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<hr />
<div>{{DISPLAYTITLE:CMB spectrum and likelihood code}}<br />
<br />
==CMB spectra==<br />
<br />
<br />
===General description===<br />
====TT====<br />
The Planck best-fit CMB temperature power spectrum, shown in figure below, covers the wide range of multipoles <math> \ell </math> = 2-2508. <br />
<span style="color:red"> UPDATE COMMANDER: Over the multipole range <math> \ell </math> = 2–29, the power spectrum is derived from a component-separation algorithm, ''Commander'': applied to maps in the frequency range 30–353 GHz over 91% of the sky {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}} . The asymmetric error bars associated to this spectrum are the 68% confidence limits and include the uncertainties due to foreground subtraction. </span><br />
<br />
For multipoles equal or greater than <math>\ell=30</math>, instead, the spectrum is derived from the ''Plik'' likelihood {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a13}} by optimally combining the spectra in the frequency range 100-217 GHz, and correcting them for unresolved foregrounds using the best-fit foreground solution from a Planck TT+lowP <math>\Lambda</math>CDM run. Associated 1-sigma errors include beam uncertainties. Both ''Commander'' and ''Plik'' are described in more details in the sections below.<br />
<br />
[[File: Planck2014 TT Dl NORES bin30 w180mm.jpeg|thumb|center|700px|'''CMB TT spectrum. Logarithmic x-scale up to <math>\ell=30</math>, linear at higher <math>\ell</math>; all points with error bars. The red line is the Planck best-fit primordial power spectrum (cf Planck TT+lowP in Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a15}}). The blue shaded area shows the uncertainties due to cosmic variance alone.''']]<br />
<br />
====TE and EE====<br />
The Planck best-fit CMB polarization and temperature-polarization cross-correlation power spectra, shown in the figure below, cover the multipole range <math> \ell </math> = 30-1996. The data points relative to the multipole range <math> \ell </math> = 2-29 will be released in a second moment.<br />
Analogously to the TT case, the <math> \ell\ge 30 </math> spectrum is derived from the ''Plik'' likelihood {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a13}} by optimally combining the spectra in the frequency range 100-217 GHz, and correcting them for unresolved foregrounds using the best-fit foreground solution from a Planck TT,TE,EE+lowP <math>\Lambda</math>CDM run. <br />
<br />
{|style="margin: 0 auto;"<br />
|[[File: Planck2014 EE Dl NORES bin30 w180mm.jpeg|thumb|center|500px|'''CMB EE spectrum. The red line is the Planck best-fit primordial power spectrum (cf Planck TT+lowP in Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a15}}). The blue shaded area shows the uncertainties due to cosmic variance alone.''']]<br />
|[[File: Planck2014 TE Dl NORES bin30 w180mm.jpeg|thumb|center|500px|'''CMB TE spectrum. The red line is the Planck best-fit primordial power spectrum (cf Planck TT+lowP in Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a15}}). The blue shaded area shows the uncertainties due to cosmic variance alone.''']]<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Production process===<br />
<span style="color:red"> UPDATE COMMANDER<br />
The <math>\ell</math> < 50 part of the Planck TT power spectrum is derived from the Commander approach, which implements Bayesian component separation in pixel space, fitting a parametric model to the data by sampling the posterior distribution for the model parameters {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}. The power spectrum at any multipole <math>\ell</math> is given as the maximum probability point for the posterior <math>C_\ell</math> distribution, marginalized over the other multipoles, and the error bars are 68% confidence level {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08}}. </span><br />
<br />
The <math>\ell \ge 30</math> part of the TT, TE and EE power spectra have been derived by the Plik likelihood, a code that implements a pseudo-Cl based technique, extensively described in Sec. 2 and the Appendix of {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a13}}. Frequency spectra are computed as cross-spectra between half-mission maps. Mask and multipole range choices for each frequency spectrum are summarized in Section 3.3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a15}} and in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a13}}. The final power spectrum is an optimal combination of the 100, 143, 143x217 and 217 GHz spectra, corrected for the best-fit unresolved foregrounds and inter-frequency calibration factors, as derived from the full likelihood analysis (for TT we use the best-fit solutions for the nuisance parameters from the Planck+TT+lowP data combination, while for TE and EE we use the best fit from Planck+TT+lowP, cf Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a15}}). A thorough description of the models of unresolved foregrounds is given in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a13}}. The spectrum covariance matrix accounts for cosmic variance and noise contributions, together with beam uncertainties. The <math>\ell \ge 30</math> CMB TT spectrum and associated covariance matrix are available in two formats:<br />
#Unbinned. TT: 2479 bandpowers (<math>\ell=30-2508</math>); TE or EE: 1697 bandpowers (<math>\ell=30-1996</math>).<br />
#Binned, in bins of <math> \Delta\ell=30 </math>. TT: 83 bandpowers. TE or EE: 66 bandpowers. We bin the <math> C_\ell </math> power spectrum with a weight proportional to <math> \ell (\ell+1) </math>, so that the <math> C_{\ell_b} </math> binned bandpower centered in <math> \ell_b </math> is: <math> \\ C_{\ell_b}=\Sigma_{\ell \in b} w_{\ell_b\ell} C_\ell \quad \text{with} \quad w_{\ell_b\ell}=\frac{\ell (\ell+1)}{\Sigma_{\ell \in b} \ell (\ell+1)}. \\</math> Equivalently, using the matrix formalism, we can construct the binning matrix B as: <math>\\ B_{\ell_b \ell}=w_{\ell_b\ell} \\ </math> where B is a <math> n_b\times n_\ell</math> matrix, with <math>n_b=83</math> the number of bins and <math>n_\ell=2479</math> the number of unbinned multipoles. Thus: <math> \\ \vec{C}_\mathrm{binned}=B \, \vec{C} \\ \mathrm{cov_\mathrm{binned}}= B\, \mathrm{cov}\, B^T \\ \ell_b=B\, \ell \\ </math> Here, <math> \vec{C}_{binned}\, (\vec{C}) </math> is the vector containing all the binned (unbinned) <math>C_\ell</math> bandpowers, <math>\mathrm{cov} </math> is the covariance matrix and <math>\ell_b</math> is the weighted average multipole in each bin. Note that following this definition, <math>\ell_b</math> can be a non-integer. The binned <math>D_{\ell_B}</math> power spectrum is then calculated as: <math> \\ D_{\ell_b}=\frac{\ell_b (\ell_b+1)}{2\pi} C_{\ell_b} </math>.<br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
<span style="color:red"> UPDATE COMMANDER</span><br />
<br />
; Low-l spectrum (<math>\ell < 30</math>):<br />
* frequency maps from 30–353 GHz<br />
* common mask {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}<br />
* compact sources catalog<br />
<br />
; High-l spectrum (<math>30 \ge \ell \le 2500</math>): <br />
<br />
* 100, 143, 143x217 and 217 GHz spectra and their covariance matrix (Sec. 3.3 {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a15}})<br />
* best-fit foreground templates and inter-frequency calibration factors (Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a15}})<br />
* Beam transfer function uncertainties {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}}<br />
=== File names and Meta data ===<br />
<br />
The CMB spectrum and its covariance matrix are distributed in a single FITS file named <br />
<!--- * ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=cosmo | name=COM_PowerSpect_CMB_R2.00.fits | link=COM_PowerSpect_CMB_R1.10.fits}}'' ---><br />
* ''COM_PowerSpect_CMB_R2.nn.fits''<br />
which contains 7 ''BINTABLE'' extensions<br />
<br />
; 1. TT low-ell, unbinned (TTLOLUNB)<br />
: with the low ell part of the spectrum, not binned, and for l=2-49. The table columns are<br />
# ''ELL'' (integer): multipole number<br />
# ''D_ELL'' (float): <math>D_ell</math> as described above<br />
# ''ERRUP'' (float): the upward uncertainty<br />
# ''ERRDOWN'' (float): the downward uncertainty<br />
<br />
; 2. TT high-ell, binned (TTHILBIN)<br />
: with the high-ell part of the spectrum, binned into 83 bins covering <math>\langle l \rangle = 47-2499\ </math> in bins of width <math>l=30</math> (with the exception of the last bin that is smaller). The table columns are as follows:<br />
# ''ELL'' (integer): mean multipole number of bin<br />
# ''L_MIN'' (integer): lowest multipole of bin<br />
# ''L_MAX'' (integer): highest multipole of bin<br />
# ''D_ELL'' (float): <math>D_\ell</math> as described above<br />
# ''ERR'' (float): the uncertainty<br />
<br />
; 3. TT high-ell unbinned (TTHILUNB) <br />
: with the high-ell part of the spectrum, unbinned, in 2979 bins covering <math>\langle l \rangle = 30-2508\ </math>. The table columns are as follows:<br />
# ''ELL'' (integer): multipole <br />
# ''D_ELL'' (float): <math>D_\ell</math> as described above<br />
# ''ERR'' (float): the uncertainty<br />
<br />
; 4. TE high-ell, binned (TEHILBIN) <br />
: with the high-ell part of the spectrum, binned into 83 bins covering <math>\langle l \rangle = 47-1988\ </math> in bins of width <math>l=30</math> (with the exception of the last bin that is smaller). The table columns are as follows:<br />
# ''ELL'' (integer): mean multipole number of bin<br />
# ''L_MIN'' (integer): lowest multipole of bin<br />
# ''L_MAX'' (integer): highest multipole of bin<br />
# ''D_ELL'' (float): <math>D_\ell</math> as described above<br />
# ''ERR'' (float): the uncertainty<br />
<br />
; 5. TE high-ell, unbinned (TEHILUNB) <br />
: with the high-ell part of the spectrum, unbinned, in 2979 bins covering <math>\langle l \rangle = 30-1996\ </math>. The table columns are as follows:<br />
# ''ELL'' (integer): multipole <br />
# ''D_ELL'' (float): <math>D_\ell</math> as described above<br />
# ''ERR'' (float): the uncertainty<br />
<br />
; 6. EE high-ell, binned (EELOLBIN) <br />
: with the high-ell part of the spectrum, binned into 83 bins covering <math>\langle l \rangle = 47-1988\ </math> in bins of width <math>l=30</math> (with the exception of the last bin that is smaller). The table columns are as follows:<br />
# ''ELL'' (integer): mean multipole number of bin<br />
# ''L_MIN'' (integer): lowest multipole of bin<br />
# ''L_MAX'' (integer): highest multipole of bin<br />
# ''D_ELL'' (float): <math>D_\ell</math> as described above<br />
# ''ERR'' (float): the uncertainty<br />
<br />
; 7. EE high-ell, unbinned (EEHILUNB) <br />
: with the high-ell part of the spectrum, unbinned, in 2979 bins covering <math>\langle l \rangle = 30-1996\ </math>. The table columns are as follows:<br />
# ''ELL'' (integer): multipole <br />
# ''D_ELL'' (float): <math>D_\ell</math> as described above<br />
# ''ERR'' (float): the uncertainty<br />
<br />
<br />
The spectra give <math>D_\ell = \ell(\ell+1)C_\ell / 2\pi </math> in units of <math>\mu\, K^2</math>. The covariance matrices of the spectra will be released in a second moment.<br />
<!-- <br />
<br />
The CMB spectrum is also given in a simple text comma-separated file:<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=cosmo | name=COM_PowerSpect_CMB_R1.10.txt |link=COM_PowerSpect_CMB_R1.10.txt}}''<br />
<br />
--><br />
<br />
==Likelihood==<br />
The likelihood will soon be released with an accompanying paper and an Explanatory Supplement update. <br />
<!-- <br />
===Likelihood===<br />
<span style="color:red"> ALL OF THE FOLLOWING IN THE LIKELIHOOD SECTION IS OLD. </span><br />
The likelihood code (and the data that comes with it) used to compute the likelihood of a model that predicts the CMB power spectra, lensing power spectrum, together with some foreground and some instrumental parameters. The data files are built primarily from the Planck mission results, but include also some results from the WMAP-9 data release. The data files are written in a specific format that can only be read by the code. The code consists in a c/f90 library, along with some optional tools in python. The code is used to read the data files, and given model power spectra and nuisance parameters it computes the log likelihood of that model. <br />
<br />
Detailed description of the installation and usage of the likelihood code and data is provided in the package. The package includes five data files: four for the CMB likelihoods and one for the lensing likelihood. All of the likelihoods delivered are described in detail in the {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08|1|Power spectrum & Likelihood Paper}} (for the CMB based likelihood) and in the {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p12|1|Lensing Paper}} (for the lensing likelihood) .<br />
<br />
The CMB full likelihood has been divided into four parts to allow using selectively different ranges of multipoles. It also reflects the fact that the mathematical approximations used for those different parts are very different, as is the underlying data. In detail, we distribute<br />
* one low-<math>\ell</math> temperature only likelihood (commander), <br />
* one low-<math>\ell</math> temperature and polarisation likelihood (lowlike), and <br />
* one higl-<math>\ell</math> likelihood CAMspec. <br />
<br />
The ''Commander'' likelihood covers the multipoles 2 to 49. It uses a semi-analytic method to sample the low-<math>\ell</math> temperature likelihood on an intermediate product of one of the component separated maps. The samples are used along with an analytical approximation of the likelihood posterior to perform the likelihood computation in the code. See {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08}} section 8.1 for more details.<br />
<br />
The ''lowlike'' likelihood covers the multipoles 2 to 32 for temperature and polarization data. Since Planck is not releasing polarisation data at this time, the polarization map from WMAP9 is used instead. A temperature map is needed to perform the computation nevertheless, and we use here the same commander map. The likelihood is computed using a map-based approximation at low resolution and a master one at intermediate resolution, as in WMAP. The likelihood code actually calls a very slightly modified version of the WMAP9 code. This piece of the likelihood essentially provides a prior on the optical depth and has almost no other impact on cosmological parameter estimation. As such it could be replaced by a simple prior, and a user can decide to do so, which is one of the motivation to leave the three pieces of the CMB likelihood as different data packages; see {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08}} section 8.3 for more details. Note that the version of the WMAP code used here (code version v1.0) does not perform any test on the positive definiteness of the TT, TE, EE covariance matrices, and will return a null log likelihood in the unphysical cases where the absolute value of TE is too large. This will be corrected in a later version.<br />
<br />
The ''CAMspec'' likelihood covers the multipoles 50 to 2500 for temperature only. The likelihood is computed using a quadratic approximation, including mode to mode correlations that have been precomputed on a fiducial model. The likelihood uses data from the 100, 143 and 217 GHz channels. To do so it models the foreground at each frequency using the model described in the likelihood paper. Uncertainties on the relative calibration and on the beam transfer functions are included either as parametric models, or marginalized and integrated in the covariance matrix. Detailed description of the different nuisance parameters is given below. Priors are included in the likelihood on the CIB spectral index, relative calibration factors and beam error eigenmodes. See {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08}} section 2.1 for more details.<br />
<br />
The ''act/spt'' likelihood covers the multipoles 1500 to 10000 for temperature. It is described in{{BibCite|dun2013}}{{BibCite|Keis2011}}{{BibCite|Reic2012}}. It uses the code and data that can be retrieved from the [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/ Lambda archive] for [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/act/act_prod_table.cfm ACT] and [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/spt/spt_prod_table.cfm SPT]. It has been slightly modified to use a thermal and kinetic SZ model that matches the one used in CAMspec. As stated in{{BibCite|dun2013}}, the dust parameters a_ge and a_gs must be explored with the following priors: a_ge = 0.8 ± 0.2 and a_gs = 0.4 ± 0.2. Those priors are not included in the log likelihood computed by the code.<br />
<br />
The ''lensing'' likelihood covers the multipoles 40 to 400 using the result of the [[Specially_processed_maps | lensing reconstruction]]. It uses a quadratic approximation for the likelihood, with a covariance matrix including the marginalized contribution of the beam transfer function uncertainties, the diffuse point source correction uncertainties and the cosmological model uncertainty affecting the first order non-gaussian bias (N1). The correlation between temperature and lensing is not taken into account. Cosmological uncertainty effects on the normalization are dealt with using a first order renormalization procedure. This means that the code will need both the TT and $\phi\phi$ power spectrum up to <math>\ell</math> = 2048 to correctly perform the integrals needed for the renormalization. Nevertheless, the code will only produce an estimate based on the data between <math>\ell</math> = 40 to 400. See {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p12}} section 6.1 for more details.<br />
</span><br />
<span style="color:red">OUTSTANDING: description of likelihood masks </span><br />
==Production process==<br />
<br />
===Likelihood===<br />
<span style="color:red"> ALL OF THE FOLLOWING IN THE LIKELIHOOD SECTION IS OLD. </span><br />
The code is based on some basic routines from the libpmc library in the [http://arxiv.org/abs/1101.0950 cosmoPMC] code. It also uses some code from the [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/likelihood_get.cfm WMAP9 likelihood] for the lowlike likelihood and{{BibCite|dun2013}}{{BibCite|Keis2011}}{{BibCite|Reic2012}} for the act/spt one. The rest of the code has been specifically written for the Planck data. Each likelihood file has been processed using a different and dedicated pipeline as described in the likelihood paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08}} (section 2 and 8) and in the lensing paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p12}} (section 6.1). We refer the reader to those papers for full details. The data are then encapsulated into the specific file format.<br />
<br />
Each dataset comes with its own self check. Whenever the code is used to read a data file, a computation will be done against an included test spectrum/nuisance parameter, and the log-likelihood will be displayed along with the expected result. Difference of the order of 10<math>^{-6}</math> or less are expected depending of the architecture.<br />
<br />
==Inputs==<br />
<br />
===Likelihood===<br />
<br />
; ''commander'' :<br />
* all Planck channels maps<br />
* compact source catalogs<br />
* common masks<br />
* beam transfer functions for all channels<br />
<br />
; ''lowlike'' :<br />
* WMAP9 likelihood data<br />
* Low-<math>\ell</math> Commander map<br />
<br />
; ''CAMspec'' :<br />
* 100, 143 and 217 GHz detector and detsets maps<br />
* 857GHz channel map<br />
* compact source catalog<br />
* common masks (0,1 & 3)<br />
* beam transfer function and error eigenmodes and covariance for 100, 143 and 217 GHz detectors & detsets<br />
* theoretical templates for the tSZ and kSZ contributions<br />
* color corrections for the CIB emission for the 143 and 217GHz detectors and detsets<br />
* fiducial CMB model (bootstrapped from WMAP7 best fit spectrum) estimated noise contribution from the half-ring maps for 100, 143 and 217 GHz<br />
<br />
; ''lensing'' :<br />
* the lensing map<br />
* beam error eigenmodes and covariance for the 143 and 217GHz channel maps<br />
* fiducial CMB model (from Planck cosmological parameter best fit)<br />
<br />
; ''act/spt'' :<br />
* data and code from [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/act/act_fulllikelihood_get.cfm here]<br />
* the tSZ andkSZ template are changed to match those of CAMspec<br />
<br />
== File names and Meta data ==<br />
<br />
===Likelihood===<br />
<span style="color:red"> ALL OF THE FOLLOWING IN THE LIKELIHOOD SECTION IS OLD. </span><br />
<br />
'''Likelihood source code'''<br />
<br />
The source code is in the file<br />
: {{PLASingleFile |fileType=cosmo|name=COM_Code_Likelihood-v1.0_R1.10.tar.gz|link=COM_Code_Likelihood-v1.0_R1.10.tar.gz}} (C, f90 and python likelihood library and tools)<br />
<br />
'''Likelihood data packages'''<br />
<br />
The {{PLALikelihood|type=Data|link=data packages}} are<br />
: ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=cosmo | name=COM_Data_Likelihood-commander_R1.10.tar.gz | link=COM_Data_Likelihood-commander_R1.10.tar.gz}}'' (low-ell TT likelihood)<br />
: ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=cosmo | name=COM_Data_Likelihood-lowlike_R1.10.tar.gz | link=COM_Data_Likelihood-lowlike_R1.10.tar.gz}}'' (low-ell TE,EE,BB likelihood)<br />
: ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=cosmo | name=COM_Data_Likelihood-CAMspec_R1.10.tar.gz | link=COM_Data_Likelihood-CAMspec_R1.10.tar.gz}}'' (high-ell TT likelihood)<br />
: ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=cosmo | name=COM_Data_Likelihood-actspt_R1.10.tar | link=COM_Data_Likelihood-actspt_R1.10.tar.gz}}'' (high-ell TT likelihood)<br />
: ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=cosmo | name=COM_Data_Likelihood-lensing_R1.10.tar.gz | link=COM_Data_Likelihood-lensing_R1.10.tar.gz}}'' (lensing likelihood)<br />
<br />
Untar and unzip all files to recover the code and likelihood data. Each package comes with a README file; follow the instructions inclosed to<br />
build the code and use it. To compute the CMB likelihood one has to sum the log likelihood of each of the commander_v4.1_lm49.clik, lowlike_v222.clik and CAMspec_v6.2TN_2013_02_26.clik, actspt_2013_01.clik. To compute the CMB+lensing likelihood, one has to sum the log likelihood of all 5 files.<br />
<br />
The CMB and lensing likelihood format are different. The CMB files have the termination .clik, the lensing one .clik_lensing. The lensing data being simpler (due to the less detailled modeling permitted by the lower signal-noise), the file is a simple ascii file containing all the data along with comments describing it, and linking the different quantities to the lensing paper. The CMB file format is more complex and must accommodate different forms of data (maps, power spectrum, distribution samples, covariance matrices...). It consists of a tree structure containing the data. At each level of the tree structure a given directory can contain array data (in the form of FITS files or ascii files for strings) and scalar data (joined in a single ascii file "_mdb"). Those files are not user modifiable and do not contain interesting meta data for the user. Tools to manipulate those files are included in the code package as optional python tools. They are documented in the code package.<br />
<br />
'''Likelihood masks'''<br />
<br />
The masks used in the Likelihood paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08}} are found in<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_Likelihood_2048_R1.10.fits|link=COM_Mask_Likelihood_2048_R1.10.fits}}<br />
<br />
which contains ten masks which are written into a single ''BINTABLE'' extension of 10 columns by 50331648 rows (the number of Healpix pixels in an Nside = 2048 map). The structure is as follows, where the column names are the names of the masks: <br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Likelihodd masks file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'MSK-LIKE' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|CL31 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|CL39 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|CL49 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|G22 || Real*4 || none || mask <br />
|-<br />
|G35 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|G45 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|G56 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|G65 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|PS96 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|PSA82 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 50331647 || Last pixel number, for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
<br />
|}<br />
--><br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|008]]</div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=CMB_spectrum_%26_Likelihood_Code&diff=11285CMB spectrum & Likelihood Code2015-02-04T18:45:04Z<p>Amoneti: /* File names and Meta data */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{DISPLAYTITLE:CMB spectrum and likelihood code}}<br />
<br />
==CMB spectra==<br />
<br />
<br />
===General description===<br />
====TT====<br />
The Planck best-fit CMB temperature power spectrum, shown in figure below, covers the wide range of multipoles <math> \ell </math> = 2-2508. <br />
<span style="color:red"> UPDATE COMMANDER: Over the multipole range <math> \ell </math> = 2–29, the power spectrum is derived from a component-separation algorithm, ''Commander'': applied to maps in the frequency range 30–353 GHz over 91% of the sky {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}} . The asymmetric error bars associated to this spectrum are the 68% confidence limits and include the uncertainties due to foreground subtraction. </span><br />
<br />
For multipoles equal or greater than <math>\ell=30</math>, instead, the spectrum is derived from the ''Plik'' likelihood {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a13}} by optimally combining the spectra in the frequency range 100-217 GHz, and correcting them for unresolved foregrounds using the best-fit foreground solution from a Planck TT+lowP <math>\Lambda</math>CDM run. Associated 1-sigma errors include beam uncertainties. Both ''Commander'' and ''Plik'' are described in more details in the sections below.<br />
<br />
[[File: Planck2014 TT Dl NORES bin30 w180mm.jpeg|thumb|center|700px|'''CMB TT spectrum. Logarithmic x-scale up to <math>\ell=30</math>, linear at higher <math>\ell</math>; all points with error bars. The red line is the Planck best-fit primordial power spectrum (cf Planck TT+lowP in Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a15}}). The blue shaded area shows the uncertainties due to cosmic variance alone.''']]<br />
