps}}) and their II column corresponding to the noise covariance matrix. <br />
Halfrings at the same frequencies. Beam window functions as reported in the [[The RIMO#Beam Window Functions|LFI and HFI RIMO]].<br />
<br />
<br />
===Low-resolution temperature products===<br />
<br />
: The Planck 2015 astrophysical component separation analysis combines Planck observations with the 9-year WMAP temperature sky maps (Bennett et al. 2013) and the 408 MHz survey by Haslam et al. (1982). This allows a direct decomposition of the low-frequency foregrounds into separate synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust components without strong spatial priors. The full set of data products derived from the low-resolution joint analysis are the following:<br />
<br />
=====Synchrotron emission=====<br />
<br />
<!--<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=800px heights=500px> <br />
File:commander_synch_amp.png | '''Commander low-resolution synchrotron amplitude'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center>--><br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: 408 MHz<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-Synchrotron<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Free-free emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: NA<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-freefree<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|EM_ML || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|EM_MEAN || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|EM_RMS || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_ML || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_MEAN || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_RMS || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Spinning dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The spinning dust component has two independent constituents, each corresponding to one spdust2 component, but with different peak frequencies. The two components are stored in the two first FITS extensions, and the template frequency spectrum is stored in the third extension. <br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 22.8 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-AME1<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_ML || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_MEAN || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_RMS || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 41.0 GHz<br />
: Peak frequency: 33.35 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- COMP-MAP-AME2<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 2 -- SPINNING-DUST-TEMP<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|nu || Real*4 || GHz || Frequency <br />
|-<br />
|j_nu/nH || Real*4 || Jy sr-1 cm2/H || spdust2 spectrum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====CO line emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CO-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CO-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The CO line emission component has three independent objects, corresponding to the J1->0, 2->1 and 3->2 lines, stored in separate extensions. <br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-co10<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- COMP-MAP-co21<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 2 -- COMP-MAP-co32<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====94/100 GHz line emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_xline-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_xline-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-xline<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Note: The amplitude of this component is normalized according to the 100-ds1 detector set map, ie., it is the amplitude as measured by this detector combination.<br />
<br />
=====Thermal dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_dust-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_dust-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 545 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-dust<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_ML || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_MEAN || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_RMS || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_MEAN || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_RMS || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====Thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich emission around the Coma and Virgo clusters=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_SZ-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_SZ-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-SZ<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Y_ML || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Y_MEAN || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|Y_RMS || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===High-resolution temperature products===<br />
<br />
High-resolution foreground products at 7.5 arcmin FWHM are derived with the same algorithm as for the low-resolution analyses, but including frequency channels above (and including) 143 GHz. These data products include the following:<br />
<br />
=====CO J2->1 emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CO21-commander_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CO21-commander_2048_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 7.5 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-CO21<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_FULL || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Full-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "First year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "Second year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Thermal dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_ThermalDust-commander_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_ThermalDust-commander_2048_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 7.5 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 545 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-dust<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_FULL || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Full-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "First year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "Second year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_FULL || Real*4 || NA || Full-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || NA || First half-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || NA || Second half-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || NA || First half-ring emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || NA || Second half-ring emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || NA || "First year" emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || NA || "Second year" emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|007]]</div>Heriksenhttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=CMB_and_astrophysical_component_maps&diff=10818CMB and astrophysical component maps2015-02-01T11:47:02Z<p>Heriksen: /* Astrophysical foregrounds from parametric component separation */</p>
<hr />
<div>== Overview ==<br />
This section describes the maps of astrophysical components produced from the Planck data. These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps described above using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of the product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITS file containing the data and associated information.<br />
All the details can be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
==CMB maps==<br />
CMB maps have been produced by the COMMANDER, NILC, SEVEM, and SMICA pipelines, which are described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation | CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and references therein.. For each pipeline we provide:<br />
* Full-mission CMB intensity map, confidence mask and beam transfer function.<br />
* Full-mission high-pass filtered CMB polarisation map, <br />
* A confidence mask.<br />
* A beam transfer function.<br />
In addition, and for characterisation purposes, there are six other sets of maps from three data splits: first/second half-ring, odd/even years and first/second half-mission. And for each of these data splits we provide half-sum and half-difference maps. The half-difference maps can be used to provide an approximate noise estimate for the full mission, but they should be used with caution. Each split has caveats in this regard: there are noise correlations between the half-ring maps, and missing pixels in the other splits. The Intensity maps are provided at Nside = 2048, at 5 arcmin resolution, while the Polarisation ones are provided at Nside = 1024 at 10 arcmin resolution. All maps are in units of K<sub>cmb</sub>.<br />
<br />
These maps can be found in the files <br />
* ''COM_CMB_IQU-{pipeline}-field-{Int/Pol}_Nside_R2.00.fits''. <br />
The ''Int'' files have two extensions, for the Intensity maps and the beam transfer function, the ''Pol'' files have three extensions, for Q and U maps, and for the beam transfer function.<br />
For a complete description of the data structure, see the [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
The gallery below shows the Intensity, noise from half-mission, half-difference, and confidence mask for the four pipelines, in the order SMICA, SEVEM, NILC and COMMANDER, from top to bottom. The Intensity maps scale is [–500.+500] μK, and the noise are between [–25,+25] μK. We do not show the Q and U maps since they have no significant visible structure to contemplate.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=300px heights=180> <br />
File:CMB_commander_tsig.png | '''commander temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tnoi.png | '''commander noise'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tmask.png | '''commander mask'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tsig.png | '''nilc temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tnoi.png | '''nilc noise'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tmask.png | '''nilc mask'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tsig.png | '''sevem temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tnoi.png | '''sevem noise'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tmask.png | '''sevem mask'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tsig.png | '''smica temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tnoi.png | '''smica noise'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tmask.png | '''smica mask'''</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
===Product description ===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: COMMANDER is a Planck software code implementing pixel based Bayesian parametric component separation. Each astrophysical signal component is modelled in terms of a small number of free parameters per pixel, typically in terms of an amplitude at a given reference frequency and a small set of spectral parameters, and these are fitted to the data with an MCMC Gibbs sampling algorithm. Instrumental parameters, including calibration, bandpass corrections, monopole and dipoles, are fitted jointly with the astrophysical components. A new feature in the Planck 2015 analysis is that the astrophysical model is derived from a combination of Planck, WMAP and a 408 MHz (Haslam et al. 1982) survey, providing sufficient frequency support to resolve the low-frequency components into synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust. For full details, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The Commander sky maps have different angular resolutions depending on data products:<br />
* The components of the full astrophysical sky model derived from the complete data combination (Planck, WMAP, 408 MHz) have a 1 degree FWHM resolution, and are pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=256. The corresponding CMB map defines the input map for the low-l Planck 2015 temperature likelihood. <br />
* The Commander CMB temperature map derived from Planck-only observations have an angular resolution of ~5 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=2048. This map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-857 GHz data), 7.5 arcmin (using 143-857 GHz data), and 5 arcmin (using 217-857 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
* The Commander CMB polarization map has an angular resolution of 10 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=1024. As for the temperature case, this map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-353 GHz data) and 10 arcmin (using 100-353 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The Commander confidence masks are produced by thresholding the chi-square map characterizing the global fits, combined with direct CO amplitude thresholding to eliminate known leakage effects. In addition, we exclude the 9-year WMAP point source mask in the temperature mask. For full details, see Sections 5 and 6 in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}. A total of 81% of the sky is admitted for high-resolution temperature analysis, and 83% for polarization analysis. For low-resolution temperature analysis, for which the additional WMAP and 408 MHz observations improve foreground constraints, a total of 93% of the sky is admitted. <br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: The Needlet-ILC (hereafter NILC) CMB map is constructed both in total intensity as well as polarization, Q and U Stokes parameters. For total intensity, all Planck frequency channels are included. For polarization, all polarization sensitive frequency channels are included, from 30 to 353 GHz. The solution, for T, Q and U is obtained by applying the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) technique in needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range. <br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The spectral analysis, and estimation of the NILC coefficients, is performed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math>. The effective beam is equivalent of a Gaussian circular beam with FWHM=5 arcminutes. <br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The same procedure is followed by SMICA and NILC for producing confidence masks, though with different parametrizations. A low resolution smoothed version of the NILC map, noise subtracted, is thresholded to 73.5 squared micro-K for T, and 6,75 squared micro-K for Q and U.<br />
<br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
:SEVEM produces clean CMB maps at several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting in real space. The templates are typically constructed from the lowest and highest Planck frequencies and then subtracted from the CMB-dominated channels, with coefficients that are chosen to minimize the variance of the clean map outside a considered mask. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. Two single frequency clean maps are then combined to obtain the final CMB map.<br />
<br />
;Resolution<br />
<br />
:For intensity the clean CMB map is constructed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math> at Nside=2048 and at the standard resolution of 5 arcminutes (Gaussian beam).<br />
:For polarization the clean CMB map is produced at Nside=1024 with a resolution of 10 arcminutes (Gaussian beam) and a maximum <math>\ell=3071</math>.<br />
<br />
;Confidence masks<br />
<br />
:The confidence masks cover the most contaminated regions of the sky, leaving approximately 85 per cent of useful sky for intensity and 80 per cent for polarization.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces CMBs map by linearly combining all Planck input channels with multipole-dependent weights. It includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>. Temperature and polarization maps are produced independently.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA intensity map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes which is truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math> and is '''not''' deconvolved from the pixel window function. Thus the delivered beam window function is the product of a Gaussian beam at 5 arcminutes and the pixel window function for Nside=2048.<br />
: The SMICA Q and U maps are obtained similarly but are produced at Nside=1024 with an effective beam of 10 arc-minutes (to be multiplied by the pixel window function, as for the intensity map).<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. See section below detailing the production process.<br />
<br />
===Production process===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky maps are first convolved to a common resolution that is larger than the largest beam of any frequency channel. For the combined Planck, WMAP and 408 MHz temperature analysis, the common resolution is 1 degree FWHM; for the Planck-only all-frequency analysis it is 40 arcmin FWHM; and for the intermediate-resolution analysis it is 7.5 arcmin; while for the full-resolution analysis, we assume all frequencies between 217 and 857 GHz have a common resolution, and no additional convolution is performed. For polarization, only two smoothing scales are employed, 40 and 10 arcmin, respectively. The instrumental noise rms maps are convolved correspondingly, properly accouting for their matrix-like nature. <br />
<br />
; Priors<br />
<br />
: The following priors are enforced in the Commander analysis:<br />
* All foreground amplitudes are enforced to be positive definite in the low-resolution analysis, while no amplitude priors are enforced in the high-resolution analyses<br />
* Monopoles and dipoles are fixed to nominal values for a small set of reference frequencies<br />
* Gaussian priors are enforced on spectral parameters, with values informed by the values derived in the high signal-to-noise areas of the sky<br />
* The Jeffreys ignorance prior is enforced on spectral parameters in addition to the informative Gaussian priors<br />
<br />
; Fitting procedure<br />
<br />
: Given data and priors, Commander either maximizes, or samples from, the Bayesian posterior, P(theta|data). Because this is a highly non-Gaussian and correlated distribution, involving millions of parameters, these operations are performed by means of the Gibbs sampling algorithm, in which joint samples from the full distributions are generated by iteratively sampling from the corresponding conditional posterior distributions, P(theta_i| data, theta_{j/=i}). For the low-resolution analysis, all parameters are optimized jointly, while in the high-resolution analyses, which employs fewer frequency channels, low signal-to-noise parameters are fixed to those derived at low resolution. Examples of such parameters include monopoles and dipoles, calibration and bandpass parameters, thermal dust temperature etc.<br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky frequency maps are deconvolved using the DPC beam transfer function provided, and re-convolved with a 5 arcminutes FWHM circular Gaussian beam. In polarization, prior to the smoothing process, all sky E and B maps are derived from Q and U using standard HEALPix tools from each individual frequency channels <br />
<br />
; Linear combination<br />
<br />
: Pre-processed input frequency maps are decomposed in needlet coefficients, specified in the Appendix B of the Planck A11 paper, with shape given by Table B.1. Minimum variance coefficients are then obtained, using all channels for T, from 30 to 353 for E and B. <br />
<br />
; Post-processing<br />
<br />
: E and B maps are re-combined into Q and U products using standard HEALPix tools. <br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
<br />
The templates used in the SEVEM pipeline are typically constructed by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMB map at that frequency. This is done in real space at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. The <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. Note that the same expression applies for I, Q and U. Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of clean maps at different frequencies is of great interest in order to test the robustness of the results. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned independently and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
;Intensity<br />
<br />
For the CMB intensity map, we have cleaned the 100 GHz, 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps using a total of four templates. Three of them are constructed as the difference of two consecutive Planck channels smoothed to a common resolution (30-44, 44-70 and 545-353) while the 857 GHz channel is chosen as the fourth template. First of all, the six frequency channels which are going to be part of the templates are inpainted at the point source positions detected using the Mexican Hat Wavelet algorithm. The size of the holes to be inpainted is determined taking into account the beam size of the channel as well as the flux of each source. The inpainting algorithm is based on simple diffuse inpainting, which fills one pixel with the mean value of the neighbouring pixels in an iterative way. To avoid inconsistencies when subtracting two channels, each frequency map is inpainted on the sources detected in that map and on the second map (if any) used to construct the template. Then the maps are smoothed to a common resolution (the first channel in the subtraction is smoothed with the beam of the second map and viceversa). For the 857 GHz template, we simply filter the inpainted map with the 545 GHz beam.<br />
<br />
The coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance outside the analysis mask, that covers the 1 per cent brightest emission of the sky as well as point sources detected at all frequency channels. Once the maps are cleaned, each of them is inpainted on the point sources positions detected at that (raw) channel. Then, the MHW algorithm is run again, now on the clean maps. A relatively small number of new sources are found and are also inpainted at each channel. The resolution of the clean map is the same as that of the original data. Our final CMB map is then constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask is produced by studying the differences between several SEVEM CMB reconstructions, which correspond to maps cleaned at different frequencies or using different analysis masks. The obtained mask leaves a useful sky fraction of approximately 85 per cent.<br />
<br />
;Polarization<br />
<br />
<br />
To clean the polarization maps, a procedure similar to the one used for intensity data is applied to the $Q$ and $U$ maps independently. However, given that a narrower frequency coverage is available for polarization, the selected templates and maps to be cleaned are different. In particular, we clean the 70, 100 and 143 GHz using three templates for each channel. The first step of the pipeline is to inpaint the positions of the point sources using the MHW, in those channels which are going to be used in the construction of templates, following the same procedure as for the intensity case. The inpainting is performed in the frequency maps at their native resolution. These inpainted maps are then used to construct a total of four templates. To trace the synchrotron emission, we construct a template as the subtraction of the 30 GHz minus the 44 GHz <br />
map, after being convolved with the beam of each other. For the dust emission, the following templates are considered: 353--217 GHz (smoothed at 10$'$ resolution), 217--143 GHz (used <br />
to clean 70 and 100 GHz) and 217--100 GHz (to clean 143 GHz). These two last templates are constructed at 1 degree resolution since an additional smoothing becomes necessary in<br />
order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the template. Conversely to the <br />
intensity case and due to the lower availability of frequency channels, it becomes necessary to use the maps to be cleaned as part of one of the templates. In this way, the 100 GHz <br />
map is used to clean the 143 GHz frequency channel and viceversa, making the clean maps less independent between them than in the intensity case.<br />
<br />
These templates are then used to clean the non-inpainted 70 (at its native resolution), 100 (at 10$'$ resolution) and 143 GHz maps (also at 10$'$). The corresponding linear coefficients are estimated independently for $Q$ and $U$ by minimising the variance of the clean maps outside a mask, that covers point sources and the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission. Once the maps have been cleaned, inpainting of the point sources detected at the corresponding raw maps is carried out. The size of the holes to be inpainted takes<br />
into account the additional smoothing of the 100 and 143 GHz maps. The 100 and 143 GHz clean maps are then combined in harmonic space, using $E$ and $B$ decomposition, to produce the final CMB maps for the $Q$ and $U$ components at a resolution of 10$'$ (Gaussian beam) for a HEALPix parameter Nside=1024. Each map is weighted taking into account its <br />
corresponding noise level at each multipole. Finally, before applying the post-processing HPF to the clean polarization data, the region with the brightest Galactic residuals is inpainted (5 per cent of the sky) to avoid the introduction of ringing around the Galactic centre in the filtering process.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask includes all the pixels above a given threshold in a smoothed version of the clean CMB map, the regions more contaminated by the CO emission and those pixels more affected by the high-pass filtering, leaving a useful sky fraction of approximately 80 per cent.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
<br />
A) Production of the intensity map.<br />
<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: Before computing spherical harmonic coefficients, all input maps undergo a pre-processing step to deal with regions of very strong emission (such as the Galactic center) and point sources. The point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue are fitted in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole is filled in by a simple diffusive process to ensure a smooth transition and mitigate spectral leakage. The diffusive inpainting process is also applied to some regions of very strong emissions. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, here all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and filled-in similarly.<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHz are harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> and co-added with multipole-dependent weights as shown in the figure.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: A confidence mask is determined (see the Planck paper) and all regions which have been masked in the pre-processing step are added to it.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filter_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input intensity maps (after they are re-beamed to 5 arc-minutes and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), as a function of multipole.''']]--><br />
<br />
B) Production of the Q and U polarisation maps.<br />
<br />
The production of the Q and U maps is similar to the production of the intensity map. The SMICA pipeline uses all the 7 polarized Planck channels. After point source masking and diffusive inpainting, the E and B modes are computed and combined to produce E and B modes of the CMB map. Those combined modes are then used to synthesize the U and Q CMB maps. The E and B parts of the input frequency maps being processed jointly, there are, at each multipole, 2*7=14 coefficients (weights) defined to produce the E modes of the CMB map and as many to produce the B part. The weights are displayed in the figure below. The Q and U maps were originally produced at Nside=2048 with a 5-arc-minute resolution, but were downgraded to Nside=1024 with a 10 arc-minute resolution for this release.<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filterEB_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input E and B modes (after they are re-beamed to 5 arcmin and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), in order to produce the E and B modes of the CMB map. A given frequency channel is encoded in a given color. Solid lines are for E modes and dashed lines are for B modes. The thick lines are for the EE or BB weights; the thin lines are for the EB or BE weights. See the paper for more details.''']]--><br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. SMICA and SEVEM use all the maps between 30 and 857 GHz; NILC uses the ones between 44 and 857 GHz. Commander-Ruler uses frequency channel maps from 30 to 353 GHz. <br />
<br />
===File names and structure===<br />
The FITS files corresponding to the three CMB products are the following:<br />
<br />
''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}-field-{Int,Pol}_Nside_R2.nn.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''method'' is mica, nilc, sevem, or commander, and Int and Pol indicate whether the file contains the temperature (Int) or the polarisation (Pol) maps. For this release the temperature maps are provided at Nside = 2048, and the polarisation maps at Nside = 1024. <br />
<br />
The files contain <br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data;<br />
* one or two ''BINTABLE'' data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 14 columns in which the first 13 columns is a CMB maps produced from the full or a subset of the data, as described in the table below, and the last column in a confidence mask. There is a single extension for ''Int'' files, and two, for Q and U, for ''Pol'' files. <br />
* a ''BINTABLE'' extension containing the beam window function.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I or Q or U || Real*4 || uK_cmb || I or Q or U map <br />
|- <br />
|HM1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HM2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 2 <br />
|-<br />
|YR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 1 <br />
|-<br />
|YR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HMHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HMHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|YRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|YRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|HRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half diff <br />
|-<br />
|MASK || BYTE || || Confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (smica/nilc/sevem/commander)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Notes:<br />
# The beam window function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>.<br />
<br />
<!--- mi sembra che questa non serva più <br />
The low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler CMB product is organized in the following way:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK_cmb || CMB temperature map obtained as average over 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Corresponding Standard deviation amongst the 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Confidence mask<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. EXTNAME = ''CMB-Sample'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM01 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM02 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM03 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM04 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM05 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM06 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM07 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM08 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM09 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM10 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
<!---- anche queste non servono più <br />
<br />
The FITS files containing the ''union'' (or common) maks is:<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-union_2048_R1.10.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common}}<br />
which contains a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with a single column (named ''U73'') for the mask, which is boolean (FITS ''TFORM = B''), in GALACTIC coordinates, NESTED ordering, and Nside=2048.<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for a small file containing the SMICA cmb map with no additional information (noise or masks) we provide such a file here<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
This file contains a single extension with a single column containing the SMICA cmb temperature map.<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
== Astrophysical foregrounds from parametric component separation ==<br />
We describe diffuse foreground products for the Planck 2015 release. See the Planck Foregrounds Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}} for a detailed description of these products. Further scientific discussion and interpretation may be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a31}}.<br />
<br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
Nominal frequency maps at 30, 44, 70, 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, 857 GHz ({{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=30|period=Nominal|link=LFI 30 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=44|period=Nominal|link=LFI 44 GHz frequency maps}} and {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=70|period=Nominal|link=LFI 70 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=100|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 100 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=143|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 143 GHz frequency maps}},{{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=217|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 217 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=353|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 353 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=545|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 545 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=857|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 857 GHz frequency maps}}) and their II column corresponding to the noise covariance matrix. <br />
Halfrings at the same frequencies. Beam window functions as reported in the [[The RIMO#Beam Window Functions|LFI and HFI RIMO]].<br />
<br />
<br />
===Low-resolution temperature products===<br />
<br />
: The Planck 2015 astrophysical component separation analysis combines Planck observations with the 9-year WMAP temperature sky maps (Bennett et al. 2013) and the 408 MHz survey by Haslam et al. (1982). This allows a direct decomposition of the low-frequency foregrounds into separate synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust components without strong spatial priors. The full set of data products derived from the low-resolution joint analysis are the following:<br />
<br />
=====Synchrotron emission=====<br />
<br />
<!--<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=800px heights=500px> <br />
File:commander_synch_amp.png | '''Commander low-resolution synchrotron amplitude'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center>--><br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: 408 MHz<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-Synchrotron<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Free-free emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: NA<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-freefree<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|EM_ML || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|EM_MEAN || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|EM_RMS || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_ML || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_MEAN || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_RMS || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Spinning dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The spinning dust component has two independent constituents, each corresponding to one spdust2 component, but with different peak frequencies. The two components are stored in the two first FITS extensions, and the template frequency spectrum is stored in the third extension. <br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 22.8 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-AME1<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_ML || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_MEAN || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_RMS || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 41.0 GHz<br />