<br />
====TE and EE====<br />
The Planck best-fit CMB polarization and temperature-polarization cross-correlation power spectra, shown in the figure below, cover the multipole range <math> \ell </math> = 30-1996. The data points relative to the multipole range <math> \ell </math> = 2-29 will be released in a second moment.<br />
Analogously to the TT case, the <math> \ell\ge 30 </math> spectrum is derived from the ''Plik'' likelihood {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a13}} by optimally combining the spectra in the frequency range 100-217 GHz, and correcting them for unresolved foregrounds using the best-fit foreground solution from a Planck TT,TE,EE+lowP <math>\Lambda</math>CDM run. <br />
<br />
{|style="margin: 0 auto;"<br />
|[[File: Planck2014 EE Dl NORES bin30 w180mm.jpeg|thumb|center|500px|'''CMB EE spectrum. The red line is the Planck best-fit primordial power spectrum (cf Planck TT+lowP in Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a15}}). The blue shaded area shows the uncertainties due to cosmic variance alone.''']]<br />
|[[File: Planck2014 TE Dl NORES bin30 w180mm.jpeg|thumb|center|500px|'''CMB TE spectrum. The red line is the Planck best-fit primordial power spectrum (cf Planck TT+lowP in Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a15}}). The blue shaded area shows the uncertainties due to cosmic variance alone.''']]<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Production process===<br />
<span style="color:red"> UPDATE COMMANDER<br />
The <math>\ell</math> < 50 part of the Planck TT power spectrum is derived from the Commander approach, which implements Bayesian component separation in pixel space, fitting a parametric model to the data by sampling the posterior distribution for the model parameters {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}. The power spectrum at any multipole <math>\ell</math> is given as the maximum probability point for the posterior <math>C_\ell</math> distribution, marginalized over the other multipoles, and the error bars are 68% confidence level {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08}}. </span><br />
<br />
The <math>\ell \ge 30</math> part of the TT, TE and EE power spectra have been derived by the Plik likelihood, a code that implements a pseudo-Cl based technique, extensively described in Sec. 2 and the Appendix of {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a13}}. Frequency spectra are computed as cross-spectra between half-mission maps. Mask and multipole range choices for each frequency spectrum are summarized in Section 3.3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a15}} and in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a13}}. The final power spectrum is an optimal combination of the 100, 143, 143x217 and 217 GHz spectra, corrected for the best-fit unresolved foregrounds and inter-frequency calibration factors, as derived from the full likelihood analysis (for TT we use the best-fit solutions for the nuisance parameters from the Planck+TT+lowP data combination, while for TE and EE we use the best fit from Planck+TT+lowP, cf Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a15}}). A thorough description of the models of unresolved foregrounds is given in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a13}}. The spectrum covariance matrix accounts for cosmic variance and noise contributions, together with beam uncertainties. The <math>\ell \ge 30</math> CMB TT spectrum and associated covariance matrix are available in two formats:<br />
#Unbinned. TT: 2479 bandpowers (<math>\ell=30-2508</math>); TE or EE: 1697 bandpowers (<math>\ell=30-1996</math>).<br />
#Binned, in bins of <math> \Delta\ell=30 </math>. TT: 83 bandpowers. TE or EE: 66 bandpowers. We bin the <math> C_\ell </math> power spectrum with a weight proportional to <math> \ell (\ell+1) </math>, so that the <math> C_{\ell_b} </math> binned bandpower centered in <math> \ell_b </math> is: <math> \\ C_{\ell_b}=\Sigma_{\ell \in b} w_{\ell_b\ell} C_\ell \quad \text{with} \quad w_{\ell_b\ell}=\frac{\ell (\ell+1)}{\Sigma_{\ell \in b} \ell (\ell+1)}. \\</math> Equivalently, using the matrix formalism, we can construct the binning matrix B as: <math>\\ B_{\ell_b \ell}=w_{\ell_b\ell} \\ </math> where B is a <math> n_b\times n_\ell</math> matrix, with <math>n_b=83</math> the number of bins and <math>n_\ell=2479</math> the number of unbinned multipoles. Thus: <math> \\ \vec{C}_\mathrm{binned}=B \, \vec{C} \\ \mathrm{cov_\mathrm{binned}}= B\, \mathrm{cov}\, B^T \\ \ell_b=B\, \ell \\ </math> Here, <math> \vec{C}_{binned}\, (\vec{C}) </math> is the vector containing all the binned (unbinned) <math>C_\ell</math> bandpowers, <math>\mathrm{cov} </math> is the covariance matrix and <math>\ell_b</math> is the weighted average multipole in each bin. Note that following this definition, <math>\ell_b</math> can be a non-integer. The binned <math>D_{\ell_B}</math> power spectrum is then calculated as: <math> \\ D_{\ell_b}=\frac{\ell_b (\ell_b+1)}{2\pi} C_{\ell_b} </math>.<br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
<span style="color:red"> UPDATE COMMANDER</span><br />
<br />
; Low-l spectrum (<math>\ell < 30</math>):<br />
* frequency maps from 30–353 GHz<br />
* common mask {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}<br />
* compact sources catalog<br />
<br />
; High-l spectrum (<math>30 \ge \ell \le 2500</math>): <br />
<br />
* 100, 143, 143x217 and 217 GHz spectra and their covariance matrix (Sec. 3.3 {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a15}})<br />
* best-fit foreground templates and inter-frequency calibration factors (Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a15}})<br />
* Beam transfer function uncertainties {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}}<br />
=== File names and Meta data ===<br />
<br />
<span style="color:red"> CHECK EXTENSION NAMES </span><br />
<br />
The CMB spectrum and its covariance matrix are distributed in a single FITS file named <br />
<!--- * ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=cosmo | name=COM_PowerSpect_CMB_R2.00.fits | link=COM_PowerSpect_CMB_R1.10.fits}}'' ---><br />
* ''COM_PowerSpect_CMB_R2.nn.fits''<br />
which contains 7 ''BINTABLE'' extensions<br />
<br />
; 1. TT low-ell, unbinned (TTLOLUNB)<br />
: with the low ell part of the spectrum, not binned, and for l=2-49. The table columns are<br />
# ''ELL'' (integer): multipole number<br />
# ''D_ELL'' (float): <math>D_ell</math> as described above<br />
# ''ERRUP'' (float): the upward uncertainty<br />
# ''ERRDOWN'' (float): the downward uncertainty<br />
<br />
; 2. TT high-ell, binned (TTHILBIN)<br />
: with the high-ell part of the spectrum, binned into 83 bins covering <math>\langle l \rangle = 47-2499\ </math> in bins of width <math>l=30</math> (with the exception of the last bin that is smaller). The table columns are as follows:<br />
# ''ELL'' (integer): mean multipole number of bin<br />
# ''L_MIN'' (integer): lowest multipole of bin<br />
# ''L_MAX'' (integer): highest multipole of bin<br />
# ''D_ELL'' (float): <math>D_\ell</math> as described above<br />
# ''ERR'' (float): the uncertainty<br />
<br />
; 3. TT high-ell unbinned (TTHILUNB) <br />
: with the high-ell part of the spectrum, unbinned, in 2979 bins covering <math>\langle l \rangle = 30-2508\ </math>. The table columns are as follows:<br />
# ''ELL'' (integer): multipole <br />
# ''D_ELL'' (float): <math>D_\ell</math> as described above<br />
# ''ERR'' (float): the uncertainty<br />
<br />
; 4. TE high-ell, binned (TEHILBIN) <br />
: with the high-ell part of the spectrum, binned into 83 bins covering <math>\langle l \rangle = 47-1988\ </math> in bins of width <math>l=30</math> (with the exception of the last bin that is smaller). The table columns are as follows:<br />
# ''ELL'' (integer): mean multipole number of bin<br />
# ''L_MIN'' (integer): lowest multipole of bin<br />
# ''L_MAX'' (integer): highest multipole of bin<br />
# ''D_ELL'' (float): <math>D_\ell</math> as described above<br />
# ''ERR'' (float): the uncertainty<br />
<br />
; 5. TE high-ell, unbinned (TEHILUNB) <br />
: with the high-ell part of the spectrum, unbinned, in 2979 bins covering <math>\langle l \rangle = 30-1996\ </math>. The table columns are as follows:<br />
# ''ELL'' (integer): multipole <br />
# ''D_ELL'' (float): <math>D_\ell</math> as described above<br />
# ''ERR'' (float): the uncertainty<br />
<br />
; 6. EE high-ell, binned (EELOLBIN) <br />
: with the high-ell part of the spectrum, binned into 83 bins covering <math>\langle l \rangle = 47-1988\ </math> in bins of width <math>l=30</math> (with the exception of the last bin that is smaller). The table columns are as follows:<br />
# ''ELL'' (integer): mean multipole number of bin<br />
# ''L_MIN'' (integer): lowest multipole of bin<br />
# ''L_MAX'' (integer): highest multipole of bin<br />
# ''D_ELL'' (float): <math>D_\ell</math> as described above<br />
# ''ERR'' (float): the uncertainty<br />
<br />
; 7. EE high-ell, unbinned (EEHILUNB) <br />
: with the high-ell part of the spectrum, unbinned, in 2979 bins covering <math>\langle l \rangle = 30-1996\ </math>. The table columns are as follows:<br />
# ''ELL'' (integer): multipole <br />
# ''D_ELL'' (float): <math>D_\ell</math> as described above<br />
# ''ERR'' (float): the uncertainty<br />
<br />
<br />
The spectra give <math>D_\ell = \ell(\ell+1)C_\ell / 2\pi </math> in units of <math>\mu\, K^2</math>. The covariance matrices of the spectra will be released in a second moment.<br />
<!-- <br />
<br />
The CMB spectrum is also given in a simple text comma-separated file:<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=cosmo | name=COM_PowerSpect_CMB_R1.10.txt |link=COM_PowerSpect_CMB_R1.10.txt}}''<br />
<br />
--><br />
<br />
==Likelihood==<br />
The likelihood will soon be released with an accompanying paper and an Explanatory Supplement update. <br />
<!-- <br />
===Likelihood===<br />
<span style="color:red"> ALL OF THE FOLLOWING IN THE LIKELIHOOD SECTION IS OLD. </span><br />
The likelihood code (and the data that comes with it) used to compute the likelihood of a model that predicts the CMB power spectra, lensing power spectrum, together with some foreground and some instrumental parameters. The data files are built primarily from the Planck mission results, but include also some results from the WMAP-9 data release. The data files are written in a specific format that can only be read by the code. The code consists in a c/f90 library, along with some optional tools in python. The code is used to read the data files, and given model power spectra and nuisance parameters it computes the log likelihood of that model. <br />
<br />
Detailed description of the installation and usage of the likelihood code and data is provided in the package. The package includes five data files: four for the CMB likelihoods and one for the lensing likelihood. All of the likelihoods delivered are described in detail in the {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08|1|Power spectrum & Likelihood Paper}} (for the CMB based likelihood) and in the {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p12|1|Lensing Paper}} (for the lensing likelihood) .<br />
<br />
The CMB full likelihood has been divided into four parts to allow using selectively different ranges of multipoles. It also reflects the fact that the mathematical approximations used for those different parts are very different, as is the underlying data. In detail, we distribute<br />
* one low-<math>\ell</math> temperature only likelihood (commander), <br />
* one low-<math>\ell</math> temperature and polarisation likelihood (lowlike), and <br />
* one higl-<math>\ell</math> likelihood CAMspec. <br />
<br />
The ''Commander'' likelihood covers the multipoles 2 to 49. It uses a semi-analytic method to sample the low-<math>\ell</math> temperature likelihood on an intermediate product of one of the component separated maps. The samples are used along with an analytical approximation of the likelihood posterior to perform the likelihood computation in the code. See {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08}} section 8.1 for more details.<br />
<br />
The ''lowlike'' likelihood covers the multipoles 2 to 32 for temperature and polarization data. Since Planck is not releasing polarisation data at this time, the polarization map from WMAP9 is used instead. A temperature map is needed to perform the computation nevertheless, and we use here the same commander map. The likelihood is computed using a map-based approximation at low resolution and a master one at intermediate resolution, as in WMAP. The likelihood code actually calls a very slightly modified version of the WMAP9 code. This piece of the likelihood essentially provides a prior on the optical depth and has almost no other impact on cosmological parameter estimation. As such it could be replaced by a simple prior, and a user can decide to do so, which is one of the motivation to leave the three pieces of the CMB likelihood as different data packages; see {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08}} section 8.3 for more details. Note that the version of the WMAP code used here (code version v1.0) does not perform any test on the positive definiteness of the TT, TE, EE covariance matrices, and will return a null log likelihood in the unphysical cases where the absolute value of TE is too large. This will be corrected in a later version.<br />
<br />
The ''CAMspec'' likelihood covers the multipoles 50 to 2500 for temperature only. The likelihood is computed using a quadratic approximation, including mode to mode correlations that have been precomputed on a fiducial model. The likelihood uses data from the 100, 143 and 217 GHz channels. To do so it models the foreground at each frequency using the model described in the likelihood paper. Uncertainties on the relative calibration and on the beam transfer functions are included either as parametric models, or marginalized and integrated in the covariance matrix. Detailed description of the different nuisance parameters is given below. Priors are included in the likelihood on the CIB spectral index, relative calibration factors and beam error eigenmodes. See {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08}} section 2.1 for more details.<br />
<br />
The ''act/spt'' likelihood covers the multipoles 1500 to 10000 for temperature. It is described in{{BibCite|dun2013}}{{BibCite|Keis2011}}{{BibCite|Reic2012}}. It uses the code and data that can be retrieved from the [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/ Lambda archive] for [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/act/act_prod_table.cfm ACT] and [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/spt/spt_prod_table.cfm SPT]. It has been slightly modified to use a thermal and kinetic SZ model that matches the one used in CAMspec. As stated in{{BibCite|dun2013}}, the dust parameters a_ge and a_gs must be explored with the following priors: a_ge = 0.8 ± 0.2 and a_gs = 0.4 ± 0.2. Those priors are not included in the log likelihood computed by the code.<br />
<br />
The ''lensing'' likelihood covers the multipoles 40 to 400 using the result of the [[Specially_processed_maps | lensing reconstruction]]. It uses a quadratic approximation for the likelihood, with a covariance matrix including the marginalized contribution of the beam transfer function uncertainties, the diffuse point source correction uncertainties and the cosmological model uncertainty affecting the first order non-gaussian bias (N1). The correlation between temperature and lensing is not taken into account. Cosmological uncertainty effects on the normalization are dealt with using a first order renormalization procedure. This means that the code will need both the TT and $\phi\phi$ power spectrum up to <math>\ell</math> = 2048 to correctly perform the integrals needed for the renormalization. Nevertheless, the code will only produce an estimate based on the data between <math>\ell</math> = 40 to 400. See {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p12}} section 6.1 for more details.<br />
</span><br />
<span style="color:red">OUTSTANDING: description of likelihood masks </span><br />
==Production process==<br />
<br />
===Likelihood===<br />
<span style="color:red"> ALL OF THE FOLLOWING IN THE LIKELIHOOD SECTION IS OLD. </span><br />
The code is based on some basic routines from the libpmc library in the [http://arxiv.org/abs/1101.0950 cosmoPMC] code. It also uses some code from the [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/likelihood_get.cfm WMAP9 likelihood] for the lowlike likelihood and{{BibCite|dun2013}}{{BibCite|Keis2011}}{{BibCite|Reic2012}} for the act/spt one. The rest of the code has been specifically written for the Planck data. Each likelihood file has been processed using a different and dedicated pipeline as described in the likelihood paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08}} (section 2 and 8) and in the lensing paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p12}} (section 6.1). We refer the reader to those papers for full details. The data are then encapsulated into the specific file format.<br />
<br />
Each dataset comes with its own self check. Whenever the code is used to read a data file, a computation will be done against an included test spectrum/nuisance parameter, and the log-likelihood will be displayed along with the expected result. Difference of the order of 10<math>^{-6}</math> or less are expected depending of the architecture.<br />
<br />
==Inputs==<br />
<br />
===Likelihood===<br />
<br />
; ''commander'' :<br />
* all Planck channels maps<br />
* compact source catalogs<br />
* common masks<br />
* beam transfer functions for all channels<br />
<br />
; ''lowlike'' :<br />
* WMAP9 likelihood data<br />
* Low-<math>\ell</math> Commander map<br />
<br />
; ''CAMspec'' :<br />
* 100, 143 and 217 GHz detector and detsets maps<br />
* 857GHz channel map<br />
* compact source catalog<br />
* common masks (0,1 & 3)<br />
* beam transfer function and error eigenmodes and covariance for 100, 143 and 217 GHz detectors & detsets<br />
* theoretical templates for the tSZ and kSZ contributions<br />
* color corrections for the CIB emission for the 143 and 217GHz detectors and detsets<br />
* fiducial CMB model (bootstrapped from WMAP7 best fit spectrum) estimated noise contribution from the half-ring maps for 100, 143 and 217 GHz<br />
<br />
; ''lensing'' :<br />
* the lensing map<br />
* beam error eigenmodes and covariance for the 143 and 217GHz channel maps<br />
* fiducial CMB model (from Planck cosmological parameter best fit)<br />
<br />
; ''act/spt'' :<br />
* data and code from [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/act/act_fulllikelihood_get.cfm here]<br />
* the tSZ andkSZ template are changed to match those of CAMspec<br />
<br />
== File names and Meta data ==<br />
<br />
===Likelihood===<br />
<span style="color:red"> ALL OF THE FOLLOWING IN THE LIKELIHOOD SECTION IS OLD. </span><br />
<br />
'''Likelihood source code'''<br />
<br />
The source code is in the file<br />
: {{PLASingleFile |fileType=cosmo|name=COM_Code_Likelihood-v1.0_R1.10.tar.gz|link=COM_Code_Likelihood-v1.0_R1.10.tar.gz}} (C, f90 and python likelihood library and tools)<br />
<br />
'''Likelihood data packages'''<br />
<br />
The {{PLALikelihood|type=Data|link=data packages}} are<br />
: ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=cosmo | name=COM_Data_Likelihood-commander_R1.10.tar.gz | link=COM_Data_Likelihood-commander_R1.10.tar.gz}}'' (low-ell TT likelihood)<br />
: ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=cosmo | name=COM_Data_Likelihood-lowlike_R1.10.tar.gz | link=COM_Data_Likelihood-lowlike_R1.10.tar.gz}}'' (low-ell TE,EE,BB likelihood)<br />
: ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=cosmo | name=COM_Data_Likelihood-CAMspec_R1.10.tar.gz | link=COM_Data_Likelihood-CAMspec_R1.10.tar.gz}}'' (high-ell TT likelihood)<br />
: ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=cosmo | name=COM_Data_Likelihood-actspt_R1.10.tar | link=COM_Data_Likelihood-actspt_R1.10.tar.gz}}'' (high-ell TT likelihood)<br />
: ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=cosmo | name=COM_Data_Likelihood-lensing_R1.10.tar.gz | link=COM_Data_Likelihood-lensing_R1.10.tar.gz}}'' (lensing likelihood)<br />
<br />
Untar and unzip all files to recover the code and likelihood data. Each package comes with a README file; follow the instructions inclosed to<br />
build the code and use it. To compute the CMB likelihood one has to sum the log likelihood of each of the commander_v4.1_lm49.clik, lowlike_v222.clik and CAMspec_v6.2TN_2013_02_26.clik, actspt_2013_01.clik. To compute the CMB+lensing likelihood, one has to sum the log likelihood of all 5 files.<br />
<br />
The CMB and lensing likelihood format are different. The CMB files have the termination .clik, the lensing one .clik_lensing. The lensing data being simpler (due to the less detailled modeling permitted by the lower signal-noise), the file is a simple ascii file containing all the data along with comments describing it, and linking the different quantities to the lensing paper. The CMB file format is more complex and must accommodate different forms of data (maps, power spectrum, distribution samples, covariance matrices...). It consists of a tree structure containing the data. At each level of the tree structure a given directory can contain array data (in the form of FITS files or ascii files for strings) and scalar data (joined in a single ascii file "_mdb"). Those files are not user modifiable and do not contain interesting meta data for the user. Tools to manipulate those files are included in the code package as optional python tools. They are documented in the code package.<br />
<br />
'''Likelihood masks'''<br />
<br />
The masks used in the Likelihood paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08}} are found in<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_Likelihood_2048_R1.10.fits|link=COM_Mask_Likelihood_2048_R1.10.fits}}<br />
<br />
which contains ten masks which are written into a single ''BINTABLE'' extension of 10 columns by 50331648 rows (the number of Healpix pixels in an Nside = 2048 map). The structure is as follows, where the column names are the names of the masks: <br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Likelihodd masks file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'MSK-LIKE' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|CL31 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|CL39 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|CL49 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|G22 || Real*4 || none || mask <br />
|-<br />
|G35 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|G45 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|G56 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|G65 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|PS96 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|PSA82 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 50331647 || Last pixel number, for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
<br />
|}<br />
--><br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|008]]</div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=CMB_spectrum_%26_Likelihood_Code&diff=11283CMB spectrum & Likelihood Code2015-02-04T18:42:18Z<p>Amoneti: /* File names and Meta data */ fixes</p>
<hr />
<div>{{DISPLAYTITLE:CMB spectrum and likelihood code}}<br />
<br />
==CMB spectra==<br />
<br />
<br />
===General description===<br />
====TT====<br />
The Planck best-fit CMB temperature power spectrum, shown in figure below, covers the wide range of multipoles <math> \ell </math> = 2-2508. <br />
<span style="color:red"> UPDATE COMMANDER: Over the multipole range <math> \ell </math> = 2–29, the power spectrum is derived from a component-separation algorithm, ''Commander'': applied to maps in the frequency range 30–353 GHz over 91% of the sky {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}} . The asymmetric error bars associated to this spectrum are the 68% confidence limits and include the uncertainties due to foreground subtraction. </span><br />
<br />
For multipoles equal or greater than <math>\ell=30</math>, instead, the spectrum is derived from the ''Plik'' likelihood {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a13}} by optimally combining the spectra in the frequency range 100-217 GHz, and correcting them for unresolved foregrounds using the best-fit foreground solution from a Planck TT+lowP <math>\Lambda</math>CDM run. Associated 1-sigma errors include beam uncertainties. Both ''Commander'' and ''Plik'' are described in more details in the sections below.<br />
<br />
[[File: Planck2014 TT Dl NORES bin30 w180mm.jpeg|thumb|center|700px|'''CMB TT spectrum. Logarithmic x-scale up to <math>\ell=30</math>, linear at higher <math>\ell</math>; all points with error bars. The red line is the Planck best-fit primordial power spectrum (cf Planck TT+lowP in Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a15}}). The blue shaded area shows the uncertainties due to cosmic variance alone.''']]<br />
<br />
====TE and EE====<br />
The Planck best-fit CMB polarization and temperature-polarization cross-correlation power spectra, shown in the figure below, cover the multipole range <math> \ell </math> = 30-1996. The data points relative to the multipole range <math> \ell </math> = 2-29 will be released in a second moment.<br />
Analogously to the TT case, the <math> \ell\ge 30 </math> spectrum is derived from the ''Plik'' likelihood {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a13}} by optimally combining the spectra in the frequency range 100-217 GHz, and correcting them for unresolved foregrounds using the best-fit foreground solution from a Planck TT,TE,EE+lowP <math>\Lambda</math>CDM run. <br />
<br />
{|style="margin: 0 auto;"<br />
|[[File: Planck2014 EE Dl NORES bin30 w180mm.jpeg|thumb|center|500px|'''CMB EE spectrum. The red line is the Planck best-fit primordial power spectrum (cf Planck TT+lowP in Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a15}}). The blue shaded area shows the uncertainties due to cosmic variance alone.''']]<br />
|[[File: Planck2014 TE Dl NORES bin30 w180mm.jpeg|thumb|center|500px|'''CMB TE spectrum. The red line is the Planck best-fit primordial power spectrum (cf Planck TT+lowP in Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a15}}). The blue shaded area shows the uncertainties due to cosmic variance alone.''']]<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Production process===<br />