: Peak frequency: 33.35 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- COMP-MAP-AME2<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 2 -- SPINNING-DUST-TEMP<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|nu || Real*4 || GHz || Frequency <br />
|-<br />
|j_nu/nH || Real*4 || Jy sr-1 cm2/H || spdust2 spectrum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====CO line emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CO-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CO-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The CO line emission component has three independent objects, corresponding to the J1->0, 2->1 and 3->2 lines, stored in separate extensions. <br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-co10<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- COMP-MAP-co21<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 2 -- COMP-MAP-co32<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====94/100 GHz line emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_xline-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_xline-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-xline<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Note: The amplitude of this component is normalized according to the 100-ds1 detector set map, ie., it is the amplitude as measured by this detector combination.<br />
<br />
=====Thermal dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_dust-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_dust-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 545 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-dust<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_ML || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_MEAN || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_RMS || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_MEAN || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_RMS || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====Thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich emission around the Coma and Virgo clusters=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_SZ-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_SZ-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-SZ<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Y_ML || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Y_MEAN || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|Y_RMS || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===High-resolution temperature products===<br />
<br />
High-resolution foreground products at 7.5 arcmin FWHM are derived with the same algorithm as for the low-resolution analyses, but including frequency channels above (and including) 143 GHz. These data products include the following:<br />
<br />
; CO(2-1) emission<br />
: (Coming soon!)<br />
<br />
=====Thermal dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_ThermalDust-commander_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_ThermalDust-commander_2048_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 7.5 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 545 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-dust<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_FULL || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Full-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "First year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "Second year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_FULL || Real*4 || NA || Full-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || NA || First half-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || NA || Second half-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || NA || First half-ring emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || NA || Second half-ring emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || NA || "First year" emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || NA || "Second year" emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|007]]</div>Heriksenhttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=CMB_and_astrophysical_component_maps&diff=10816CMB and astrophysical component maps2015-02-01T11:40:40Z<p>Heriksen: /* CO line emission */</p>
<hr />
<div>== Overview ==<br />
This section describes the maps of astrophysical components produced from the Planck data. These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps described above using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of the product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITS file containing the data and associated information.<br />
All the details can be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
==CMB maps==<br />
CMB maps have been produced by the COMMANDER, NILC, SEVEM, and SMICA pipelines, which are described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation | CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and references therein.. For each pipeline we provide:<br />
* Full-mission CMB intensity map, confidence mask and beam transfer function.<br />
* Full-mission high-pass filtered CMB polarisation map, <br />
* A confidence mask.<br />
* A beam transfer function.<br />
In addition, and for characterisation purposes, there are six other sets of maps from three data splits: first/second half-ring, odd/even years and first/second half-mission. And for each of these data splits we provide half-sum and half-difference maps. The half-difference maps can be used to provide an approximate noise estimate for the full mission, but they should be used with caution. Each split has caveats in this regard: there are noise correlations between the half-ring maps, and missing pixels in the other splits. The Intensity maps are provided at Nside = 2048, at 5 arcmin resolution, while the Polarisation ones are provided at Nside = 1024 at 10 arcmin resolution. All maps are in units of K<sub>cmb</sub>.<br />
<br />
These maps can be found in the files <br />
* ''COM_CMB_IQU-{pipeline}-field-{Int/Pol}_Nside_R2.00.fits''. <br />
The ''Int'' files have two extensions, for the Intensity maps and the beam transfer function, the ''Pol'' files have three extensions, for Q and U maps, and for the beam transfer function.<br />
For a complete description of the data structure, see the [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
The gallery below shows the Intensity, noise from half-mission, half-difference, and confidence mask for the four pipelines, in the order SMICA, SEVEM, NILC and COMMANDER, from top to bottom. The Intensity maps scale is [–500.+500] μK, and the noise are between [–25,+25] μK. We do not show the Q and U maps since they have no significant visible structure to contemplate.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=300px heights=180> <br />
File:CMB_commander_tsig.png | '''commander temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tnoi.png | '''commander noise'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tmask.png | '''commander mask'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tsig.png | '''nilc temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tnoi.png | '''nilc noise'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tmask.png | '''nilc mask'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tsig.png | '''sevem temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tnoi.png | '''sevem noise'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tmask.png | '''sevem mask'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tsig.png | '''smica temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tnoi.png | '''smica noise'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tmask.png | '''smica mask'''</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
===Product description ===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: COMMANDER is a Planck software code implementing pixel based Bayesian parametric component separation. Each astrophysical signal component is modelled in terms of a small number of free parameters per pixel, typically in terms of an amplitude at a given reference frequency and a small set of spectral parameters, and these are fitted to the data with an MCMC Gibbs sampling algorithm. Instrumental parameters, including calibration, bandpass corrections, monopole and dipoles, are fitted jointly with the astrophysical components. A new feature in the Planck 2015 analysis is that the astrophysical model is derived from a combination of Planck, WMAP and a 408 MHz (Haslam et al. 1982) survey, providing sufficient frequency support to resolve the low-frequency components into synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust. For full details, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The Commander sky maps have different angular resolutions depending on data products:<br />
* The components of the full astrophysical sky model derived from the complete data combination (Planck, WMAP, 408 MHz) have a 1 degree FWHM resolution, and are pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=256. The corresponding CMB map defines the input map for the low-l Planck 2015 temperature likelihood. <br />
* The Commander CMB temperature map derived from Planck-only observations have an angular resolution of ~5 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=2048. This map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-857 GHz data), 7.5 arcmin (using 143-857 GHz data), and 5 arcmin (using 217-857 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
* The Commander CMB polarization map has an angular resolution of 10 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=1024. As for the temperature case, this map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-353 GHz data) and 10 arcmin (using 100-353 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The Commander confidence masks are produced by thresholding the chi-square map characterizing the global fits, combined with direct CO amplitude thresholding to eliminate known leakage effects. In addition, we exclude the 9-year WMAP point source mask in the temperature mask. For full details, see Sections 5 and 6 in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}. A total of 81% of the sky is admitted for high-resolution temperature analysis, and 83% for polarization analysis. For low-resolution temperature analysis, for which the additional WMAP and 408 MHz observations improve foreground constraints, a total of 93% of the sky is admitted. <br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: The Needlet-ILC (hereafter NILC) CMB map is constructed both in total intensity as well as polarization, Q and U Stokes parameters. For total intensity, all Planck frequency channels are included. For polarization, all polarization sensitive frequency channels are included, from 30 to 353 GHz. The solution, for T, Q and U is obtained by applying the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) technique in needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range. <br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The spectral analysis, and estimation of the NILC coefficients, is performed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math>. The effective beam is equivalent of a Gaussian circular beam with FWHM=5 arcminutes. <br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The same procedure is followed by SMICA and NILC for producing confidence masks, though with different parametrizations. A low resolution smoothed version of the NILC map, noise subtracted, is thresholded to 73.5 squared micro-K for T, and 6,75 squared micro-K for Q and U.<br />
<br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
:SEVEM produces clean CMB maps at several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting in real space. The templates are typically constructed from the lowest and highest Planck frequencies and then subtracted from the CMB-dominated channels, with coefficients that are chosen to minimize the variance of the clean map outside a considered mask. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. Two single frequency clean maps are then combined to obtain the final CMB map.<br />
<br />
;Resolution<br />
<br />
:For intensity the clean CMB map is constructed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math> at Nside=2048 and at the standard resolution of 5 arcminutes (Gaussian beam).<br />
:For polarization the clean CMB map is produced at Nside=1024 with a resolution of 10 arcminutes (Gaussian beam) and a maximum <math>\ell=3071</math>.<br />
<br />
;Confidence masks<br />
<br />
:The confidence masks cover the most contaminated regions of the sky, leaving approximately 85 per cent of useful sky for intensity and 80 per cent for polarization.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces CMBs map by linearly combining all Planck input channels with multipole-dependent weights. It includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>. Temperature and polarization maps are produced independently.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA intensity map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes which is truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math> and is '''not''' deconvolved from the pixel window function. Thus the delivered beam window function is the product of a Gaussian beam at 5 arcminutes and the pixel window function for Nside=2048.<br />
: The SMICA Q and U maps are obtained similarly but are produced at Nside=1024 with an effective beam of 10 arc-minutes (to be multiplied by the pixel window function, as for the intensity map).<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. See section below detailing the production process.<br />
<br />
===Production process===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky maps are first convolved to a common resolution that is larger than the largest beam of any frequency channel. For the combined Planck, WMAP and 408 MHz temperature analysis, the common resolution is 1 degree FWHM; for the Planck-only all-frequency analysis it is 40 arcmin FWHM; and for the intermediate-resolution analysis it is 7.5 arcmin; while for the full-resolution analysis, we assume all frequencies between 217 and 857 GHz have a common resolution, and no additional convolution is performed. For polarization, only two smoothing scales are employed, 40 and 10 arcmin, respectively. The instrumental noise rms maps are convolved correspondingly, properly accouting for their matrix-like nature. <br />
<br />
; Priors<br />
<br />
: The following priors are enforced in the Commander analysis:<br />
* All foreground amplitudes are enforced to be positive definite in the low-resolution analysis, while no amplitude priors are enforced in the high-resolution analyses<br />
* Monopoles and dipoles are fixed to nominal values for a small set of reference frequencies<br />
* Gaussian priors are enforced on spectral parameters, with values informed by the values derived in the high signal-to-noise areas of the sky<br />
* The Jeffreys ignorance prior is enforced on spectral parameters in addition to the informative Gaussian priors<br />
<br />
; Fitting procedure<br />
<br />
: Given data and priors, Commander either maximizes, or samples from, the Bayesian posterior, P(theta|data). Because this is a highly non-Gaussian and correlated distribution, involving millions of parameters, these operations are performed by means of the Gibbs sampling algorithm, in which joint samples from the full distributions are generated by iteratively sampling from the corresponding conditional posterior distributions, P(theta_i| data, theta_{j/=i}). For the low-resolution analysis, all parameters are optimized jointly, while in the high-resolution analyses, which employs fewer frequency channels, low signal-to-noise parameters are fixed to those derived at low resolution. Examples of such parameters include monopoles and dipoles, calibration and bandpass parameters, thermal dust temperature etc.<br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky frequency maps are deconvolved using the DPC beam transfer function provided, and re-convolved with a 5 arcminutes FWHM circular Gaussian beam. In polarization, prior to the smoothing process, all sky E and B maps are derived from Q and U using standard HEALPix tools from each individual frequency channels <br />
<br />
; Linear combination<br />
<br />
: Pre-processed input frequency maps are decomposed in needlet coefficients, specified in the Appendix B of the Planck A11 paper, with shape given by Table B.1. Minimum variance coefficients are then obtained, using all channels for T, from 30 to 353 for E and B. <br />
<br />
; Post-processing<br />
<br />
: E and B maps are re-combined into Q and U products using standard HEALPix tools. <br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
<br />
The templates used in the SEVEM pipeline are typically constructed by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMB map at that frequency. This is done in real space at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. The <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. Note that the same expression applies for I, Q and U. Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of clean maps at different frequencies is of great interest in order to test the robustness of the results. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned independently and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
;Intensity<br />
<br />
For the CMB intensity map, we have cleaned the 100 GHz, 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps using a total of four templates. Three of them are constructed as the difference of two consecutive Planck channels smoothed to a common resolution (30-44, 44-70 and 545-353) while the 857 GHz channel is chosen as the fourth template. First of all, the six frequency channels which are going to be part of the templates are inpainted at the point source positions detected using the Mexican Hat Wavelet algorithm. The size of the holes to be inpainted is determined taking into account the beam size of the channel as well as the flux of each source. The inpainting algorithm is based on simple diffuse inpainting, which fills one pixel with the mean value of the neighbouring pixels in an iterative way. To avoid inconsistencies when subtracting two channels, each frequency map is inpainted on the sources detected in that map and on the second map (if any) used to construct the template. Then the maps are smoothed to a common resolution (the first channel in the subtraction is smoothed with the beam of the second map and viceversa). For the 857 GHz template, we simply filter the inpainted map with the 545 GHz beam.<br />
<br />
The coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance outside the analysis mask, that covers the 1 per cent brightest emission of the sky as well as point sources detected at all frequency channels. Once the maps are cleaned, each of them is inpainted on the point sources positions detected at that (raw) channel. Then, the MHW algorithm is run again, now on the clean maps. A relatively small number of new sources are found and are also inpainted at each channel. The resolution of the clean map is the same as that of the original data. Our final CMB map is then constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask is produced by studying the differences between several SEVEM CMB reconstructions, which correspond to maps cleaned at different frequencies or using different analysis masks. The obtained mask leaves a useful sky fraction of approximately 85 per cent.<br />
<br />
;Polarization<br />
<br />
<br />
To clean the polarization maps, a procedure similar to the one used for intensity data is applied to the $Q$ and $U$ maps independently. However, given that a narrower frequency coverage is available for polarization, the selected templates and maps to be cleaned are different. In particular, we clean the 70, 100 and 143 GHz using three templates for each channel. The first step of the pipeline is to inpaint the positions of the point sources using the MHW, in those channels which are going to be used in the construction of templates, following the same procedure as for the intensity case. The inpainting is performed in the frequency maps at their native resolution. These inpainted maps are then used to construct a total of four templates. To trace the synchrotron emission, we construct a template as the subtraction of the 30 GHz minus the 44 GHz <br />
map, after being convolved with the beam of each other. For the dust emission, the following templates are considered: 353--217 GHz (smoothed at 10$'$ resolution), 217--143 GHz (used <br />
to clean 70 and 100 GHz) and 217--100 GHz (to clean 143 GHz). These two last templates are constructed at 1 degree resolution since an additional smoothing becomes necessary in<br />
order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the template. Conversely to the <br />
intensity case and due to the lower availability of frequency channels, it becomes necessary to use the maps to be cleaned as part of one of the templates. In this way, the 100 GHz <br />
map is used to clean the 143 GHz frequency channel and viceversa, making the clean maps less independent between them than in the intensity case.<br />
<br />
These templates are then used to clean the non-inpainted 70 (at its native resolution), 100 (at 10$'$ resolution) and 143 GHz maps (also at 10$'$). The corresponding linear coefficients are estimated independently for $Q$ and $U$ by minimising the variance of the clean maps outside a mask, that covers point sources and the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission. Once the maps have been cleaned, inpainting of the point sources detected at the corresponding raw maps is carried out. The size of the holes to be inpainted takes<br />
into account the additional smoothing of the 100 and 143 GHz maps. The 100 and 143 GHz clean maps are then combined in harmonic space, using $E$ and $B$ decomposition, to produce the final CMB maps for the $Q$ and $U$ components at a resolution of 10$'$ (Gaussian beam) for a HEALPix parameter Nside=1024. Each map is weighted taking into account its <br />
corresponding noise level at each multipole. Finally, before applying the post-processing HPF to the clean polarization data, the region with the brightest Galactic residuals is inpainted (5 per cent of the sky) to avoid the introduction of ringing around the Galactic centre in the filtering process.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask includes all the pixels above a given threshold in a smoothed version of the clean CMB map, the regions more contaminated by the CO emission and those pixels more affected by the high-pass filtering, leaving a useful sky fraction of approximately 80 per cent.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
<br />
A) Production of the intensity map.<br />
<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: Before computing spherical harmonic coefficients, all input maps undergo a pre-processing step to deal with regions of very strong emission (such as the Galactic center) and point sources. The point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue are fitted in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole is filled in by a simple diffusive process to ensure a smooth transition and mitigate spectral leakage. The diffusive inpainting process is also applied to some regions of very strong emissions. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, here all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and filled-in similarly.<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHz are harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> and co-added with multipole-dependent weights as shown in the figure.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: A confidence mask is determined (see the Planck paper) and all regions which have been masked in the pre-processing step are added to it.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filter_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input intensity maps (after they are re-beamed to 5 arc-minutes and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), as a function of multipole.''']]--><br />
<br />
B) Production of the Q and U polarisation maps.<br />
<br />
The production of the Q and U maps is similar to the production of the intensity map. The SMICA pipeline uses all the 7 polarized Planck channels. After point source masking and diffusive inpainting, the E and B modes are computed and combined to produce E and B modes of the CMB map. Those combined modes are then used to synthesize the U and Q CMB maps. The E and B parts of the input frequency maps being processed jointly, there are, at each multipole, 2*7=14 coefficients (weights) defined to produce the E modes of the CMB map and as many to produce the B part. The weights are displayed in the figure below. The Q and U maps were originally produced at Nside=2048 with a 5-arc-minute resolution, but were downgraded to Nside=1024 with a 10 arc-minute resolution for this release.<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filterEB_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input E and B modes (after they are re-beamed to 5 arcmin and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), in order to produce the E and B modes of the CMB map. A given frequency channel is encoded in a given color. Solid lines are for E modes and dashed lines are for B modes. The thick lines are for the EE or BB weights; the thin lines are for the EB or BE weights. See the paper for more details.''']]--><br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. SMICA and SEVEM use all the maps between 30 and 857 GHz; NILC uses the ones between 44 and 857 GHz. Commander-Ruler uses frequency channel maps from 30 to 353 GHz. <br />
<br />
===File names and structure===<br />
The FITS files corresponding to the three CMB products are the following:<br />
<br />
''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}-field-{Int,Pol}_Nside_R2.nn.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''method'' is mica, nilc, sevem, or commander, and Int and Pol indicate whether the file contains the temperature (Int) or the polarisation (Pol) maps. For this release the temperature maps are provided at Nside = 2048, and the polarisation maps at Nside = 1024. <br />
<br />
The files contain <br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data;<br />
* one or two ''BINTABLE'' data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 14 columns in which the first 13 columns is a CMB maps produced from the full or a subset of the data, as described in the table below, and the last column in a confidence mask. There is a single extension for ''Int'' files, and two, for Q and U, for ''Pol'' files. <br />
* a ''BINTABLE'' extension containing the beam window function.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I or Q or U || Real*4 || uK_cmb || I or Q or U map <br />
|- <br />
|HM1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HM2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 2 <br />
|-<br />
|YR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 1 <br />
|-<br />
|YR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HMHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HMHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|YRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|YRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|HRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half diff <br />
|-<br />
|MASK || BYTE || || Confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (smica/nilc/sevem/commander)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Notes:<br />
# The beam window function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>.<br />
<br />
<!--- mi sembra che questa non serva più <br />
The low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler CMB product is organized in the following way:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK_cmb || CMB temperature map obtained as average over 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Corresponding Standard deviation amongst the 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Confidence mask<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. EXTNAME = ''CMB-Sample'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM01 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM02 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM03 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM04 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM05 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM06 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM07 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM08 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM09 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM10 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
<!---- anche queste non servono più <br />
<br />
The FITS files containing the ''union'' (or common) maks is:<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-union_2048_R1.10.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common}}<br />
which contains a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with a single column (named ''U73'') for the mask, which is boolean (FITS ''TFORM = B''), in GALACTIC coordinates, NESTED ordering, and Nside=2048.<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for a small file containing the SMICA cmb map with no additional information (noise or masks) we provide such a file here<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
This file contains a single extension with a single column containing the SMICA cmb temperature map.<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
== Astrophysical foregrounds from parametric component separation ==<br />
We describe diffuse foreground products for the Planck 2015 release. See the Planck Foregrounds Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}} for a detailed description of these products. Further scientific discussion and interpretation may be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a31}}.<br />
<br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
Nominal frequency maps at 30, 44, 70, 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, 857 GHz ({{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=30|period=Nominal|link=LFI 30 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=44|period=Nominal|link=LFI 44 GHz frequency maps}} and {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=70|period=Nominal|link=LFI 70 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=100|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 100 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=143|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 143 GHz frequency maps}},{{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=217|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 217 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=353|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 353 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=545|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 545 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=857|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 857 GHz frequency maps}}) and their II column corresponding to the noise covariance matrix. <br />
Halfrings at the same frequencies. Beam window functions as reported in the [[The RIMO#Beam Window Functions|LFI and HFI RIMO]].<br />
<br />
<br />
===Low-resolution temperature products===<br />
<br />
: The Planck 2015 astrophysical component separation analysis combines Planck observations with the 9-year WMAP temperature sky maps (Bennett et al. 2013) and the 408 MHz survey by Haslam et al. (1982). This allows a direct decomposition of the low-frequency foregrounds into separate synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust components without strong spatial priors. The full set of data products derived from the low-resolution joint analysis are the following:<br />
<br />
=====Synchrotron emission=====<br />
<br />
<!--<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=800px heights=500px> <br />
File:commander_synch_amp.png | '''Commander low-resolution synchrotron amplitude'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center>--><br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: 408 MHz<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-Synchrotron<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Free-free emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: NA<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-freefree<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|EM_ML || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|EM_MEAN || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|EM_RMS || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_ML || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_MEAN || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_RMS || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Spinning dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The spinning dust component has two independent constituents, each corresponding to one spdust2 component, but with different peak frequencies. The two components are stored in the two first FITS extensions, and the template frequency spectrum is stored in the third extension. <br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 22.8 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-AME1<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_ML || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_MEAN || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_RMS || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 41.0 GHz<br />
: Peak frequency: 33.35 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- COMP-MAP-AME2<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 2 -- SPINNING-DUST-TEMP<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|nu || Real*4 || GHz || Frequency <br />
|-<br />
|j_nu/nH || Real*4 || Jy sr-1 cm2/H || spdust2 spectrum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====CO line emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CO-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CO-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The CO line emission component has three independent objects, corresponding to the J1->0, 2->1 and 3->2 lines, stored in separate extensions. <br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-co10<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- COMP-MAP-co21<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 2 -- COMP-MAP-co32<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====94/100 GHz line emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_xline-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_xline-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-xline<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Note: The amplitude of this component is normalized according to the 100-ds1 detector set map, ie., it is the amplitude as measured by this detector combination.<br />
<br />
=====Thermal dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_dust-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_dust-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 545 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-dust<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_ML || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_MEAN || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_RMS || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_MEAN || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_RMS || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====Thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich emission around the Coma and Virgo clusters=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_SZ-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_SZ-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-SZ<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Y_ML || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Y_MEAN || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|Y_RMS || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===High-resolution temperature products===<br />
<br />
High-resolution foreground products at 7.5 arcmin FWHM are derived with the same algorithm as for the low-resolution analyses, but including frequency channels above (and including) 143 GHz. These data products include the following:<br />
<br />
; CO(2-1) emission<br />
: (Coming soon!)<br />
<br />
; Thermal dust emission<br />
: (Coming soon!)<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|007]]</div>Heriksenhttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=CMB_and_astrophysical_component_maps&diff=10815CMB and astrophysical component maps2015-02-01T11:40:16Z<p>Heriksen: /* CO line emission */</p>
<hr />
<div>== Overview ==<br />
This section describes the maps of astrophysical components produced from the Planck data. These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps described above using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of the product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITS file containing the data and associated information.<br />
All the details can be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
==CMB maps==<br />
CMB maps have been produced by the COMMANDER, NILC, SEVEM, and SMICA pipelines, which are described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation | CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and references therein.. For each pipeline we provide:<br />
* Full-mission CMB intensity map, confidence mask and beam transfer function.<br />
* Full-mission high-pass filtered CMB polarisation map, <br />
* A confidence mask.<br />
* A beam transfer function.<br />
In addition, and for characterisation purposes, there are six other sets of maps from three data splits: first/second half-ring, odd/even years and first/second half-mission. And for each of these data splits we provide half-sum and half-difference maps. The half-difference maps can be used to provide an approximate noise estimate for the full mission, but they should be used with caution. Each split has caveats in this regard: there are noise correlations between the half-ring maps, and missing pixels in the other splits. The Intensity maps are provided at Nside = 2048, at 5 arcmin resolution, while the Polarisation ones are provided at Nside = 1024 at 10 arcmin resolution. All maps are in units of K<sub>cmb</sub>.<br />
<br />
These maps can be found in the files <br />
* ''COM_CMB_IQU-{pipeline}-field-{Int/Pol}_Nside_R2.00.fits''. <br />
The ''Int'' files have two extensions, for the Intensity maps and the beam transfer function, the ''Pol'' files have three extensions, for Q and U maps, and for the beam transfer function.<br />
For a complete description of the data structure, see the [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
The gallery below shows the Intensity, noise from half-mission, half-difference, and confidence mask for the four pipelines, in the order SMICA, SEVEM, NILC and COMMANDER, from top to bottom. The Intensity maps scale is [–500.+500] μK, and the noise are between [–25,+25] μK. We do not show the Q and U maps since they have no significant visible structure to contemplate.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=300px heights=180> <br />
File:CMB_commander_tsig.png | '''commander temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tnoi.png | '''commander noise'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tmask.png | '''commander mask'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tsig.png | '''nilc temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tnoi.png | '''nilc noise'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tmask.png | '''nilc mask'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tsig.png | '''sevem temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tnoi.png | '''sevem noise'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tmask.png | '''sevem mask'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tsig.png | '''smica temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tnoi.png | '''smica noise'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tmask.png | '''smica mask'''</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
===Product description ===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: COMMANDER is a Planck software code implementing pixel based Bayesian parametric component separation. Each astrophysical signal component is modelled in terms of a small number of free parameters per pixel, typically in terms of an amplitude at a given reference frequency and a small set of spectral parameters, and these are fitted to the data with an MCMC Gibbs sampling algorithm. Instrumental parameters, including calibration, bandpass corrections, monopole and dipoles, are fitted jointly with the astrophysical components. A new feature in the Planck 2015 analysis is that the astrophysical model is derived from a combination of Planck, WMAP and a 408 MHz (Haslam et al. 1982) survey, providing sufficient frequency support to resolve the low-frequency components into synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust. For full details, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The Commander sky maps have different angular resolutions depending on data products:<br />
* The components of the full astrophysical sky model derived from the complete data combination (Planck, WMAP, 408 MHz) have a 1 degree FWHM resolution, and are pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=256. The corresponding CMB map defines the input map for the low-l Planck 2015 temperature likelihood. <br />
* The Commander CMB temperature map derived from Planck-only observations have an angular resolution of ~5 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=2048. This map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-857 GHz data), 7.5 arcmin (using 143-857 GHz data), and 5 arcmin (using 217-857 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
* The Commander CMB polarization map has an angular resolution of 10 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=1024. As for the temperature case, this map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-353 GHz data) and 10 arcmin (using 100-353 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The Commander confidence masks are produced by thresholding the chi-square map characterizing the global fits, combined with direct CO amplitude thresholding to eliminate known leakage effects. In addition, we exclude the 9-year WMAP point source mask in the temperature mask. For full details, see Sections 5 and 6 in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}. A total of 81% of the sky is admitted for high-resolution temperature analysis, and 83% for polarization analysis. For low-resolution temperature analysis, for which the additional WMAP and 408 MHz observations improve foreground constraints, a total of 93% of the sky is admitted. <br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: The Needlet-ILC (hereafter NILC) CMB map is constructed both in total intensity as well as polarization, Q and U Stokes parameters. For total intensity, all Planck frequency channels are included. For polarization, all polarization sensitive frequency channels are included, from 30 to 353 GHz. The solution, for T, Q and U is obtained by applying the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) technique in needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range. <br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The spectral analysis, and estimation of the NILC coefficients, is performed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math>. The effective beam is equivalent of a Gaussian circular beam with FWHM=5 arcminutes. <br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The same procedure is followed by SMICA and NILC for producing confidence masks, though with different parametrizations. A low resolution smoothed version of the NILC map, noise subtracted, is thresholded to 73.5 squared micro-K for T, and 6,75 squared micro-K for Q and U.<br />
<br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
:SEVEM produces clean CMB maps at several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting in real space. The templates are typically constructed from the lowest and highest Planck frequencies and then subtracted from the CMB-dominated channels, with coefficients that are chosen to minimize the variance of the clean map outside a considered mask. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. Two single frequency clean maps are then combined to obtain the final CMB map.<br />
<br />
;Resolution<br />
<br />
:For intensity the clean CMB map is constructed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math> at Nside=2048 and at the standard resolution of 5 arcminutes (Gaussian beam).<br />
:For polarization the clean CMB map is produced at Nside=1024 with a resolution of 10 arcminutes (Gaussian beam) and a maximum <math>\ell=3071</math>.<br />
<br />
;Confidence masks<br />
<br />
:The confidence masks cover the most contaminated regions of the sky, leaving approximately 85 per cent of useful sky for intensity and 80 per cent for polarization.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces CMBs map by linearly combining all Planck input channels with multipole-dependent weights. It includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>. Temperature and polarization maps are produced independently.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA intensity map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes which is truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math> and is '''not''' deconvolved from the pixel window function. Thus the delivered beam window function is the product of a Gaussian beam at 5 arcminutes and the pixel window function for Nside=2048.<br />
: The SMICA Q and U maps are obtained similarly but are produced at Nside=1024 with an effective beam of 10 arc-minutes (to be multiplied by the pixel window function, as for the intensity map).<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. See section below detailing the production process.<br />
<br />
===Production process===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky maps are first convolved to a common resolution that is larger than the largest beam of any frequency channel. For the combined Planck, WMAP and 408 MHz temperature analysis, the common resolution is 1 degree FWHM; for the Planck-only all-frequency analysis it is 40 arcmin FWHM; and for the intermediate-resolution analysis it is 7.5 arcmin; while for the full-resolution analysis, we assume all frequencies between 217 and 857 GHz have a common resolution, and no additional convolution is performed. For polarization, only two smoothing scales are employed, 40 and 10 arcmin, respectively. The instrumental noise rms maps are convolved correspondingly, properly accouting for their matrix-like nature. <br />
<br />
; Priors<br />
<br />
: The following priors are enforced in the Commander analysis:<br />
* All foreground amplitudes are enforced to be positive definite in the low-resolution analysis, while no amplitude priors are enforced in the high-resolution analyses<br />
* Monopoles and dipoles are fixed to nominal values for a small set of reference frequencies<br />
* Gaussian priors are enforced on spectral parameters, with values informed by the values derived in the high signal-to-noise areas of the sky<br />
* The Jeffreys ignorance prior is enforced on spectral parameters in addition to the informative Gaussian priors<br />
<br />
; Fitting procedure<br />
<br />
: Given data and priors, Commander either maximizes, or samples from, the Bayesian posterior, P(theta|data). Because this is a highly non-Gaussian and correlated distribution, involving millions of parameters, these operations are performed by means of the Gibbs sampling algorithm, in which joint samples from the full distributions are generated by iteratively sampling from the corresponding conditional posterior distributions, P(theta_i| data, theta_{j/=i}). For the low-resolution analysis, all parameters are optimized jointly, while in the high-resolution analyses, which employs fewer frequency channels, low signal-to-noise parameters are fixed to those derived at low resolution. Examples of such parameters include monopoles and dipoles, calibration and bandpass parameters, thermal dust temperature etc.<br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky frequency maps are deconvolved using the DPC beam transfer function provided, and re-convolved with a 5 arcminutes FWHM circular Gaussian beam. In polarization, prior to the smoothing process, all sky E and B maps are derived from Q and U using standard HEALPix tools from each individual frequency channels <br />
<br />
; Linear combination<br />
<br />
: Pre-processed input frequency maps are decomposed in needlet coefficients, specified in the Appendix B of the Planck A11 paper, with shape given by Table B.1. Minimum variance coefficients are then obtained, using all channels for T, from 30 to 353 for E and B. <br />
<br />
; Post-processing<br />
<br />
: E and B maps are re-combined into Q and U products using standard HEALPix tools. <br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
<br />
The templates used in the SEVEM pipeline are typically constructed by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMB map at that frequency. This is done in real space at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. The <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. Note that the same expression applies for I, Q and U. Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of clean maps at different frequencies is of great interest in order to test the robustness of the results. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned independently and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
;Intensity<br />
<br />
For the CMB intensity map, we have cleaned the 100 GHz, 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps using a total of four templates. Three of them are constructed as the difference of two consecutive Planck channels smoothed to a common resolution (30-44, 44-70 and 545-353) while the 857 GHz channel is chosen as the fourth template. First of all, the six frequency channels which are going to be part of the templates are inpainted at the point source positions detected using the Mexican Hat Wavelet algorithm. The size of the holes to be inpainted is determined taking into account the beam size of the channel as well as the flux of each source. The inpainting algorithm is based on simple diffuse inpainting, which fills one pixel with the mean value of the neighbouring pixels in an iterative way. To avoid inconsistencies when subtracting two channels, each frequency map is inpainted on the sources detected in that map and on the second map (if any) used to construct the template. Then the maps are smoothed to a common resolution (the first channel in the subtraction is smoothed with the beam of the second map and viceversa). For the 857 GHz template, we simply filter the inpainted map with the 545 GHz beam.<br />
<br />
The coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance outside the analysis mask, that covers the 1 per cent brightest emission of the sky as well as point sources detected at all frequency channels. Once the maps are cleaned, each of them is inpainted on the point sources positions detected at that (raw) channel. Then, the MHW algorithm is run again, now on the clean maps. A relatively small number of new sources are found and are also inpainted at each channel. The resolution of the clean map is the same as that of the original data. Our final CMB map is then constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask is produced by studying the differences between several SEVEM CMB reconstructions, which correspond to maps cleaned at different frequencies or using different analysis masks. The obtained mask leaves a useful sky fraction of approximately 85 per cent.<br />
<br />
;Polarization<br />
<br />
<br />
To clean the polarization maps, a procedure similar to the one used for intensity data is applied to the $Q$ and $U$ maps independently. However, given that a narrower frequency coverage is available for polarization, the selected templates and maps to be cleaned are different. In particular, we clean the 70, 100 and 143 GHz using three templates for each channel. The first step of the pipeline is to inpaint the positions of the point sources using the MHW, in those channels which are going to be used in the construction of templates, following the same procedure as for the intensity case. The inpainting is performed in the frequency maps at their native resolution. These inpainted maps are then used to construct a total of four templates. To trace the synchrotron emission, we construct a template as the subtraction of the 30 GHz minus the 44 GHz <br />
map, after being convolved with the beam of each other. For the dust emission, the following templates are considered: 353--217 GHz (smoothed at 10$'$ resolution), 217--143 GHz (used <br />
to clean 70 and 100 GHz) and 217--100 GHz (to clean 143 GHz). These two last templates are constructed at 1 degree resolution since an additional smoothing becomes necessary in<br />
order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the template. Conversely to the <br />
intensity case and due to the lower availability of frequency channels, it becomes necessary to use the maps to be cleaned as part of one of the templates. In this way, the 100 GHz <br />
map is used to clean the 143 GHz frequency channel and viceversa, making the clean maps less independent between them than in the intensity case.<br />
<br />
These templates are then used to clean the non-inpainted 70 (at its native resolution), 100 (at 10$'$ resolution) and 143 GHz maps (also at 10$'$). The corresponding linear coefficients are estimated independently for $Q$ and $U$ by minimising the variance of the clean maps outside a mask, that covers point sources and the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission. Once the maps have been cleaned, inpainting of the point sources detected at the corresponding raw maps is carried out. The size of the holes to be inpainted takes<br />
into account the additional smoothing of the 100 and 143 GHz maps. The 100 and 143 GHz clean maps are then combined in harmonic space, using $E$ and $B$ decomposition, to produce the final CMB maps for the $Q$ and $U$ components at a resolution of 10$'$ (Gaussian beam) for a HEALPix parameter Nside=1024. Each map is weighted taking into account its <br />
corresponding noise level at each multipole. Finally, before applying the post-processing HPF to the clean polarization data, the region with the brightest Galactic residuals is inpainted (5 per cent of the sky) to avoid the introduction of ringing around the Galactic centre in the filtering process.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask includes all the pixels above a given threshold in a smoothed version of the clean CMB map, the regions more contaminated by the CO emission and those pixels more affected by the high-pass filtering, leaving a useful sky fraction of approximately 80 per cent.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
<br />
A) Production of the intensity map.<br />
<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: Before computing spherical harmonic coefficients, all input maps undergo a pre-processing step to deal with regions of very strong emission (such as the Galactic center) and point sources. The point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue are fitted in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole is filled in by a simple diffusive process to ensure a smooth transition and mitigate spectral leakage. The diffusive inpainting process is also applied to some regions of very strong emissions. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, here all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and filled-in similarly.<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHz are harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> and co-added with multipole-dependent weights as shown in the figure.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: A confidence mask is determined (see the Planck paper) and all regions which have been masked in the pre-processing step are added to it.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filter_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input intensity maps (after they are re-beamed to 5 arc-minutes and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), as a function of multipole.''']]--><br />
<br />
B) Production of the Q and U polarisation maps.<br />
<br />
The production of the Q and U maps is similar to the production of the intensity map. The SMICA pipeline uses all the 7 polarized Planck channels. After point source masking and diffusive inpainting, the E and B modes are computed and combined to produce E and B modes of the CMB map. Those combined modes are then used to synthesize the U and Q CMB maps. The E and B parts of the input frequency maps being processed jointly, there are, at each multipole, 2*7=14 coefficients (weights) defined to produce the E modes of the CMB map and as many to produce the B part. The weights are displayed in the figure below. The Q and U maps were originally produced at Nside=2048 with a 5-arc-minute resolution, but were downgraded to Nside=1024 with a 10 arc-minute resolution for this release.<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filterEB_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input E and B modes (after they are re-beamed to 5 arcmin and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), in order to produce the E and B modes of the CMB map. A given frequency channel is encoded in a given color. Solid lines are for E modes and dashed lines are for B modes. The thick lines are for the EE or BB weights; the thin lines are for the EB or BE weights. See the paper for more details.''']]--><br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. SMICA and SEVEM use all the maps between 30 and 857 GHz; NILC uses the ones between 44 and 857 GHz. Commander-Ruler uses frequency channel maps from 30 to 353 GHz. <br />
<br />
===File names and structure===<br />
The FITS files corresponding to the three CMB products are the following:<br />
<br />
''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}-field-{Int,Pol}_Nside_R2.nn.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''method'' is mica, nilc, sevem, or commander, and Int and Pol indicate whether the file contains the temperature (Int) or the polarisation (Pol) maps. For this release the temperature maps are provided at Nside = 2048, and the polarisation maps at Nside = 1024. <br />
<br />
The files contain <br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data;<br />
* one or two ''BINTABLE'' data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 14 columns in which the first 13 columns is a CMB maps produced from the full or a subset of the data, as described in the table below, and the last column in a confidence mask. There is a single extension for ''Int'' files, and two, for Q and U, for ''Pol'' files. <br />
* a ''BINTABLE'' extension containing the beam window function.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I or Q or U || Real*4 || uK_cmb || I or Q or U map <br />
|- <br />
|HM1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HM2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 2 <br />
|-<br />
|YR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 1 <br />
|-<br />
|YR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HMHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HMHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|YRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|YRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|HRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half diff <br />
|-<br />
|MASK || BYTE || || Confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (smica/nilc/sevem/commander)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Notes:<br />
# The beam window function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>.<br />
<br />
<!--- mi sembra che questa non serva più <br />
The low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler CMB product is organized in the following way:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK_cmb || CMB temperature map obtained as average over 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Corresponding Standard deviation amongst the 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Confidence mask<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. EXTNAME = ''CMB-Sample'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM01 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM02 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM03 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM04 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM05 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM06 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM07 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM08 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM09 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM10 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
<!---- anche queste non servono più <br />
<br />
The FITS files containing the ''union'' (or common) maks is:<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-union_2048_R1.10.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common}}<br />
which contains a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with a single column (named ''U73'') for the mask, which is boolean (FITS ''TFORM = B''), in GALACTIC coordinates, NESTED ordering, and Nside=2048.<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for a small file containing the SMICA cmb map with no additional information (noise or masks) we provide such a file here<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
This file contains a single extension with a single column containing the SMICA cmb temperature map.<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
== Astrophysical foregrounds from parametric component separation ==<br />
We describe diffuse foreground products for the Planck 2015 release. See the Planck Foregrounds Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}} for a detailed description of these products. Further scientific discussion and interpretation may be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a31}}.<br />
<br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
Nominal frequency maps at 30, 44, 70, 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, 857 GHz ({{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=30|period=Nominal|link=LFI 30 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=44|period=Nominal|link=LFI 44 GHz frequency maps}} and {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=70|period=Nominal|link=LFI 70 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=100|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 100 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=143|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 143 GHz frequency maps}},{{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=217|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 217 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=353|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 353 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=545|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 545 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=857|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 857 GHz frequency maps}}) and their II column corresponding to the noise covariance matrix. <br />
Halfrings at the same frequencies. Beam window functions as reported in the [[The RIMO#Beam Window Functions|LFI and HFI RIMO]].<br />
<br />
<br />
===Low-resolution temperature products===<br />
<br />
: The Planck 2015 astrophysical component separation analysis combines Planck observations with the 9-year WMAP temperature sky maps (Bennett et al. 2013) and the 408 MHz survey by Haslam et al. (1982). This allows a direct decomposition of the low-frequency foregrounds into separate synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust components without strong spatial priors. The full set of data products derived from the low-resolution joint analysis are the following:<br />
<br />
=====Synchrotron emission=====<br />
<br />
<!--<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=800px heights=500px> <br />
File:commander_synch_amp.png | '''Commander low-resolution synchrotron amplitude'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center>--><br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: 408 MHz<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-Synchrotron<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Free-free emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: NA<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-freefree<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|EM_ML || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|EM_MEAN || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|EM_RMS || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_ML || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_MEAN || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_RMS || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Spinning dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The spinning dust component has two independent constituents, each corresponding to one spdust2 component, but with different peak frequencies. The two components are stored in the two first FITS extensions, and the template frequency spectrum is stored in the third extension. <br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 22.8 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-AME1<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_ML || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_MEAN || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_RMS || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 41.0 GHz<br />
: Peak frequency: 33.35 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- COMP-MAP-AME2<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 2 -- SPINNING-DUST-TEMP<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|nu || Real*4 || GHz || Frequency <br />
|-<br />
|j_nu/nH || Real*4 || Jy sr-1 cm2/H || spdust2 spectrum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====CO line emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CO-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CO-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The CO line emission component has three independent objects, corresponding to the J1->0, 2->1 and 3->2 lines, stored in separate extensions. <br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-co10<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- COMP-MAP-co21<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 2 -- COMP-MAP-co32<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====CO line emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_xline-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_xline-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-xline<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Note: The amplitude of this component is normalized according to the 100-ds1 detector set map, ie., it is the amplitude as measured by this detector combination.<br />
<br />
=====Thermal dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_dust-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_dust-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 545 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-dust<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_ML || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_MEAN || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_RMS || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_MEAN || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_RMS || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====Thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich emission around the Coma and Virgo clusters=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_SZ-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_SZ-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-SZ<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Y_ML || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Y_MEAN || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|Y_RMS || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===High-resolution temperature products===<br />
<br />
High-resolution foreground products at 7.5 arcmin FWHM are derived with the same algorithm as for the low-resolution analyses, but including frequency channels above (and including) 143 GHz. These data products include the following:<br />
<br />
; CO(2-1) emission<br />
: (Coming soon!)<br />
<br />
; Thermal dust emission<br />
: (Coming soon!)<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|007]]</div>Heriksenhttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=CMB_and_astrophysical_component_maps&diff=10814CMB and astrophysical component maps2015-02-01T11:39:39Z<p>Heriksen: /* Thermal dust emission */</p>
<hr />
<div>== Overview ==<br />
This section describes the maps of astrophysical components produced from the Planck data. These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps described above using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of the product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITS file containing the data and associated information.<br />
All the details can be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
==CMB maps==<br />
CMB maps have been produced by the COMMANDER, NILC, SEVEM, and SMICA pipelines, which are described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation | CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and references therein.. For each pipeline we provide:<br />
* Full-mission CMB intensity map, confidence mask and beam transfer function.<br />
* Full-mission high-pass filtered CMB polarisation map, <br />
* A confidence mask.<br />
* A beam transfer function.<br />
In addition, and for characterisation purposes, there are six other sets of maps from three data splits: first/second half-ring, odd/even years and first/second half-mission. And for each of these data splits we provide half-sum and half-difference maps. The half-difference maps can be used to provide an approximate noise estimate for the full mission, but they should be used with caution. Each split has caveats in this regard: there are noise correlations between the half-ring maps, and missing pixels in the other splits. The Intensity maps are provided at Nside = 2048, at 5 arcmin resolution, while the Polarisation ones are provided at Nside = 1024 at 10 arcmin resolution. All maps are in units of K<sub>cmb</sub>.<br />