<span style="color:red"> UPDATE COMMANDER<br />
The <math>\ell</math> < 50 part of the Planck TT power spectrum is derived from the Commander approach, which implements Bayesian component separation in pixel space, fitting a parametric model to the data by sampling the posterior distribution for the model parameters {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}. The power spectrum at any multipole <math>\ell</math> is given as the maximum probability point for the posterior <math>C_\ell</math> distribution, marginalized over the other multipoles, and the error bars are 68% confidence level {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08}}. </span><br />
<br />
The <math>\ell \ge 30</math> part of the TT, TE and EE power spectra have been derived by the Plik likelihood, a code that implements a pseudo-Cl based technique, extensively described in Sec. 2 and the Appendix of {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a13}}. Frequency spectra are computed as cross-spectra between half-mission maps. Mask and multipole range choices for each frequency spectrum are summarized in Section 3.3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a15}} and in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a13}}. The final power spectrum is an optimal combination of the 100, 143, 143x217 and 217 GHz spectra, corrected for the best-fit unresolved foregrounds and inter-frequency calibration factors, as derived from the full likelihood analysis (for TT we use the best-fit solutions for the nuisance parameters from the Planck+TT+lowP data combination, while for TE and EE we use the best fit from Planck+TT+lowP, cf Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a15}}). A thorough description of the models of unresolved foregrounds is given in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a13}}. The spectrum covariance matrix accounts for cosmic variance and noise contributions, together with beam uncertainties. The <math>\ell \ge 30</math> CMB TT spectrum and associated covariance matrix are available in two formats:<br />
#Unbinned. TT: 2479 bandpowers (<math>\ell=30-2508</math>); TE or EE: 1697 bandpowers (<math>\ell=30-1996</math>).<br />
#Binned, in bins of <math> \Delta\ell=30 </math>. TT: 83 bandpowers. TE or EE: 66 bandpowers. We bin the <math> C_\ell </math> power spectrum with a weight proportional to <math> \ell (\ell+1) </math>, so that the <math> C_{\ell_b} </math> binned bandpower centered in <math> \ell_b </math> is: <math> \\ C_{\ell_b}=\Sigma_{\ell \in b} w_{\ell_b\ell} C_\ell \quad \text{with} \quad w_{\ell_b\ell}=\frac{\ell (\ell+1)}{\Sigma_{\ell \in b} \ell (\ell+1)}. \\</math> Equivalently, using the matrix formalism, we can construct the binning matrix B as: <math>\\ B_{\ell_b \ell}=w_{\ell_b\ell} \\ </math> where B is a <math> n_b\times n_\ell</math> matrix, with <math>n_b=83</math> the number of bins and <math>n_\ell=2479</math> the number of unbinned multipoles. Thus: <math> \\ \vec{C}_\mathrm{binned}=B \, \vec{C} \\ \mathrm{cov_\mathrm{binned}}= B\, \mathrm{cov}\, B^T \\ \ell_b=B\, \ell \\ </math> Here, <math> \vec{C}_{binned}\, (\vec{C}) </math> is the vector containing all the binned (unbinned) <math>C_\ell</math> bandpowers, <math>\mathrm{cov} </math> is the covariance matrix and <math>\ell_b</math> is the weighted average multipole in each bin. Note that following this definition, <math>\ell_b</math> can be a non-integer. The binned <math>D_{\ell_B}</math> power spectrum is then calculated as: <math> \\ D_{\ell_b}=\frac{\ell_b (\ell_b+1)}{2\pi} C_{\ell_b} </math>.<br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
<span style="color:red"> UPDATE COMMANDER</span><br />
<br />
; Low-l spectrum (<math>\ell < 30</math>):<br />
* frequency maps from 30–353 GHz<br />
* common mask {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}<br />
* compact sources catalog<br />
<br />
; High-l spectrum (<math>30 \ge \ell \le 2500</math>): <br />
<br />
* 100, 143, 143x217 and 217 GHz spectra and their covariance matrix (Sec. 3.3 {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a15}})<br />
* best-fit foreground templates and inter-frequency calibration factors (Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a15}})<br />
* Beam transfer function uncertainties {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}}<br />
=== File names and Meta data ===<br />
<br />
<span style="color:red"> CHECK EXTENSION NAMES </span><br />
<br />
The CMB spectrum and its covariance matrix are distributed in a single FITS file named <br />
<!--- * ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=cosmo | name=COM_PowerSpect_CMB_R2.00.fits | link=COM_PowerSpect_CMB_R1.10.fits}}'' ---><br />
* ''COM_PowerSpect_CMB_R2.nn.fits''<br />
which contains 7 ''BINTABLE'' extensions<br />
<br />
; 1. LOW-ELL (TTLOLUNB)<br />
: with the low ell part of the spectrum, not binned, and for l=2-49. The table columns are<br />
# ''ELL'' (integer): multipole number<br />
# ''D_ELL'' (float): <math>D_ell</math> as described above<br />
# ''ERRUP'' (float): the upward uncertainty<br />
# ''ERRDOWN'' (float): the downward uncertainty<br />
<br />
; 2. TT BINNED HIGH-ELL (TTHILBIN)<br />
: with the high-ell part of the spectrum, binned into 83 bins covering <math>\langle l \rangle = 47-2499\ </math> in bins of width <math>l=30</math> (with the exception of the last bin that is smaller). The table columns are as follows:<br />
# ''ELL'' (integer): mean multipole number of bin<br />
# ''L_MIN'' (integer): lowest multipole of bin<br />
# ''L_MAX'' (integer): highest multipole of bin<br />
# ''D_ELL'' (float): <math>D_\ell</math> as described above<br />
# ''ERR'' (float): the uncertainty<br />
<br />
; 3. TT UNBINNED HIGH-ELL (TTHILUNB) <br />
: with the high-ell part of the spectrum, unbinned, in 2979 bins covering <math>\langle l \rangle = 30-2508\ </math>. The table columns are as follows:<br />
# ''ELL'' (integer): multipole <br />
# ''D_ELL'' (float): <math>D_\ell</math> as described above<br />
# ''ERR'' (float): the uncertainty<br />
<br />
; 4. TE BINNED HIGH-ELL (TEHILBIN) <br />
: with the high-ell part of the spectrum, binned into 83 bins covering <math>\langle l \rangle = 47-1988\ </math> in bins of width <math>l=30</math> (with the exception of the last bin that is smaller). The table columns are as follows:<br />
# ''ELL'' (integer): mean multipole number of bin<br />
# ''L_MIN'' (integer): lowest multipole of bin<br />
# ''L_MAX'' (integer): highest multipole of bin<br />
# ''D_ELL'' (float): <math>D_\ell</math> as described above<br />
# ''ERR'' (float): the uncertainty<br />
<br />
; 5. TE UNBINNED HIGH-ELL (TEHILUNB) <br />
: with the high-ell part of the spectrum, unbinned, in 2979 bins covering <math>\langle l \rangle = 30-1996\ </math>. The table columns are as follows:<br />
# ''ELL'' (integer): multipole <br />
# ''D_ELL'' (float): <math>D_\ell</math> as described above<br />
# ''ERR'' (float): the uncertainty<br />
<br />
; 6. EE BINNED HIGH-ELL (EELOLBIN) <br />
: with the high-ell part of the spectrum, binned into 83 bins covering <math>\langle l \rangle = 47-1988\ </math> in bins of width <math>l=30</math> (with the exception of the last bin that is smaller). The table columns are as follows:<br />
# ''ELL'' (integer): mean multipole number of bin<br />
# ''L_MIN'' (integer): lowest multipole of bin<br />
# ''L_MAX'' (integer): highest multipole of bin<br />
# ''D_ELL'' (float): <math>D_\ell</math> as described above<br />
# ''ERR'' (float): the uncertainty<br />
<br />
; 7. EE UNBINNED HIGH-ELL (EEHILUNB) <br />
: with the high-ell part of the spectrum, unbinned, in 2979 bins covering <math>\langle l \rangle = 30-1996\ </math>. The table columns are as follows:<br />
# ''ELL'' (integer): multipole <br />
# ''D_ELL'' (float): <math>D_\ell</math> as described above<br />
# ''ERR'' (float): the uncertainty<br />
<br />
<br />
The spectra give <math>D_\ell = \ell(\ell+1)C_\ell / 2\pi </math> in units of <math>\mu\, K^2</math>. The covariance matrices of the spectra will be released in a second moment.<br />
<!-- <br />
<br />
The CMB spectrum is also given in a simple text comma-separated file:<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=cosmo | name=COM_PowerSpect_CMB_R1.10.txt |link=COM_PowerSpect_CMB_R1.10.txt}}''<br />
<br />
--><br />
<br />
==Likelihood==<br />
The likelihood will soon be released with an accompanying paper and an Explanatory Supplement update. <br />
<!-- <br />
===Likelihood===<br />
<span style="color:red"> ALL OF THE FOLLOWING IN THE LIKELIHOOD SECTION IS OLD. </span><br />
The likelihood code (and the data that comes with it) used to compute the likelihood of a model that predicts the CMB power spectra, lensing power spectrum, together with some foreground and some instrumental parameters. The data files are built primarily from the Planck mission results, but include also some results from the WMAP-9 data release. The data files are written in a specific format that can only be read by the code. The code consists in a c/f90 library, along with some optional tools in python. The code is used to read the data files, and given model power spectra and nuisance parameters it computes the log likelihood of that model. <br />
<br />
Detailed description of the installation and usage of the likelihood code and data is provided in the package. The package includes five data files: four for the CMB likelihoods and one for the lensing likelihood. All of the likelihoods delivered are described in detail in the {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08|1|Power spectrum & Likelihood Paper}} (for the CMB based likelihood) and in the {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p12|1|Lensing Paper}} (for the lensing likelihood) .<br />
<br />
The CMB full likelihood has been divided into four parts to allow using selectively different ranges of multipoles. It also reflects the fact that the mathematical approximations used for those different parts are very different, as is the underlying data. In detail, we distribute<br />
* one low-<math>\ell</math> temperature only likelihood (commander), <br />
* one low-<math>\ell</math> temperature and polarisation likelihood (lowlike), and <br />
* one higl-<math>\ell</math> likelihood CAMspec. <br />
<br />
The ''Commander'' likelihood covers the multipoles 2 to 49. It uses a semi-analytic method to sample the low-<math>\ell</math> temperature likelihood on an intermediate product of one of the component separated maps. The samples are used along with an analytical approximation of the likelihood posterior to perform the likelihood computation in the code. See {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08}} section 8.1 for more details.<br />
<br />
The ''lowlike'' likelihood covers the multipoles 2 to 32 for temperature and polarization data. Since Planck is not releasing polarisation data at this time, the polarization map from WMAP9 is used instead. A temperature map is needed to perform the computation nevertheless, and we use here the same commander map. The likelihood is computed using a map-based approximation at low resolution and a master one at intermediate resolution, as in WMAP. The likelihood code actually calls a very slightly modified version of the WMAP9 code. This piece of the likelihood essentially provides a prior on the optical depth and has almost no other impact on cosmological parameter estimation. As such it could be replaced by a simple prior, and a user can decide to do so, which is one of the motivation to leave the three pieces of the CMB likelihood as different data packages; see {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08}} section 8.3 for more details. Note that the version of the WMAP code used here (code version v1.0) does not perform any test on the positive definiteness of the TT, TE, EE covariance matrices, and will return a null log likelihood in the unphysical cases where the absolute value of TE is too large. This will be corrected in a later version.<br />
<br />
The ''CAMspec'' likelihood covers the multipoles 50 to 2500 for temperature only. The likelihood is computed using a quadratic approximation, including mode to mode correlations that have been precomputed on a fiducial model. The likelihood uses data from the 100, 143 and 217 GHz channels. To do so it models the foreground at each frequency using the model described in the likelihood paper. Uncertainties on the relative calibration and on the beam transfer functions are included either as parametric models, or marginalized and integrated in the covariance matrix. Detailed description of the different nuisance parameters is given below. Priors are included in the likelihood on the CIB spectral index, relative calibration factors and beam error eigenmodes. See {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08}} section 2.1 for more details.<br />
<br />
The ''act/spt'' likelihood covers the multipoles 1500 to 10000 for temperature. It is described in{{BibCite|dun2013}}{{BibCite|Keis2011}}{{BibCite|Reic2012}}. It uses the code and data that can be retrieved from the [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/ Lambda archive] for [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/act/act_prod_table.cfm ACT] and [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/spt/spt_prod_table.cfm SPT]. It has been slightly modified to use a thermal and kinetic SZ model that matches the one used in CAMspec. As stated in{{BibCite|dun2013}}, the dust parameters a_ge and a_gs must be explored with the following priors: a_ge = 0.8 ± 0.2 and a_gs = 0.4 ± 0.2. Those priors are not included in the log likelihood computed by the code.<br />
<br />
The ''lensing'' likelihood covers the multipoles 40 to 400 using the result of the [[Specially_processed_maps | lensing reconstruction]]. It uses a quadratic approximation for the likelihood, with a covariance matrix including the marginalized contribution of the beam transfer function uncertainties, the diffuse point source correction uncertainties and the cosmological model uncertainty affecting the first order non-gaussian bias (N1). The correlation between temperature and lensing is not taken into account. Cosmological uncertainty effects on the normalization are dealt with using a first order renormalization procedure. This means that the code will need both the TT and $\phi\phi$ power spectrum up to <math>\ell</math> = 2048 to correctly perform the integrals needed for the renormalization. Nevertheless, the code will only produce an estimate based on the data between <math>\ell</math> = 40 to 400. See {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p12}} section 6.1 for more details.<br />
</span><br />
<span style="color:red">OUTSTANDING: description of likelihood masks </span><br />
==Production process==<br />
<br />
===Likelihood===<br />
<span style="color:red"> ALL OF THE FOLLOWING IN THE LIKELIHOOD SECTION IS OLD. </span><br />
The code is based on some basic routines from the libpmc library in the [http://arxiv.org/abs/1101.0950 cosmoPMC] code. It also uses some code from the [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/likelihood_get.cfm WMAP9 likelihood] for the lowlike likelihood and{{BibCite|dun2013}}{{BibCite|Keis2011}}{{BibCite|Reic2012}} for the act/spt one. The rest of the code has been specifically written for the Planck data. Each likelihood file has been processed using a different and dedicated pipeline as described in the likelihood paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08}} (section 2 and 8) and in the lensing paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p12}} (section 6.1). We refer the reader to those papers for full details. The data are then encapsulated into the specific file format.<br />
<br />
Each dataset comes with its own self check. Whenever the code is used to read a data file, a computation will be done against an included test spectrum/nuisance parameter, and the log-likelihood will be displayed along with the expected result. Difference of the order of 10<math>^{-6}</math> or less are expected depending of the architecture.<br />
<br />
==Inputs==<br />
<br />
===Likelihood===<br />
<br />
; ''commander'' :<br />
* all Planck channels maps<br />
* compact source catalogs<br />
* common masks<br />
* beam transfer functions for all channels<br />
<br />
; ''lowlike'' :<br />
* WMAP9 likelihood data<br />
* Low-<math>\ell</math> Commander map<br />
<br />
; ''CAMspec'' :<br />
* 100, 143 and 217 GHz detector and detsets maps<br />
* 857GHz channel map<br />
* compact source catalog<br />
* common masks (0,1 & 3)<br />
* beam transfer function and error eigenmodes and covariance for 100, 143 and 217 GHz detectors & detsets<br />
* theoretical templates for the tSZ and kSZ contributions<br />
* color corrections for the CIB emission for the 143 and 217GHz detectors and detsets<br />
* fiducial CMB model (bootstrapped from WMAP7 best fit spectrum) estimated noise contribution from the half-ring maps for 100, 143 and 217 GHz<br />
<br />
; ''lensing'' :<br />
* the lensing map<br />
* beam error eigenmodes and covariance for the 143 and 217GHz channel maps<br />
* fiducial CMB model (from Planck cosmological parameter best fit)<br />
<br />
; ''act/spt'' :<br />
* data and code from [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/act/act_fulllikelihood_get.cfm here]<br />
* the tSZ andkSZ template are changed to match those of CAMspec<br />
<br />
== File names and Meta data ==<br />
<br />
===Likelihood===<br />
<span style="color:red"> ALL OF THE FOLLOWING IN THE LIKELIHOOD SECTION IS OLD. </span><br />
<br />
'''Likelihood source code'''<br />
<br />
The source code is in the file<br />
: {{PLASingleFile |fileType=cosmo|name=COM_Code_Likelihood-v1.0_R1.10.tar.gz|link=COM_Code_Likelihood-v1.0_R1.10.tar.gz}} (C, f90 and python likelihood library and tools)<br />
<br />
'''Likelihood data packages'''<br />
<br />
The {{PLALikelihood|type=Data|link=data packages}} are<br />
: ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=cosmo | name=COM_Data_Likelihood-commander_R1.10.tar.gz | link=COM_Data_Likelihood-commander_R1.10.tar.gz}}'' (low-ell TT likelihood)<br />
: ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=cosmo | name=COM_Data_Likelihood-lowlike_R1.10.tar.gz | link=COM_Data_Likelihood-lowlike_R1.10.tar.gz}}'' (low-ell TE,EE,BB likelihood)<br />
: ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=cosmo | name=COM_Data_Likelihood-CAMspec_R1.10.tar.gz | link=COM_Data_Likelihood-CAMspec_R1.10.tar.gz}}'' (high-ell TT likelihood)<br />
: ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=cosmo | name=COM_Data_Likelihood-actspt_R1.10.tar | link=COM_Data_Likelihood-actspt_R1.10.tar.gz}}'' (high-ell TT likelihood)<br />
: ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=cosmo | name=COM_Data_Likelihood-lensing_R1.10.tar.gz | link=COM_Data_Likelihood-lensing_R1.10.tar.gz}}'' (lensing likelihood)<br />
<br />
Untar and unzip all files to recover the code and likelihood data. Each package comes with a README file; follow the instructions inclosed to<br />
build the code and use it. To compute the CMB likelihood one has to sum the log likelihood of each of the commander_v4.1_lm49.clik, lowlike_v222.clik and CAMspec_v6.2TN_2013_02_26.clik, actspt_2013_01.clik. To compute the CMB+lensing likelihood, one has to sum the log likelihood of all 5 files.<br />
<br />
The CMB and lensing likelihood format are different. The CMB files have the termination .clik, the lensing one .clik_lensing. The lensing data being simpler (due to the less detailled modeling permitted by the lower signal-noise), the file is a simple ascii file containing all the data along with comments describing it, and linking the different quantities to the lensing paper. The CMB file format is more complex and must accommodate different forms of data (maps, power spectrum, distribution samples, covariance matrices...). It consists of a tree structure containing the data. At each level of the tree structure a given directory can contain array data (in the form of FITS files or ascii files for strings) and scalar data (joined in a single ascii file "_mdb"). Those files are not user modifiable and do not contain interesting meta data for the user. Tools to manipulate those files are included in the code package as optional python tools. They are documented in the code package.<br />
<br />
'''Likelihood masks'''<br />
<br />
The masks used in the Likelihood paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08}} are found in<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_Likelihood_2048_R1.10.fits|link=COM_Mask_Likelihood_2048_R1.10.fits}}<br />
<br />
which contains ten masks which are written into a single ''BINTABLE'' extension of 10 columns by 50331648 rows (the number of Healpix pixels in an Nside = 2048 map). The structure is as follows, where the column names are the names of the masks: <br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Likelihodd masks file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'MSK-LIKE' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|CL31 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|CL39 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|CL49 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|G22 || Real*4 || none || mask <br />
|-<br />
|G35 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|G45 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|G56 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|G65 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|PS96 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|PSA82 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 50331647 || Last pixel number, for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
<br />
|}<br />
--><br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|008]]</div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=Main_Page&diff=11280Main Page2015-02-04T18:35:38Z<p>Amoneti: </p>
<hr />
<div><br />
<br />
'''<span style="font-size:180%"> <span style="color:Blue"> This is the Explanatory Supplement development page for the Planck 2015 data release </span><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
* Instructions for new users: [[Help:READ ME FIRST|Read me first]]<br />
* See [http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Help:Contents User's Guide] for a detailed User Guide of the MediaWiki software;<br />
* See [[Help:Contents|Explanatory Supplement Help page]] for Planck-specific guidelines.<br />
<br />
<br />
== [[:Category:Explanatory Supplement|Explanatory Supplement]] ==<br />
<br />
By the [[Planck Collaboration]]<br />
<br />
The Explanatory Supplement is a reference text accompanying the public data delivered from the operations of the European Space Agency’s Planck satellite during its mission.<br />
*[[Questions and Answers|Q&A from PR1]]<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Introduction_WiP|Introduction]]<br />
##[[The Planck mission_WiP|The Planck mission]] <br />
##[[The satellite_WiP|The spacecraft]]<br />
##[[Ground Segment and Operations|Ground segment and operations]]<br />
##[[Survey_scanning_and_performance|Survey scanning and performance]]<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[The Instruments_WiP|The Instruments]]<br />
##[[HFI design, qualification, and performance|HFI design, qualification, and performance]]<br />
###[[HFI_cryogenics | Cryogenics]]<br />
###[[HFI_cold_optics | Cold optics]]<br />
###[[HFI_detection_chain | Detection chain]]<br />
###[[HFI_operations | Operations]]<br />
###[[HFI_performance_summary | Performance summary]]<br />
###[[HFI_instrument_annexes | Annexes]]<br />
##[[LFI overview|LFI design, qualification, and performance]]<span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFIDescription| Instrument description]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFITests| Ground tests]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFICalibration| In-flight calibration]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFIPerformance| Performance summary]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFISystematics| Systematic effects]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#SCS| Sorption cooler]]<br />
###[[LFIAppendix| Annexes]]<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Data processing]]<br />
##[[The HFI DPC| HFI Data Processing]]<br />
###[[Pre-processing | Pre-processing]]<br />
###[[TOI processing|TOI processing]]<br />
###[[ADC correction]]<br />
###[[Beams | Beams]]<br />
###[[Map-making | Mapmaking]]<br />
###[[Spectral response | Spectral response]]<br />
###[[HFI-Validation | Internal overall validation]]<br />
<!--- ###[[Power spectra | Power spectra]] <span style="color:red">Not ready for release</span> ---><br />
###[[Summary_of_HFI_data_characteristics | Summary of HFI data characteristics]]<br />
##[[The LFI DPC| LFI data processing]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[Pre-processing_LFI| Pre-processing]]<br />
###[[TOI processing_LFI| TOI processing]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[Beams_LFI | Beams]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[Galactic stray light removal]]<br />
###[[Map-making_LFI | Mapmaking]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[LFI systematic effect uncertainties | Systematic effects uncertainties]]<br />
###[[LFI-Validation | Internal overall validation]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
<!--- ###[[L3_LFI | Power spectra]] ---><br />
###[[Summary_LFI | Summary of LFI data characteristics ]]<br />
##[[HFI/LFI joint data processing]]<br />
###[[Detector pointing| Detector pointing]]<br />
<!--- ###[[NoiseCovarMatrices | Noise covariance matrices and low-resolution maps ]] ---><br />
###[[Compact Source catalogues| Compact Source Catalogues]]<br />
###[[Astrophysical component separation]]<br />
###[[C2 | CMB Power spectra and Planck likelihood code]]<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Mission products]]<br />
##[[Timelines | Time-ordered data]]<br />
##[[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature and polarization maps]]<br />
<!--- ##[[NoiseCovariance | Noise covariance matrices and low-resolution maps ]]<span style="color:red">(Keskitalo)</span ---><br />
##[[The RIMO|Instrument model]] <br />
##[[Scanning Beams | Scanning Beams]]<br />
##[[Effective Beams | Effective beams]]<br />
##[[Catalogues|Catalogues]]: [[Catalogues#Catalogue of Compact Sources|PCCS]] • [[Catalogues#SZ Catalogue|PSZ]] • [[Catalogues#Catalogue_of_Planck_Galactic_Cold_Clumps|PGCC]]<br />
##[[CMB_and_astrophysical_component maps | CMB and astrophysical component maps]]<br />
##[[CMB spectrum & Likelihood Code | CMB spectrum ]]<br />
##[[Cosmological Parameters | Cosmological parameters and MC chains]]<br />