<br />
These maps can be found in the files <br />
* ''COM_CMB_IQU-{pipeline}-field-{Int/Pol}_Nside_R2.00.fits''. <br />
The ''Int'' files have two extensions, for the Intensity maps and the beam transfer function, the ''Pol'' files have three extensions, for Q and U maps, and for the beam transfer function.<br />
For a complete description of the data structure, see the [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
The gallery below shows the Intensity, noise from half-mission, half-difference, and confidence mask for the four pipelines, in the order SMICA, SEVEM, NILC and COMMANDER, from top to bottom. The Intensity maps scale is [–500.+500] μK, and the noise are between [–25,+25] μK. We do not show the Q and U maps since they have no significant visible structure to contemplate.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=300px heights=180> <br />
File:CMB_commander_tsig.png | '''commander temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tnoi.png | '''commander noise'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tmask.png | '''commander mask'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tsig.png | '''nilc temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tnoi.png | '''nilc noise'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tmask.png | '''nilc mask'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tsig.png | '''sevem temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tnoi.png | '''sevem noise'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tmask.png | '''sevem mask'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tsig.png | '''smica temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tnoi.png | '''smica noise'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tmask.png | '''smica mask'''</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
===Product description ===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: COMMANDER is a Planck software code implementing pixel based Bayesian parametric component separation. Each astrophysical signal component is modelled in terms of a small number of free parameters per pixel, typically in terms of an amplitude at a given reference frequency and a small set of spectral parameters, and these are fitted to the data with an MCMC Gibbs sampling algorithm. Instrumental parameters, including calibration, bandpass corrections, monopole and dipoles, are fitted jointly with the astrophysical components. A new feature in the Planck 2015 analysis is that the astrophysical model is derived from a combination of Planck, WMAP and a 408 MHz (Haslam et al. 1982) survey, providing sufficient frequency support to resolve the low-frequency components into synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust. For full details, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The Commander sky maps have different angular resolutions depending on data products:<br />
* The components of the full astrophysical sky model derived from the complete data combination (Planck, WMAP, 408 MHz) have a 1 degree FWHM resolution, and are pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=256. The corresponding CMB map defines the input map for the low-l Planck 2015 temperature likelihood. <br />
* The Commander CMB temperature map derived from Planck-only observations have an angular resolution of ~5 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=2048. This map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-857 GHz data), 7.5 arcmin (using 143-857 GHz data), and 5 arcmin (using 217-857 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
* The Commander CMB polarization map has an angular resolution of 10 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=1024. As for the temperature case, this map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-353 GHz data) and 10 arcmin (using 100-353 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The Commander confidence masks are produced by thresholding the chi-square map characterizing the global fits, combined with direct CO amplitude thresholding to eliminate known leakage effects. In addition, we exclude the 9-year WMAP point source mask in the temperature mask. For full details, see Sections 5 and 6 in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}. A total of 81% of the sky is admitted for high-resolution temperature analysis, and 83% for polarization analysis. For low-resolution temperature analysis, for which the additional WMAP and 408 MHz observations improve foreground constraints, a total of 93% of the sky is admitted. <br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: The Needlet-ILC (hereafter NILC) CMB map is constructed both in total intensity as well as polarization, Q and U Stokes parameters. For total intensity, all Planck frequency channels are included. For polarization, all polarization sensitive frequency channels are included, from 30 to 353 GHz. The solution, for T, Q and U is obtained by applying the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) technique in needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range. <br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The spectral analysis, and estimation of the NILC coefficients, is performed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math>. The effective beam is equivalent of a Gaussian circular beam with FWHM=5 arcminutes. <br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The same procedure is followed by SMICA and NILC for producing confidence masks, though with different parametrizations. A low resolution smoothed version of the NILC map, noise subtracted, is thresholded to 73.5 squared micro-K for T, and 6,75 squared micro-K for Q and U.<br />
<br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
:SEVEM produces clean CMB maps at several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting in real space. The templates are typically constructed from the lowest and highest Planck frequencies and then subtracted from the CMB-dominated channels, with coefficients that are chosen to minimize the variance of the clean map outside a considered mask. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. Two single frequency clean maps are then combined to obtain the final CMB map.<br />
<br />
;Resolution<br />
<br />
:For intensity the clean CMB map is constructed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math> at Nside=2048 and at the standard resolution of 5 arcminutes (Gaussian beam).<br />
:For polarization the clean CMB map is produced at Nside=1024 with a resolution of 10 arcminutes (Gaussian beam) and a maximum <math>\ell=3071</math>.<br />
<br />
;Confidence masks<br />
<br />
:The confidence masks cover the most contaminated regions of the sky, leaving approximately 85 per cent of useful sky for intensity and 80 per cent for polarization.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces CMBs map by linearly combining all Planck input channels with multipole-dependent weights. It includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>. Temperature and polarization maps are produced independently.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA intensity map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes which is truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math> and is '''not''' deconvolved from the pixel window function. Thus the delivered beam window function is the product of a Gaussian beam at 5 arcminutes and the pixel window function for Nside=2048.<br />
: The SMICA Q and U maps are obtained similarly but are produced at Nside=1024 with an effective beam of 10 arc-minutes (to be multiplied by the pixel window function, as for the intensity map).<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. See section below detailing the production process.<br />
<br />
===Production process===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky maps are first convolved to a common resolution that is larger than the largest beam of any frequency channel. For the combined Planck, WMAP and 408 MHz temperature analysis, the common resolution is 1 degree FWHM; for the Planck-only all-frequency analysis it is 40 arcmin FWHM; and for the intermediate-resolution analysis it is 7.5 arcmin; while for the full-resolution analysis, we assume all frequencies between 217 and 857 GHz have a common resolution, and no additional convolution is performed. For polarization, only two smoothing scales are employed, 40 and 10 arcmin, respectively. The instrumental noise rms maps are convolved correspondingly, properly accouting for their matrix-like nature. <br />
<br />
; Priors<br />
<br />
: The following priors are enforced in the Commander analysis:<br />
* All foreground amplitudes are enforced to be positive definite in the low-resolution analysis, while no amplitude priors are enforced in the high-resolution analyses<br />
* Monopoles and dipoles are fixed to nominal values for a small set of reference frequencies<br />
* Gaussian priors are enforced on spectral parameters, with values informed by the values derived in the high signal-to-noise areas of the sky<br />
* The Jeffreys ignorance prior is enforced on spectral parameters in addition to the informative Gaussian priors<br />
<br />
; Fitting procedure<br />
<br />
: Given data and priors, Commander either maximizes, or samples from, the Bayesian posterior, P(theta|data). Because this is a highly non-Gaussian and correlated distribution, involving millions of parameters, these operations are performed by means of the Gibbs sampling algorithm, in which joint samples from the full distributions are generated by iteratively sampling from the corresponding conditional posterior distributions, P(theta_i| data, theta_{j/=i}). For the low-resolution analysis, all parameters are optimized jointly, while in the high-resolution analyses, which employs fewer frequency channels, low signal-to-noise parameters are fixed to those derived at low resolution. Examples of such parameters include monopoles and dipoles, calibration and bandpass parameters, thermal dust temperature etc.<br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky frequency maps are deconvolved using the DPC beam transfer function provided, and re-convolved with a 5 arcminutes FWHM circular Gaussian beam. In polarization, prior to the smoothing process, all sky E and B maps are derived from Q and U using standard HEALPix tools from each individual frequency channels <br />
<br />
; Linear combination<br />
<br />
: Pre-processed input frequency maps are decomposed in needlet coefficients, specified in the Appendix B of the Planck A11 paper, with shape given by Table B.1. Minimum variance coefficients are then obtained, using all channels for T, from 30 to 353 for E and B. <br />
<br />
; Post-processing<br />
<br />
: E and B maps are re-combined into Q and U products using standard HEALPix tools. <br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
<br />
The templates used in the SEVEM pipeline are typically constructed by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMB map at that frequency. This is done in real space at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. The <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. Note that the same expression applies for I, Q and U. Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of clean maps at different frequencies is of great interest in order to test the robustness of the results. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned independently and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
;Intensity<br />
<br />
For the CMB intensity map, we have cleaned the 100 GHz, 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps using a total of four templates. Three of them are constructed as the difference of two consecutive Planck channels smoothed to a common resolution (30-44, 44-70 and 545-353) while the 857 GHz channel is chosen as the fourth template. First of all, the six frequency channels which are going to be part of the templates are inpainted at the point source positions detected using the Mexican Hat Wavelet algorithm. The size of the holes to be inpainted is determined taking into account the beam size of the channel as well as the flux of each source. The inpainting algorithm is based on simple diffuse inpainting, which fills one pixel with the mean value of the neighbouring pixels in an iterative way. To avoid inconsistencies when subtracting two channels, each frequency map is inpainted on the sources detected in that map and on the second map (if any) used to construct the template. Then the maps are smoothed to a common resolution (the first channel in the subtraction is smoothed with the beam of the second map and viceversa). For the 857 GHz template, we simply filter the inpainted map with the 545 GHz beam.<br />
<br />
The coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance outside the analysis mask, that covers the 1 per cent brightest emission of the sky as well as point sources detected at all frequency channels. Once the maps are cleaned, each of them is inpainted on the point sources positions detected at that (raw) channel. Then, the MHW algorithm is run again, now on the clean maps. A relatively small number of new sources are found and are also inpainted at each channel. The resolution of the clean map is the same as that of the original data. Our final CMB map is then constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask is produced by studying the differences between several SEVEM CMB reconstructions, which correspond to maps cleaned at different frequencies or using different analysis masks. The obtained mask leaves a useful sky fraction of approximately 85 per cent.<br />
<br />
;Polarization<br />
<br />
<br />
To clean the polarization maps, a procedure similar to the one used for intensity data is applied to the $Q$ and $U$ maps independently. However, given that a narrower frequency coverage is available for polarization, the selected templates and maps to be cleaned are different. In particular, we clean the 70, 100 and 143 GHz using three templates for each channel. The first step of the pipeline is to inpaint the positions of the point sources using the MHW, in those channels which are going to be used in the construction of templates, following the same procedure as for the intensity case. The inpainting is performed in the frequency maps at their native resolution. These inpainted maps are then used to construct a total of four templates. To trace the synchrotron emission, we construct a template as the subtraction of the 30 GHz minus the 44 GHz <br />
map, after being convolved with the beam of each other. For the dust emission, the following templates are considered: 353--217 GHz (smoothed at 10$'$ resolution), 217--143 GHz (used <br />
to clean 70 and 100 GHz) and 217--100 GHz (to clean 143 GHz). These two last templates are constructed at 1 degree resolution since an additional smoothing becomes necessary in<br />
order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the template. Conversely to the <br />
intensity case and due to the lower availability of frequency channels, it becomes necessary to use the maps to be cleaned as part of one of the templates. In this way, the 100 GHz <br />
map is used to clean the 143 GHz frequency channel and viceversa, making the clean maps less independent between them than in the intensity case.<br />
<br />
These templates are then used to clean the non-inpainted 70 (at its native resolution), 100 (at 10$'$ resolution) and 143 GHz maps (also at 10$'$). The corresponding linear coefficients are estimated independently for $Q$ and $U$ by minimising the variance of the clean maps outside a mask, that covers point sources and the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission. Once the maps have been cleaned, inpainting of the point sources detected at the corresponding raw maps is carried out. The size of the holes to be inpainted takes<br />
into account the additional smoothing of the 100 and 143 GHz maps. The 100 and 143 GHz clean maps are then combined in harmonic space, using $E$ and $B$ decomposition, to produce the final CMB maps for the $Q$ and $U$ components at a resolution of 10$'$ (Gaussian beam) for a HEALPix parameter Nside=1024. Each map is weighted taking into account its <br />
corresponding noise level at each multipole. Finally, before applying the post-processing HPF to the clean polarization data, the region with the brightest Galactic residuals is inpainted (5 per cent of the sky) to avoid the introduction of ringing around the Galactic centre in the filtering process.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask includes all the pixels above a given threshold in a smoothed version of the clean CMB map, the regions more contaminated by the CO emission and those pixels more affected by the high-pass filtering, leaving a useful sky fraction of approximately 80 per cent.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
<br />
A) Production of the intensity map.<br />
<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: Before computing spherical harmonic coefficients, all input maps undergo a pre-processing step to deal with regions of very strong emission (such as the Galactic center) and point sources. The point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue are fitted in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole is filled in by a simple diffusive process to ensure a smooth transition and mitigate spectral leakage. The diffusive inpainting process is also applied to some regions of very strong emissions. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, here all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and filled-in similarly.<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHz are harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> and co-added with multipole-dependent weights as shown in the figure.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: A confidence mask is determined (see the Planck paper) and all regions which have been masked in the pre-processing step are added to it.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filter_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input intensity maps (after they are re-beamed to 5 arc-minutes and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), as a function of multipole.''']]--><br />
<br />
B) Production of the Q and U polarisation maps.<br />
<br />
The production of the Q and U maps is similar to the production of the intensity map. The SMICA pipeline uses all the 7 polarized Planck channels. After point source masking and diffusive inpainting, the E and B modes are computed and combined to produce E and B modes of the CMB map. Those combined modes are then used to synthesize the U and Q CMB maps. The E and B parts of the input frequency maps being processed jointly, there are, at each multipole, 2*7=14 coefficients (weights) defined to produce the E modes of the CMB map and as many to produce the B part. The weights are displayed in the figure below. The Q and U maps were originally produced at Nside=2048 with a 5-arc-minute resolution, but were downgraded to Nside=1024 with a 10 arc-minute resolution for this release.<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filterEB_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input E and B modes (after they are re-beamed to 5 arcmin and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), in order to produce the E and B modes of the CMB map. A given frequency channel is encoded in a given color. Solid lines are for E modes and dashed lines are for B modes. The thick lines are for the EE or BB weights; the thin lines are for the EB or BE weights. See the paper for more details.''']]--><br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. SMICA and SEVEM use all the maps between 30 and 857 GHz; NILC uses the ones between 44 and 857 GHz. Commander-Ruler uses frequency channel maps from 30 to 353 GHz. <br />
<br />
===File names and structure===<br />
The FITS files corresponding to the three CMB products are the following:<br />
<br />
''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}-field-{Int,Pol}_Nside_R2.nn.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''method'' is mica, nilc, sevem, or commander, and Int and Pol indicate whether the file contains the temperature (Int) or the polarisation (Pol) maps. For this release the temperature maps are provided at Nside = 2048, and the polarisation maps at Nside = 1024. <br />
<br />
The files contain <br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data;<br />
* one or two ''BINTABLE'' data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 14 columns in which the first 13 columns is a CMB maps produced from the full or a subset of the data, as described in the table below, and the last column in a confidence mask. There is a single extension for ''Int'' files, and two, for Q and U, for ''Pol'' files. <br />
* a ''BINTABLE'' extension containing the beam window function.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I or Q or U || Real*4 || uK_cmb || I or Q or U map <br />
|- <br />
|HM1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HM2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 2 <br />
|-<br />
|YR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 1 <br />
|-<br />
|YR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HMHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HMHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|YRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|YRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|HRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half diff <br />
|-<br />
|MASK || BYTE || || Confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (smica/nilc/sevem/commander)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Notes:<br />
# The beam window function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>.<br />
<br />
<!--- mi sembra che questa non serva più <br />
The low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler CMB product is organized in the following way:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK_cmb || CMB temperature map obtained as average over 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Corresponding Standard deviation amongst the 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Confidence mask<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. EXTNAME = ''CMB-Sample'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM01 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM02 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM03 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM04 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM05 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM06 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM07 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM08 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM09 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM10 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
<!---- anche queste non servono più <br />
<br />
The FITS files containing the ''union'' (or common) maks is:<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-union_2048_R1.10.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common}}<br />
which contains a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with a single column (named ''U73'') for the mask, which is boolean (FITS ''TFORM = B''), in GALACTIC coordinates, NESTED ordering, and Nside=2048.<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for a small file containing the SMICA cmb map with no additional information (noise or masks) we provide such a file here<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
This file contains a single extension with a single column containing the SMICA cmb temperature map.<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
== Astrophysical foregrounds from parametric component separation ==<br />
We describe diffuse foreground products for the Planck 2015 release. See the Planck Foregrounds Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}} for a detailed description of these products. Further scientific discussion and interpretation may be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a31}}.<br />
<br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
Nominal frequency maps at 30, 44, 70, 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, 857 GHz ({{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=30|period=Nominal|link=LFI 30 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=44|period=Nominal|link=LFI 44 GHz frequency maps}} and {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=70|period=Nominal|link=LFI 70 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=100|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 100 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=143|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 143 GHz frequency maps}},{{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=217|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 217 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=353|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 353 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=545|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 545 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=857|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 857 GHz frequency maps}}) and their II column corresponding to the noise covariance matrix. <br />
Halfrings at the same frequencies. Beam window functions as reported in the [[The RIMO#Beam Window Functions|LFI and HFI RIMO]].<br />
<br />
<br />
===Low-resolution temperature products===<br />
<br />
: The Planck 2015 astrophysical component separation analysis combines Planck observations with the 9-year WMAP temperature sky maps (Bennett et al. 2013) and the 408 MHz survey by Haslam et al. (1982). This allows a direct decomposition of the low-frequency foregrounds into separate synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust components without strong spatial priors. The full set of data products derived from the low-resolution joint analysis are the following:<br />
<br />
=====Synchrotron emission=====<br />
<br />
<!--<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=800px heights=500px> <br />
File:commander_synch_amp.png | '''Commander low-resolution synchrotron amplitude'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center>--><br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: 408 MHz<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-Synchrotron<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Free-free emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: NA<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-freefree<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|EM_ML || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|EM_MEAN || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|EM_RMS || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_ML || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_MEAN || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_RMS || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Spinning dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The spinning dust component has two independent constituents, each corresponding to one spdust2 component, but with different peak frequencies. The two components are stored in the two first FITS extensions, and the template frequency spectrum is stored in the third extension. <br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 22.8 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-AME1<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_ML || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_MEAN || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_RMS || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 41.0 GHz<br />
: Peak frequency: 33.35 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- COMP-MAP-AME2<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 2 -- SPINNING-DUST-TEMP<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|nu || Real*4 || GHz || Frequency <br />
|-<br />
|j_nu/nH || Real*4 || Jy sr-1 cm2/H || spdust2 spectrum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====CO line emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CO-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CO-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The CO line emission component has three independent objects, corresponding to the J1->0, 2->1 and 3->2 lines, stored in separate extensions. <br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-co10<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- COMP-MAP-co21<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 2 -- COMP-MAP-co32<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====CO line emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_xline-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_xline-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-co10<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Note: The amplitude of this component is normalized according to the 100-ds1 detector set map, ie., it is the amplitude as measured by this detector combination.<br />
<br />
=====Thermal dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_dust-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_dust-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 545 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-dust<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_ML || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_MEAN || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_RMS || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_MEAN || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_RMS || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====Thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich emission around the Coma and Virgo clusters=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_SZ-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_SZ-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-SZ<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Y_ML || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Y_MEAN || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|Y_RMS || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===High-resolution temperature products===<br />
<br />
High-resolution foreground products at 7.5 arcmin FWHM are derived with the same algorithm as for the low-resolution analyses, but including frequency channels above (and including) 143 GHz. These data products include the following:<br />
<br />
; CO(2-1) emission<br />
: (Coming soon!)<br />
<br />
; Thermal dust emission<br />
: (Coming soon!)<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|007]]</div>Heriksenhttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=CMB_and_astrophysical_component_maps&diff=10813CMB and astrophysical component maps2015-02-01T11:36:49Z<p>Heriksen: /* Low-resolution temperature products */</p>
<hr />
<div>== Overview ==<br />
This section describes the maps of astrophysical components produced from the Planck data. These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps described above using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of the product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITS file containing the data and associated information.<br />
All the details can be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
==CMB maps==<br />
CMB maps have been produced by the COMMANDER, NILC, SEVEM, and SMICA pipelines, which are described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation | CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and references therein.. For each pipeline we provide:<br />
* Full-mission CMB intensity map, confidence mask and beam transfer function.<br />
* Full-mission high-pass filtered CMB polarisation map, <br />
* A confidence mask.<br />
* A beam transfer function.<br />
In addition, and for characterisation purposes, there are six other sets of maps from three data splits: first/second half-ring, odd/even years and first/second half-mission. And for each of these data splits we provide half-sum and half-difference maps. The half-difference maps can be used to provide an approximate noise estimate for the full mission, but they should be used with caution. Each split has caveats in this regard: there are noise correlations between the half-ring maps, and missing pixels in the other splits. The Intensity maps are provided at Nside = 2048, at 5 arcmin resolution, while the Polarisation ones are provided at Nside = 1024 at 10 arcmin resolution. All maps are in units of K<sub>cmb</sub>.<br />
<br />
These maps can be found in the files <br />
* ''COM_CMB_IQU-{pipeline}-field-{Int/Pol}_Nside_R2.00.fits''. <br />
The ''Int'' files have two extensions, for the Intensity maps and the beam transfer function, the ''Pol'' files have three extensions, for Q and U maps, and for the beam transfer function.<br />
For a complete description of the data structure, see the [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
The gallery below shows the Intensity, noise from half-mission, half-difference, and confidence mask for the four pipelines, in the order SMICA, SEVEM, NILC and COMMANDER, from top to bottom. The Intensity maps scale is [–500.+500] μK, and the noise are between [–25,+25] μK. We do not show the Q and U maps since they have no significant visible structure to contemplate.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=300px heights=180> <br />
File:CMB_commander_tsig.png | '''commander temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tnoi.png | '''commander noise'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tmask.png | '''commander mask'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tsig.png | '''nilc temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tnoi.png | '''nilc noise'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tmask.png | '''nilc mask'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tsig.png | '''sevem temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tnoi.png | '''sevem noise'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tmask.png | '''sevem mask'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tsig.png | '''smica temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tnoi.png | '''smica noise'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tmask.png | '''smica mask'''</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
===Product description ===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: COMMANDER is a Planck software code implementing pixel based Bayesian parametric component separation. Each astrophysical signal component is modelled in terms of a small number of free parameters per pixel, typically in terms of an amplitude at a given reference frequency and a small set of spectral parameters, and these are fitted to the data with an MCMC Gibbs sampling algorithm. Instrumental parameters, including calibration, bandpass corrections, monopole and dipoles, are fitted jointly with the astrophysical components. A new feature in the Planck 2015 analysis is that the astrophysical model is derived from a combination of Planck, WMAP and a 408 MHz (Haslam et al. 1982) survey, providing sufficient frequency support to resolve the low-frequency components into synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust. For full details, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The Commander sky maps have different angular resolutions depending on data products:<br />
* The components of the full astrophysical sky model derived from the complete data combination (Planck, WMAP, 408 MHz) have a 1 degree FWHM resolution, and are pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=256. The corresponding CMB map defines the input map for the low-l Planck 2015 temperature likelihood. <br />
* The Commander CMB temperature map derived from Planck-only observations have an angular resolution of ~5 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=2048. This map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-857 GHz data), 7.5 arcmin (using 143-857 GHz data), and 5 arcmin (using 217-857 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
* The Commander CMB polarization map has an angular resolution of 10 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=1024. As for the temperature case, this map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-353 GHz data) and 10 arcmin (using 100-353 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The Commander confidence masks are produced by thresholding the chi-square map characterizing the global fits, combined with direct CO amplitude thresholding to eliminate known leakage effects. In addition, we exclude the 9-year WMAP point source mask in the temperature mask. For full details, see Sections 5 and 6 in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}. A total of 81% of the sky is admitted for high-resolution temperature analysis, and 83% for polarization analysis. For low-resolution temperature analysis, for which the additional WMAP and 408 MHz observations improve foreground constraints, a total of 93% of the sky is admitted. <br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: The Needlet-ILC (hereafter NILC) CMB map is constructed both in total intensity as well as polarization, Q and U Stokes parameters. For total intensity, all Planck frequency channels are included. For polarization, all polarization sensitive frequency channels are included, from 30 to 353 GHz. The solution, for T, Q and U is obtained by applying the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) technique in needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range. <br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The spectral analysis, and estimation of the NILC coefficients, is performed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math>. The effective beam is equivalent of a Gaussian circular beam with FWHM=5 arcminutes. <br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The same procedure is followed by SMICA and NILC for producing confidence masks, though with different parametrizations. A low resolution smoothed version of the NILC map, noise subtracted, is thresholded to 73.5 squared micro-K for T, and 6,75 squared micro-K for Q and U.<br />
<br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
:SEVEM produces clean CMB maps at several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting in real space. The templates are typically constructed from the lowest and highest Planck frequencies and then subtracted from the CMB-dominated channels, with coefficients that are chosen to minimize the variance of the clean map outside a considered mask. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. Two single frequency clean maps are then combined to obtain the final CMB map.<br />
<br />
;Resolution<br />
<br />
:For intensity the clean CMB map is constructed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math> at Nside=2048 and at the standard resolution of 5 arcminutes (Gaussian beam).<br />
:For polarization the clean CMB map is produced at Nside=1024 with a resolution of 10 arcminutes (Gaussian beam) and a maximum <math>\ell=3071</math>.<br />
<br />
;Confidence masks<br />
<br />
:The confidence masks cover the most contaminated regions of the sky, leaving approximately 85 per cent of useful sky for intensity and 80 per cent for polarization.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces CMBs map by linearly combining all Planck input channels with multipole-dependent weights. It includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>. Temperature and polarization maps are produced independently.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA intensity map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes which is truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math> and is '''not''' deconvolved from the pixel window function. Thus the delivered beam window function is the product of a Gaussian beam at 5 arcminutes and the pixel window function for Nside=2048.<br />
: The SMICA Q and U maps are obtained similarly but are produced at Nside=1024 with an effective beam of 10 arc-minutes (to be multiplied by the pixel window function, as for the intensity map).<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. See section below detailing the production process.<br />
<br />
===Production process===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky maps are first convolved to a common resolution that is larger than the largest beam of any frequency channel. For the combined Planck, WMAP and 408 MHz temperature analysis, the common resolution is 1 degree FWHM; for the Planck-only all-frequency analysis it is 40 arcmin FWHM; and for the intermediate-resolution analysis it is 7.5 arcmin; while for the full-resolution analysis, we assume all frequencies between 217 and 857 GHz have a common resolution, and no additional convolution is performed. For polarization, only two smoothing scales are employed, 40 and 10 arcmin, respectively. The instrumental noise rms maps are convolved correspondingly, properly accouting for their matrix-like nature. <br />
<br />
; Priors<br />
<br />
: The following priors are enforced in the Commander analysis:<br />
* All foreground amplitudes are enforced to be positive definite in the low-resolution analysis, while no amplitude priors are enforced in the high-resolution analyses<br />
* Monopoles and dipoles are fixed to nominal values for a small set of reference frequencies<br />
* Gaussian priors are enforced on spectral parameters, with values informed by the values derived in the high signal-to-noise areas of the sky<br />
* The Jeffreys ignorance prior is enforced on spectral parameters in addition to the informative Gaussian priors<br />
<br />
; Fitting procedure<br />
<br />
: Given data and priors, Commander either maximizes, or samples from, the Bayesian posterior, P(theta|data). Because this is a highly non-Gaussian and correlated distribution, involving millions of parameters, these operations are performed by means of the Gibbs sampling algorithm, in which joint samples from the full distributions are generated by iteratively sampling from the corresponding conditional posterior distributions, P(theta_i| data, theta_{j/=i}). For the low-resolution analysis, all parameters are optimized jointly, while in the high-resolution analyses, which employs fewer frequency channels, low signal-to-noise parameters are fixed to those derived at low resolution. Examples of such parameters include monopoles and dipoles, calibration and bandpass parameters, thermal dust temperature etc.<br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky frequency maps are deconvolved using the DPC beam transfer function provided, and re-convolved with a 5 arcminutes FWHM circular Gaussian beam. In polarization, prior to the smoothing process, all sky E and B maps are derived from Q and U using standard HEALPix tools from each individual frequency channels <br />
<br />
; Linear combination<br />
<br />
: Pre-processed input frequency maps are decomposed in needlet coefficients, specified in the Appendix B of the Planck A11 paper, with shape given by Table B.1. Minimum variance coefficients are then obtained, using all channels for T, from 30 to 353 for E and B. <br />
<br />
; Post-processing<br />
<br />
: E and B maps are re-combined into Q and U products using standard HEALPix tools. <br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
<br />
The templates used in the SEVEM pipeline are typically constructed by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMB map at that frequency. This is done in real space at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. The <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. Note that the same expression applies for I, Q and U. Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of clean maps at different frequencies is of great interest in order to test the robustness of the results. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned independently and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
;Intensity<br />
<br />
For the CMB intensity map, we have cleaned the 100 GHz, 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps using a total of four templates. Three of them are constructed as the difference of two consecutive Planck channels smoothed to a common resolution (30-44, 44-70 and 545-353) while the 857 GHz channel is chosen as the fourth template. First of all, the six frequency channels which are going to be part of the templates are inpainted at the point source positions detected using the Mexican Hat Wavelet algorithm. The size of the holes to be inpainted is determined taking into account the beam size of the channel as well as the flux of each source. The inpainting algorithm is based on simple diffuse inpainting, which fills one pixel with the mean value of the neighbouring pixels in an iterative way. To avoid inconsistencies when subtracting two channels, each frequency map is inpainted on the sources detected in that map and on the second map (if any) used to construct the template. Then the maps are smoothed to a common resolution (the first channel in the subtraction is smoothed with the beam of the second map and viceversa). For the 857 GHz template, we simply filter the inpainted map with the 545 GHz beam.<br />
<br />
The coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance outside the analysis mask, that covers the 1 per cent brightest emission of the sky as well as point sources detected at all frequency channels. Once the maps are cleaned, each of them is inpainted on the point sources positions detected at that (raw) channel. Then, the MHW algorithm is run again, now on the clean maps. A relatively small number of new sources are found and are also inpainted at each channel. The resolution of the clean map is the same as that of the original data. Our final CMB map is then constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask is produced by studying the differences between several SEVEM CMB reconstructions, which correspond to maps cleaned at different frequencies or using different analysis masks. The obtained mask leaves a useful sky fraction of approximately 85 per cent.<br />
<br />
;Polarization<br />
<br />
<br />
To clean the polarization maps, a procedure similar to the one used for intensity data is applied to the $Q$ and $U$ maps independently. However, given that a narrower frequency coverage is available for polarization, the selected templates and maps to be cleaned are different. In particular, we clean the 70, 100 and 143 GHz using three templates for each channel. The first step of the pipeline is to inpaint the positions of the point sources using the MHW, in those channels which are going to be used in the construction of templates, following the same procedure as for the intensity case. The inpainting is performed in the frequency maps at their native resolution. These inpainted maps are then used to construct a total of four templates. To trace the synchrotron emission, we construct a template as the subtraction of the 30 GHz minus the 44 GHz <br />
map, after being convolved with the beam of each other. For the dust emission, the following templates are considered: 353--217 GHz (smoothed at 10$'$ resolution), 217--143 GHz (used <br />
to clean 70 and 100 GHz) and 217--100 GHz (to clean 143 GHz). These two last templates are constructed at 1 degree resolution since an additional smoothing becomes necessary in<br />
order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the template. Conversely to the <br />
intensity case and due to the lower availability of frequency channels, it becomes necessary to use the maps to be cleaned as part of one of the templates. In this way, the 100 GHz <br />
map is used to clean the 143 GHz frequency channel and viceversa, making the clean maps less independent between them than in the intensity case.<br />
<br />
These templates are then used to clean the non-inpainted 70 (at its native resolution), 100 (at 10$'$ resolution) and 143 GHz maps (also at 10$'$). The corresponding linear coefficients are estimated independently for $Q$ and $U$ by minimising the variance of the clean maps outside a mask, that covers point sources and the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission. Once the maps have been cleaned, inpainting of the point sources detected at the corresponding raw maps is carried out. The size of the holes to be inpainted takes<br />
into account the additional smoothing of the 100 and 143 GHz maps. The 100 and 143 GHz clean maps are then combined in harmonic space, using $E$ and $B$ decomposition, to produce the final CMB maps for the $Q$ and $U$ components at a resolution of 10$'$ (Gaussian beam) for a HEALPix parameter Nside=1024. Each map is weighted taking into account its <br />
corresponding noise level at each multipole. Finally, before applying the post-processing HPF to the clean polarization data, the region with the brightest Galactic residuals is inpainted (5 per cent of the sky) to avoid the introduction of ringing around the Galactic centre in the filtering process.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask includes all the pixels above a given threshold in a smoothed version of the clean CMB map, the regions more contaminated by the CO emission and those pixels more affected by the high-pass filtering, leaving a useful sky fraction of approximately 80 per cent.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
<br />
A) Production of the intensity map.<br />
<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: Before computing spherical harmonic coefficients, all input maps undergo a pre-processing step to deal with regions of very strong emission (such as the Galactic center) and point sources. The point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue are fitted in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole is filled in by a simple diffusive process to ensure a smooth transition and mitigate spectral leakage. The diffusive inpainting process is also applied to some regions of very strong emissions. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, here all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and filled-in similarly.<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHz are harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> and co-added with multipole-dependent weights as shown in the figure.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: A confidence mask is determined (see the Planck paper) and all regions which have been masked in the pre-processing step are added to it.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filter_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input intensity maps (after they are re-beamed to 5 arc-minutes and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), as a function of multipole.''']]--><br />
<br />
B) Production of the Q and U polarisation maps.<br />
<br />
The production of the Q and U maps is similar to the production of the intensity map. The SMICA pipeline uses all the 7 polarized Planck channels. After point source masking and diffusive inpainting, the E and B modes are computed and combined to produce E and B modes of the CMB map. Those combined modes are then used to synthesize the U and Q CMB maps. The E and B parts of the input frequency maps being processed jointly, there are, at each multipole, 2*7=14 coefficients (weights) defined to produce the E modes of the CMB map and as many to produce the B part. The weights are displayed in the figure below. The Q and U maps were originally produced at Nside=2048 with a 5-arc-minute resolution, but were downgraded to Nside=1024 with a 10 arc-minute resolution for this release.<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filterEB_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input E and B modes (after they are re-beamed to 5 arcmin and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), in order to produce the E and B modes of the CMB map. A given frequency channel is encoded in a given color. Solid lines are for E modes and dashed lines are for B modes. The thick lines are for the EE or BB weights; the thin lines are for the EB or BE weights. See the paper for more details.''']]--><br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. SMICA and SEVEM use all the maps between 30 and 857 GHz; NILC uses the ones between 44 and 857 GHz. Commander-Ruler uses frequency channel maps from 30 to 353 GHz. <br />
<br />
===File names and structure===<br />
The FITS files corresponding to the three CMB products are the following:<br />
<br />
''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}-field-{Int,Pol}_Nside_R2.nn.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''method'' is mica, nilc, sevem, or commander, and Int and Pol indicate whether the file contains the temperature (Int) or the polarisation (Pol) maps. For this release the temperature maps are provided at Nside = 2048, and the polarisation maps at Nside = 1024. <br />
<br />
The files contain <br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data;<br />
* one or two ''BINTABLE'' data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 14 columns in which the first 13 columns is a CMB maps produced from the full or a subset of the data, as described in the table below, and the last column in a confidence mask. There is a single extension for ''Int'' files, and two, for Q and U, for ''Pol'' files. <br />
* a ''BINTABLE'' extension containing the beam window function.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I or Q or U || Real*4 || uK_cmb || I or Q or U map <br />
|- <br />
|HM1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HM2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 2 <br />
|-<br />
|YR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 1 <br />
|-<br />
|YR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HMHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HMHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|YRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|YRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|HRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half diff <br />
|-<br />
|MASK || BYTE || || Confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (smica/nilc/sevem/commander)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Notes:<br />
# The beam window function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>.<br />
<br />
<!--- mi sembra che questa non serva più <br />
The low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler CMB product is organized in the following way:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK_cmb || CMB temperature map obtained as average over 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Corresponding Standard deviation amongst the 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Confidence mask<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. EXTNAME = ''CMB-Sample'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM01 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM02 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM03 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM04 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM05 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM06 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM07 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM08 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM09 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM10 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
<!---- anche queste non servono più <br />
<br />
The FITS files containing the ''union'' (or common) maks is:<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-union_2048_R1.10.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common}}<br />
which contains a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with a single column (named ''U73'') for the mask, which is boolean (FITS ''TFORM = B''), in GALACTIC coordinates, NESTED ordering, and Nside=2048.<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for a small file containing the SMICA cmb map with no additional information (noise or masks) we provide such a file here<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
This file contains a single extension with a single column containing the SMICA cmb temperature map.<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
== Astrophysical foregrounds from parametric component separation ==<br />
We describe diffuse foreground products for the Planck 2015 release. See the Planck Foregrounds Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}} for a detailed description of these products. Further scientific discussion and interpretation may be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a31}}.<br />
<br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
Nominal frequency maps at 30, 44, 70, 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, 857 GHz ({{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=30|period=Nominal|link=LFI 30 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=44|period=Nominal|link=LFI 44 GHz frequency maps}} and {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=70|period=Nominal|link=LFI 70 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=100|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 100 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=143|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 143 GHz frequency maps}},{{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=217|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 217 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=353|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 353 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=545|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 545 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=857|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 857 GHz frequency maps}}) and their II column corresponding to the noise covariance matrix. <br />
Halfrings at the same frequencies. Beam window functions as reported in the [[The RIMO#Beam Window Functions|LFI and HFI RIMO]].<br />
<br />
<br />
===Low-resolution temperature products===<br />
<br />
: The Planck 2015 astrophysical component separation analysis combines Planck observations with the 9-year WMAP temperature sky maps (Bennett et al. 2013) and the 408 MHz survey by Haslam et al. (1982). This allows a direct decomposition of the low-frequency foregrounds into separate synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust components without strong spatial priors. The full set of data products derived from the low-resolution joint analysis are the following:<br />
<br />
=====Synchrotron emission=====<br />
<br />
<!--<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=800px heights=500px> <br />
File:commander_synch_amp.png | '''Commander low-resolution synchrotron amplitude'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center>--><br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: 408 MHz<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-Synchrotron<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Free-free emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: NA<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-freefree<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|EM_ML || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|EM_MEAN || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|EM_RMS || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_ML || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_MEAN || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_RMS || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Spinning dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The spinning dust component has two independent constituents, each corresponding to one spdust2 component, but with different peak frequencies. The two components are stored in the two first FITS extensions, and the template frequency spectrum is stored in the third extension. <br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 22.8 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-AME1<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_ML || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_MEAN || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_RMS || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 41.0 GHz<br />
: Peak frequency: 33.35 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- COMP-MAP-AME2<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 2 -- SPINNING-DUST-TEMP<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|nu || Real*4 || GHz || Frequency <br />
|-<br />
|j_nu/nH || Real*4 || Jy sr-1 cm2/H || spdust2 spectrum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====CO line emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CO-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CO-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The CO line emission component has three independent objects, corresponding to the J1->0, 2->1 and 3->2 lines, stored in separate extensions. <br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-co10<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- COMP-MAP-co21<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 2 -- COMP-MAP-co32<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====CO line emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_xline-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_xline-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-co10<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Note: The amplitude of this component is normalized according to the 100-ds1 detector set map, ie., it is the amplitude as measured by this detector combination.<br />
<br />
=====Thermal dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_dust-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_dust-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 545 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-dust<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_ML || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_MEAN || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_RMS || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_MEAN || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_RMS || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
; Thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich emission around the Coma and Virgo clusters<br />
: (Coming soon!)<br />
<br />
===High-resolution temperature products===<br />
<br />
High-resolution foreground products at 7.5 arcmin FWHM are derived with the same algorithm as for the low-resolution analyses, but including frequency channels above (and including) 143 GHz. These data products include the following:<br />
<br />
; CO(2-1) emission<br />
: (Coming soon!)<br />
<br />
; Thermal dust emission<br />
: (Coming soon!)<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|007]]</div>Heriksenhttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=CMB_and_astrophysical_component_maps&diff=10812CMB and astrophysical component maps2015-02-01T11:30:55Z<p>Heriksen: /* Low-resolution temperature products */</p>
<hr />
<div>== Overview ==<br />
This section describes the maps of astrophysical components produced from the Planck data. These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps described above using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of the product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITS file containing the data and associated information.<br />
All the details can be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
==CMB maps==<br />
CMB maps have been produced by the COMMANDER, NILC, SEVEM, and SMICA pipelines, which are described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation | CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and references therein.. For each pipeline we provide:<br />
* Full-mission CMB intensity map, confidence mask and beam transfer function.<br />
* Full-mission high-pass filtered CMB polarisation map, <br />
* A confidence mask.<br />
* A beam transfer function.<br />
In addition, and for characterisation purposes, there are six other sets of maps from three data splits: first/second half-ring, odd/even years and first/second half-mission. And for each of these data splits we provide half-sum and half-difference maps. The half-difference maps can be used to provide an approximate noise estimate for the full mission, but they should be used with caution. Each split has caveats in this regard: there are noise correlations between the half-ring maps, and missing pixels in the other splits. The Intensity maps are provided at Nside = 2048, at 5 arcmin resolution, while the Polarisation ones are provided at Nside = 1024 at 10 arcmin resolution. All maps are in units of K<sub>cmb</sub>.<br />
<br />
These maps can be found in the files <br />
* ''COM_CMB_IQU-{pipeline}-field-{Int/Pol}_Nside_R2.00.fits''. <br />
The ''Int'' files have two extensions, for the Intensity maps and the beam transfer function, the ''Pol'' files have three extensions, for Q and U maps, and for the beam transfer function.<br />
For a complete description of the data structure, see the [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
The gallery below shows the Intensity, noise from half-mission, half-difference, and confidence mask for the four pipelines, in the order SMICA, SEVEM, NILC and COMMANDER, from top to bottom. The Intensity maps scale is [–500.+500] μK, and the noise are between [–25,+25] μK. We do not show the Q and U maps since they have no significant visible structure to contemplate.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=300px heights=180> <br />
File:CMB_commander_tsig.png | '''commander temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tnoi.png | '''commander noise'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tmask.png | '''commander mask'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tsig.png | '''nilc temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tnoi.png | '''nilc noise'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tmask.png | '''nilc mask'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tsig.png | '''sevem temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tnoi.png | '''sevem noise'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tmask.png | '''sevem mask'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tsig.png | '''smica temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tnoi.png | '''smica noise'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tmask.png | '''smica mask'''</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
===Product description ===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: COMMANDER is a Planck software code implementing pixel based Bayesian parametric component separation. Each astrophysical signal component is modelled in terms of a small number of free parameters per pixel, typically in terms of an amplitude at a given reference frequency and a small set of spectral parameters, and these are fitted to the data with an MCMC Gibbs sampling algorithm. Instrumental parameters, including calibration, bandpass corrections, monopole and dipoles, are fitted jointly with the astrophysical components. A new feature in the Planck 2015 analysis is that the astrophysical model is derived from a combination of Planck, WMAP and a 408 MHz (Haslam et al. 1982) survey, providing sufficient frequency support to resolve the low-frequency components into synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust. For full details, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The Commander sky maps have different angular resolutions depending on data products:<br />
* The components of the full astrophysical sky model derived from the complete data combination (Planck, WMAP, 408 MHz) have a 1 degree FWHM resolution, and are pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=256. The corresponding CMB map defines the input map for the low-l Planck 2015 temperature likelihood. <br />
* The Commander CMB temperature map derived from Planck-only observations have an angular resolution of ~5 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=2048. This map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-857 GHz data), 7.5 arcmin (using 143-857 GHz data), and 5 arcmin (using 217-857 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
* The Commander CMB polarization map has an angular resolution of 10 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=1024. As for the temperature case, this map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-353 GHz data) and 10 arcmin (using 100-353 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The Commander confidence masks are produced by thresholding the chi-square map characterizing the global fits, combined with direct CO amplitude thresholding to eliminate known leakage effects. In addition, we exclude the 9-year WMAP point source mask in the temperature mask. For full details, see Sections 5 and 6 in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}. A total of 81% of the sky is admitted for high-resolution temperature analysis, and 83% for polarization analysis. For low-resolution temperature analysis, for which the additional WMAP and 408 MHz observations improve foreground constraints, a total of 93% of the sky is admitted. <br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: The Needlet-ILC (hereafter NILC) CMB map is constructed both in total intensity as well as polarization, Q and U Stokes parameters. For total intensity, all Planck frequency channels are included. For polarization, all polarization sensitive frequency channels are included, from 30 to 353 GHz. The solution, for T, Q and U is obtained by applying the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) technique in needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range. <br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The spectral analysis, and estimation of the NILC coefficients, is performed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math>. The effective beam is equivalent of a Gaussian circular beam with FWHM=5 arcminutes. <br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The same procedure is followed by SMICA and NILC for producing confidence masks, though with different parametrizations. A low resolution smoothed version of the NILC map, noise subtracted, is thresholded to 73.5 squared micro-K for T, and 6,75 squared micro-K for Q and U.<br />
<br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
:SEVEM produces clean CMB maps at several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting in real space. The templates are typically constructed from the lowest and highest Planck frequencies and then subtracted from the CMB-dominated channels, with coefficients that are chosen to minimize the variance of the clean map outside a considered mask. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. Two single frequency clean maps are then combined to obtain the final CMB map.<br />
<br />
;Resolution<br />
<br />
:For intensity the clean CMB map is constructed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math> at Nside=2048 and at the standard resolution of 5 arcminutes (Gaussian beam).<br />
:For polarization the clean CMB map is produced at Nside=1024 with a resolution of 10 arcminutes (Gaussian beam) and a maximum <math>\ell=3071</math>.<br />
<br />
;Confidence masks<br />
<br />