##[[Specially processed maps | Additional maps]]: [[Specially processed maps#Lensing map | Lensing map]] • [[Specially processed maps#Compton parameter map | Compton parameter map]] <br />
##[[Scientific data used to generate Planck products | Scientific data used to generate Planck products]] <span style="color:red">Not ready for release</span><br />
##[[Simulation data | Simulation data]] <span style="color:red">Not ready for release</span><br />
##[[DatesObs|Dates of observations]]<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Software utilities|Software utilities]]<br />
##[[Unit conversion and Color correction|Unit conversion and Colour correction]] <br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Operational data]]<br />
<!---##[[Thermal|Thermal and cooler system]]---><br />
##[[Survey history | Survey history data]]<br />
##[[Planck operational state history]]<br />
<!---##[[FOG|Fibre-optic gyro]]---><br />
##[[SREM|Space radiation environment monitor]]<br />
#[[Appendix]]<br />
##[[Glossary]]<br />
##[[List of acronyms]]<br />
[[Category:PSOBook]]</div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=Specially_processed_maps&diff=11257Specially processed maps2015-02-04T17:38:57Z<p>Amoneti: /* Compton parameter map */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{DISPLAYTITLE:Additional maps}}<br />
==Introduction==<br />
<br />
This section describes the products that required special processing.<br />
<br />
== Lensing map ==<br />
<br />
We distribute the minimum-variance (MV) lensing potential estimate presented in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-xxx}} as part of the 2014 data release. This map represents an estimate of the CMB lensing potential on approximately 70% of the sky, and also forms the basis for the Planck 2014 lensing likelihood. It is produced using filtered temperature and polarization data from the SMICA DX11 CMB map; its construction is discussed in detail in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-xxx}}.<br />
<br />
<br />
The estimate is contained in a single gzipped tarball named ''{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Lensing_2048_R2.00.tgz|link=COM_CompMap_Lensing_2048_R2.00.tgz}}''. Its contents are described below.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left"<br />
|+ ''' Contents of Lensing package '''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Filename || Format || Description<br />
|-<br />
| dat_klm.fits || HEALPIX FITS format alm, with <math> L_{\rm max} = 2048 </math> || Contains the estimated lensing convergence <math> \hat{\kappa}_{LM} = \frac{1}{2} L(L+1)\hat{\phi}_{LM} </math>.<br />
|-<br />
| mask.fits.gz || HEALPIX FITS format map, with <math> N_{\rm side} = 2048 </math> || Contains the lens reconstruction analysis mask.<br />
|-<br />
| nlkk.dat || ASCII text file, with columns = (<math>L</math>, <math>N_L </math>, <math>C_L+N_L</math>) || The approximate noise <math>N_L</math> (and signal+noise, <math>C_L+N_L</math>) power spectrum of <math> \hat{\kappa}_{LM} </math>, for the fiducial cosmology used in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-xxx}}.<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
== Compton parameter map ==<br />
<br />
We distribute here the Planck full mission Compton parameter maps (y-maps hereafter) obtained using the NILC and MILCA component separation algorithms as described in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-xxii}}. We also provide the ILC weights per scale and per frequency that were used to produce these y-maps. IDL routines are also provide to allow the user to apply those weights. Compton parameters produced by keeping either the first or the second half of stable pointing periods are also provide and we call them FIRST and LAST y-maps. Additionally we construct a noise estimates of full mission Planck y-maps from the half difference of the FIRST and LAST y-maps. These estimates are used to construct standard deviation maps of the noise in the full mission Planck y-maps that are also provided. To complement this we also provide the power spectra of the noise estimate maps after correcting for inhomogeneities using the standard deviation maps. We also deliver foreground masks including point-source and galactic masks.<br />
<br />
The full data set is contained in a single gzipped tarball named ''COM_CompMap_YSZ_R2.00.fits.tgz''. Its contents are described below.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left"<br />
|+ ''' Contents of COM_CompMap_YSZ_R2.00.fits.tgz} '''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Filename || Format || Description<br />
|-<br />
| nilc_ymaps.fits || HEALPIX FITS format map in Galactic coordinates with <math> N_{\rm side} = 2048 </math>|| Contains the NILC full mission, FIRST and LAST ymaps.<br />
|-<br />
| milca_ymaps.fits || HEALPIX FITS format map in Galactic coordinates with <math> N_{\rm side} = 2048 </math> || Contains the MILCA full mission, FIRST and LAST ymaps.<br />
|-<br />
| nilc_weights_BAND.fits || HEALPIX FITS format map in Galactic coordinates with <math> N_{\rm side} = 128 </math>|| Contains the NILC ILC weights for the full mission ymap for band BAND 0 to 9. For each band we provide a weight map per frequency.<br />
|-<br />
| milca_FREQ_Csz.fits || HEALPIX FITS format map in Galactic coordinates with <math> N_{\rm side} = 2048 </math> || Contains the MILCA ILC weights for the full mission ymap for frequency FREQ (100,143,217,353,545,857). For each frequency we provide a weight map per filter band.<br />
|-<br />
| nilc_stddev.fits || HEALPIX FITS format map in Galactic coordinates with <math> N_{\rm side} = 2048 </math>|| Contains the stddev map for the NILC full mission y-map.<br />
|-<br />
| milca_stddev.fits || HEALPIX FITS format map in Galactic coordinates with <math> N_{\rm side} = 2048 </math> || Contains the stddev maps for the MILCA full mission ymap.<br />
|-<br />
| nilc_homnoise_spect.fits || ASCII table FITS format || Contains the angular power spectrum of the homogeneous noise in the NILC full mission ymap.<br />
|-<br />
| milca_homnoise_spect.fits || ASCII table FITS format || Contains the angular power spectrum of the homogeneous noise in the MILCA full mission ymap.<br />
|-<br />
| masks.fits || HEALPIX FITS format map, with <math> N_{\rm side} = 2048 </math> || Contains foreground masks.<br />
|-<br />
| nilc_bands.fits || ASCII table FITS format || Contains NILC wavelet bands in multipole space<br />
|}<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|010]]</div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=HFI-Validation&diff=11254HFI-Validation2015-02-04T17:28:00Z<p>Amoneti: /* Generic approach to systematics */ delete commented section</p>
<hr />
<div>{{DISPLAYTITLE:Internal overall validation}}<br />
<br />
The HFI validation is mostly modular. That is, each part of the pipeline, be it timeline processing, map-making, or any other, validates the results of its work at each step of the processing, looking specifically for known issues. In addition, we do additional validation with an eye towards overall system integrity by looking at generic differences between sets of maps, in which most problems will become apparent, whether known or not. Both these are described below. <br />
<br />
==Expected systematics and tests (bottom-up approach)==<br />
<br />
Like all experiments, Planck/HFI had a number of "issues" which it needed to track and verify were not compromising the data. While these are discussed in appropriate sections, here we gather them together to give brief summaries of the issues and refer the reader to the appropriate section for more details. <br />
<br />
* Cosmic Rays - Unprotected by the atmosphere and more sensitive than previous bolometric experiments, HFI saw many more cosmic ray hits than previous experiments. These were detected, the worst parts of the data flagged as unusable, and "tails" were modeled and removed. This is described in [[TOI_processing#Glitch_statistics|the section on glitch statistics]]<!-- and in [[#Cosmic_rays|the section on cosmic rays]],--> as well as in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p03e|1|the 2013 HFI Cosmic Ray Removal paper}}.<br />
* Elephants - Cosmic rays also hit the HFI 100 mK stage and cause the temperature to vary, inducing small temperature and thus noise variations in the detectors. These are removed with the rest of the thermal fluctuations, described directly below. <br />
* Thermal Fluctuations - HFI is an extremely stable instrument, but there are small thermal fluctuations. These are discussed in [[TOI_processing#Thermal_template_for_decorrelation|the timeline processing section on thermal decorrelation]]<!-- and in [[#1.6K_and_4K_stage_fluctuations|the section on 1.6 K and 4 K thermal fluctuations]]-->.<br />
* Random Telegraphic Signal (RTS) or Popcorn Noise - Some channels were occasionally affected by what seems to be a baseline which abruptly changes between two levels, which has been variously called popcorn noise or random telegraphic signal. These data are usually flagged. This is described in [[TOI_processing#Noise_stationarity|the section on noise stationarity]]<!-- and [[#RTS_noise|the section on Random Telegraphic Signal Noise]]-->.<br />
* Jumps - Similar to but distinct from popcorn noise, small jumps were occasionally found in the data streams. These data are usually corrected. This is described in [[TOI_processing#jump_correction|the section on jump corrections]]. <br />
* 4 K Cooler-Induced EM Noise - The 4 K cooler induced noise in the detectors with very specific frequency signatures, which is filtered. This is described in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p03|1|the 2013 HFI DPC Paper}}<!--, [[#4K_lines_Residuals|the section below on 4 K line residuals]]-->, and their stability is discussed in [[TOI_processing#4K_cooler_lines_variability|the section on 4 K cooler line stability]].<br />
* Compression - On-board compression is used to overcome our telemetry bandwidth limitations. This is explained in {{PlanckPapers|planck2011-1-5}}. <br />
* Noise Correlations - Correlations in noise between detectors seems to be negligible but for two polarization sensitive detectors in the same horn. This is discussed in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p03e|1|the 2013 HFI Cosmic Ray Removal paper}}.<br />
* Pointing - The final pointing reconstruction for Planck is near the arcsecond level. This is discussed in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p03|1|the 2013 HFI DPC Paper}}.<br />
* Focal Plane Geometry - The relative positions of different horns in the focal plane is reconstructed using planets. This is also discussed in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p03|1|the 2013 HFI DPC paper}}. <br />
* Main Beam - The main beams for HFI are discussed in the {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p03d|1|2013 Beams and Transfer function paper}}. <br />
* Ruze Envelope - Random imperfections or dust on the mirrors can increase the size of the beam a bit. This is discussed in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p03d|1|the 2013 Beams and Transfer function paper}}.<br />
* Dimpling - The mirror support structure causes a pattern of small imperfections in the beams, which cause small sidelobe responses outside the main beam. This is discussed in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p03d|1|the 2013 Beams and Transfer function paper}}.<br />
* Far Sidelobes - Small amounts of light can sometimes hit the detectors from just above the primary or secondary mirrors, or even from reflecting off the baffles. While small, when the Galactic center is in the right position, this can be detected in the highest frequency channels, so this is removed from the data. This is discussed in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p03d|1|the 2013 Beams and Transfer function paper}} and, non-intuitively, {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-pip88|1|the 2013 Zodiacal emission paper}}. <br />
* Planet Fluxes - Comparing the known fluxes of planets with the calibration on the CMB dipole is a useful check of calibration for the CMB channels, and is the primary calibration source for the submillimeter channels. This is done in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p03b|1|the 2013 Map-Making and Calibration Paper}}. <br />
* Point Source Fluxes - As with planet fluxes, we also compare fluxes of known, bright point sources with the CMB dipole calibration. This is done in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p03b|1|the 2013 Map-Making and Calibration paper}}. <br />
* Time Constants - The HFI bolometers do not react instantaneously to light; there are small time constants, discussed in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p03d|1|the 2013 Beams and Transfer function paper}}. <br />
* ADC Correction - The HFI Analog-to-Digital Converters are not perfect, and are not used perfectly. While this is an on-going effort, their effects on the calibration are discussed in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p03c|1|the 2013 Map-Making and Calibration paper}}.<br />
<!--* Gain changes with Temperature Changes--><br />
<!--* Optical Cross-Talk - This is negligible, as noted in [[#Optical_Cross-Talk|the optical cross-talk note]]. --><br />
* Bandpass - The transmission curves, or "bandpass" has shown up in a number of places. This is discussed in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p03d|1|the 2013 spectral response paper}}. <br />
<!--* Saturation - While this is mostly an issue only for Jupiter observations, it should be remembered that the HFI detectors cannot observe arbitrarily bright objects. This is discussed in [[#Saturation|the section below on saturation]].--><br />
<br />
==Generic approach to systematics==<br />
<br />
<font style="color:red;font-size:300%">This section is Under (Re-)Construction</font><br />
<br />
Some (null) tests done at the map level are described in the HFI map making paper (REf).<br />
<br />
Some further tests will be described in the "CMB power spectra and liklihood paper".<br />
<br />
Finally detailed End-to-end simulations (from lowest level instrument behaviour to maps) are still ongoing for a detailed characterisation, which will accompany the 100-217GHz polarisation maps when they will be made available, probably before the summer 2015.<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:HFI data processing|006]]</div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=Main_Page&diff=11247Main Page2015-02-04T17:18:05Z<p>Amoneti: </p>
<hr />
<div><br />
<br />
'''<span style="font-size:180%"> <span style="color:Blue"> This is the Explanatory Supplement development page for the Planck 2015 data release </span><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
* Instructions for new users: [[Help:READ ME FIRST|Read me first]]<br />
* See [http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Help:Contents User's Guide] for a detailed User Guide of the MediaWiki software;<br />
* See [[Help:Contents|Explanatory Supplement Help page]] for Planck-specific guidelines.<br />
<br />
<br />
== [[:Category:Explanatory Supplement|Explanatory Supplement]] ==<br />
<br />
By the [[Planck Collaboration]]<br />
<br />
The Explanatory Supplement is a reference text accompanying the public data delivered from the operations of the European Space Agency’s Planck satellite during its mission.<br />
*[[Questions and Answers|Q&A from PR1]]<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Introduction_WiP|Introduction]]<br />
##[[The Planck mission_WiP|The Planck mission]] <br />
##[[The satellite_WiP|The spacecraft]]<br />
##[[Ground Segment and Operations|Ground segment and operations]]<br />
##[[Survey_scanning_and_performance|Survey scanning and performance]]<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[The Instruments_WiP|The Instruments]]<br />
##[[HFI design, qualification, and performance|HFI design, qualification, and performance]]<br />
###[[HFI_cryogenics | Cryogenics]]<br />
###[[HFI_cold_optics | Cold optics]]<br />
###[[HFI_detection_chain | Detection chain]]<br />
###[[HFI_operations | Operations]]<br />
###[[HFI_performance_summary | Performance summary]]<br />
###[[HFI_instrument_annexes | Annexes]]<br />
##[[LFI overview|LFI design, qualification, and performance]]<span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFIDescription| Instrument description]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFITests| Ground tests]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFICalibration| In-flight calibration]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFIPerformance| Performance summary]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFISystematics| Systematic effects]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#SCS| Sorption cooler]]<br />
###[[LFIAppendix| Annexes]]<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Data processing]]<br />
##[[The HFI DPC| HFI Data Processing]]<br />
###[[Pre-processing | Pre-processing]]<br />
###[[TOI processing|TOI processing]]<br />
###[[ADC correction]]<br />
###[[Beams | Beams]]<br />
###[[Map-making | Mapmaking]]<br />
###[[Spectral response | Spectral response]]<br />
###[[HFI-Validation | Internal overall validation]]<br />
###[[Power spectra | Power spectra]] <span style="color:red">Not ready for release</span><br />
###[[Summary_of_HFI_data_characteristics | Summary of HFI data characteristics]]<br />
##[[The LFI DPC| LFI data processing]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[Pre-processing_LFI| Pre-processing]]<br />
###[[TOI processing_LFI| TOI processing]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[Beams_LFI | Beams]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[Galactic stray light removal]]<br />
###[[Map-making_LFI | Mapmaking]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[LFI systematic effect uncertainties | Systematic effects uncertainties]]<br />
###[[LFI-Validation | Internal overall validation]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[L3_LFI | Power spectra]] <br />
###[[Summary_LFI | Summary of LFI data characteristics ]]<br />
##[[HFI/LFI joint data processing]]<br />
###[[Detector pointing| Detector pointing]]<br />
<!--- ###[[NoiseCovarMatrices | Noise covariance matrices and low-resolution maps ]] ---><br />
###[[Compact Source catalogues| Compact Source Catalogues]]<br />
###[[Astrophysical component separation]]<br />
###[[C2 | CMB Power spectra and Planck likelihood code]]<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Mission products]]<br />
##[[Timelines | Time-ordered data]]<br />
##[[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature and polarization maps]]<br />
<!--- ##[[NoiseCovariance | Noise covariance matrices and low-resolution maps ]]<span style="color:red">(Keskitalo)</span ---><br />
##[[The RIMO|Instrument model]] <br />
##[[Scanning Beams | Scanning Beams]]<br />
##[[Effective Beams | Effective beams]]<br />
##[[Catalogues|Catalogues]]: [[Catalogues#Catalogue of Compact Sources|PCCS]] • [[Catalogues#SZ Catalogue|PSZ]] • [[Catalogues#Catalogue_of_Planck_Galactic_Cold_Clumps|PGCC]]<br />
##[[CMB_and_astrophysical_component maps | CMB and astrophysical component maps]]<br />
##[[CMB spectrum & Likelihood Code | CMB spectrum ]]<br />
##[[Cosmological Parameters | Cosmological parameters and MC chains]]<br />
##[[Specially processed maps | Additional maps]]: [[Specially processed maps#Lensing map | Lensing map]] • [[Specially processed maps#Compton parameter map | Compton parameter map]] <br />
##[[Scientific data used to generate Planck products | Scientific data used to generate Planck products]] <span style="color:red">Not ready for release</span><br />
##[[Simulation data | Simulation data]] <span style="color:red">Not ready for release</span><br />
##[[DatesObs|Dates of observations]]<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Software utilities|Software utilities]]<br />
##[[Unit conversion and Color correction|Unit conversion and Colour correction]] <br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Operational data]]<br />
<!---##[[Thermal|Thermal and cooler system]]---><br />
##[[Survey history | Survey history data]]<br />
##[[Planck operational state history]]<br />
<!---##[[FOG|Fibre-optic gyro]]---><br />
##[[SREM|Space radiation environment monitor]]<br />
#[[Appendix]]<br />
##[[Glossary]]<br />
##[[List of acronyms]]<br />
[[Category:PSOBook]]</div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=Main_Page&diff=11243Main Page2015-02-04T17:11:49Z<p>Amoneti: </p>
<hr />
<div><br />
<br />
'''<span style="font-size:180%"> <span style="color:Blue"> This is the Explanatory Supplement development page for the Planck 2015 data release </span><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
* Instructions for new users: [[Help:READ ME FIRST|Read me first]]<br />
* See [http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Help:Contents User's Guide] for a detailed User Guide of the MediaWiki software;<br />
* See [[Help:Contents|Explanatory Supplement Help page]] for Planck-specific guidelines.<br />
<br />
<br />
== [[:Category:Explanatory Supplement|Explanatory Supplement]] ==<br />
<br />
By the [[Planck Collaboration]]<br />
<br />
The Explanatory Supplement is a reference text accompanying the public data delivered from the operations of the European Space Agency’s Planck satellite during its mission.<br />
*[[Questions and Answers|Q&A from PR1]]<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Introduction_WiP|Introduction]]<br />
##[[The Planck mission_WiP|The Planck mission]] <br />
##[[The satellite_WiP|The spacecraft]]<br />
##[[Ground Segment and Operations|Ground segment and operations]]<br />
##[[Survey_scanning_and_performance|Survey scanning and performance]]<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[The Instruments_WiP|The Instruments]]<br />
##[[HFI design, qualification, and performance|HFI design, qualification, and performance]]<br />
###[[HFI_cryogenics | Cryogenics]]<br />
###[[HFI_cold_optics | Cold optics]]<br />
###[[HFI_detection_chain | Detection chain]]<br />
###[[HFI_operations | Operations]]<br />
###[[HFI_performance_summary | Performance summary]]<br />
###[[HFI_instrument_annexes | Annexes]]<br />
##[[LFI overview|LFI design, qualification, and performance]]<span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFIDescription| Instrument description]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFITests| Ground tests]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFICalibration| In-flight calibration]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFIPerformance| Performance summary]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFISystematics| Systematic effects]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#SCS| Sorption cooler]]<br />
###[[LFIAppendix| Annexes]]<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Data processing]]<br />
##[[The HFI DPC| HFI Data Processing]]<br />
###[[Pre-processing | Pre-processing]]<br />
###[[TOI processing|TOI processing]]<br />
###[[ADC correction]]<br />
###[[Beams | Beams]]<br />
###[[Map-making | Mapmaking]]<br />
###[[Spectral response | Spectral response]]<br />
###[[HFI-Validation | Internal overall validation]]<br />
###[[Power spectra | Power spectra]]<br />
###[[Summary_of_HFI_data_characteristics | Summary of HFI data characteristics]]<br />
##[[The LFI DPC| LFI data processing]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[Pre-processing_LFI| Pre-processing]]<br />
###[[TOI processing_LFI| TOI processing]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[Beams_LFI | Beams]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[Galactic stray light removal]]<br />
###[[Map-making_LFI | Mapmaking]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[LFI systematic effect uncertainties | Systematic effects uncertainties]]<br />
###[[LFI-Validation | Internal overall validation]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[L3_LFI | Power spectra]] <br />
###[[Summary_LFI | Summary of LFI data characteristics ]]<br />
##[[HFI/LFI joint data processing]]<br />
###[[Detector pointing| Detector pointing]]<br />
<!--- ###[[NoiseCovarMatrices | Noise covariance matrices and low-resolution maps ]] ---><br />
###[[Compact Source catalogues| Compact Source Catalogues]]<br />
###[[Astrophysical component separation]]<br />
###[[C2 | CMB Power spectra and Planck likelihood code]]<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Mission products]]<br />
##[[Timelines | Time-ordered data]]<br />
##[[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature and polarization maps]]<br />
<!--- ##[[NoiseCovariance | Noise covariance matrices and low-resolution maps ]]<span style="color:red">(Keskitalo)</span ---><br />
##[[The RIMO|Instrument model]] <br />
##[[Scanning Beams | Scanning Beams]]<br />
##[[Effective Beams | Effective beams]]<br />
##[[Catalogues|Catalogues]]: [[Catalogues#Catalogue of Compact Sources|PCCS]] • [[Catalogues#SZ Catalogue|PSZ]] • [[Catalogues#Catalogue_of_Planck_Galactic_Cold_Clumps|PGCC]]<br />
##[[CMB_and_astrophysical_component maps | CMB and astrophysical component maps]]<br />
##[[CMB spectrum & Likelihood Code | CMB spectrum and likelihood code]]<br />
##[[Cosmological Parameters | Cosmological parameters and MC chains]]<br />
##[[Specially processed maps | Additional maps]]: [[Specially processed maps#Lensing map | Lensing map]] • [[Specially processed maps#Compton parameter map | Compton parameter map]] <br />
##[[Scientific data used to generate Planck products | Scientific data used to generate Planck products]]<br />
##[[Simulation data | Simulation data]] <!--: [[Simulation data#The Planck Sky Model|The Planck Sky Model]] • [[Simulation data#The Planck Simulator | The Planck Simulator]] • [[Simulation data#Products delivered | Products delivered]] --><br />
##[[DatesObs|Dates of observations]]<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Software utilities|Software utilities]]<br />
##[[Unit conversion and Color correction|Unit conversion and Colour correction]] <br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Operational data]]<br />
<!---##[[Thermal|Thermal and cooler system]]---><br />
##[[Survey history | Survey history data]]<br />
##[[Planck operational state history]]<br />
<!---##[[FOG|Fibre-optic gyro]]---><br />
##[[SREM|Space radiation environment monitor]]<br />
#[[Appendix]]<br />
##[[Glossary]]<br />
##[[List of acronyms]]<br />
[[Category:PSOBook]]</div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=ADC_correction&diff=11241ADC correction2015-02-04T17:10:03Z<p>Amoneti: fis ref</p>
<hr />
<div>The ADC non linearity correction is affecting the modulated signal of the bolometers before 40 of these fast samples are averaged and transmitted to the ground. The TOI data delivered in the HFI products are made of these average values. The raw signal of a bolometer for one modulation period is transmitted only at sparce intervals. This results in a complicated process to remove the systematic effects associated with ADC non linearity on the modulated signal taking into account the 40 Hz parasitics associated with the 4K cooler drive electronics.<br />
<br />
The principles of the correction are detailed in the {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}}. The correction cannot be done using only the TOI values but requires ancillary data from ground based tests and additional tests done during the LFI extension of the mission when the dilution cooler did not operate anymore. For this reason, there is no reason to detail more than what was described in the paper as the users cannot expect to improve this part of the processing.<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /></div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=CMB_spectrum_%26_Likelihood_Code&diff=11185CMB spectrum & Likelihood Code2015-02-04T15:25:54Z<p>Amoneti: /* File names and Meta data */</p>
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<div>{{DISPLAYTITLE:CMB spectrum and likelihood code}}<br />
<br />
==CMB spectra==<br />
<br />
===General description===<br />
<br />
<br />
The Planck best-fit CMB temperature power spectrum, shown in figure below, covers the wide range of multipoles <math> \ell </math> = 2-2508. <br />
<span style="color:red"> UPDATE COMMANDER: Over the multipole range <math> \ell </math> = 2–29, the power spectrum is derived from a component-separation algorithm, ''Commander'': applied to maps in the frequency range 30–353 GHz over 91% of the sky {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}} . The asymmetric error bars associated to this spectrum are the 68% confidence limits and include the uncertainties due to foreground subtraction. </span><br />
<br />
For multipoles equal or greater than <math>\ell=30</math>, instead, the spectrum is derived from the ''Plik'' likelihood {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a13}} by optimally combining the spectra in the frequency range 100-217 GHz, and correcting them for unresolved foregrounds. Associated 1-sigma errors include beam uncertainties. Both ''Commander'' and ''Plik'' are described in more details in the sections below.<br />
<br />
[[File: Planck2014 TT Dl NORES bin30 w180mm.jpeg|thumb|center|700px|'''CMB spectrum. Logarithmic x-scale up to <math>\ell=30</math>, linear at higher <math>\ell</math>; all points with error bars. The red line is the Planck best-fit primordial power spectrum (cf Planck TT+lowP in Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a15}}). The blue shaded area shows the uncertainties due to cosmic variance alone.''']]<br />
===Production process===<br />
<br />
<span style="color:red"> UPDATE COMMANDER<br />
The <math>\ell</math> < 50 part of the Planck power spectrum is derived from the Commander approach, which implements Bayesian component separation in pixel space, fitting a parametric model to the data by sampling the posterior distribution for the model parameters {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}. The power spectrum at any multipole <math>\ell</math> is given as the maximum probability point for the posterior <math>C_\ell</math> distribution, marginalized over the other multipoles, and the error bars are 68% confidence level {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08}}. </span><br />
<br />
The <math>\ell</math> > 30 part of the CMB temperature power spectrum has been derived by the Plik likelihood, a code that implements a pseudo-Cl based technique, extensively described in Sec. 2 and the Appendix of {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08}}. Frequency spectra are computed as cross-spectra between half-mission maps. Mask and multipole range choices for each frequency spectrum are summarized in Section 3.3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a15}} and in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a13}}. The final power spectrum is an optimal combination of the 100, 143, 143x217 and 217 GHz spectra, corrected for the best-fit unresolved foregrounds and inter-frequency calibration factors, as derived from the full likelihood analysis (cf Planck+TT+lowP in Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a15}}). A thorough description of the models of unresolved foregrounds is given in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a13}}. The spectrum covariance matrix accounts for cosmic variance and noise contributions, together with beam uncertainties. The <math>\ell</math> > 30 CMB TT spectrum and associated covariance matrix are available in two formats:<br />
#Unbinned, with 2479 bandpowers (<math>\ell=30-2508</math>).<br />
#Binned, in bins of <math> \Delta\ell=30 </math>, with 83 bandpowers in total. We bin the <math> C_\ell </math> power spectrum with a weight proportional to <math> \ell (\ell+1) </math>, so that the <math> C_{\ell_b} </math> binned bandpower centered in <math> \ell_b </math> is: <math> \\ C_{\ell_b}=\Sigma_{\ell \in b} w_{\ell_b\ell} C_\ell \quad \text{with} \quad w_{\ell_b\ell}=\frac{\ell (\ell+1)}{\Sigma_{\ell \in b} \ell (\ell+1)}. \\</math> Equivalently, using the matrix formalism, we can construct the binning matrix B as: <math>\\ B_{\ell_b \ell}=w_{\ell_b\ell} \\ </math> where B is a <math> n_b\times n_\ell</math> matrix, with <math>n_b=83</math> the number of bins and <math>n_\ell=2479</math> the number of unbinned multipoles. Thus: <math> \\ \vec{C}_\mathrm{binned}=B \, \vec{C} \\ \mathrm{cov_\mathrm{binned}}= B\, \mathrm{cov}\, B^T \\ \ell_b=B\, \ell \\ </math> Here, <math> \vec{C}_{binned}\, (\vec{C}) </math> is the vector containing all the binned (unbinned) <math>C_\ell</math> bandpowers, <math>\mathrm{cov} </math> is the covariance matrix and <math>\ell_b</math> is the weighted average multipole in each bin. The binned <math>D_{\ell_B}</math> power spectrum is then calculated as: <math> \\ D_{\ell_b}=\frac{\ell_b (\ell_b+1)}{2\pi} C_{\ell_b} </math>.<br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
<span style="color:red"> UPDATE COMMANDER</span><br />
<br />
; Low-l spectrum (<math>\ell < 30</math>):<br />
* frequency maps from 30–353 GHz<br />
* common mask {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}<br />
* compact sources catalog<br />
<br />
; High-l spectrum (<math>30 < \ell < 2500</math>): <br />
<br />
* 100, 143, 143x217 and 217 GHz spectra and their covariance matrix (Sec. 3.3 {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a15}})<br />
* best-fit foreground templates and inter-frequency calibration factors (Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a15}})<br />
* Beam transfer function uncertainties {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}}<br />
=== File names and Meta data ===<br />
<br />
<span style="color:red"> CHECK EXTENSION NAMES </span><br />
<br />
The CMB spectrum and its covariance matrix are distributed in a single FITS file named <br />
<!--- * ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=cosmo | name=COM_PowerSpect_CMB_R2.00.fits | link=COM_PowerSpect_CMB_R1.10.fits}}'' ---><br />
* ''COM_PowerSpect_CMB_R2.nn.fits''<br />
which contains 5 extensions<br />
<br />
; LOW-ELL (BINTABLE)<br />
: with the low ell part of the spectrum, not binned, and for l=2-49. The table columns are<br />
# ''ELL'' (integer): multipole number<br />
# ''D_ELL'' (float): <math>D_l</math> as described below<br />
# ''ERRUP'' (float): the upward uncertainty<br />
# ''ERRDOWN'' (float): the downward uncertainty<br />
<br />
; BINNED HIGH-ELL (BINTABLE) <br />
: with the high-ell part of the spectrum, binned into 83 bins covering <math>\langle l \rangle = 47-2499\ </math> in bins of width <math>l=30</math> (with the exception of the last bin that is smaller). The table columns are as follows:<br />
# ''ELL'' (integer): mean multipole number of bin<br />
# ''L_MIN'' (integer): lowest multipole of bin<br />
# ''L_MAX'' (integer): highest multipole of bin<br />
# ''D_ELL'' (float): <math>D_l<\math> as described below<br />
# ''ERR'' (float): the uncertainty<br />
<br />
;BINNED COV-MAT (IMAGE)<br />
: with the covariance matrix of the high-ell part of the spectrum in a 83x83 pixel image, i.e., covering the same bins as the ''HIGH-ELL'' table. Note that this is the covariance matrix of the <math>C_\ell</math>, not of the <math>D_\ell</math>.<br />
<br />
; UNBINNED HIGH-ELL (BINTABLE) <br />
: with the high-ell part of the spectrum, unbinned, in 2979 bins covering <math>\langle l \rangle = 30-2508\ </math>. The table columns are as follows:<br />
# ''ELL'' (integer): multipole <br />
# ''D_ELL'' (float): $D_l$ as described below<br />
# ''ERR'' (float): the uncertainty<br />
<br />
; UNBINNED COV-MAT (IMAGE)<br />
: with the covariance matrix of the high-ell part of the spectrum in a 2979x2979 pixel image, i.e., covering the same bins as the ''HIGH-ELL'' table. Note that this is the covariance matrix of the <math>C_\ell</math>, not of the <math>D_\ell</math>.<br />
<br />
<br />
The spectra give $D_\ell = \ell(\ell+1)C_\ell / 2\pi$ in units of $\mu\, K^2$, and the covariance matrix is in units of $\mu\, K^4$ (NOTE that the covariance matrix is for the <math>C_\ell</math>, not for the <math>D_\ell</math>). <br />
<br />
The CMB spectrum is also given in a simple text comma-separated file:<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=cosmo | name=COM_PowerSpect_CMB_R1.10.txt |link=COM_PowerSpect_CMB_R1.10.txt}}''<br />
<br />
==Likelihood==<br />
The likelihood will soon be released with an accompanying paper and an Explanatory Supplement update. <br />
<!-- <br />
===Likelihood===<br />
<span style="color:red"> ALL OF THE FOLLOWING IN THE LIKELIHOOD SECTION IS OLD. </span><br />
The likelihood code (and the data that comes with it) used to compute the likelihood of a model that predicts the CMB power spectra, lensing power spectrum, together with some foreground and some instrumental parameters. The data files are built primarily from the Planck mission results, but include also some results from the WMAP-9 data release. The data files are written in a specific format that can only be read by the code. The code consists in a c/f90 library, along with some optional tools in python. The code is used to read the data files, and given model power spectra and nuisance parameters it computes the log likelihood of that model. <br />
<br />
Detailed description of the installation and usage of the likelihood code and data is provided in the package. The package includes five data files: four for the CMB likelihoods and one for the lensing likelihood. All of the likelihoods delivered are described in detail in the {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08|1|Power spectrum & Likelihood Paper}} (for the CMB based likelihood) and in the {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p12|1|Lensing Paper}} (for the lensing likelihood) .<br />
<br />
The CMB full likelihood has been divided into four parts to allow using selectively different ranges of multipoles. It also reflects the fact that the mathematical approximations used for those different parts are very different, as is the underlying data. In detail, we distribute<br />
* one low-<math>\ell</math> temperature only likelihood (commander), <br />
* one low-<math>\ell</math> temperature and polarisation likelihood (lowlike), and <br />
* one higl-<math>\ell</math> likelihood CAMspec. <br />
<br />
The ''Commander'' likelihood covers the multipoles 2 to 49. It uses a semi-analytic method to sample the low-<math>\ell</math> temperature likelihood on an intermediate product of one of the component separated maps. The samples are used along with an analytical approximation of the likelihood posterior to perform the likelihood computation in the code. See {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08}} section 8.1 for more details.<br />
<br />
The ''lowlike'' likelihood covers the multipoles 2 to 32 for temperature and polarization data. Since Planck is not releasing polarisation data at this time, the polarization map from WMAP9 is used instead. A temperature map is needed to perform the computation nevertheless, and we use here the same commander map. The likelihood is computed using a map-based approximation at low resolution and a master one at intermediate resolution, as in WMAP. The likelihood code actually calls a very slightly modified version of the WMAP9 code. This piece of the likelihood essentially provides a prior on the optical depth and has almost no other impact on cosmological parameter estimation. As such it could be replaced by a simple prior, and a user can decide to do so, which is one of the motivation to leave the three pieces of the CMB likelihood as different data packages; see {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08}} section 8.3 for more details. Note that the version of the WMAP code used here (code version v1.0) does not perform any test on the positive definiteness of the TT, TE, EE covariance matrices, and will return a null log likelihood in the unphysical cases where the absolute value of TE is too large. This will be corrected in a later version.<br />
<br />
The ''CAMspec'' likelihood covers the multipoles 50 to 2500 for temperature only. The likelihood is computed using a quadratic approximation, including mode to mode correlations that have been precomputed on a fiducial model. The likelihood uses data from the 100, 143 and 217 GHz channels. To do so it models the foreground at each frequency using the model described in the likelihood paper. Uncertainties on the relative calibration and on the beam transfer functions are included either as parametric models, or marginalized and integrated in the covariance matrix. Detailed description of the different nuisance parameters is given below. Priors are included in the likelihood on the CIB spectral index, relative calibration factors and beam error eigenmodes. See {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08}} section 2.1 for more details.<br />
<br />
The ''act/spt'' likelihood covers the multipoles 1500 to 10000 for temperature. It is described in{{BibCite|dun2013}}{{BibCite|Keis2011}}{{BibCite|Reic2012}}. It uses the code and data that can be retrieved from the [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/ Lambda archive] for [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/act/act_prod_table.cfm ACT] and [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/spt/spt_prod_table.cfm SPT]. It has been slightly modified to use a thermal and kinetic SZ model that matches the one used in CAMspec. As stated in{{BibCite|dun2013}}, the dust parameters a_ge and a_gs must be explored with the following priors: a_ge = 0.8 ± 0.2 and a_gs = 0.4 ± 0.2. Those priors are not included in the log likelihood computed by the code.<br />
<br />
The ''lensing'' likelihood covers the multipoles 40 to 400 using the result of the [[Specially_processed_maps | lensing reconstruction]]. It uses a quadratic approximation for the likelihood, with a covariance matrix including the marginalized contribution of the beam transfer function uncertainties, the diffuse point source correction uncertainties and the cosmological model uncertainty affecting the first order non-gaussian bias (N1). The correlation between temperature and lensing is not taken into account. Cosmological uncertainty effects on the normalization are dealt with using a first order renormalization procedure. This means that the code will need both the TT and $\phi\phi$ power spectrum up to <math>\ell</math> = 2048 to correctly perform the integrals needed for the renormalization. Nevertheless, the code will only produce an estimate based on the data between <math>\ell</math> = 40 to 400. See {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p12}} section 6.1 for more details.<br />
</span><br />
<span style="color:red">OUTSTANDING: description of likelihood masks </span><br />
==Production process==<br />
<br />
===Likelihood===<br />
<span style="color:red"> ALL OF THE FOLLOWING IN THE LIKELIHOOD SECTION IS OLD. </span><br />
The code is based on some basic routines from the libpmc library in the [http://arxiv.org/abs/1101.0950 cosmoPMC] code. It also uses some code from the [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/likelihood_get.cfm WMAP9 likelihood] for the lowlike likelihood and{{BibCite|dun2013}}{{BibCite|Keis2011}}{{BibCite|Reic2012}} for the act/spt one. The rest of the code has been specifically written for the Planck data. Each likelihood file has been processed using a different and dedicated pipeline as described in the likelihood paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08}} (section 2 and 8) and in the lensing paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p12}} (section 6.1). We refer the reader to those papers for full details. The data are then encapsulated into the specific file format.<br />
<br />
Each dataset comes with its own self check. Whenever the code is used to read a data file, a computation will be done against an included test spectrum/nuisance parameter, and the log-likelihood will be displayed along with the expected result. Difference of the order of 10<math>^{-6}</math> or less are expected depending of the architecture.<br />
<br />
==Inputs==<br />
<br />
===Likelihood===<br />
<br />
; ''commander'' :<br />
* all Planck channels maps<br />
* compact source catalogs<br />
* common masks<br />
* beam transfer functions for all channels<br />
<br />
; ''lowlike'' :<br />
* WMAP9 likelihood data<br />
* Low-<math>\ell</math> Commander map<br />
<br />
; ''CAMspec'' :<br />
* 100, 143 and 217 GHz detector and detsets maps<br />
* 857GHz channel map<br />
* compact source catalog<br />
* common masks (0,1 & 3)<br />
* beam transfer function and error eigenmodes and covariance for 100, 143 and 217 GHz detectors & detsets<br />
* theoretical templates for the tSZ and kSZ contributions<br />
* color corrections for the CIB emission for the 143 and 217GHz detectors and detsets<br />
* fiducial CMB model (bootstrapped from WMAP7 best fit spectrum) estimated noise contribution from the half-ring maps for 100, 143 and 217 GHz<br />
<br />
; ''lensing'' :<br />
* the lensing map<br />
* beam error eigenmodes and covariance for the 143 and 217GHz channel maps<br />
* fiducial CMB model (from Planck cosmological parameter best fit)<br />
<br />
; ''act/spt'' :<br />
* data and code from [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/act/act_fulllikelihood_get.cfm here]<br />
* the tSZ andkSZ template are changed to match those of CAMspec<br />
<br />
== File names and Meta data ==<br />
<br />
===Likelihood===<br />
<span style="color:red"> ALL OF THE FOLLOWING IN THE LIKELIHOOD SECTION IS OLD. </span><br />
<br />
'''Likelihood source code'''<br />
<br />
The source code is in the file<br />
: {{PLASingleFile |fileType=cosmo|name=COM_Code_Likelihood-v1.0_R1.10.tar.gz|link=COM_Code_Likelihood-v1.0_R1.10.tar.gz}} (C, f90 and python likelihood library and tools)<br />
<br />
'''Likelihood data packages'''<br />
<br />
The {{PLALikelihood|type=Data|link=data packages}} are<br />
: ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=cosmo | name=COM_Data_Likelihood-commander_R1.10.tar.gz | link=COM_Data_Likelihood-commander_R1.10.tar.gz}}'' (low-ell TT likelihood)<br />
: ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=cosmo | name=COM_Data_Likelihood-lowlike_R1.10.tar.gz | link=COM_Data_Likelihood-lowlike_R1.10.tar.gz}}'' (low-ell TE,EE,BB likelihood)<br />
: ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=cosmo | name=COM_Data_Likelihood-CAMspec_R1.10.tar.gz | link=COM_Data_Likelihood-CAMspec_R1.10.tar.gz}}'' (high-ell TT likelihood)<br />
: ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=cosmo | name=COM_Data_Likelihood-actspt_R1.10.tar | link=COM_Data_Likelihood-actspt_R1.10.tar.gz}}'' (high-ell TT likelihood)<br />
: ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=cosmo | name=COM_Data_Likelihood-lensing_R1.10.tar.gz | link=COM_Data_Likelihood-lensing_R1.10.tar.gz}}'' (lensing likelihood)<br />
<br />
Untar and unzip all files to recover the code and likelihood data. Each package comes with a README file; follow the instructions inclosed to<br />
build the code and use it. To compute the CMB likelihood one has to sum the log likelihood of each of the commander_v4.1_lm49.clik, lowlike_v222.clik and CAMspec_v6.2TN_2013_02_26.clik, actspt_2013_01.clik. To compute the CMB+lensing likelihood, one has to sum the log likelihood of all 5 files.<br />
<br />
The CMB and lensing likelihood format are different. The CMB files have the termination .clik, the lensing one .clik_lensing. The lensing data being simpler (due to the less detailled modeling permitted by the lower signal-noise), the file is a simple ascii file containing all the data along with comments describing it, and linking the different quantities to the lensing paper. The CMB file format is more complex and must accommodate different forms of data (maps, power spectrum, distribution samples, covariance matrices...). It consists of a tree structure containing the data. At each level of the tree structure a given directory can contain array data (in the form of FITS files or ascii files for strings) and scalar data (joined in a single ascii file "_mdb"). Those files are not user modifiable and do not contain interesting meta data for the user. Tools to manipulate those files are included in the code package as optional python tools. They are documented in the code package.<br />
<br />
'''Likelihood masks'''<br />
<br />
The masks used in the Likelihood paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p08}} are found in<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_Likelihood_2048_R1.10.fits|link=COM_Mask_Likelihood_2048_R1.10.fits}}<br />
<br />
which contains ten masks which are written into a single ''BINTABLE'' extension of 10 columns by 50331648 rows (the number of Healpix pixels in an Nside = 2048 map). The structure is as follows, where the column names are the names of the masks: <br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Likelihodd masks file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'MSK-LIKE' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|CL31 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|CL39 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|CL49 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|G22 || Real*4 || none || mask <br />
|-<br />
|G35 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|G45 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|G56 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|G65 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|PS96 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|PSA82 || Real*4 || none || mask<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 50331647 || Last pixel number, for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
<br />
|}<br />
--><br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|008]]</div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=Power_spectra&diff=11183Power spectra2015-02-04T15:16:25Z<p>Amoneti: </p>
<hr />
<div>TBW .... Silvia<br />
<br />
The TT, TE, and EE power spectra are described in [[CMB_spectrum_%26_Likelihood_Code | CMB spectrum]] section of the Products chapter<br />
<br />
[[Category:HFI data processing|007]]</div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=Summary_of_HFI_data_characteristics&diff=11167Summary of HFI data characteristics2015-02-04T14:32:35Z<p>Amoneti: </p>
<hr />
<div><br />
This page contains information from the summary section of the HFI DPC paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a09}} which describes the most important characteristics of the HFI instrument and data. <br />
<br />
Note that some of these parameters are available in the RIMO, which is described in detail in [[the RIMO]] section.<br />
<br />
[[File:HFI_Summary_2015.png|1092px| HFI Summary Table ]]<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:HFI data processing|008]]</div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=Summary_of_HFI_data_characteristics&diff=11164Summary of HFI data characteristics2015-02-04T14:23:06Z<p>Amoneti: reference</p>
<hr />
<div>PLEASE REPLACE THIS INFO BY THAT OF 2015<br />
<br />
This page contains information from the summary section of the HFI DPC paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a09}} which describes the most important characteristics of the HFI instrument and data. <br />
<br />
Note that some of these parameters are available in the RIMO, which is described in detail in [[the RIMO]] section.<br />
<br />
[[File:HFI_Summary_2015.png|1092px| HFI Summary Table ]]<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:HFI data processing|008]]</div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=File:HFI_Summary_2015.png&diff=11160File:HFI Summary 2015.png2015-02-04T13:54:30Z<p>Amoneti: Summary of HFI characteristics; copy of Table 6 of HFI maps processing paper</p>
<hr />
<div>Summary of HFI characteristics; copy of Table 6 of HFI maps processing paper</div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=Summary_of_HFI_data_characteristics&diff=11159Summary of HFI data characteristics2015-02-04T13:53:23Z<p>Amoneti: </p>
<hr />
<div>PLEASE REPLACE THIS INFO BY THAT OF 2015<br />
<br />
This page contains information from the summary section of the HFI DPC paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p03}} which describes the most important characteristics of the HFI instrument and data. <br />
<br />
Note that some of these parameters are available in the RIMO, which is described in detail in [[the RIMO]] section.<br />
<br />
[[File:HFI_Summary_2015.png|1092px| HFI Summary Table ]]<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:HFI data processing|008]]</div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=Cosmological_Parameters&diff=11124Cosmological Parameters2015-02-04T10:25:43Z<p>Amoneti: /* Parameter Chains */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{DISPLAYTITLE:Cosmological parameters and MC chains}}<br />
== Description ==<br />
<br />
The cosmological parameter results explore a variety of cosmological models with combinations of Planck and other data. We provide results from MCMC exploration chains, as well as best fits, and sets of parameter tables. Definitions, conventions and reference are contained in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p11}}.<br />
<br />
==Production process==<br />
<br />