:The confidence masks cover the most contaminated regions of the sky, leaving approximately 85 per cent of useful sky for intensity and 80 per cent for polarization.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces CMBs map by linearly combining all Planck input channels with multipole-dependent weights. It includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>. Temperature and polarization maps are produced independently.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA intensity map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes which is truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math> and is '''not''' deconvolved from the pixel window function. Thus the delivered beam window function is the product of a Gaussian beam at 5 arcminutes and the pixel window function for Nside=2048.<br />
: The SMICA Q and U maps are obtained similarly but are produced at Nside=1024 with an effective beam of 10 arc-minutes (to be multiplied by the pixel window function, as for the intensity map).<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. See section below detailing the production process.<br />
<br />
===Production process===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky maps are first convolved to a common resolution that is larger than the largest beam of any frequency channel. For the combined Planck, WMAP and 408 MHz temperature analysis, the common resolution is 1 degree FWHM; for the Planck-only all-frequency analysis it is 40 arcmin FWHM; and for the intermediate-resolution analysis it is 7.5 arcmin; while for the full-resolution analysis, we assume all frequencies between 217 and 857 GHz have a common resolution, and no additional convolution is performed. For polarization, only two smoothing scales are employed, 40 and 10 arcmin, respectively. The instrumental noise rms maps are convolved correspondingly, properly accouting for their matrix-like nature. <br />
<br />
; Priors<br />
<br />
: The following priors are enforced in the Commander analysis:<br />
* All foreground amplitudes are enforced to be positive definite in the low-resolution analysis, while no amplitude priors are enforced in the high-resolution analyses<br />
* Monopoles and dipoles are fixed to nominal values for a small set of reference frequencies<br />
* Gaussian priors are enforced on spectral parameters, with values informed by the values derived in the high signal-to-noise areas of the sky<br />
* The Jeffreys ignorance prior is enforced on spectral parameters in addition to the informative Gaussian priors<br />
<br />
; Fitting procedure<br />
<br />
: Given data and priors, Commander either maximizes, or samples from, the Bayesian posterior, P(theta|data). Because this is a highly non-Gaussian and correlated distribution, involving millions of parameters, these operations are performed by means of the Gibbs sampling algorithm, in which joint samples from the full distributions are generated by iteratively sampling from the corresponding conditional posterior distributions, P(theta_i| data, theta_{j/=i}). For the low-resolution analysis, all parameters are optimized jointly, while in the high-resolution analyses, which employs fewer frequency channels, low signal-to-noise parameters are fixed to those derived at low resolution. Examples of such parameters include monopoles and dipoles, calibration and bandpass parameters, thermal dust temperature etc.<br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky frequency maps are deconvolved using the DPC beam transfer function provided, and re-convolved with a 5 arcminutes FWHM circular Gaussian beam. In polarization, prior to the smoothing process, all sky E and B maps are derived from Q and U using standard HEALPix tools from each individual frequency channels <br />
<br />
; Linear combination<br />
<br />
: Pre-processed input frequency maps are decomposed in needlet coefficients, specified in the Appendix B of the Planck A11 paper, with shape given by Table B.1. Minimum variance coefficients are then obtained, using all channels for T, from 30 to 353 for E and B. <br />
<br />
; Post-processing<br />
<br />
: E and B maps are re-combined into Q and U products using standard HEALPix tools. <br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
<br />
The templates used in the SEVEM pipeline are typically constructed by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMB map at that frequency. This is done in real space at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. The <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. Note that the same expression applies for I, Q and U. Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of clean maps at different frequencies is of great interest in order to test the robustness of the results. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned independently and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
;Intensity<br />
<br />
For the CMB intensity map, we have cleaned the 100 GHz, 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps using a total of four templates. Three of them are constructed as the difference of two consecutive Planck channels smoothed to a common resolution (30-44, 44-70 and 545-353) while the 857 GHz channel is chosen as the fourth template. First of all, the six frequency channels which are going to be part of the templates are inpainted at the point source positions detected using the Mexican Hat Wavelet algorithm. The size of the holes to be inpainted is determined taking into account the beam size of the channel as well as the flux of each source. The inpainting algorithm is based on simple diffuse inpainting, which fills one pixel with the mean value of the neighbouring pixels in an iterative way. To avoid inconsistencies when subtracting two channels, each frequency map is inpainted on the sources detected in that map and on the second map (if any) used to construct the template. Then the maps are smoothed to a common resolution (the first channel in the subtraction is smoothed with the beam of the second map and viceversa). For the 857 GHz template, we simply filter the inpainted map with the 545 GHz beam.<br />
<br />
The coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance outside the analysis mask, that covers the 1 per cent brightest emission of the sky as well as point sources detected at all frequency channels. Once the maps are cleaned, each of them is inpainted on the point sources positions detected at that (raw) channel. Then, the MHW algorithm is run again, now on the clean maps. A relatively small number of new sources are found and are also inpainted at each channel. The resolution of the clean map is the same as that of the original data. Our final CMB map is then constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask is produced by studying the differences between several SEVEM CMB reconstructions, which correspond to maps cleaned at different frequencies or using different analysis masks. The obtained mask leaves a useful sky fraction of approximately 85 per cent.<br />
<br />
;Polarization<br />
<br />
<br />
To clean the polarization maps, a procedure similar to the one used for intensity data is applied to the $Q$ and $U$ maps independently. However, given that a narrower frequency coverage is available for polarization, the selected templates and maps to be cleaned are different. In particular, we clean the 70, 100 and 143 GHz using three templates for each channel. The first step of the pipeline is to inpaint the positions of the point sources using the MHW, in those channels which are going to be used in the construction of templates, following the same procedure as for the intensity case. The inpainting is performed in the frequency maps at their native resolution. These inpainted maps are then used to construct a total of four templates. To trace the synchrotron emission, we construct a template as the subtraction of the 30 GHz minus the 44 GHz <br />
map, after being convolved with the beam of each other. For the dust emission, the following templates are considered: 353--217 GHz (smoothed at 10$'$ resolution), 217--143 GHz (used <br />
to clean 70 and 100 GHz) and 217--100 GHz (to clean 143 GHz). These two last templates are constructed at 1 degree resolution since an additional smoothing becomes necessary in<br />
order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the template. Conversely to the <br />
intensity case and due to the lower availability of frequency channels, it becomes necessary to use the maps to be cleaned as part of one of the templates. In this way, the 100 GHz <br />
map is used to clean the 143 GHz frequency channel and viceversa, making the clean maps less independent between them than in the intensity case.<br />
<br />
These templates are then used to clean the non-inpainted 70 (at its native resolution), 100 (at 10$'$ resolution) and 143 GHz maps (also at 10$'$). The corresponding linear coefficients are estimated independently for $Q$ and $U$ by minimising the variance of the clean maps outside a mask, that covers point sources and the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission. Once the maps have been cleaned, inpainting of the point sources detected at the corresponding raw maps is carried out. The size of the holes to be inpainted takes<br />
into account the additional smoothing of the 100 and 143 GHz maps. The 100 and 143 GHz clean maps are then combined in harmonic space, using $E$ and $B$ decomposition, to produce the final CMB maps for the $Q$ and $U$ components at a resolution of 10$'$ (Gaussian beam) for a HEALPix parameter Nside=1024. Each map is weighted taking into account its <br />
corresponding noise level at each multipole. Finally, before applying the post-processing HPF to the clean polarization data, the region with the brightest Galactic residuals is inpainted (5 per cent of the sky) to avoid the introduction of ringing around the Galactic centre in the filtering process.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask includes all the pixels above a given threshold in a smoothed version of the clean CMB map, the regions more contaminated by the CO emission and those pixels more affected by the high-pass filtering, leaving a useful sky fraction of approximately 80 per cent.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
<br />
A) Production of the intensity map.<br />
<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: Before computing spherical harmonic coefficients, all input maps undergo a pre-processing step to deal with regions of very strong emission (such as the Galactic center) and point sources. The point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue are fitted in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole is filled in by a simple diffusive process to ensure a smooth transition and mitigate spectral leakage. The diffusive inpainting process is also applied to some regions of very strong emissions. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, here all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and filled-in similarly.<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHz are harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> and co-added with multipole-dependent weights as shown in the figure.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: A confidence mask is determined (see the Planck paper) and all regions which have been masked in the pre-processing step are added to it.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filter_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input intensity maps (after they are re-beamed to 5 arc-minutes and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), as a function of multipole.''']]--><br />
<br />
B) Production of the Q and U polarisation maps.<br />
<br />
The production of the Q and U maps is similar to the production of the intensity map. The SMICA pipeline uses all the 7 polarized Planck channels. After point source masking and diffusive inpainting, the E and B modes are computed and combined to produce E and B modes of the CMB map. Those combined modes are then used to synthesize the U and Q CMB maps. The E and B parts of the input frequency maps being processed jointly, there are, at each multipole, 2*7=14 coefficients (weights) defined to produce the E modes of the CMB map and as many to produce the B part. The weights are displayed in the figure below. The Q and U maps were originally produced at Nside=2048 with a 5-arc-minute resolution, but were downgraded to Nside=1024 with a 10 arc-minute resolution for this release.<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filterEB_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input E and B modes (after they are re-beamed to 5 arcmin and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), in order to produce the E and B modes of the CMB map. A given frequency channel is encoded in a given color. Solid lines are for E modes and dashed lines are for B modes. The thick lines are for the EE or BB weights; the thin lines are for the EB or BE weights. See the paper for more details.''']]--><br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. SMICA and SEVEM use all the maps between 30 and 857 GHz; NILC uses the ones between 44 and 857 GHz. Commander-Ruler uses frequency channel maps from 30 to 353 GHz. <br />
<br />
===File names and structure===<br />
The FITS files corresponding to the three CMB products are the following:<br />
<br />
''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}-field-{Int,Pol}_Nside_R2.nn.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''method'' is mica, nilc, sevem, or commander, and Int and Pol indicate whether the file contains the temperature (Int) or the polarisation (Pol) maps. For this release the temperature maps are provided at Nside = 2048, and the polarisation maps at Nside = 1024. <br />
<br />
The files contain <br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data;<br />
* one or two ''BINTABLE'' data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 14 columns in which the first 13 columns is a CMB maps produced from the full or a subset of the data, as described in the table below, and the last column in a confidence mask. There is a single extension for ''Int'' files, and two, for Q and U, for ''Pol'' files. <br />
* a ''BINTABLE'' extension containing the beam window function.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I or Q or U || Real*4 || uK_cmb || I or Q or U map <br />
|- <br />
|HM1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HM2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 2 <br />
|-<br />
|YR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 1 <br />
|-<br />
|YR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HMHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HMHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|YRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|YRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|HRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half diff <br />
|-<br />
|MASK || BYTE || || Confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (smica/nilc/sevem/commander)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Notes:<br />
# The beam window function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>.<br />
<br />
<!--- mi sembra che questa non serva più <br />
The low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler CMB product is organized in the following way:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK_cmb || CMB temperature map obtained as average over 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Corresponding Standard deviation amongst the 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Confidence mask<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. EXTNAME = ''CMB-Sample'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM01 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM02 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM03 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM04 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM05 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM06 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM07 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM08 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM09 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM10 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
<!---- anche queste non servono più <br />
<br />
The FITS files containing the ''union'' (or common) maks is:<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-union_2048_R1.10.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common}}<br />
which contains a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with a single column (named ''U73'') for the mask, which is boolean (FITS ''TFORM = B''), in GALACTIC coordinates, NESTED ordering, and Nside=2048.<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for a small file containing the SMICA cmb map with no additional information (noise or masks) we provide such a file here<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
This file contains a single extension with a single column containing the SMICA cmb temperature map.<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
== Astrophysical foregrounds from parametric component separation ==<br />
We describe diffuse foreground products for the Planck 2015 release. See the Planck Foregrounds Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}} for a detailed description of these products. Further scientific discussion and interpretation may be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a31}}.<br />
<br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
Nominal frequency maps at 30, 44, 70, 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, 857 GHz ({{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=30|period=Nominal|link=LFI 30 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=44|period=Nominal|link=LFI 44 GHz frequency maps}} and {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=70|period=Nominal|link=LFI 70 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=100|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 100 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=143|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 143 GHz frequency maps}},{{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=217|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 217 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=353|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 353 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=545|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 545 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=857|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 857 GHz frequency maps}}) and their II column corresponding to the noise covariance matrix. <br />
Halfrings at the same frequencies. Beam window functions as reported in the [[The RIMO#Beam Window Functions|LFI and HFI RIMO]].<br />
<br />
<br />
===Low-resolution temperature products===<br />
<br />
: The Planck 2015 astrophysical component separation analysis combines Planck observations with the 9-year WMAP temperature sky maps (Bennett et al. 2013) and the 408 MHz survey by Haslam et al. (1982). This allows a direct decomposition of the low-frequency foregrounds into separate synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust components without strong spatial priors. The full set of data products derived from the low-resolution joint analysis are the following:<br />
<br />
=====Synchrotron emission=====<br />
<br />
<!--<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=800px heights=500px> <br />
File:commander_synch_amp.png | '''Commander low-resolution synchrotron amplitude'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center>--><br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: 408 MHz<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-Synchrotron<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Free-free emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: NA<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-freefree<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|EM_ML || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|EM_MEAN || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|EM_RMS || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_ML || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_MEAN || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_RMS || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Spinning dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The spinning dust component has two independent constituents, each corresponding to one spdust2 component, but with different peak frequencies. The two components are stored in the two first FITS extensions, and the template frequency spectrum is stored in the third extension. <br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 22.8 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-AME1<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_ML || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_MEAN || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_RMS || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 41.0 GHz<br />
: Peak frequency: 33.35 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- COMP-MAP-AME2<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 2 -- SPINNING-DUST-TEMP<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|nu || Real*4 || GHz || Frequency <br />
|-<br />
|j_nu/nH || Real*4 || Jy sr-1 cm2/H || spdust2 spectrum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====CO line emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CO-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CO-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The CO line emission component has three independent objects, corresponding to the J1->0, 2->1 and 3->2 lines, stored in separate extensions. <br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-co10<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- COMP-MAP-co21<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 2 -- COMP-MAP-co32<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
; 94/100 GHz line emission<br />
: (Coming soon!)<br />
<br />
; Thermal dust emission<br />
: (Coming soon!)<br />
<br />
; Thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich emission around the Coma and Virgo clusters<br />
: (Coming soon!)<br />
<br />
===High-resolution temperature products===<br />
<br />
High-resolution foreground products at 7.5 arcmin FWHM are derived with the same algorithm as for the low-resolution analyses, but including frequency channels above (and including) 143 GHz. These data products include the following:<br />
<br />
; CO(2-1) emission<br />
: (Coming soon!)<br />
<br />
; Thermal dust emission<br />
: (Coming soon!)<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|007]]</div>Heriksenhttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=CMB_and_astrophysical_component_maps&diff=10809CMB and astrophysical component maps2015-02-01T11:25:31Z<p>Heriksen: /* Spinning dust emission */</p>
<hr />
<div>== Overview ==<br />
This section describes the maps of astrophysical components produced from the Planck data. These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps described above using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of the product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITS file containing the data and associated information.<br />
All the details can be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
==CMB maps==<br />
CMB maps have been produced by the COMMANDER, NILC, SEVEM, and SMICA pipelines, which are described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation | CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and references therein.. For each pipeline we provide:<br />
* Full-mission CMB intensity map, confidence mask and beam transfer function.<br />
* Full-mission high-pass filtered CMB polarisation map, <br />
* A confidence mask.<br />
* A beam transfer function.<br />
In addition, and for characterisation purposes, there are six other sets of maps from three data splits: first/second half-ring, odd/even years and first/second half-mission. And for each of these data splits we provide half-sum and half-difference maps. The half-difference maps can be used to provide an approximate noise estimate for the full mission, but they should be used with caution. Each split has caveats in this regard: there are noise correlations between the half-ring maps, and missing pixels in the other splits. The Intensity maps are provided at Nside = 2048, at 5 arcmin resolution, while the Polarisation ones are provided at Nside = 1024 at 10 arcmin resolution. All maps are in units of K<sub>cmb</sub>.<br />
<br />
These maps can be found in the files <br />
* ''COM_CMB_IQU-{pipeline}-field-{Int/Pol}_Nside_R2.00.fits''. <br />
The ''Int'' files have two extensions, for the Intensity maps and the beam transfer function, the ''Pol'' files have three extensions, for Q and U maps, and for the beam transfer function.<br />
For a complete description of the data structure, see the [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
The gallery below shows the Intensity, noise from half-mission, half-difference, and confidence mask for the four pipelines, in the order SMICA, SEVEM, NILC and COMMANDER, from top to bottom. The Intensity maps scale is [–500.+500] μK, and the noise are between [–25,+25] μK. We do not show the Q and U maps since they have no significant visible structure to contemplate.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=300px heights=180> <br />
File:CMB_commander_tsig.png | '''commander temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tnoi.png | '''commander noise'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tmask.png | '''commander mask'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tsig.png | '''nilc temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tnoi.png | '''nilc noise'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tmask.png | '''nilc mask'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tsig.png | '''sevem temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tnoi.png | '''sevem noise'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tmask.png | '''sevem mask'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tsig.png | '''smica temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tnoi.png | '''smica noise'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tmask.png | '''smica mask'''</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
===Product description ===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: COMMANDER is a Planck software code implementing pixel based Bayesian parametric component separation. Each astrophysical signal component is modelled in terms of a small number of free parameters per pixel, typically in terms of an amplitude at a given reference frequency and a small set of spectral parameters, and these are fitted to the data with an MCMC Gibbs sampling algorithm. Instrumental parameters, including calibration, bandpass corrections, monopole and dipoles, are fitted jointly with the astrophysical components. A new feature in the Planck 2015 analysis is that the astrophysical model is derived from a combination of Planck, WMAP and a 408 MHz (Haslam et al. 1982) survey, providing sufficient frequency support to resolve the low-frequency components into synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust. For full details, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The Commander sky maps have different angular resolutions depending on data products:<br />
* The components of the full astrophysical sky model derived from the complete data combination (Planck, WMAP, 408 MHz) have a 1 degree FWHM resolution, and are pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=256. The corresponding CMB map defines the input map for the low-l Planck 2015 temperature likelihood. <br />
* The Commander CMB temperature map derived from Planck-only observations have an angular resolution of ~5 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=2048. This map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-857 GHz data), 7.5 arcmin (using 143-857 GHz data), and 5 arcmin (using 217-857 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
* The Commander CMB polarization map has an angular resolution of 10 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=1024. As for the temperature case, this map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-353 GHz data) and 10 arcmin (using 100-353 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The Commander confidence masks are produced by thresholding the chi-square map characterizing the global fits, combined with direct CO amplitude thresholding to eliminate known leakage effects. In addition, we exclude the 9-year WMAP point source mask in the temperature mask. For full details, see Sections 5 and 6 in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}. A total of 81% of the sky is admitted for high-resolution temperature analysis, and 83% for polarization analysis. For low-resolution temperature analysis, for which the additional WMAP and 408 MHz observations improve foreground constraints, a total of 93% of the sky is admitted. <br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: The Needlet-ILC (hereafter NILC) CMB map is constructed both in total intensity as well as polarization, Q and U Stokes parameters. For total intensity, all Planck frequency channels are included. For polarization, all polarization sensitive frequency channels are included, from 30 to 353 GHz. The solution, for T, Q and U is obtained by applying the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) technique in needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range. <br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The spectral analysis, and estimation of the NILC coefficients, is performed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math>. The effective beam is equivalent of a Gaussian circular beam with FWHM=5 arcminutes. <br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The same procedure is followed by SMICA and NILC for producing confidence masks, though with different parametrizations. A low resolution smoothed version of the NILC map, noise subtracted, is thresholded to 73.5 squared micro-K for T, and 6,75 squared micro-K for Q and U.<br />
<br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
:SEVEM produces clean CMB maps at several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting in real space. The templates are typically constructed from the lowest and highest Planck frequencies and then subtracted from the CMB-dominated channels, with coefficients that are chosen to minimize the variance of the clean map outside a considered mask. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. Two single frequency clean maps are then combined to obtain the final CMB map.<br />
<br />
;Resolution<br />
<br />
:For intensity the clean CMB map is constructed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math> at Nside=2048 and at the standard resolution of 5 arcminutes (Gaussian beam).<br />
:For polarization the clean CMB map is produced at Nside=1024 with a resolution of 10 arcminutes (Gaussian beam) and a maximum <math>\ell=3071</math>.<br />
<br />
;Confidence masks<br />
<br />
:The confidence masks cover the most contaminated regions of the sky, leaving approximately 85 per cent of useful sky for intensity and 80 per cent for polarization.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces CMBs map by linearly combining all Planck input channels with multipole-dependent weights. It includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>. Temperature and polarization maps are produced independently.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA intensity map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes which is truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math> and is '''not''' deconvolved from the pixel window function. Thus the delivered beam window function is the product of a Gaussian beam at 5 arcminutes and the pixel window function for Nside=2048.<br />
: The SMICA Q and U maps are obtained similarly but are produced at Nside=1024 with an effective beam of 10 arc-minutes (to be multiplied by the pixel window function, as for the intensity map).<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. See section below detailing the production process.<br />
<br />
===Production process===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky maps are first convolved to a common resolution that is larger than the largest beam of any frequency channel. For the combined Planck, WMAP and 408 MHz temperature analysis, the common resolution is 1 degree FWHM; for the Planck-only all-frequency analysis it is 40 arcmin FWHM; and for the intermediate-resolution analysis it is 7.5 arcmin; while for the full-resolution analysis, we assume all frequencies between 217 and 857 GHz have a common resolution, and no additional convolution is performed. For polarization, only two smoothing scales are employed, 40 and 10 arcmin, respectively. The instrumental noise rms maps are convolved correspondingly, properly accouting for their matrix-like nature. <br />
<br />
; Priors<br />
<br />
: The following priors are enforced in the Commander analysis:<br />
* All foreground amplitudes are enforced to be positive definite in the low-resolution analysis, while no amplitude priors are enforced in the high-resolution analyses<br />
* Monopoles and dipoles are fixed to nominal values for a small set of reference frequencies<br />
* Gaussian priors are enforced on spectral parameters, with values informed by the values derived in the high signal-to-noise areas of the sky<br />
* The Jeffreys ignorance prior is enforced on spectral parameters in addition to the informative Gaussian priors<br />
<br />
; Fitting procedure<br />
<br />
: Given data and priors, Commander either maximizes, or samples from, the Bayesian posterior, P(theta|data). Because this is a highly non-Gaussian and correlated distribution, involving millions of parameters, these operations are performed by means of the Gibbs sampling algorithm, in which joint samples from the full distributions are generated by iteratively sampling from the corresponding conditional posterior distributions, P(theta_i| data, theta_{j/=i}). For the low-resolution analysis, all parameters are optimized jointly, while in the high-resolution analyses, which employs fewer frequency channels, low signal-to-noise parameters are fixed to those derived at low resolution. Examples of such parameters include monopoles and dipoles, calibration and bandpass parameters, thermal dust temperature etc.<br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky frequency maps are deconvolved using the DPC beam transfer function provided, and re-convolved with a 5 arcminutes FWHM circular Gaussian beam. In polarization, prior to the smoothing process, all sky E and B maps are derived from Q and U using standard HEALPix tools from each individual frequency channels <br />
<br />
; Linear combination<br />
<br />
: Pre-processed input frequency maps are decomposed in needlet coefficients, specified in the Appendix B of the Planck A11 paper, with shape given by Table B.1. Minimum variance coefficients are then obtained, using all channels for T, from 30 to 353 for E and B. <br />
<br />
; Post-processing<br />
<br />
: E and B maps are re-combined into Q and U products using standard HEALPix tools. <br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
<br />
The templates used in the SEVEM pipeline are typically constructed by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMB map at that frequency. This is done in real space at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. The <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. Note that the same expression applies for I, Q and U. Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of clean maps at different frequencies is of great interest in order to test the robustness of the results. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned independently and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
;Intensity<br />