Parameter chains are produced using CosmoMC, a sampling package available [http://cosmologist.info/cosmomc here]. This includes the sample analysis package (and GUI) GetDist, and the scripts for managing, analysing, and plotting results from the full grid or runs. Chain products provided here have had burn in removed. Some results with additional data are produced by importance sampling.<br />
<br />
Note that the baseline model includes one massive neutrino (0.06eV). Grid outputs include WMAP 9 results for consistent assumptions.<br />
<br />
== Caveats and known issues ==<br />
<br />
# Confidence intervals are derived from the MCMC samples, and assume the input likelihoods are exactly correct, so there is no quantification for systematic errors other than via the covariance, foreground and beam error models assumed in the likelihood codes. <br />
# Non-linear lensing modelling uses Halofit; for some extended models and CMB lensing only analyses, tails of the chains may be away from the domain of validity.<br />
# The CAMB version used for most results is Dec 2014; the Jan 2015 version is used for lensing-only models with neutrinos, and only differs in the neutrino corrections to the Halofit model.<br />
# There is evidence of temperature-polarization leakage that may affect results including high-L polarization, use caution in the interpretation of results including polarization<br />
# Alternative CamSpec likelihood results in the tables are generated using a slightly older CosmoMC version, with fewer derived parameters and a slightly different BBN predictions for the helium abundance.<br />
<br />
== Related products ==<br />
<br />
Results of the parameter exploration runs should be reproducible using CosmoMC with the Planck likelihood code.<br />
<br />
== Parameter Tables ==<br />
<br />
These list parameter constraints for each considered model and data combination separately. For the baseline likelihood see<br />
<br />
* PDF tables with 68% limits [[File:baseline_params_table_2015_limit68.pdf]]<br />
* PDF tables with 95% limits [[File:baseline_params_table_2015_limit95.pdf]]<br />
<br />
There are also larger files including alternative CamSpec and DetSet likelihood results, along with shifts in parameters compared to baseline in units of the baseline error:<br />
<br />
* PDF tables with 68% limits [[File:params_table_2015_limit68.pdf]]<br />
* PDF tables with 95% limits [[File:params_table_2015_limit95.pdf]]<br />
<br />
<br />
Data combination tags used to label results are as follows (see {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p11}} for full description and references):<br />
<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align:left" border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" width=800px<br />
|+ <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Tag|| Data<br />
|-<br />
| '''plikHM''' || baseline high-L Planck power spectra (plik cross half-mission, 30 <= l <= 2508)<br />
|-<br />
| '''plikDS''' || high-L Planck power spectra (plik cross detsets, 30 <= l <= 2508)<br />
|-<br />
| '''CamSpecHM''' || high-L Planck power spectra (CamSpec cross half-mission, 30 <= l <= 2500)<br />
|-<br />
| '''CamSpecDS''' || high-L Planck power spectra (CamSpec cross detsets, 30 <= l <= 2500)<br />
|-<br />
| '''lowl''' || low-L: Planck temperature only (2 <= l <= 29)<br />
|-<br />
| '''lowTEB''' || low-L temperature and LFI polarization (2 <= l <= 29)<br />
|-<br />
| '''lowEB''' || low-L LFI polarization only (2 <= l <= 29)<br />
|-<br />
| '''WMAPTEB''' || low-L temperature, and LFI+WMAP polarization (2 <= l <= 29)<br />
|-<br />
| '''lensing''' || Planck lensing power spectrum reconstruction<br />
|-<br />
| '''lensingonly''' || Planck lensing power spectrum reconstruction only; T,E fixed to best-fit spectrum + priors<br />
|-<br />
| '''zre6p5''' || A hard prior z_re > 6.5<br />
|-<br />
| '''tau07''' || A Gaussian prior on the optical depth, tau = 0.07 +- 0.02<br />
|-<br />
| '''reion''' || A hard prior z_re > 6.5, combined with Gaussian prior z_re = 7 +- 1<br />
|-<br />
| '''BAO''' || Baryon oscillation data from DR11LOWZ, DR11CMASS, MGS and 6DF<br />
|-<br />
| '''JLA''' || Supernova data from the SDSS-II/SNLS3 Joint Light-curve Analysis<br />
|-<br />
| '''H070p6''' || Hubble parameter constraint, H_0 = 70.6 +- 3.3<br />
|-<br />
| '''theta''' || theta_MC fixed to 1.0408<br />
|-<br />
| '''WLonlyHeymans''' || Conservative cut of the CFHTLenS weak lensing data + priors<br />
|-<br />
| '''WMAP''' || The full WMAP (temperature and polarization) 9 year data <br />
|}<br />
<br />
The high-L Planck likelihoods have TT, TE, EE variants from each spectrum alone, plus the TTTEEE joint constraint.<br />
<br />
<br />
Tags used to identify the model parameters that are varied are described in [[File:parameter_tag_definitions_2015.pdf]]. <br />
<br />
== Parameter Chains ==<br />
<br />
We provide the full chains and getdist outputs for our parameter results. The entire grid of results is available from as a 3.7GB compressed file:<br />
<!--- * {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cosmo|name= COM_CosmoParams_R2.00.tar.gz|link=Full Grid Download}} ----><br />
* ''COM_CosmoParams_R2.nn.tar.gz''<br />
Where ''nn'' is the most recent update. You can also download smaller files containing key results in the base model: <br />
<!---* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cosmo|name=COM_CosmoParams_base_plikHM_TT_lowTEB_R2.00.tar.gz|link=Baseline LCDM chains with plikHM_TT_lowTEB}}<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cosmo|name=COM_CosmoParams_base_plikHM_TT_lowTEB_R2.00.tar.gz|link=Baseline LCDM chains with all plikHM combinations}}<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cosmo|name=COM_CosmoParams_base_lensonly_R2.00.tar.gz|link=CMB lensing only in LCDM}} ---><br />
* ''COM_CosmoParams_base_plikHM_TT_lowTEB_R2.nn.tar.gz''<br />
* ''COM_CosmoParams_base_plikHM_TT_lowTEB_R2.nn.tar.gz''<br />
* ''COM_CosmoParams_base_lensonly_R2.nn.tar.gz''<br />
<br />
The download contains a hierarchy of directories, with each separate chain in a separate directory. The structure for the directories is<br />
<br />
: '' base_AAA_BBB/XXX_YYY_.../''<br />
<br />
where AAA and BBB are any additional parameters that are varied in addition to the six parameters of the baseline model. XXX, YYY, etc encode the data combinations used. These follow the naming conventions described above under Parameter Tables. Each directory contains the main chains, 4-8 text files with one chain in each, and various other files all with names of the form<br />
<br />
: ''base_AAA_BBB_XXX_YYY.ext''<br />
<br />
where ''ext'' describes the type of file, and the possible values or ''ext'' are<br />
<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align:left" border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" width=800px<br />
|+ <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Extension || Data<br />
|-<br />
| '''.txt''' || parameter chain file with burn in removed<br />
|-<br />
| '''.paramnames''' || File that describes the parameters included in the chains<br />
|-<br />
| '''.inputparams''' || Input parameters used when generating the chain<br />
|-<br />
| '''.minimum''' || Best-fit parameter values, -log likelihoods and chi-square<br />
|-<br />
| '''.minimum.theory_cl''' || The best-fit temperature and polarization power spectra and lensing potential (see below)<br />
|-<br />
| '''.minimum.plik_foregrounds''' || The best-fit foreground model (additive component) for each data power spectrum used<br />
|-<br />
| '''.minimum.inputparams''' || Input parameters used when generating the best fit<br />
|-<br />
| '''.ranges''' || prior ranges assumed for each parameter<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
In addition each directory contains any importance sampled outputs with additional data. These have names of the form<br />
<br />
: ''base_AAA_BBB_XXX_YYY_post_ZZZ.ext''<br />
<br />
where ZZZ is the data likelihood that is added by importance sampling. Finally, each directory contains a ''dist'' subdirectory, containing results of chain analysis. File names follow the above conventions, with the following extensions<br />
<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align:left" border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" width=800px<br />
|+ <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Extension || Data<br />
|-<br />
| '''.margestats''' || mean, variance and 68, 95 and 99% limits for each parameter (see below)<br />
|-<br />
| '''.likestats''' || parameters of best-fitting sample in the chain (generally different from the .minmum global best-fit)<br />
|-<br />
| '''.covmat''' || Covariance matrix for the MCMC parameters<br />
|-<br />
| '''.corr''' || Correlation matrix for the parameters<br />
|-<br />
| '''.converge''' || A summary of various convergence diagnostics<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
Python scripts for reading in chains and calculating new derived parameter constraints are available as part of CosmoMC, see the readme for details [http://cosmologist.info/cosmomc/readme_planck.html]. The config directory in the download includes information about the grid configuration used by the plotting and grid scripts.<br />
<br />
== File formats ==<br />
<br />
The file formats are standard Jan 2015 CosmoMC outputs. CosmoMC includes python scripts for generating tables, 1D, 2D and 3D plots using the provided data, as well as a GUI for conveniently making plots from grid downloads. The formats are summarised here:<br />
<br />
; Chain files<br />
: Each chain file is ASCII and contains one sample on each line. Each line is of the format<br />
<br />
: '' weight like param1 param2 param3 …''<br />
<br />
: Here ''weight'' is the importance weight or multiplicity count, and ''like'' is the total -log Likelihood. ''param1'',''param2'', etc are the parameter values for the sample, where the numbering is defined by the position in the accompanying .paramnames files.<br />
<br />
: Note that burn in has been removed from the cosmomc outputs, so full chains provided can be used for analysis. Importance sampled results (with ''_post'') in the name have been thinned by a factor of 10 compared to the original chains, so the files are smaller, but this does not significantly affect the effective number of samples. Note that due to the way MCMC works, the samples in the chain outputs are not independent, but it is safe to use all the samples for estimating posterior averages.<br />
<br />
;.margestats files<br />
: Each row contains the marginalized constraint on individual parameters. The format is fairly self explanatory given the text description in the file, with each line of the form<br />
<br />
: '' parameter mean sddev lower1 upper1 limit1 lower2 upper2 limit2 lower3 upper3 limit3''<br />
<br />
: where sddev is the standard deviation, and the limits are 1: 68%, 2: 95%, 3: 99%. The limit tags specify whether a given limit is one tail, two tail or none (if no constraint within the assumed prior boundary). <br />
<br />
;.minimum.theory_cl files<br />
: They contain the best-fit theoretical power spectra (without foregrounds) for each model. The columns are: <math>l</math>, <math>D^{TT}_l</math>, <math>D^{TE}_l</math>, <math>D^{EE}_l</math>, <math>D^{BB}_l</math>, and <math>D^{dd}_l</math>, were <math>D_l \equiv l(l+1) C_l / (2\pi)</math> in <math>\mu{\rm K}^2</math>. Also <math>D^{dd}_l= [l(l+1)]^2 C^{\phi\phi}_l/(2\pi)</math> is the power spectrum of the lensing deflection angle, where <math>C^{\phi\phi}_l</math> is the lensing potential power spectrum. Note that the lensing spectrum may not be accurate at L > 400 due to the maximum wavenumber and non-linear correction accuracy settings.<br />
<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<br />
<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|009]]</div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=Main_Page&diff=11057Main Page2015-02-03T20:58:13Z<p>Amoneti: </p>
<hr />
<div><br />
<br />
'''<span style="font-size:180%"> <span style="color:Blue"> This is the Explanatory Supplement development page for the Planck 2015 data release </span><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
* Instructions for new users: [[Help:READ ME FIRST|Read me first]]<br />
* See [http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Help:Contents User's Guide] for a detailed User Guide of the MediaWiki software;<br />
* See [[Help:Contents|Explanatory Supplement Help page]] for Planck-specific guidelines.<br />
<br />
<br />
== [[:Category:Explanatory Supplement|Explanatory Supplement]] ==<br />
<br />
By the [[Planck Collaboration]]<br />
<br />
The Explanatory Supplement is a reference text accompanying the public data delivered from the operations of the European Space Agency’s Planck satellite during its mission.<br />
*[[Questions and Answers|Q&A from PR1]]<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Introduction_WiP|Introduction]]<br />
##[[The Planck mission_WiP|The Planck mission]] <br />
##[[The satellite_WiP|The spacecraft]]<br />
##[[Ground Segment and Operations|Ground segment and operations]]<br />
##[[Survey_scanning_and_performance|Survey scanning and performance]]<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[The Instruments_WiP|The Instruments]]<br />
##[[HFI design, qualification, and performance|HFI design, qualification, and performance]]<br />
###[[HFI_cryogenics | Cryogenics]]<br />
###[[HFI_cold_optics | Cold optics]]<br />
###[[HFI_detection_chain | Detection chain]]<br />
###[[HFI_operations | Operations]]<br />
###[[HFI_performance_summary | Performance summary]]<br />
###[[HFI_instrument_annexes | Annexes]]<br />
##[[LFI overview|LFI design, qualification, and performance]]<span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFIDescription| Instrument description]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFITests| Ground tests]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFICalibration| In-flight calibration]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFIPerformance| Performance summary]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFISystematics| Systematic effects]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#SCS| Sorption cooler]]<br />
###[[LFIAppendix| Annexes]]<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Data processing]]<br />
##[[The HFI DPC| HFI Data Processing]]<br />
###[[Pre-processing | Pre-processing]]<br />
###[[TOI processing|TOI processing]]<br />
###[[ADC correction]]<br />
###[[Beams | Beams]]<br />
###[[Map-making | Mapmaking]]<br />
###[[Spectral response | Spectral response]]<br />
###[[HFI-Validation | Internal overall validation]]<br />
###[[Power spectra | Power spectra]]<br />
###[[Summary_of_HFI_data_characteristics | Summary of HFI data characteristics]]<br />
##[[The LFI DPC| LFI data processing]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[Pre-processing_LFI| Pre-processing]]<br />
###[[TOI processing_LFI| TOI processing]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[Beams_LFI | Beams]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[Galactic stray light removal]]<br />
###[[Map-making_LFI | Mapmaking]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[LFI systematic effect uncertainties | Systematic effects uncertainties]]<br />
###[[LFI-Validation | Internal overall validation]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[L3_LFI | Power spectra]] <br />
###[[Summary_LFI | Summary of LFI data characteristics ]]<br />
##[[HFI/LFI joint data processing]]<br />
###[[Detector pointing| Detector pointing]]<br />
<!--- ###[[NoiseCovarMatrices | Noise covariance matrices and low-resolution maps ]] ---><br />
###[[Compact Source catalogues| Compact Source Catalogues]]<br />
###[[Astrophysical component separation]]<br />
###[[C2 | CMB Power spectra and Planck likelihood code]]<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Mission products]]<br />
##[[Timelines | Time-ordered data]]<br />
##[[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature and polarization maps]]<br />
<!--- ##[[NoiseCovariance | Noise covariance matrices and low-resolution maps ]]<span style="color:red">(Keskitalo)</span ---><br />
##[[The RIMO|Instrument model]] <br />
##[[Scanning Beams | Scanning Beams]]<br />
##[[Effective Beams | Effective beams]]<br />
##[[Catalogues|Catalogues]]: [[Catalogues#Catalogue of Compact Sources|PCCS]] • [[Catalogues#SZ Catalogue|PSZ]] • [[Catalogues#Catalogue_of_Planck_Galactic_Cold_Clumps|PGCC]]<br />
##[[CMB_and_astrophysical_component maps | CMB and astrophysical component maps]]<br />
##[[CMB spectrum & Likelihood Code | CMB spectrum and likelihood code]]<br />
##[[Cosmological Parameters | Cosmological parameters]]<br />
##[[Specially processed maps | Additional maps]]: [[Specially processed maps#Lensing map | Lensing map]] • [[Specially processed maps#Compton parameter map | Compton parameter map]] <br />
##[[Scientific data used to generate Planck products | Scientific data used to generate Planck products]]<br />
##[[Simulation data | Simulation data]] <!--: [[Simulation data#The Planck Sky Model|The Planck Sky Model]] • [[Simulation data#The Planck Simulator | The Planck Simulator]] • [[Simulation data#Products delivered | Products delivered]] --><br />
##[[DatesObs|Dates of observations]]<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Software utilities|Software utilities]]<br />
##[[Unit conversion and Color correction|Unit conversion and Colour correction]] <br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Operational data]]<br />
<!---##[[Thermal|Thermal and cooler system]]---><br />
##[[Survey history | Survey history data]]<br />
##[[Planck operational state history]]<br />
<!---##[[FOG|Fibre-optic gyro]]---><br />
##[[SREM|Space radiation environment monitor]]<br />
#[[Appendix]]<br />
##[[Glossary]]<br />
##[[List of acronyms]]<br />
[[Category:PSOBook]]</div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=Compact_Source_catalogues&diff=11056Compact Source catalogues2015-02-03T20:55:12Z<p>Amoneti: /* Planck High-z Candidates Catalogue */ removed this section for now</p>
<hr />
<div>==Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources==<br />
The Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources is a set of single frequency lists of sources, both Galactic and extragalactic, extracted from the Planck maps. <br />
<br />
The first public version of the PCCS was derived from the nominal mission data acquired by Planck between August 13 2009 and November 26 2010, as described in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p05}}. It consisted of nine lists of sources, one per channel between 30 and 857 GHz. The second public version of the catalogue (PCCS2) has been produced using the full mission data obtained between August 13 2009 and August 3 2013, as described in xxxx{{PlanckPapers|planck2014-XXXI}}, it consists of eighteen lists of sources, two lists per channel.<br />
<br />
The are three main differences between the PCCS and the PCCS2: <br />
<br />
<ol><br />
<li>The amount of data used to build the PCCS (Nominal Mission with 15.5 months) and PCCS2 (Full Mission with 48 months of data).</li><br />
<li>The inclusion of polarization information between 30 and 353 GHz, the seven Planck channels with polarization capabilities.</li><br />
<li>The division of the PCCS2 into two sets of catalogues, PCCS2 and PCCS2E, depending on our ability to validate their contents.</li><br />
</ol><br />
<br />
Both the 2013 PCCS and the 2014 PCCS2 can be downloaded from the [http://www.sciops.esa.int/index.php?project=planck&page=Planck_Legacy_Archive Planck Legacy Archive].<br />
<br />
=== Detection procedure ===<br />
The Mexican Hat Wavelet 2{{BibCite|nuevo2006}} {{BibCite|lopezcaniego2006}} is the base algorithm used to produce the single channel catalogues of the PCCS and the PCCS2. Although each DPC has is own implementation of this algorithm (IFCAMEX and HFI-MHW), the results are compatible at least at the statistical uncertainty level. Additional algorithms are also implemented, like the multi-frequency Matrix Multi-filters{{BibCite|herranz2009}} (MTXF) and the Bayesian PowellSnakes {{BibCite|carvalho2009}}. Both of them have been used both in PCCS and PCCS2 for the validation of the results obtained by the MHW2 in total intensity. <br />
<br />
In addition, two maximum likelihood methods have been used to do the anlysis in polarization. Both of them can be used to blindly dectect sources in polarization maps. However, the PCCS2 analysis has been performed in a non-blind fashion, looking at the positions of the sources detected in total intensity and providing an estimation of the polarized flux density. As in total intensity, each DPC has its own implementation of this code (IFCAPOL and PwSPOL). The IFCAPOL algorithm is based on the Filter Fusion technique {{BibCite|argueso2009}} and has been applied to WMAP maps {{BibCite|lopezcaniego2009}}. The PwSPOL algortihm is a modified version of PwS, the code used in the Early Release Compact Source catalogue {{PlanckPapers|planck2011-1-10}}. In practice, both of them are filtering methods based on matched filters, that filter the Q and U maps before attempting to estimate the flux density at each them.<br />
<br />
The detection of the compact sources is done locally on small flat patches to improve the efficiency of the process. The reason for this being that the filters can be optimized taking into accont the statistical properties of the background in the vicinity of the sources. In order to perform this local analysis, the full-sky maps are divided into a sufficient number of overlapping flat patches in such a way that 100% of the sky is covered. Each patch is then filtered by the MHW2 with a scale that is optimised to provide the maximum signal-to-noise ratio in the filtered maps. A sub-catalogue of objects is produced for each patch and then, at the end of the process, all the sub-catalogues are merged together, removing repetitions. Similarly, in polarization a flat patch centered at the position of the source detected in total intensity is obtained from the all-sky Q and U map. Then, a matched filter is computed taking into accoun the beam profile at each frequency and the power spectrum of each of the projected flat patches. In both cases the filters are normalized in such a way that they preserve the amplitude of the sources after filtering, while removing the large scale diffuse emission and the small scale noise fluctuation.<br />
<br />
The driving goal of the ERCSC was reliability greater than 90%. In order to increase completeness and explore possibly interesting new sources at fainter flux density levels, however, the initial overall reliability goal of the PCCS was reduced to 80%. The S/N thresholds applied to each frequency channel were determined, as far as possible, to meet this goal. The reliability of the PCCS catalogues has been assessed using the internal and external validation described below.<br />
<br />
At 30, 44, and 70 GHz, the reliability goal alone would permit S/N thresholds below 4. A secondary goal of minimizing the upward bias on flux densities led to the imposition of an S/N threshold of 4. <br />
<br />
At higher frequencies, where the confusion caused by the Galactic emission starts to become an issue, the sky was divided into two zones, one Galactic (52% of the sky) and one extragalactic (48% of the sky). At 100, 143, and 217 GHz, the S/N threshold needed to achieve the target reliability is determined in the extragalactic zone, but applied uniformly on sky. At 353, 545, and 857 GHz, the need to control confusion from Galactic cirrus emission led to the adoption of different S/N thresholds in the two zones. The extragalactic zone has a lower threshold than the Galactic zone. The S/N thresholds are given in [[Catalogues|Table 1]].<br />
<br />
In the PCCS2 we still have an 80% reliability goal, but a new approach has been followed. There was a demand for the possibility of producing an even higher reliability catalogue from Planck, and a new reliability flag has been added in the catalogues for this purpose.<br />
<br />
In this version of the PCCS2 we have splitted the catalogue into two, PCCS2 and PCCS2E, based on our ability to validate each of the sources. For the lower frequencies, between 30 and 70 GHz, we still use a S/N threshold of 4, although some of the unvalidated sources are in the 4-4.5 S/N threshold regime. Moreover, as it will be explained below, we use external catalogues and a multifrequency analysis to validate the sources. For the higher frequency channels, at 100 GHz and above, there is very little external information available to validate the catalogues and the validation has been done statistically and by applying galactic masks and cirrus masks.<br />
<br />
=== Photometry ===<br />
In addition of the native flux density estimation provided by the detection algorithm, three additional measurements are obtained for each of the source in the parent samples.<br />
These additional flux density estimations are based on aperture photometry, PSF fitting and Gaussian fitting (see {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p05}} for a detailed description of these additional photometries). The native flux density estimation is the only one that is obtained directly from the projected filtered maps while for the others the flux density estimates has a local background subtracted. The flux density estimations have not been colour corrected because that would limit the usability of the catalogue. Colour corrections are available in Section 7.4 of the LFI DPC paper '''REF''' and Section ?.? of the HFI DPC paper '''Ref'''.<br />
<br />
=== Validation process ===<br />
The PCCS, its sources and the four different estimates of the flux density, have undergone an extensive internal and external validation process to ensure the quality of the catalogues. The validation of the non-thermal radio sources can be done with a large number of existing catalogues, whereas the validation of thermal sources is mostly done with simulations. These two approaches will be discussed below. Detections identified with known sources have been appropriately flagged in the catalogues.<br />
<br />
==== Internal validation ====<br />
The catalogues have been validated through an internal Monte-Carlo quality assessment process that uses large numbers of source injection and detection loops to characterize their properties, both in total intensity and polarization. For each channel, we calculate statistical quantities describing the quality of detection, photometry and astrometry of the detection code. The detection in total intensity is described by the completeness and reliability of the catalogue: completeness is a function of intrinsic flux, the selection threshold applied to detection (S/N) and location, while reliability is a function only of the detection S/N. The quality of photometry and astrometry is assessed through direct comparison of detected position and flux density parameters with the known inputs of matched sources. An input source is considered to be detected if a detection is made within one beam FWHM of the injected position. In polarization, we have also made Monte-Carlo quality assesments injecting polarized sources in the maps and attempting to detect and characterize their properties. In the three lowest frequencies, the sources have been injected in the real Q and U maps, while at 100 Ghz and above, the Full Focal Plane 8 simulations have been used.<br />
<br />
==== External validation ====<br />
At the three lowest frequencies of Planck, it is possible to validate the PCCS source identifications, completeness, reliability, positional accuracy and flux density accuracy using external data sets, particularly large-area radio surveys (NEWPS, AT20G, CRATES). Moreover, the external validation offers the opportunity for an absolute validation of the different photometries, directly related with the calibration and the knowledge of the beams. We have used several external catalogues to validate the data, but one additional excercise has been done. Simulatenous observations of a sample of 92 sources has been carried out in the Very Large Array, the Australia Compact Array and Planck at 30 and 44 GHz. Special Planck maps have been made covering just the observation period to avoid having more than one observation of the same source in the maps, minimizing the variability effects. As a result of this exercise, we have been able to validate our flux densities at the few percent level. Since Planck calibration use the CMB Dipole and it is independent from calibration used by the ground based, we can provide an independent flux density scale between Planck, the VLA and ATCA.<br />
<br />
At higher frequencies, surveys as the South-Pole Telescope (SPT), the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) and H-ATLAS or HERMES form Herschel are very important, although only for limited regions of the sky. In particular, the Herschel synergy is crucial to study the possible contamination of the catalogues caused by the Galactic cirrus at high frequencies.<br />
<br />
=== Cautionary notes ===<br />
We list here some cautionary notes for users of the PCCS.<br />
<br />
* Variability: At radio frequencies, many of the extragalactic sources are highly variable. A small fraction of them vary even on time scales of a few hours based on the brightness of the same source as it passes through the different Planck horns {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p02}}{{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p03}}. Follow-up observations of these sources might show significant differences in flux density compared to the values in the data products. Although the maps used for the PCCS are based on 2.6 sky coverages, the PCCS provides only a single average flux density estimate over all Planck data samples that were included in the maps and does not contain any measure of the variability of the sources from survey to survey.<br />
<br />
* Contamination from CO: At infrared/submillimetre frequencies (100 GHz and above), the Planck bandpasses straddle energetically significant CO lines (see {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p03a}}). The effect is the most significant at 100 GHz, where the line might contribute more than 50% of the measured flux density. Follow-up observations of these sources, especially those associated with Galactic star-forming regions, at a similar frequency but different bandpass, should correct for the potential contribution of line emission to the measured continuum flux density of the source.<br />
<br />
* Bandpass corrections: For many sources in the three lowest Planck frequency channels, the bandpass correction of the Q and U flux densities is not negligible. Even though we have attempted to correct for this effect on a source by source basis and have propagated this uncertainty into the error bars on the polarized flux densities and polarization angles; there is still room for improvement. This can be seen in the residual leakage present at the position of Taurus A in the Stokes U maps. It is anticipated that there will be future updates to the LFI PCCS2 catalogues once the bandpass corrections and errors have been improved.<br />
<br />
* Photometry: Each source has multiple estimates of flux den- sity, DETFLUX, APERFLUX, GAUFLUX and PSFFLUX, as defined above. The evaluation of APERFLUX makes the small- est number of assumptions about the data and hence is the most robust, especially in regions of high non-Gaussian back- ground emission, but it may have larger uncertainties than the other methods. For bright resolved sources, GAUFLUX is rec- ommend, with the caveat that it may not be robust for sources close to the Galactic plane due to the strong backgrounds.<br />
<br />
* Colour correction: The flux density estimates have not been colour corrected. Colour corrections are described in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p02}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p03}}.<br />
<br />
* Cirrus/ISM: The upper bands of HFI, could be contaminated with sources associated with Galactic interstellar medium features (ISM) or cirrus. The values of the parameters, CIRRUS N and SKY BRIGHTNESS in the catalogues may be used as indicators of contamination. CIRRUS N may be used to flag sources that might be clustered together and thereby associated with ISM structure. In order to provide some indications of the range of values of these parameters which could indicate contamination, we compared the properties of the IRAS-identified and non-IRAS-identified sources for both the PCCS2 and the PCCS2E, as outside the galactic plane, at galactic latitudes |b| > 20◦, we can use the RIIFSCz {{BibCite|wang2014}} to provide a guide as to the likely nature of sources. We cross match the PCCS2 857 GHz catalogue and the PCCS2E 857 GHz catalogue to the IRAS sources in the RIIFSCz using a 3 arcmin matching radius. Of the 4891 sources in the PCCS2 857 GHz catalogue 3094 have plausible IRAS counterparts while 1797 do not. Examination of histograms of the CIRRUS N and SKY BRIGHTNESS parame- ters in the PCCS2 show that these two classes of objects behave rather differently. The IRAS-identified sources have a peak sky brightness at about 1 MJy.sr−1. The non-IRAS-identified sources have a bimodal distribution with a slight peak at 1 MJy.sr−1 and a second peak at about 2.6 MJy.sr−1 . Both distributions have a long tail, but the non-IRAS-Identified tail is much longer. On this basis sources with SKY BRIGHTNESS > 4 MJy.sr−1 should be treated with caution. In contrast non-IRAS-identified sources with SKY BRIGHTNESS < 1.4 MJy.sr−1 are likely reliable. Examination of their sky distribution, for example, shows that many such sources lie in the IRAS coverage gaps. The CIRRUS N flag tells a rather similar story. Both IRAS-matched and IRAS non-matched sources have a peak CIRRUS N value of 2, but the non-matched sources have a far longer tail. Very few IRAS-matched sources have a value > 8 but many non- matched sources do. These should be treated with caution. The PCCS2E 857 GHz catalogue contains 10470 sources with |b| > 20◦ of which 1235 are matched to IRAS sources in the RIIFSCz and 9235 are not. As with the PCCS2 catalogue the distributions of CIRRUS N and SKY BRIGHTNESS are different, with the differences even more pronounced for these PCCS2E sources. Once again, few IRAS-matched sources have SKY BRIGHTNESS > 4 MJy.sr−1 , but the non-matched sources have brightnesses extending to >55MJy.sr−1. Similarly hardly any of the IRAS-matched sources have CIRRUS N > 8 but nearly half the unmatched sources do. The WHICH ZONE flag in the PCCS2E encodes the region in which the source sits, be it inside the filament mask (WHICH ZONE=1), the Galactic region (WHICH ZONE=2), or both (WHICH ZONE=3). Of the 9235 PCCS2E 857GHz sources that do not match an IRAS source and that lie in the region, |b| > 20◦, 1850 (20%) have WHICH ZONE=1, 2637 (29 %) have WHICH ZONE=2 and 4748 (51 %) have WHICH ZONE=3. The PCCS2E covers 30.36 % of the region, |b| > 20◦ , where 2.47 % is in the filament mask, 23.15 % in the Galactic region and 4.74 % in both. If the 9235 unmatched detections were distributed uniformly over the region, |b| > 20◦, we can predict the number of non-matched sources in each zone and compare this to the values we have. We find that there are 2.5 and 3.3 times more sources than expected in zones 1 and 3, showing that the filament mask is indeed a useful criterion for regarding sources detected within it as sus- picious. It should be noted that the EXTENDED flag could also be used to identify ISM features, but nearby Galactic and extra-galactic sources that are extended at Planck spatial resolution will also meet this criterion.<br />
<br />
<!--- ---------------------------------------><br />
<br />
==Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich catalogue==<br />
<br />
The Planck SZ catalogue is a nearly full-sky list of SZ detections obtained from the Planck data. It is fully described in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p05a}}. The catalogue is derived from the HFI frequency channel maps after masking and filling the bright point sources (SNR >= 10) from the PCCS catalogues in those channels. Three detection pipelines were used to construct the catalogue, two implementations of the matched multi-filter (MMF) algorithm and PowellSnakes (PwS), a Bayesian algorithm. All three pipelines use a circularly symmetric pressure profile, the non-standard universal profile from {{BibCite|arnaud2010}}, in the detection.<br />
<br />
* MMF1 and MMF3 are full-sky implementations of the MMF algorithm. The matched filter optimizes the cluster detection using a linear combination of maps, which requires an estimate of the statistics of the contamination. It uses spatial filtering to suppress both foregrounds and noise, making use of the prior knowledge of the cluster pressure profile and thermal SZ spectrum.<br />
<br />
* PwS differs from the MMF methods. It is a fast Bayesian multi-frequency detection algorithm designed to identify and characterize compact objects in a diffuse background. The detection process is based on a statistical model comparison test. Detections may be accepted or rejected based on a generalized likelihood ratio test or in full Bayesian mode. These two modes allow quantities measured by PwS to be consistently compared with those of the MMF algorithms.<br />
<br />
A union catalogue is constructed from the detections by all three pipelines. A mask to remove Galactic dust, nearby galaxies and point sources (leaving 83.7% of the sky) is applied a posteriori to avoid detections in areas where foregrounds are likely to cause spurious detections.<br />
<br />
<br />
== Catalogue of ''Planck'' Galactic Cold Clumps ==<br />
<br />
The catalogue of ''Planck'' Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCC) is a list of 13188 Galactic sources and 54 sources located in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds, identified as cold sources in Planck data, as described in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a37}}. The sources are extracted with the CoCoCoDeT algorithm {{BibCite|Montier2010}}, using Planck-HFI 857, 545, and 353 GHz maps and the 3 THz IRIS map <br />
{{BibCite|Miville2005}}, upgraded version of the IRAS data, at 5 arcmin resolution. This is the first all-sky catalogue of Galactic cold sources obtained with homogeneous method and data.<br />
<br />
The CoCoCoDeT detection algorithm uses the 3 THz map as a spatial template of a warm background component. Local estimates of the average colour of the background are derived at 30 arcmin resolution around each pixel of the maps at 857, 545, and 353 GHz. Together these describe a local warm component that is subtracted, leaving 857, 545, and 353 GHz maps of the cold residual component map over the full sky. A point source detection algorithm is applied to these three maps. A detection requires S/N > 4 in pixels in all Planck bands and a minimum angular distance of 5 arcmin to other detections.<br />
<br />
A 2D Gaussian fit provides an estimate of the positional angle and FWHM size along the major and minor axes. The ellipse defined by the FWHM values is used in aperture photometry to derive the flux density estimates in all four bands. Based on the quality of the flux density estimates in all four bands, PGCC sources are divided into three categories of FLUX_QUALITY:<br />
* FLUX_QUALITY=1 : sources with flux density estimates at S/N > 1 in all bands ;<br />
* FLUX_QUALITY=2 : sources with flux density estimates at S/N > 1 only in 857, 545, and 353 GHz Planck bands, considered as very cold source candidates ;<br />
* FLUX_QUALITY=3 : sources without any reliable flux density estimates, listed as poor candidates.<br />
We also raise a flag on the blending between sources which can be used to quantify the reliability of the aperture photometry processing.<br />
<br />
To estimate possible contamination by extragalactic sources we (1) cross-correlated the positions with catalogues of extragalactic sources, (2) rejected detections with SED [in colour-colour plots] consistent with radio sources, and (3) rejected detections with clear association to extragalactic sources visible in DSS images. Compared to the original number of sources, these only resulted in a small number of rejections.<br />
<br />
Distance estimates have been obtained for 5574 sources with estimates ranging from hundreds of pc in local molecular clouds up to 10.5 kpc along the Galactic plane, combining seven different methods. The methods include cross-correlation with kinematic distances previously listed for infrared dark clouds (IRDCs), optical and near-infrared extinction using SDSS and 2MASS data, respectively, association with molecular clouds with known distances, and finally referencing parallel work done on a small sample of sources followed-up with Herschel. Most PGCC sources appear to be located in the solar neighbourhood.<br />
<br />
The derived physical properties of the PGCC sources are: temperature, column density, physical size, mass, density and luminosity.<br />
PGCC sources exhibit a average temperature of about 14K, and ranging from 5.8 to 20K. They span a large range of physical properties (such as column density, mass and density) covering a large varety of objects, from dense cold cores to large molecular clouds.<br />
<br />
The validation of this catalogue has been performed with a Monte Carlo Quality Assessment analysis wich allowed us to quantify the statistical reliability of the flux densities and of the source position and geometry estimates. The position accuracy is better than 0.2' and 0.8' for 68% and 95% of the sources, respectively, while the ellipticity of the sources is recovered with an accuracy better than 10% at 1<math>\sigma</math>. This kind o analysis is also very powerful to characterize the selection function of the CoCoCoDeT algorithm applied on Planck data. The completeness of the detection has been studied as a function of the temperature of the injected sources. It has been shown that sources with FLUX_QUALITY=2 are effectively sources with low temperatures and have a high completeness level for temperature below 10K.<br />
<br />
We computed the cross-correlation between the PGCC catalogue and the other internal ''Planck'' catalogues: PCCS2, PCCS2E, PSZ and PH''z''. The PGCC catalogue contains about 45% new sources, not simultaneously detected in the 857, 545, and 353 GHz bands of the PCCS2 and PCCS2E. A few sources (65) are also detected in the PSZ2 and PGCC catalogues, suggesting a dusty nature of these candidates. Finally there are only 15 sources in common between the PGCC and PHz (which is focused on extragalactic sources at high redshift), that require further analysis to elucidate.<br />
<br />
The PGCC catalogue contains also 54 sources located in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds (SMC and LMC), two nearby galaxies which are so close that we can identify individual clumps in them.<br />
<br />
<br />
<!--- ---------------------------------------><br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<br />
<References /> <br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:HFI/LFI joint data processing|002]]</div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=Catalogues&diff=11055Catalogues2015-02-03T20:54:10Z<p>Amoneti: /* Catalogue of High-z Candidates */ removed this section</p>
<hr />
<div>==Catalogue of Compact Sources==<br />
<br />
The second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources (PCCS2) is a set of single-frequency source catalogues extracted from the Planck full-mission maps in intensity and polarization. The catalogues have been constructed as described in [[Compact_Source_catalogues#Planck_Catalogue_of_Compact_Sources|PCCS]] and in section 2 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a35}}. The validation of the catalogues is described in section 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a35}}.<br />
<br />
The PCCS2 is divided into two sub-catalogues in each frequency channel. The main PCCS2 catalogues consist of the sources detected in regions of the sky where it is possible to estimate the reliability of the detections, either statistically or by using external catalogues. Sources detected in regions of the sky where it is not possible to make an estimate of their reliability have been excluded from the main catalogue, but have been made available as the PCCS2E. By definition, the reliability of the PCCS2 is &ge; 80%, and a flag is available that allows the user to select a subsample of sources with a higher level of reliability (e.g., 90% or 95%).<br />
<br />
The nine Planck full-mission frequency channel maps are used as input to the source detection pipelines. They contain 48 months of data for LFI channels and 29 months of data for HFI channels. Therefore the flux densities of sources obtained from the full-mission maps are the average of at least 8 observations for LFI channels or at least 4 observations for HFI channels. The relevant properties of the frequency maps and main parameters used to generate the catalogues are summarized in Tables 1 and 2.<br />
<br />
Four different photometry methods have been used. For one of the methods, the native photometry from the Mexican hat wavelet detection algorithm, the analysis is performed on patches containing tangent plane projections of the map. For the other methods (aperture photometry, point spread function fitting, and Gaussian fitting), the analysis is performed directly on the full-sky maps.<br />
<br />
<center>'''PCCS2 in Intensity'''</center><br />
<br />
[[File:COMB_30_143_857_PCCS2.png|800px|thumb|center|Sky distribution of the PCCS2 intensity sources at three different channels: 30 GHz (red circles), 143 GHz (blue circles) and 857 GHz (green circles). The dimension of the circles is related to the brightness of the sources and the beam size of each channel.]]<br />
<br />
<center>'''PCCS2E in Intensity'''</center><br />
<br />
[[File:COMB_30_143_857_PCCSE2a.png|800px|thumb|center|Sky distribution of the PCCS2E intensity sources at three different channels: 30 GHz (red circles), 143 GHz (blue circles) and 857 GHz (green circles).]]<br />
<br />
The analysis in polarization has been performed in a non-blind fashion, looking at the position of the sources previously detected in intensity. As a result, polarization flux densities and polarization angles have been measured for hundreds of sources with a significance >99.99%. This high threshold in significance has been chosen to minimize the possibility of misinterpreting a peak of the polarized background as a source. This implies that, in general, most of the polarized sources are very bright, introducing an additional selection effect.<br />
<br />
<center>'''PCCS2 in Polarization'''</center><br />
<br />
[[File:PCCS_POL_30_44_70.png|800px|thumb|center|Sky distribution of the PCCS2 polarization sources at three different channels: 30GHz (red circles), 44GHz (green circles) and 70GHz (blue circles).]]<br />
<br />
[[File:PCCS_POL_100_143_217_353.png|800px|thumb|center|Sky distribution of the PCCS2 polarization sources at three different channels: 100GHz (red circles), 143GHz (blue circles) and 217GHz (green circles) and 353 GHz (black).]]<br />
<br />
<center>'''PCCS2E in Polarization'''</center><br />
<br />
[[File:PCCS_POL_30_44_70_E.png|800px|thumb|center|Sky distribution of the PCCS2E polarization sources at three different channels: 30GHz (red circles), 44GHz (green circles) and 70GHz (blue circles).]]<br />
<br />
[[File:PCCS_POL_100_143_217_353_E.png|800px|thumb|center|Sky distribution of the PCCS2E polarization sources at three different channels: 100GHz (red circles), 143GHz (blue circles) and 217GHz (green circles) and 353 GHz (black).]]<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" width=750px<br />
|+ '''Table 1: PCCS2 and PCCS2E characteristics.'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Channel || 30 || 44 || 70 || 100 || 143 || 217 || 353 || 545 || 857<br />
|- <br />
| '''Frequency [GHz]''' || 28.4 || 44.1 || 70.4 || 100.0 || 143.0 || 217.0 || 353.0 || 545.0 || 857.0<br />
|- <br />
|'''Wavelength [&mu;m]''' || 10561 || 6807 || 4260 || 3000 || 2098 || 1382 || 850 || 550 || 350<br />
|-<br />
!colspan="1" |Number of sources<br />
|-<br />
| PCCS2 || 1435 || 830 || 1101 || 1742 || 2160 || 2135 || 1344 || 1694 || 4891<br />
|-<br />
| PCCS2E ||125 || 104 || 195 || 2487 || 4139 || 16842 || 22665 || 31068 || 43290<br />
|-<br />
| Union PCCS2+PCCS2E || 1560 || 934 || 1296 || 4229 || 6299 || 18977 || 24009 || 32762 || 48181<br />
|-<br />
!colspan="10" |Number of sources in the extragalactic zone<sup>a</sup>.<br />
|-<br />
| PCCS2 || 723 || 346 || 441 || 1742 || 2160 || 2135 || 1344 || 1694 || 4891<br />
|-<br />
| PCCS2E || 22 || 21 || 63 || 0 || 0 || 26 || 289 || 839 || 2097<br />
|-<br />
| Union PCCS2+PCSS2E || 745 || 367 || 504 || 1742 || 2160 || 2161 || 1633 || 2533 || 6988<br />
|-<br />
!colspan="10" |Flux densities [mJy] in the extragalactic zone<sup>a</sup> .<br />
|-<br />
!colspan="1" |PCCS2<br />
|-<br />
| minimum<sup>b</sup> || 378 || 621 || 456 || 232 || 147 || 127 || 242 || 535 || 720<br />
|-<br />
| 90% completeness || 427 || 692 || 501 || 269 || 177 || 152 || 304 || 555 || 791<br />
|-<br />
| uncertainty || 78 || 127 || 92 || 55 || 35 || 29 || 55 || 105 || 168<br />
|-<br />
!colspan="1" |PCCS2E<br />
|-<br />
| minimum<sup>b</sup> || 356 || 494 || 398 || &mdash; || &mdash; || 189 || 350 || 597 || 939<br />
|-<br />
| 90% completeness || 468 || 708 || 501 || &mdash; || &mdash; || 144 || 311 || 557 || 927<br />
|-<br />
| uncertainty || 86 || 134 || 95 || &mdash; || &mdash; || 35 || 73 || 144 || 278<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
'''Table 1 Notes'''<br />
<br />
'''a''' 30-70 GHz: the extragalactic zone is given by |b| > 30&deg;. 100-857 GHz: outside of galactic region where the reliability cannot be accurately assessed. Note that for the PCCS2E the only sources which occur in this region lie in the filament mask.<br />
<br />
'''b''' Minimum flux density of the catalogue in the extragalactic zone after excluding the faintest 10% of sources.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" width=750px<br />
|+ '''Table 2: PCCS2 & PCCS2E polarization characteristics for sources with polarized emission significance > 99.99%'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!Channel || 30 || 44 || 70 || 100 || 143 || 217 || 353<br />
|-<br />
|Number of significantly polarized sources in PCCS2 || 113 || 29 || 33 || 20 || 25 || 11 || 1<br />
|-<br />
|Minimum polarized flux density<sup>a</sup> [mJy] || 117 || 181 || 284 || 138 || 148 || 166 || 453<br />
|-<br />
|Polarized flux density uncertainty [mJy] || 46 || 88 || 91 || 30 || 26 || 30 || 81<br />
|-<br />
|Minimum polarized flux density completeness 90% [mJy] || 199 || 412 || 397 || 135 || 100 || 136 || 347<br />
|-<br />
|Minimum polarized flux density completeness 95% [mJy] || 251 || 468 || 454 || 160 || 111 || 153 || 399<br />
|-<br />
|Minimum polarized flux density completeness 100% [mJy] || 600 || 700 || 700 || 250 || 147 || 257 || 426<br />
|-<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
|Number of significantly polarized sources in PCCS2E || 9 || 1 || 1 || 43 || 111 || 325 || 666<br />
|-<br />
|Minimum polarized flux density<sup>a</sup> [mJy] || 101 || 2922 || 398 || 121 || 87 || 114 || 348<br />
|-<br />
|Polarized flux density uncertainty [mJy] || 44 || 254 || 116 || 52 || 44 || 55 || 178<br />
|-<br />
|Minimum polarized flux density completeness 90% [mJy] || &mdash; || &mdash; || &mdash; || 410 || 613 || 270 || 567<br />
|-<br />
|Minimum polarized flux density completeness 95% [mJy] || &mdash; || &mdash; || &mdash; || 599 || 893 || 464 || 590<br />
|-<br />
|Minimum polarized flux density completeness 100% [mJy] || &mdash; || &mdash; || &mdash; || 835 || 893 || 786 || 958<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
'''Table 2 Notes'''<br />
<br />
'''a''' Minimum polarized flux density of the catalogue of significantly polarised sources after excluding the faintest 10% of sources.<br />
<br />
=== Catalogues ===<br />
<br />
The PCCS2 catalogues are contained in the FITS files:<br />
<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_030_R2.02.fits|link=COM_PCCS_030_R2.02.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_044_R2.02.fits|link=COM_PCCS_044_R2.02.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_070_R2.02.fits|link=COM_PCCS_070_R2.02.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_100_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_100_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_143_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_143_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_217_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_217_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_353_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_353_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_545_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_545_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_857_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_857_R2.01.fits}}<br />
<br />
and the PCCS2E catalogues are contained in the FITS files:<br />