<br />
For the CMB intensity map, we have cleaned the 100 GHz, 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps using a total of four templates. Three of them are constructed as the difference of two consecutive Planck channels smoothed to a common resolution (30-44, 44-70 and 545-353) while the 857 GHz channel is chosen as the fourth template. First of all, the six frequency channels which are going to be part of the templates are inpainted at the point source positions detected using the Mexican Hat Wavelet algorithm. The size of the holes to be inpainted is determined taking into account the beam size of the channel as well as the flux of each source. The inpainting algorithm is based on simple diffuse inpainting, which fills one pixel with the mean value of the neighbouring pixels in an iterative way. To avoid inconsistencies when subtracting two channels, each frequency map is inpainted on the sources detected in that map and on the second map (if any) used to construct the template. Then the maps are smoothed to a common resolution (the first channel in the subtraction is smoothed with the beam of the second map and viceversa). For the 857 GHz template, we simply filter the inpainted map with the 545 GHz beam.<br />
<br />
The coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance outside the analysis mask, that covers the 1 per cent brightest emission of the sky as well as point sources detected at all frequency channels. Once the maps are cleaned, each of them is inpainted on the point sources positions detected at that (raw) channel. Then, the MHW algorithm is run again, now on the clean maps. A relatively small number of new sources are found and are also inpainted at each channel. The resolution of the clean map is the same as that of the original data. Our final CMB map is then constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask is produced by studying the differences between several SEVEM CMB reconstructions, which correspond to maps cleaned at different frequencies or using different analysis masks. The obtained mask leaves a useful sky fraction of approximately 85 per cent.<br />
<br />
;Polarization<br />
<br />
<br />
To clean the polarization maps, a procedure similar to the one used for intensity data is applied to the $Q$ and $U$ maps independently. However, given that a narrower frequency coverage is available for polarization, the selected templates and maps to be cleaned are different. In particular, we clean the 70, 100 and 143 GHz using three templates for each channel. The first step of the pipeline is to inpaint the positions of the point sources using the MHW, in those channels which are going to be used in the construction of templates, following the same procedure as for the intensity case. The inpainting is performed in the frequency maps at their native resolution. These inpainted maps are then used to construct a total of four templates. To trace the synchrotron emission, we construct a template as the subtraction of the 30 GHz minus the 44 GHz <br />
map, after being convolved with the beam of each other. For the dust emission, the following templates are considered: 353--217 GHz (smoothed at 10$'$ resolution), 217--143 GHz (used <br />
to clean 70 and 100 GHz) and 217--100 GHz (to clean 143 GHz). These two last templates are constructed at 1 degree resolution since an additional smoothing becomes necessary in<br />
order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the template. Conversely to the <br />
intensity case and due to the lower availability of frequency channels, it becomes necessary to use the maps to be cleaned as part of one of the templates. In this way, the 100 GHz <br />
map is used to clean the 143 GHz frequency channel and viceversa, making the clean maps less independent between them than in the intensity case.<br />
<br />
These templates are then used to clean the non-inpainted 70 (at its native resolution), 100 (at 10$'$ resolution) and 143 GHz maps (also at 10$'$). The corresponding linear coefficients are estimated independently for $Q$ and $U$ by minimising the variance of the clean maps outside a mask, that covers point sources and the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission. Once the maps have been cleaned, inpainting of the point sources detected at the corresponding raw maps is carried out. The size of the holes to be inpainted takes<br />
into account the additional smoothing of the 100 and 143 GHz maps. The 100 and 143 GHz clean maps are then combined in harmonic space, using $E$ and $B$ decomposition, to produce the final CMB maps for the $Q$ and $U$ components at a resolution of 10$'$ (Gaussian beam) for a HEALPix parameter Nside=1024. Each map is weighted taking into account its <br />
corresponding noise level at each multipole. Finally, before applying the post-processing HPF to the clean polarization data, the region with the brightest Galactic residuals is inpainted (5 per cent of the sky) to avoid the introduction of ringing around the Galactic centre in the filtering process.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask includes all the pixels above a given threshold in a smoothed version of the clean CMB map, the regions more contaminated by the CO emission and those pixels more affected by the high-pass filtering, leaving a useful sky fraction of approximately 80 per cent.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
<br />
A) Production of the intensity map.<br />
<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: Before computing spherical harmonic coefficients, all input maps undergo a pre-processing step to deal with regions of very strong emission (such as the Galactic center) and point sources. The point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue are fitted in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole is filled in by a simple diffusive process to ensure a smooth transition and mitigate spectral leakage. The diffusive inpainting process is also applied to some regions of very strong emissions. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, here all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and filled-in similarly.<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHz are harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> and co-added with multipole-dependent weights as shown in the figure.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: A confidence mask is determined (see the Planck paper) and all regions which have been masked in the pre-processing step are added to it.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filter_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input intensity maps (after they are re-beamed to 5 arc-minutes and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), as a function of multipole.''']]--><br />
<br />
B) Production of the Q and U polarisation maps.<br />
<br />
The production of the Q and U maps is similar to the production of the intensity map. The SMICA pipeline uses all the 7 polarized Planck channels. After point source masking and diffusive inpainting, the E and B modes are computed and combined to produce E and B modes of the CMB map. Those combined modes are then used to synthesize the U and Q CMB maps. The E and B parts of the input frequency maps being processed jointly, there are, at each multipole, 2*7=14 coefficients (weights) defined to produce the E modes of the CMB map and as many to produce the B part. The weights are displayed in the figure below. The Q and U maps were originally produced at Nside=2048 with a 5-arc-minute resolution, but were downgraded to Nside=1024 with a 10 arc-minute resolution for this release.<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filterEB_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input E and B modes (after they are re-beamed to 5 arcmin and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), in order to produce the E and B modes of the CMB map. A given frequency channel is encoded in a given color. Solid lines are for E modes and dashed lines are for B modes. The thick lines are for the EE or BB weights; the thin lines are for the EB or BE weights. See the paper for more details.''']]--><br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. SMICA and SEVEM use all the maps between 30 and 857 GHz; NILC uses the ones between 44 and 857 GHz. Commander-Ruler uses frequency channel maps from 30 to 353 GHz. <br />
<br />
===File names and structure===<br />
The FITS files corresponding to the three CMB products are the following:<br />
<br />
''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}-field-{Int,Pol}_Nside_R2.nn.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''method'' is mica, nilc, sevem, or commander, and Int and Pol indicate whether the file contains the temperature (Int) or the polarisation (Pol) maps. For this release the temperature maps are provided at Nside = 2048, and the polarisation maps at Nside = 1024. <br />
<br />
The files contain <br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data;<br />
* one or two ''BINTABLE'' data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 14 columns in which the first 13 columns is a CMB maps produced from the full or a subset of the data, as described in the table below, and the last column in a confidence mask. There is a single extension for ''Int'' files, and two, for Q and U, for ''Pol'' files. <br />
* a ''BINTABLE'' extension containing the beam window function.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I or Q or U || Real*4 || uK_cmb || I or Q or U map <br />
|- <br />
|HM1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HM2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 2 <br />
|-<br />
|YR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 1 <br />
|-<br />
|YR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HMHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HMHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|YRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|YRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|HRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half diff <br />
|-<br />
|MASK || BYTE || || Confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (smica/nilc/sevem/commander)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Notes:<br />
# The beam window function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>.<br />
<br />
<!--- mi sembra che questa non serva più <br />
The low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler CMB product is organized in the following way:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK_cmb || CMB temperature map obtained as average over 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Corresponding Standard deviation amongst the 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Confidence mask<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. EXTNAME = ''CMB-Sample'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM01 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM02 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM03 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM04 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM05 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM06 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM07 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM08 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM09 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM10 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
<!---- anche queste non servono più <br />
<br />
The FITS files containing the ''union'' (or common) maks is:<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-union_2048_R1.10.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common}}<br />
which contains a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with a single column (named ''U73'') for the mask, which is boolean (FITS ''TFORM = B''), in GALACTIC coordinates, NESTED ordering, and Nside=2048.<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for a small file containing the SMICA cmb map with no additional information (noise or masks) we provide such a file here<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
This file contains a single extension with a single column containing the SMICA cmb temperature map.<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
== Astrophysical foregrounds from parametric component separation ==<br />
We describe diffuse foreground products for the Planck 2015 release. See the Planck Foregrounds Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}} for a detailed description of these products. Further scientific discussion and interpretation may be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a31}}.<br />
<br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
Nominal frequency maps at 30, 44, 70, 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, 857 GHz ({{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=30|period=Nominal|link=LFI 30 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=44|period=Nominal|link=LFI 44 GHz frequency maps}} and {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=70|period=Nominal|link=LFI 70 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=100|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 100 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=143|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 143 GHz frequency maps}},{{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=217|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 217 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=353|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 353 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=545|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 545 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=857|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 857 GHz frequency maps}}) and their II column corresponding to the noise covariance matrix. <br />
Halfrings at the same frequencies. Beam window functions as reported in the [[The RIMO#Beam Window Functions|LFI and HFI RIMO]].<br />
<br />
<br />
===Low-resolution temperature products===<br />
<br />
: The Planck 2015 astrophysical component separation analysis combines Planck observations with the 9-year WMAP temperature sky maps (Bennett et al. 2013) and the 408 MHz survey by Haslam et al. (1982). This allows a direct decomposition of the low-frequency foregrounds into separate synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust components without strong spatial priors. The full set of data products derived from the low-resolution joint analysis are the following:<br />
<br />
=====Synchrotron emission=====<br />
<br />
<!--<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=800px heights=500px> <br />
File:commander_synch_amp.png | '''Commander low-resolution synchrotron amplitude'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center>--><br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: 408 MHz<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-Synchrotron<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Free-free emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: NA<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-freefree<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|EM_ML || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|EM_MEAN || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|EM_RMS || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_ML || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_MEAN || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_RMS || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Spinning dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The spinning dust component has two independent constituents, each corresponding to one spdust2 component, but with different peak frequencies. The two components are stored in the two first FITS extensions, and the template frequency spectrum is stored in the third extension. <br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 22.8 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-AME1<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_ML || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_MEAN || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_RMS || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 41.0 GHz<br />
: Peak frequency: 33.35 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- COMP-MAP-AME2<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 2 -- SPINNING-DUST-TEMP<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|nu || Real*4 || GHz || Frequency <br />
|-<br />
|j_nu/nH || Real*4 || Jy sr-1 cm2/H || spdust2 spectrum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
; CO line emission<br />
: (Coming soon!)<br />
<br />
; 94/100 GHz line emission<br />
: (Coming soon!)<br />
<br />
; Thermal dust emission<br />
: (Coming soon!)<br />
<br />
; Thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich emission around the Coma and Virgo clusters<br />
: (Coming soon!)<br />
<br />
===High-resolution temperature products===<br />
<br />
High-resolution foreground products at 7.5 arcmin FWHM are derived with the same algorithm as for the low-resolution analyses, but including frequency channels above (and including) 143 GHz. These data products include the following:<br />
<br />
; CO(2-1) emission<br />
: (Coming soon!)<br />
<br />
; Thermal dust emission<br />
: (Coming soon!)<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|007]]</div>Heriksenhttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=CMB_and_astrophysical_component_maps&diff=10805CMB and astrophysical component maps2015-02-01T10:26:19Z<p>Heriksen: /* Spinning dust emission */</p>
<hr />
<div>== Overview ==<br />
This section describes the maps of astrophysical components produced from the Planck data. These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps described above using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of the product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITS file containing the data and associated information.<br />
All the details can be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
==CMB maps==<br />
CMB maps have been produced by the COMMANDER, NILC, SEVEM, and SMICA pipelines, which are described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation | CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and references therein.. For each pipeline we provide:<br />
* Full-mission CMB intensity map, confidence mask and beam transfer function.<br />
* Full-mission high-pass filtered CMB polarisation map, <br />
* A confidence mask.<br />
* A beam transfer function.<br />
In addition, and for characterisation purposes, there are six other sets of maps from three data splits: first/second half-ring, odd/even years and first/second half-mission. And for each of these data splits we provide half-sum and half-difference maps. The half-difference maps can be used to provide an approximate noise estimate for the full mission, but they should be used with caution. Each split has caveats in this regard: there are noise correlations between the half-ring maps, and missing pixels in the other splits. The Intensity maps are provided at Nside = 2048, at 5 arcmin resolution, while the Polarisation ones are provided at Nside = 1024 at 10 arcmin resolution. All maps are in units of K<sub>cmb</sub>.<br />
<br />
These maps can be found in the files <br />
* ''COM_CMB_IQU-{pipeline}-field-{Int/Pol}_Nside_R2.00.fits''. <br />
The ''Int'' files have two extensions, for the Intensity maps and the beam transfer function, the ''Pol'' files have three extensions, for Q and U maps, and for the beam transfer function.<br />
For a complete description of the data structure, see the [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
The gallery below shows the Intensity, noise from half-mission, half-difference, and confidence mask for the four pipelines, in the order SMICA, SEVEM, NILC and COMMANDER, from top to bottom. The Intensity maps scale is [–500.+500] μK, and the noise are between [–25,+25] μK. We do not show the Q and U maps since they have no significant visible structure to contemplate.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=300px heights=180> <br />
File:CMB_commander_tsig.png | '''commander temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tnoi.png | '''commander noise'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tmask.png | '''commander mask'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tsig.png | '''nilc temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tnoi.png | '''nilc noise'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tmask.png | '''nilc mask'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tsig.png | '''sevem temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tnoi.png | '''sevem noise'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tmask.png | '''sevem mask'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tsig.png | '''smica temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tnoi.png | '''smica noise'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tmask.png | '''smica mask'''</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
===Product description ===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: COMMANDER is a Planck software code implementing pixel based Bayesian parametric component separation. Each astrophysical signal component is modelled in terms of a small number of free parameters per pixel, typically in terms of an amplitude at a given reference frequency and a small set of spectral parameters, and these are fitted to the data with an MCMC Gibbs sampling algorithm. Instrumental parameters, including calibration, bandpass corrections, monopole and dipoles, are fitted jointly with the astrophysical components. A new feature in the Planck 2015 analysis is that the astrophysical model is derived from a combination of Planck, WMAP and a 408 MHz (Haslam et al. 1982) survey, providing sufficient frequency support to resolve the low-frequency components into synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust. For full details, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The Commander sky maps have different angular resolutions depending on data products:<br />
* The components of the full astrophysical sky model derived from the complete data combination (Planck, WMAP, 408 MHz) have a 1 degree FWHM resolution, and are pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=256. The corresponding CMB map defines the input map for the low-l Planck 2015 temperature likelihood. <br />
* The Commander CMB temperature map derived from Planck-only observations have an angular resolution of ~5 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=2048. This map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-857 GHz data), 7.5 arcmin (using 143-857 GHz data), and 5 arcmin (using 217-857 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
* The Commander CMB polarization map has an angular resolution of 10 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=1024. As for the temperature case, this map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-353 GHz data) and 10 arcmin (using 100-353 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The Commander confidence masks are produced by thresholding the chi-square map characterizing the global fits, combined with direct CO amplitude thresholding to eliminate known leakage effects. In addition, we exclude the 9-year WMAP point source mask in the temperature mask. For full details, see Sections 5 and 6 in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}. A total of 81% of the sky is admitted for high-resolution temperature analysis, and 83% for polarization analysis. For low-resolution temperature analysis, for which the additional WMAP and 408 MHz observations improve foreground constraints, a total of 93% of the sky is admitted. <br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: The Needlet-ILC (hereafter NILC) CMB map is constructed both in total intensity as well as polarization, Q and U Stokes parameters. For total intensity, all Planck frequency channels are included. For polarization, all polarization sensitive frequency channels are included, from 30 to 353 GHz. The solution, for T, Q and U is obtained by applying the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) technique in needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range. <br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The spectral analysis, and estimation of the NILC coefficients, is performed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math>. The effective beam is equivalent of a Gaussian circular beam with FWHM=5 arcminutes. <br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The same procedure is followed by SMICA and NILC for producing confidence masks, though with different parametrizations. A low resolution smoothed version of the NILC map, noise subtracted, is thresholded to 73.5 squared micro-K for T, and 6,75 squared micro-K for Q and U.<br />
<br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
:SEVEM produces clean CMB maps at several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting in real space. The templates are typically constructed from the lowest and highest Planck frequencies and then subtracted from the CMB-dominated channels, with coefficients that are chosen to minimize the variance of the clean map outside a considered mask. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. Two single frequency clean maps are then combined to obtain the final CMB map.<br />
<br />
;Resolution<br />
<br />
:For intensity the clean CMB map is constructed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math> at Nside=2048 and at the standard resolution of 5 arcminutes (Gaussian beam).<br />
:For polarization the clean CMB map is produced at Nside=1024 with a resolution of 10 arcminutes (Gaussian beam) and a maximum <math>\ell=3071</math>.<br />
<br />
;Confidence masks<br />
<br />
:The confidence masks cover the most contaminated regions of the sky, leaving approximately 85 per cent of useful sky for intensity and 80 per cent for polarization.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces CMBs map by linearly combining all Planck input channels with multipole-dependent weights. It includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>. Temperature and polarization maps are produced independently.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA intensity map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes which is truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math> and is '''not''' deconvolved from the pixel window function. Thus the delivered beam window function is the product of a Gaussian beam at 5 arcminutes and the pixel window function for Nside=2048.<br />
: The SMICA Q and U maps are obtained similarly but are produced at Nside=1024 with an effective beam of 10 arc-minutes (to be multiplied by the pixel window function, as for the intensity map).<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. See section below detailing the production process.<br />
<br />
===Production process===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky maps are first convolved to a common resolution that is larger than the largest beam of any frequency channel. For the combined Planck, WMAP and 408 MHz temperature analysis, the common resolution is 1 degree FWHM; for the Planck-only all-frequency analysis it is 40 arcmin FWHM; and for the intermediate-resolution analysis it is 7.5 arcmin; while for the full-resolution analysis, we assume all frequencies between 217 and 857 GHz have a common resolution, and no additional convolution is performed. For polarization, only two smoothing scales are employed, 40 and 10 arcmin, respectively. The instrumental noise rms maps are convolved correspondingly, properly accouting for their matrix-like nature. <br />
<br />
; Priors<br />
<br />
: The following priors are enforced in the Commander analysis:<br />
* All foreground amplitudes are enforced to be positive definite in the low-resolution analysis, while no amplitude priors are enforced in the high-resolution analyses<br />
* Monopoles and dipoles are fixed to nominal values for a small set of reference frequencies<br />
* Gaussian priors are enforced on spectral parameters, with values informed by the values derived in the high signal-to-noise areas of the sky<br />
* The Jeffreys ignorance prior is enforced on spectral parameters in addition to the informative Gaussian priors<br />
<br />
; Fitting procedure<br />
<br />
: Given data and priors, Commander either maximizes, or samples from, the Bayesian posterior, P(theta|data). Because this is a highly non-Gaussian and correlated distribution, involving millions of parameters, these operations are performed by means of the Gibbs sampling algorithm, in which joint samples from the full distributions are generated by iteratively sampling from the corresponding conditional posterior distributions, P(theta_i| data, theta_{j/=i}). For the low-resolution analysis, all parameters are optimized jointly, while in the high-resolution analyses, which employs fewer frequency channels, low signal-to-noise parameters are fixed to those derived at low resolution. Examples of such parameters include monopoles and dipoles, calibration and bandpass parameters, thermal dust temperature etc.<br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky frequency maps are deconvolved using the DPC beam transfer function provided, and re-convolved with a 5 arcminutes FWHM circular Gaussian beam. In polarization, prior to the smoothing process, all sky E and B maps are derived from Q and U using standard HEALPix tools from each individual frequency channels <br />
<br />
; Linear combination<br />
<br />
: Pre-processed input frequency maps are decomposed in needlet coefficients, specified in the Appendix B of the Planck A11 paper, with shape given by Table B.1. Minimum variance coefficients are then obtained, using all channels for T, from 30 to 353 for E and B. <br />
<br />
; Post-processing<br />
<br />
: E and B maps are re-combined into Q and U products using standard HEALPix tools. <br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
<br />
The templates used in the SEVEM pipeline are typically constructed by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMB map at that frequency. This is done in real space at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. The <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. Note that the same expression applies for I, Q and U. Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of clean maps at different frequencies is of great interest in order to test the robustness of the results. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned independently and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
;Intensity<br />
<br />
For the CMB intensity map, we have cleaned the 100 GHz, 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps using a total of four templates. Three of them are constructed as the difference of two consecutive Planck channels smoothed to a common resolution (30-44, 44-70 and 545-353) while the 857 GHz channel is chosen as the fourth template. First of all, the six frequency channels which are going to be part of the templates are inpainted at the point source positions detected using the Mexican Hat Wavelet algorithm. The size of the holes to be inpainted is determined taking into account the beam size of the channel as well as the flux of each source. The inpainting algorithm is based on simple diffuse inpainting, which fills one pixel with the mean value of the neighbouring pixels in an iterative way. To avoid inconsistencies when subtracting two channels, each frequency map is inpainted on the sources detected in that map and on the second map (if any) used to construct the template. Then the maps are smoothed to a common resolution (the first channel in the subtraction is smoothed with the beam of the second map and viceversa). For the 857 GHz template, we simply filter the inpainted map with the 545 GHz beam.<br />
<br />
The coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance outside the analysis mask, that covers the 1 per cent brightest emission of the sky as well as point sources detected at all frequency channels. Once the maps are cleaned, each of them is inpainted on the point sources positions detected at that (raw) channel. Then, the MHW algorithm is run again, now on the clean maps. A relatively small number of new sources are found and are also inpainted at each channel. The resolution of the clean map is the same as that of the original data. Our final CMB map is then constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask is produced by studying the differences between several SEVEM CMB reconstructions, which correspond to maps cleaned at different frequencies or using different analysis masks. The obtained mask leaves a useful sky fraction of approximately 85 per cent.<br />
<br />
;Polarization<br />
<br />
<br />
To clean the polarization maps, a procedure similar to the one used for intensity data is applied to the $Q$ and $U$ maps independently. However, given that a narrower frequency coverage is available for polarization, the selected templates and maps to be cleaned are different. In particular, we clean the 70, 100 and 143 GHz using three templates for each channel. The first step of the pipeline is to inpaint the positions of the point sources using the MHW, in those channels which are going to be used in the construction of templates, following the same procedure as for the intensity case. The inpainting is performed in the frequency maps at their native resolution. These inpainted maps are then used to construct a total of four templates. To trace the synchrotron emission, we construct a template as the subtraction of the 30 GHz minus the 44 GHz <br />
map, after being convolved with the beam of each other. For the dust emission, the following templates are considered: 353--217 GHz (smoothed at 10$'$ resolution), 217--143 GHz (used <br />
to clean 70 and 100 GHz) and 217--100 GHz (to clean 143 GHz). These two last templates are constructed at 1 degree resolution since an additional smoothing becomes necessary in<br />
order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the template. Conversely to the <br />
intensity case and due to the lower availability of frequency channels, it becomes necessary to use the maps to be cleaned as part of one of the templates. In this way, the 100 GHz <br />
map is used to clean the 143 GHz frequency channel and viceversa, making the clean maps less independent between them than in the intensity case.<br />
<br />
These templates are then used to clean the non-inpainted 70 (at its native resolution), 100 (at 10$'$ resolution) and 143 GHz maps (also at 10$'$). The corresponding linear coefficients are estimated independently for $Q$ and $U$ by minimising the variance of the clean maps outside a mask, that covers point sources and the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission. Once the maps have been cleaned, inpainting of the point sources detected at the corresponding raw maps is carried out. The size of the holes to be inpainted takes<br />
into account the additional smoothing of the 100 and 143 GHz maps. The 100 and 143 GHz clean maps are then combined in harmonic space, using $E$ and $B$ decomposition, to produce the final CMB maps for the $Q$ and $U$ components at a resolution of 10$'$ (Gaussian beam) for a HEALPix parameter Nside=1024. Each map is weighted taking into account its <br />
corresponding noise level at each multipole. Finally, before applying the post-processing HPF to the clean polarization data, the region with the brightest Galactic residuals is inpainted (5 per cent of the sky) to avoid the introduction of ringing around the Galactic centre in the filtering process.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask includes all the pixels above a given threshold in a smoothed version of the clean CMB map, the regions more contaminated by the CO emission and those pixels more affected by the high-pass filtering, leaving a useful sky fraction of approximately 80 per cent.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
<br />
A) Production of the intensity map.<br />
<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: Before computing spherical harmonic coefficients, all input maps undergo a pre-processing step to deal with regions of very strong emission (such as the Galactic center) and point sources. The point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue are fitted in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole is filled in by a simple diffusive process to ensure a smooth transition and mitigate spectral leakage. The diffusive inpainting process is also applied to some regions of very strong emissions. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, here all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and filled-in similarly.<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHz are harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> and co-added with multipole-dependent weights as shown in the figure.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: A confidence mask is determined (see the Planck paper) and all regions which have been masked in the pre-processing step are added to it.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filter_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input intensity maps (after they are re-beamed to 5 arc-minutes and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), as a function of multipole.''']]--><br />
<br />
B) Production of the Q and U polarisation maps.<br />
<br />
The production of the Q and U maps is similar to the production of the intensity map. The SMICA pipeline uses all the 7 polarized Planck channels. After point source masking and diffusive inpainting, the E and B modes are computed and combined to produce E and B modes of the CMB map. Those combined modes are then used to synthesize the U and Q CMB maps. The E and B parts of the input frequency maps being processed jointly, there are, at each multipole, 2*7=14 coefficients (weights) defined to produce the E modes of the CMB map and as many to produce the B part. The weights are displayed in the figure below. The Q and U maps were originally produced at Nside=2048 with a 5-arc-minute resolution, but were downgraded to Nside=1024 with a 10 arc-minute resolution for this release.<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filterEB_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input E and B modes (after they are re-beamed to 5 arcmin and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), in order to produce the E and B modes of the CMB map. A given frequency channel is encoded in a given color. Solid lines are for E modes and dashed lines are for B modes. The thick lines are for the EE or BB weights; the thin lines are for the EB or BE weights. See the paper for more details.''']]--><br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. SMICA and SEVEM use all the maps between 30 and 857 GHz; NILC uses the ones between 44 and 857 GHz. Commander-Ruler uses frequency channel maps from 30 to 353 GHz. <br />
<br />
===File names and structure===<br />
The FITS files corresponding to the three CMB products are the following:<br />
<br />
''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}-field-{Int,Pol}_Nside_R2.nn.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''method'' is mica, nilc, sevem, or commander, and Int and Pol indicate whether the file contains the temperature (Int) or the polarisation (Pol) maps. For this release the temperature maps are provided at Nside = 2048, and the polarisation maps at Nside = 1024. <br />
<br />
The files contain <br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data;<br />
* one or two ''BINTABLE'' data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 14 columns in which the first 13 columns is a CMB maps produced from the full or a subset of the data, as described in the table below, and the last column in a confidence mask. There is a single extension for ''Int'' files, and two, for Q and U, for ''Pol'' files. <br />
* a ''BINTABLE'' extension containing the beam window function.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I or Q or U || Real*4 || uK_cmb || I or Q or U map <br />
|- <br />
|HM1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HM2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 2 <br />
|-<br />
|YR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 1 <br />
|-<br />
|YR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HMHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HMHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|YRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|YRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|HRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half diff <br />
|-<br />
|MASK || BYTE || || Confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (smica/nilc/sevem/commander)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Notes:<br />
# The beam window function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>.<br />
<br />
<!--- mi sembra che questa non serva più <br />
The low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler CMB product is organized in the following way:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK_cmb || CMB temperature map obtained as average over 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Corresponding Standard deviation amongst the 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Confidence mask<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. EXTNAME = ''CMB-Sample'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM01 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM02 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM03 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM04 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM05 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM06 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM07 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM08 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM09 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM10 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
<!---- anche queste non servono più <br />
<br />
The FITS files containing the ''union'' (or common) maks is:<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-union_2048_R1.10.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common}}<br />
which contains a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with a single column (named ''U73'') for the mask, which is boolean (FITS ''TFORM = B''), in GALACTIC coordinates, NESTED ordering, and Nside=2048.<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for a small file containing the SMICA cmb map with no additional information (noise or masks) we provide such a file here<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
This file contains a single extension with a single column containing the SMICA cmb temperature map.<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
== Astrophysical foregrounds from parametric component separation ==<br />
We describe diffuse foreground products for the Planck 2015 release. See the Planck Foregrounds Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}} for a detailed description of these products. Further scientific discussion and interpretation may be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a31}}.<br />
<br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
Nominal frequency maps at 30, 44, 70, 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, 857 GHz ({{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=30|period=Nominal|link=LFI 30 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=44|period=Nominal|link=LFI 44 GHz frequency maps}} and {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=70|period=Nominal|link=LFI 70 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=100|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 100 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=143|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 143 GHz frequency maps}},{{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=217|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 217 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=353|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 353 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=545|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 545 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=857|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 857 GHz frequency maps}}) and their II column corresponding to the noise covariance matrix. <br />
Halfrings at the same frequencies. Beam window functions as reported in the [[The RIMO#Beam Window Functions|LFI and HFI RIMO]].<br />
<br />
<br />
===Low-resolution temperature products===<br />
<br />
: The Planck 2015 astrophysical component separation analysis combines Planck observations with the 9-year WMAP temperature sky maps (Bennett et al. 2013) and the 408 MHz survey by Haslam et al. (1982). This allows a direct decomposition of the low-frequency foregrounds into separate synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust components without strong spatial priors. The full set of data products derived from the low-resolution joint analysis are the following:<br />
<br />
=====Synchrotron emission=====<br />
<br />
<!--<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=800px heights=500px> <br />
File:commander_synch_amp.png | '''Commander low-resolution synchrotron amplitude'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center>--><br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: 408 MHz<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-Synchrotron<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Free-free emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: NA<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-freefree<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|EM_ML || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|EM_MEAN || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|EM_RMS || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_ML || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_MEAN || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_RMS || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Spinning dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The spinning dust component has two independent constituents, each corresponding to one spdust2 component, but with different peak frequencies. The two components are stored in the two first FITS extensions, and the template frequency spectrum is stored in the third extension. <br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 22.8 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-AME1<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_ML || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_MEAN || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_RMS || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 41.0 GHz<br />
: Peak frequency: 33.35 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-AME2<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- SPINNING-DUST-TEMP<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|nu || Real*4 || GHz || Frequency <br />
|-<br />
|j_nu/nH || Real*4 || Jy sr-1 cm2/H || spdust2 spectrum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
; CO line emission<br />
: (Coming soon!)<br />
<br />
; 94/100 GHz line emission<br />
: (Coming soon!)<br />
<br />
; Thermal dust emission<br />
: (Coming soon!)<br />
<br />
; Thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich emission around the Coma and Virgo clusters<br />
: (Coming soon!)<br />
<br />
===High-resolution temperature products===<br />
<br />
High-resolution foreground products at 7.5 arcmin FWHM are derived with the same algorithm as for the low-resolution analyses, but including frequency channels above (and including) 143 GHz. These data products include the following:<br />
<br />
; CO(2-1) emission<br />
: (Coming soon!)<br />
<br />
; Thermal dust emission<br />
: (Coming soon!)<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|007]]</div>Heriksenhttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=CMB_and_astrophysical_component_maps&diff=10804CMB and astrophysical component maps2015-02-01T10:17:33Z<p>Heriksen: /* Low-resolution temperature products */</p>
<hr />
<div>== Overview ==<br />
This section describes the maps of astrophysical components produced from the Planck data. These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps described above using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of the product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITS file containing the data and associated information.<br />
All the details can be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
==CMB maps==<br />
CMB maps have been produced by the COMMANDER, NILC, SEVEM, and SMICA pipelines, which are described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation | CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and references therein.. For each pipeline we provide:<br />
* Full-mission CMB intensity map, confidence mask and beam transfer function.<br />
* Full-mission high-pass filtered CMB polarisation map, <br />
* A confidence mask.<br />
* A beam transfer function.<br />
In addition, and for characterisation purposes, there are six other sets of maps from three data splits: first/second half-ring, odd/even years and first/second half-mission. And for each of these data splits we provide half-sum and half-difference maps. The half-difference maps can be used to provide an approximate noise estimate for the full mission, but they should be used with caution. Each split has caveats in this regard: there are noise correlations between the half-ring maps, and missing pixels in the other splits. The Intensity maps are provided at Nside = 2048, at 5 arcmin resolution, while the Polarisation ones are provided at Nside = 1024 at 10 arcmin resolution. All maps are in units of K<sub>cmb</sub>.<br />
<br />
These maps can be found in the files <br />
* ''COM_CMB_IQU-{pipeline}-field-{Int/Pol}_Nside_R2.00.fits''. <br />
The ''Int'' files have two extensions, for the Intensity maps and the beam transfer function, the ''Pol'' files have three extensions, for Q and U maps, and for the beam transfer function.<br />
For a complete description of the data structure, see the [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
The gallery below shows the Intensity, noise from half-mission, half-difference, and confidence mask for the four pipelines, in the order SMICA, SEVEM, NILC and COMMANDER, from top to bottom. The Intensity maps scale is [–500.+500] μK, and the noise are between [–25,+25] μK. We do not show the Q and U maps since they have no significant visible structure to contemplate.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=300px heights=180> <br />
File:CMB_commander_tsig.png | '''commander temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tnoi.png | '''commander noise'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tmask.png | '''commander mask'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tsig.png | '''nilc temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tnoi.png | '''nilc noise'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tmask.png | '''nilc mask'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tsig.png | '''sevem temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tnoi.png | '''sevem noise'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tmask.png | '''sevem mask'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tsig.png | '''smica temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tnoi.png | '''smica noise'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tmask.png | '''smica mask'''</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
===Product description ===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: COMMANDER is a Planck software code implementing pixel based Bayesian parametric component separation. Each astrophysical signal component is modelled in terms of a small number of free parameters per pixel, typically in terms of an amplitude at a given reference frequency and a small set of spectral parameters, and these are fitted to the data with an MCMC Gibbs sampling algorithm. Instrumental parameters, including calibration, bandpass corrections, monopole and dipoles, are fitted jointly with the astrophysical components. A new feature in the Planck 2015 analysis is that the astrophysical model is derived from a combination of Planck, WMAP and a 408 MHz (Haslam et al. 1982) survey, providing sufficient frequency support to resolve the low-frequency components into synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust. For full details, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The Commander sky maps have different angular resolutions depending on data products:<br />
* The components of the full astrophysical sky model derived from the complete data combination (Planck, WMAP, 408 MHz) have a 1 degree FWHM resolution, and are pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=256. The corresponding CMB map defines the input map for the low-l Planck 2015 temperature likelihood. <br />
* The Commander CMB temperature map derived from Planck-only observations have an angular resolution of ~5 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=2048. This map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-857 GHz data), 7.5 arcmin (using 143-857 GHz data), and 5 arcmin (using 217-857 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
* The Commander CMB polarization map has an angular resolution of 10 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=1024. As for the temperature case, this map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-353 GHz data) and 10 arcmin (using 100-353 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The Commander confidence masks are produced by thresholding the chi-square map characterizing the global fits, combined with direct CO amplitude thresholding to eliminate known leakage effects. In addition, we exclude the 9-year WMAP point source mask in the temperature mask. For full details, see Sections 5 and 6 in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}. A total of 81% of the sky is admitted for high-resolution temperature analysis, and 83% for polarization analysis. For low-resolution temperature analysis, for which the additional WMAP and 408 MHz observations improve foreground constraints, a total of 93% of the sky is admitted. <br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: The Needlet-ILC (hereafter NILC) CMB map is constructed both in total intensity as well as polarization, Q and U Stokes parameters. For total intensity, all Planck frequency channels are included. For polarization, all polarization sensitive frequency channels are included, from 30 to 353 GHz. The solution, for T, Q and U is obtained by applying the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) technique in needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range. <br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The spectral analysis, and estimation of the NILC coefficients, is performed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math>. The effective beam is equivalent of a Gaussian circular beam with FWHM=5 arcminutes. <br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The same procedure is followed by SMICA and NILC for producing confidence masks, though with different parametrizations. A low resolution smoothed version of the NILC map, noise subtracted, is thresholded to 73.5 squared micro-K for T, and 6,75 squared micro-K for Q and U.<br />
<br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
:SEVEM produces clean CMB maps at several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting in real space. The templates are typically constructed from the lowest and highest Planck frequencies and then subtracted from the CMB-dominated channels, with coefficients that are chosen to minimize the variance of the clean map outside a considered mask. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. Two single frequency clean maps are then combined to obtain the final CMB map.<br />
<br />
;Resolution<br />
<br />
:For intensity the clean CMB map is constructed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math> at Nside=2048 and at the standard resolution of 5 arcminutes (Gaussian beam).<br />
:For polarization the clean CMB map is produced at Nside=1024 with a resolution of 10 arcminutes (Gaussian beam) and a maximum <math>\ell=3071</math>.<br />
<br />
;Confidence masks<br />
<br />
:The confidence masks cover the most contaminated regions of the sky, leaving approximately 85 per cent of useful sky for intensity and 80 per cent for polarization.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces CMBs map by linearly combining all Planck input channels with multipole-dependent weights. It includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>. Temperature and polarization maps are produced independently.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA intensity map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes which is truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math> and is '''not''' deconvolved from the pixel window function. Thus the delivered beam window function is the product of a Gaussian beam at 5 arcminutes and the pixel window function for Nside=2048.<br />
: The SMICA Q and U maps are obtained similarly but are produced at Nside=1024 with an effective beam of 10 arc-minutes (to be multiplied by the pixel window function, as for the intensity map).<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. See section below detailing the production process.<br />
<br />
===Production process===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky maps are first convolved to a common resolution that is larger than the largest beam of any frequency channel. For the combined Planck, WMAP and 408 MHz temperature analysis, the common resolution is 1 degree FWHM; for the Planck-only all-frequency analysis it is 40 arcmin FWHM; and for the intermediate-resolution analysis it is 7.5 arcmin; while for the full-resolution analysis, we assume all frequencies between 217 and 857 GHz have a common resolution, and no additional convolution is performed. For polarization, only two smoothing scales are employed, 40 and 10 arcmin, respectively. The instrumental noise rms maps are convolved correspondingly, properly accouting for their matrix-like nature. <br />
<br />
; Priors<br />
<br />
: The following priors are enforced in the Commander analysis:<br />
* All foreground amplitudes are enforced to be positive definite in the low-resolution analysis, while no amplitude priors are enforced in the high-resolution analyses<br />
* Monopoles and dipoles are fixed to nominal values for a small set of reference frequencies<br />
* Gaussian priors are enforced on spectral parameters, with values informed by the values derived in the high signal-to-noise areas of the sky<br />
* The Jeffreys ignorance prior is enforced on spectral parameters in addition to the informative Gaussian priors<br />
<br />
; Fitting procedure<br />
<br />
: Given data and priors, Commander either maximizes, or samples from, the Bayesian posterior, P(theta|data). Because this is a highly non-Gaussian and correlated distribution, involving millions of parameters, these operations are performed by means of the Gibbs sampling algorithm, in which joint samples from the full distributions are generated by iteratively sampling from the corresponding conditional posterior distributions, P(theta_i| data, theta_{j/=i}). For the low-resolution analysis, all parameters are optimized jointly, while in the high-resolution analyses, which employs fewer frequency channels, low signal-to-noise parameters are fixed to those derived at low resolution. Examples of such parameters include monopoles and dipoles, calibration and bandpass parameters, thermal dust temperature etc.<br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky frequency maps are deconvolved using the DPC beam transfer function provided, and re-convolved with a 5 arcminutes FWHM circular Gaussian beam. In polarization, prior to the smoothing process, all sky E and B maps are derived from Q and U using standard HEALPix tools from each individual frequency channels <br />
<br />
; Linear combination<br />
<br />
: Pre-processed input frequency maps are decomposed in needlet coefficients, specified in the Appendix B of the Planck A11 paper, with shape given by Table B.1. Minimum variance coefficients are then obtained, using all channels for T, from 30 to 353 for E and B. <br />
<br />
; Post-processing<br />
<br />
: E and B maps are re-combined into Q and U products using standard HEALPix tools. <br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
<br />
The templates used in the SEVEM pipeline are typically constructed by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMB map at that frequency. This is done in real space at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. The <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. Note that the same expression applies for I, Q and U. Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of clean maps at different frequencies is of great interest in order to test the robustness of the results. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned independently and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
;Intensity<br />
<br />
For the CMB intensity map, we have cleaned the 100 GHz, 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps using a total of four templates. Three of them are constructed as the difference of two consecutive Planck channels smoothed to a common resolution (30-44, 44-70 and 545-353) while the 857 GHz channel is chosen as the fourth template. First of all, the six frequency channels which are going to be part of the templates are inpainted at the point source positions detected using the Mexican Hat Wavelet algorithm. The size of the holes to be inpainted is determined taking into account the beam size of the channel as well as the flux of each source. The inpainting algorithm is based on simple diffuse inpainting, which fills one pixel with the mean value of the neighbouring pixels in an iterative way. To avoid inconsistencies when subtracting two channels, each frequency map is inpainted on the sources detected in that map and on the second map (if any) used to construct the template. Then the maps are smoothed to a common resolution (the first channel in the subtraction is smoothed with the beam of the second map and viceversa). For the 857 GHz template, we simply filter the inpainted map with the 545 GHz beam.<br />
<br />
The coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance outside the analysis mask, that covers the 1 per cent brightest emission of the sky as well as point sources detected at all frequency channels. Once the maps are cleaned, each of them is inpainted on the point sources positions detected at that (raw) channel. Then, the MHW algorithm is run again, now on the clean maps. A relatively small number of new sources are found and are also inpainted at each channel. The resolution of the clean map is the same as that of the original data. Our final CMB map is then constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask is produced by studying the differences between several SEVEM CMB reconstructions, which correspond to maps cleaned at different frequencies or using different analysis masks. The obtained mask leaves a useful sky fraction of approximately 85 per cent.<br />
<br />
;Polarization<br />
<br />
<br />
To clean the polarization maps, a procedure similar to the one used for intensity data is applied to the $Q$ and $U$ maps independently. However, given that a narrower frequency coverage is available for polarization, the selected templates and maps to be cleaned are different. In particular, we clean the 70, 100 and 143 GHz using three templates for each channel. The first step of the pipeline is to inpaint the positions of the point sources using the MHW, in those channels which are going to be used in the construction of templates, following the same procedure as for the intensity case. The inpainting is performed in the frequency maps at their native resolution. These inpainted maps are then used to construct a total of four templates. To trace the synchrotron emission, we construct a template as the subtraction of the 30 GHz minus the 44 GHz <br />
map, after being convolved with the beam of each other. For the dust emission, the following templates are considered: 353--217 GHz (smoothed at 10$'$ resolution), 217--143 GHz (used <br />
to clean 70 and 100 GHz) and 217--100 GHz (to clean 143 GHz). These two last templates are constructed at 1 degree resolution since an additional smoothing becomes necessary in<br />
order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the template. Conversely to the <br />
intensity case and due to the lower availability of frequency channels, it becomes necessary to use the maps to be cleaned as part of one of the templates. In this way, the 100 GHz <br />
map is used to clean the 143 GHz frequency channel and viceversa, making the clean maps less independent between them than in the intensity case.<br />
<br />
These templates are then used to clean the non-inpainted 70 (at its native resolution), 100 (at 10$'$ resolution) and 143 GHz maps (also at 10$'$). The corresponding linear coefficients are estimated independently for $Q$ and $U$ by minimising the variance of the clean maps outside a mask, that covers point sources and the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission. Once the maps have been cleaned, inpainting of the point sources detected at the corresponding raw maps is carried out. The size of the holes to be inpainted takes<br />
into account the additional smoothing of the 100 and 143 GHz maps. The 100 and 143 GHz clean maps are then combined in harmonic space, using $E$ and $B$ decomposition, to produce the final CMB maps for the $Q$ and $U$ components at a resolution of 10$'$ (Gaussian beam) for a HEALPix parameter Nside=1024. Each map is weighted taking into account its <br />
corresponding noise level at each multipole. Finally, before applying the post-processing HPF to the clean polarization data, the region with the brightest Galactic residuals is inpainted (5 per cent of the sky) to avoid the introduction of ringing around the Galactic centre in the filtering process.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask includes all the pixels above a given threshold in a smoothed version of the clean CMB map, the regions more contaminated by the CO emission and those pixels more affected by the high-pass filtering, leaving a useful sky fraction of approximately 80 per cent.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
<br />
A) Production of the intensity map.<br />
<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: Before computing spherical harmonic coefficients, all input maps undergo a pre-processing step to deal with regions of very strong emission (such as the Galactic center) and point sources. The point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue are fitted in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole is filled in by a simple diffusive process to ensure a smooth transition and mitigate spectral leakage. The diffusive inpainting process is also applied to some regions of very strong emissions. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, here all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and filled-in similarly.<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHz are harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> and co-added with multipole-dependent weights as shown in the figure.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: A confidence mask is determined (see the Planck paper) and all regions which have been masked in the pre-processing step are added to it.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filter_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input intensity maps (after they are re-beamed to 5 arc-minutes and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), as a function of multipole.''']]--><br />
<br />
B) Production of the Q and U polarisation maps.<br />
<br />
The production of the Q and U maps is similar to the production of the intensity map. The SMICA pipeline uses all the 7 polarized Planck channels. After point source masking and diffusive inpainting, the E and B modes are computed and combined to produce E and B modes of the CMB map. Those combined modes are then used to synthesize the U and Q CMB maps. The E and B parts of the input frequency maps being processed jointly, there are, at each multipole, 2*7=14 coefficients (weights) defined to produce the E modes of the CMB map and as many to produce the B part. The weights are displayed in the figure below. The Q and U maps were originally produced at Nside=2048 with a 5-arc-minute resolution, but were downgraded to Nside=1024 with a 10 arc-minute resolution for this release.<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filterEB_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input E and B modes (after they are re-beamed to 5 arcmin and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), in order to produce the E and B modes of the CMB map. A given frequency channel is encoded in a given color. Solid lines are for E modes and dashed lines are for B modes. The thick lines are for the EE or BB weights; the thin lines are for the EB or BE weights. See the paper for more details.''']]--><br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. SMICA and SEVEM use all the maps between 30 and 857 GHz; NILC uses the ones between 44 and 857 GHz. Commander-Ruler uses frequency channel maps from 30 to 353 GHz. <br />
<br />
===File names and structure===<br />
The FITS files corresponding to the three CMB products are the following:<br />
<br />
''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}-field-{Int,Pol}_Nside_R2.nn.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''method'' is mica, nilc, sevem, or commander, and Int and Pol indicate whether the file contains the temperature (Int) or the polarisation (Pol) maps. For this release the temperature maps are provided at Nside = 2048, and the polarisation maps at Nside = 1024. <br />
<br />
The files contain <br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data;<br />
* one or two ''BINTABLE'' data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 14 columns in which the first 13 columns is a CMB maps produced from the full or a subset of the data, as described in the table below, and the last column in a confidence mask. There is a single extension for ''Int'' files, and two, for Q and U, for ''Pol'' files. <br />
* a ''BINTABLE'' extension containing the beam window function.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I or Q or U || Real*4 || uK_cmb || I or Q or U map <br />
|- <br />
|HM1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HM2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 2 <br />
|-<br />
|YR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 1 <br />
|-<br />
|YR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HMHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HMHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|YRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|YRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|HRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half diff <br />
|-<br />
|MASK || BYTE || || Confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description&