<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_030-excluded_R2.02.fits|link=COM_PCCS_030-excluded_R2.02.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_044-excluded_R2.02.fits|link=COM_PCCS_044-excluded_R2.02.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_070-excluded_R2.02.fits|link=COM_PCCS_070-excluded_R2.02.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_100-excluded_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_100-excluded_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_143-excluded_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_143-excluded_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_217-excluded_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_217-excluded_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_353-excluded_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_353-excluded_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_545-excluded_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_545-excluded_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_857-excluded_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_857-excluded_R2.01.fits}}<br />
<br />
The structure of these files is as follows:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" width=800px style="text-align:left" <br />
|+ '''PCCS2/PCCS2E FITS file structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Extension 0: Primary header, no data<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! FITS Keyword || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|- <br />
|INSTRUME || String || || Instrument (LFI / HFI)<br />
|- <br />
| VERSION || String || || Version of PCCS (PCCS2 / PCCS2_E)<br />
|- <br />
| DATE || String || || Date file created: yyyy-mm-dd <br />
|- <br />
| ORIGIN || String || || Name of organization responsible for the data (LFI-DPC / HFI-DPC) <br />
|- <br />
| TELESCOP || String || || Telescope (PLANCK)<br />
|- <br />
| CREATOR || String || || Pipeline Version <br />
|- <br />
| DATE-OBS || String || days || Beginning of the survey: yyyy-mm-dd <br />
|- <br />
| DATE-END || String || days || End of the survey: yyyy-mm-dd<br />
|- <br />
| FWHM || Real*4 || arcmin || FWHM from an elliptical Gaussian fit to the effective beam<br />
|- <br />
| OMEGA_B || Real*4 || arcmin<sup>2</sup> || Area of the effective beam<br />
|- <br />
| FWHM_EFF || Real*4 || arcmin || FWHM computed from OMEGA_B assuming beam is Gaussian<br />
|- <br />
| OMEGA_B1 || Real*4 || arcmin<sup>2</sup> || Beam area within a radius of 1 &times; FWHM_EFF<br />
|- <br />
| OMEGA_B2 || Real*4 || arcmin<sup>2</sup> || Beam area within a radius of 2 &times; FWHM_EFF<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Extension 1: BINTABLE, EXTNAME = PCCS2_''fff'' (where ''fff'' is the frequency channel)<br />
|-bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4"|Identification<br />
|-<br />
|NAME || String || || Source name (see note 1)<br />
|-bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4"|Source position<br />
|-<br />
|GLON || Real*8 || degrees || Galactic longitude based on extraction algorithm<br />
|-<br />
|GLAT || Real*8 || degrees || Galactic latitude based on extraction algorithm<br />
|-<br />
|RA || Real*8 || degrees || Right ascension (J2000) transformed from (GLON,GLAT)<br />
|-<br />
|DEC || Real*8 || degrees || Declination (J2000) transformed from (GLON,GLAT)<br />
|-bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4"|Photometry<br />
|-<br />
|DETFLUX || Real*4 || mJy || Flux density of source as determined by detection method<br />
|-<br />
|DETFLUX_ERR || Real*4 || mJy || Uncertainty (1 sigma) in derived flux density from detection method<br />
|-<br />
|APERFLUX || Real*4 || mJy || Flux density of source as determined from the aperture photometry<br />
|-<br />
|APERFLUX_ERR || Real*4 || mJy || Uncertainty (1 sigma) in derived flux density from the aperture photometry<br />
|-<br />
|PSFFLUX || Real*4 || mJy || Flux density of source as determined from PSF fitting<br />
|-<br />
|PSFFLUX_ERR || Real*4 || mJy || Uncertainty (1 sigma) in derived flux density from PSF fitting<br />
|-<br />
|GAUFLUX || Real*4 || mJy || Flux density of source as determined from 2-D Gaussian fitting<br />
|-<br />
|GAUFLUX_ERR || Real*4 || mJy || Uncertainty (1 sigma) in derived flux density from 2-D Gaussian fitting<br />
|-<br />
|GAU_SEMI1 || Real*4 || arcmin || Gaussian fit along axis 1 (FWHM; see note 2 for axis definition)<br />
|-<br />
|GAU_SEMI1_ERR || Real*4 || arcmin || Uncertainty (1 sigma) in derived Gaussian fit along axis 1<br />
|-<br />
|GAU_SEMI2 || Real*4 || arcmin || Gaussian fit along axis 2 (FWHM)<br />
|-<br />
|GAU_SEMI2_ERR || Real*4 || arcmin || Uncertainty (1 sigma) in derived Gaussian fit along axis 2<br />
|-<br />
|GAU_THETA || Real*4 || deg || Gaussian fit orientation angle (see note 2)<br />
|-<br />
|GAU_THETA_ERR || Real*4 || deg || Uncertainty (1 sigma) in derived gaussian fit orientation angle<br />
|-<br />
|GAU_FWHM_EFF || Real*4 || arcmin || Gaussian fit effective FWHM<br />
|-bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4"|Polarization measurements (30-353 GHz only)<br />
|-<br />
|P || Real*4 || mJy || Polarization flux density of the sources as determined by a matched filter (see note 3)<br />
|-<br />
|P_ERR || Real*4 || mJy || Uncertainty (1 sigma) in derived polarization flux density (see note 3)<br />
|-<br />
|ANGLE_P || Real*4 || degrees || Orientation of polarization with respect to NGP (see notes 2 and 3)<br />
|-<br />
|ANGLE_P_ERR || Real*4 || degrees || Uncertainty (1 sigma) in orientation of polarization (see note 3)<br />
|-<br />
|APER_P || Real*4 || mJy || Polarization flux density of the sources as determined by aperture photometry (see note 3)<br />
|-<br />
|APER_P_ERR || Real*4 || mJy || Uncertainty (1 sigma) in derived polarization flux density (see note 3)<br />
|-<br />
|APER_ANGLE_P || Real*4 || degrees || Orientation of polarization with respect to NGP (see notes 2 and 3)<br />
|-<br />
|APER_ANGLE_P_ERR || Real*4 || degrees || Uncertainty (1 sigma) in orientation of polarization (see note 3)<br />
|-<br />
|P_UPPER_LIMIT || Real*4 || mJy || Polarization flux density 99.99% upper limit. This is provided only when P column is set to NULL; otherwise this column itself contains a NULL.<br />
|-<br />
|APER_P_UPPER_LIMIT || Real*4 || mJy || Polarization flux density 99.99% upper limit. This is provided only when APER_P column is set to NULL; otherwise this column itself contains a NULL.<br />
|-bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4"|Marginal polarization measurements (100-353 GHz only) &ndash; see note 4<br />
|-<br />
|P_STAT || Integer*2 || || Polarization detection status<br />
|-<br />
|PX || Real*4|| mJy || Polarization flux density of the sources as determined by a matched filter using Bayesian polarization estimator.<br />
|-<br />
|PX_ERR_LOWER || Real*4|| mJy || PX uncertainty; lower 95% error bar<br />
|-<br />
|PX_ERR_UPPER || Real*4|| mJy || PX uncertainty; upper 95% error bar<br />
|-<br />
|ANGLE_PX || Real*4|| degrees || Orientation of polarization with respect to NGP using Bayesian polarization estimator (see note 2)<br />
|-<br />
|ANGLE_PX_ERR_LOWER || Real*4|| degrees || ANGLE_PX uncertainty; lower 95% error bar<br />
|-<br />
|ANGLE_PX_ERR_UPPER || Real*4|| degrees || ANGLE_PX uncertainty; upper 95% error bar<br />
|-bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4"|Flags and validation<br />
|-<br />
|EXTENDED || Integer*2 || || Extended source flag (see note 5)<br />
|-<br />
|EXT_VAL || Integer*2 || || External validation flag (see note 6)<br />
|-<br />
|ERCSC || String || || Name of the ERCSC counterpart, if any <br />
|-<br />
|PCCS || String || || Name of the PCCS counterpart, if any <br />
|-bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4"|Flags and validation (PCCS2 only)<br />
|-<br />
|HIGHEST_RELIABILITY_CAT || Integer*4 || || See note 7<br />
|-bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4"|Flags and validation (PCCS2E 100-857 GHz only)<br />
|-<br />
|WHICH_ZONE || Integer*2 || || See note 8<br />
|-bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4"|Flags and validation (217-857 GHz only)<br />
|-<br />
|CIRRUS_N || Integer*2 || || Number of sources (S/N > 5) detected at 857 GHz within a 1-degree radius.<br />
|-<br />
|SKY_BRIGHTNESS || Real*4 || MJy/sr || The mean 857 GHz brightness within a 2-degree radius. This may be used as another indicator of cirrus contamination.<br />
|-bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4"| Flux densities at other frequencies (857 GHz only)<br />
|-<br />
|APERFLUX_217 || Real*4 || mJy || Estimated flux density at 217 GHz<br />
|-<br />
|APERFLUX_ERR_217 || Real*4 || mJy || Uncertainty in flux density at 217 GHz<br />
|-<br />
|APERFLUX_353 || Real*4 || mJy || Estimated flux density at 353 GHz<br />
|-<br />
|APERFLUX_ERR_353 || Real*4 || mJy || Uncertainty in flux density at 353 GHz<br />
|-<br />
|APERFLUX_545 || Real*4 || mJy || Estimated flux density at 545 GHz<br />
|-<br />
|APERFLUX_ERR_545 || Real*4 || mJy || Uncertainty in flux density at 545 GHz<br />
|}<br />
<br />
'''Notes'''<br />
# Format is <tt>PCCS2 fff Glll.ll&plusmn;bb.bb</tt> for sources in the PCCS2 and <tt>PCCS2E fff Glll.ll&plusmn;bb.bb</tt> for sources in the PCCS2E, where fff is the frequency channel and (l, b) is the position of the source in Galactic coordinates truncated to two decimal places.<br />
# We follow the IAU/IEEE convention (Hamaker & Bregman 1996) for defining the angle of polarization of a source, and this convention is also used for the other angles in the catalogue. The angle is measured from the North Galactic Pole in a clockwise direction from -90 to 90 degrees.<br />
# Provided when the significance of the polarization measurement is > 99.99% and set to NULL otherwise.<br />
# The P_STAT flag gives the status of the marginal polarization detection, possible values are:<br />
#: 3 &ndash; Bright: P field filled in; all PX fields set to NULL.<br />
#: 2 &ndash; Significant: P field is set to NULL; 0 is outside the PX 95% HPD; all PX fields are filled.<br />
#: 1 &ndash; Marginal: P field is set to NULL; 0 is inside the PX 95% HPD, but mode of PX posterior distribution is not 0; all PX fields are filled.<br />
#: 0 &ndash; No detection: P field is set to NULL; mode of PX posterior distribution is 0; PX_ERRL, ANGLE_PX, ANGLE_PX_ERR_LOWER, and ANGLE_PX_ERR_UPPER are set to NULL.<br />
# The EXTENDED flag has the value of 0 if the source is compact and the value of 1 is it extended. The source size is determined by the geometric mean of the Gaussian fit FWHMs, with the criterion for extension being sqrt(GAU_FWHMMAJ * GAU_FWHMIN) > 1.5 times the beam FWHM.<br />
# The EXT_VAL flag gives the status of the external validation, possible values are:<br />
#: 3 &ndash; The source has a clear counterpart in one of the catalogues used as ancillary data.<br />
#: 2 &ndash; The source does not have a clear counterpart in one of the catalogues used as ancillary data but it has been detected by the internal multi-frequency method.<br />
#: 1 &ndash; The source does not have a clear counterpart in one of the catalogues used as ancillary data and it has not been detected by the internal multi-frequency method, but it has been detected in a previous Planck source catalogue.<br />
#: 0 &ndash; The source does not have a clear counterpart in one of the catalogues used as ancillary data and it has not been detected by the internal multi-frequency method.<br />
# The HIGHEST_RELIABILTY_CAT column contains the highest reliability catalogue to which the source belongs. As the full catalogue reliability is &ge; 80%, this is the lowest possible value in this column. Where possible this is provided in steps of 1% otherwise it is in steps of 5%.<br />
# The WHICH_ZONE column encodes the zone in which the source lies:<br />
#: 1 &ndash; source lies inside filament mask.<br />
#: 2 &ndash; source lies inside Galactic zone.<br />
#: 3 &ndash; sources lies in both filament mask and Galactic zone.<br />
<br />
=== Zone map ===<br />
<br />
For each HFI frequency channel there is an associated map which defines the quantified-reliability (PCCS2) and unquantified-reliability (PCCS2E) zones are on the sky.<br />
<br />
The files are called:<br />
<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_100-zoneMask_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_100-zoneMask_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_143-zoneMask_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_143-zoneMask_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_217-zoneMask_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_217-zoneMask_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_353-zoneMask_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_353-zoneMask_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_545-zoneMask_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_545-zoneMask_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_857-zoneMask_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_857-zoneMask_R2.01.fits}}<br />
<br />
The structure of the files is as follows:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" width=800px style="text-align:left" <br />
|+ '''Zone map FITS file structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Extension 0: Primary header, no data<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! FITS Keyword || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|- <br />
|DATE || String || || Date of creation of file<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Extension 1: BINTABLE, HEALPix map (see note 1)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! FITS keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX || HEALPix pixelation <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || RING || Pixel ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int*4 || 2048 || HEALPix resolution parameter<br />
|-<br />
|NPIX ||Int*4 || 50331648 || Number of pixels<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || G || Coordinate system<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_CHL || String || || Frequency channel<br />
|}<br />
<br />
'''Notes'''<br />
# This FITS extension contains an integer HEALPix map which encodes the information on which of 4 possible regions on the sky each pixel belongs to:<br />
#: 0 &ndash; quantified-reliability zone (PCCS2).<br />
#: 1 &ndash; filament mask.<br />
#: 2 &ndash; Galactic zone.<br />
#: 3 &ndash; filament mask and Galactic zone.<br />
<br />
=== S/N threshold map ===<br />
<br />
For each HFI frequency channel there are a number of maps which contains the S/N threshold used to accept sources into the PCCS2 and PCCS2E catalogues.<br />
<br />
For the full catalogue (80% reliability in the quantified reliability zone) they are:<br />
<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_100-SN-threshold_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_100-SN-threshold_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_143-SN-threshold_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_143-SN-threshold_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_217-SN-threshold_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_217-SN-threshold_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_353-SN-threshold_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_353-SN-threshold_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_545-SN-threshold_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_545-SN-threshold_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_857-SN-threshold_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_857-SN-threshold_R2.01.fits}}<br />
<br />
For 85% reliability they are:<br />
<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_100-SN-threshold-85pc-reliability_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_100-SN-threshold-85pc-reliability_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_143-SN-threshold-85pc-reliability_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_143-SN-threshold-85pc-reliability_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_217-SN-threshold-85pc-reliability_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_217-SN-threshold-85pc-reliability_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_353-SN-threshold-85pc-reliability_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_353-SN-threshold-85pc-reliability_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_545-SN-threshold-85pc-reliability_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_545-SN-threshold-85pc-reliability_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_857-SN-threshold-85pc-reliability_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_857-SN-threshold-85pc-reliability_R2.01.fits}}<br />
<br />
For 90% reliability they are:<br />
<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_100-SN-threshold-90pc-reliability_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_100-SN-threshold-90pc-reliability_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_143-SN-threshold-90pc-reliability_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_143-SN-threshold-90pc-reliability_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_217-SN-threshold-90pc-reliability_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_217-SN-threshold-90pc-reliability_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_353-SN-threshold-90pc-reliability_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_353-SN-threshold-90pc-reliability_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_545-SN-threshold-90pc-reliability_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_545-SN-threshold-90pc-reliability_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_857-SN-threshold-90pc-reliability_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_857-SN-threshold-90pc-reliability_R2.01.fits}}<br />
<br />
For 95% reliability they are:<br />
<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_100-SN-threshold-95pc-reliability_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_100-SN-threshold-95pc-reliability_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_143-SN-threshold-95pc-reliability_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_143-SN-threshold-95pc-reliability_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_217-SN-threshold-95pc-reliability_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_217-SN-threshold-95pc-reliability_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_353-SN-threshold-95pc-reliability_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_353-SN-threshold-95pc-reliability_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_545-SN-threshold-95pc-reliability_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_545-SN-threshold-95pc-reliability_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_857-SN-threshold-95pc-reliability_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_857-SN-threshold-95pc-reliability_R2.01.fits}}<br />
<br />
The structure of the files is as follows:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" width=800px style="text-align:left" <br />
|+ '''Zone map FITS file structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Extension 0: Primary header, no data<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! FITS Keyword || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|- <br />
|DATE || String || || Date of creation of file<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Extension 1: BINTABLE, HEALPix map (see note 1)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! FITS keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX || HEALPix pixelation <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || RING || Pixel ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int*4 || 2048 || HEALPix resolution parameter<br />
|-<br />
|NPIX ||Int*4 || 50331648 || Number of pixels<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || G || Coordinate system<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_CHL || String || || Frequency channel<br />
|}<br />
<br />
'''Notes'''<br />
# This FITS extension contains a single precision HEALPix map of the S/N threshold applied in the generation of the catalogue at that position on the sky.<br />
<br />
===Noise map===<br />
<br />
For each HFI frequency channel there is an associated map which contains the detection noise as a function of position on the sky.<br />
<br />
The files are called:<br />
<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_100-noise-level_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_100-noise-level_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_143-noise-level_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_143-noise-level_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_217-noise-level_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_217-noise-level_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_353-noise-level_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_353-noise-level_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_545-noise-level_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_545-noise-level_R2.01.fits}}<br />
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat|name=COM_PCCS_857-noise-level_R2.01.fits|link=COM_PCCS_857-noise-level_R2.01.fits}}<br />
<br />
The structure of the files is as follows:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" width=800px style="text-align:left" <br />
|+ '''Zone map FITS file structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Extension 0: Primary header, no data<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! FITS Keyword || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|- <br />
|DATE || String || || Date of creation of file<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Extension 1: BINTABLE, HEALPix map (see note 1)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! FITS keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX || HEALPix pixelation <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || RING || Pixel ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int*4 || 2048 || HEALPix resolution parameter<br />
|-<br />
|NPIX ||Int*4 || 50331648 || Number of pixels<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || G || Coordinate system<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_CHL || String || || Frequency channel<br />
|}<br />
'''Notes'''<br />
# This FITS extension contains a single precision HEALPix map of the detection noise at each location on the sky, in units of Jy.<br />
<br />
== SZ Catalogue ==<br />
<br />
The Planck SZ catalogue is constructed as described in [[Compact_Source_catalogues#Planck_Sunyaev-Zeldovich_catalogue|SZ catalogue]] and in sections 2 and 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a36}}. Three pipelines are used to detect SZ clusters: two independent implementations of the Matched Multi-Filter (MMF1 and MMF3), and PowellSnakes (PwS). The main catalogue is constructed as the union of the catalogues from the three detection methods. The completeness and reliability of the catalogues have been assessed through internal and external validation as described in section 4 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a36}}.<br />
<br />
The size of a detection is given in terms of the scale size, &theta;<sub>s</sub>, and the flux is given in terms of the total integrated Comptonization parameter, Y = Y<sub>5R500</sub>. The parameters of the GNFW profile assumed by the detection pipelines are written in the headers of the catalogues. For the sake of convenience, the conversion factor from Y to Y<sub>500</sub> is also provided in the header.<br />
<br />
The union catalogue contains the coordinates of a detection, its signal-to-noise ratio, an estimate of Y and its uncertainty, together with a summary of the validation information, including external identification of a cluster and its redshift if they are available. The pipeline from which the information is taken is called the reference pipeline. If more than one pipeline makes the same detection, the information is taken from the the pipeline that makes the most significant detection. Where the redshift is known, we provide the SZ mass for the reference pipeline.<br />
<br />
The individual catalogues contain the coordinates and the signal-to-noise ratio of the detections, and information on the size and flux of the detections. The entries are cross-referenced to the detections in the union catalogue. The full information on the degeneracy between &theta;<sub>s</sub> and Y is included in the individual catalogues in the form of the two-dimensional probability distribution for each detection. It is computed on a well-sampled grid to produce a two-dimensional image for each detection. It is provided in this form so it can be combined with a model or external data to produce tighter constraints on the parameters. The individual catalogues also contain Planck measurements of the SZ mass observable, M<sub>SZ</sub>, as calculated using a Y-M scaling relation and an assumed redshift to break the Y-&theta;<sub>s</sub> degeneracy. These are provided for each detection as functions of assumed redshift, in the range 0.01 < z < 1, along with the upper and lower 68% confidence limits.<br />
<br />
The selection function of the union catalogue, the intersection catalogue and the individual catalogues are provided in additional files. The selection function files contains the probability of detection for clusters of given intrinsic parameters &theta;<sub>500</sub> and Y<sub>500</sub>. The file includes the definition of the survey area in the form of a HEALPix mask, and is evaluated for a range of signal-to-noise thresholds between 4.5 and 10.<br />
<br />
=== Union catalogue ===<br />
<br />
The union catalogue is contained in ''{{PLASingleFile|fileType=cat | name=HFI_PCCS_SZ-union_R2.08.fits | link=HFI_PCCS_SZ-union_R2.08.fits}}''.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Extension 0: Primary header, no data<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! FITS Keyword || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|- <br />
|INSTRUME || String || || Instrument (HFI)<br />
|- <br />
| VERSION || String || || Version of catalogue<br />
|- <br />
| DATE || String || || Date file created: yyyy-mm-dd<br />
|- <br />
| ORIGIN || String || || Name of organization responsible for the data (HFI-DPC)<br />
|- <br />
| TELESCOP || String || || Telescope (PLANCK)<br />
|- <br />
| CREATOR || String || || Pipeline version<br />
|- <br />
| DATE-OBS || String || || Start date of the survey: yyyy-mm-dd<br />
|- <br />
| DATE-END || String || || End date of the survey: yyyy-mm-dd<br />
|- <br />
| PROCVER || String || || Data version<br />
|- <br />
| PP_ALPHA || Real*4 || || GNFW pressure profile &alpha; parameter<br />
|- <br />
| PP_BETA || Real*4 || || GNFW pressure profile &beta; parameter<br />
|- <br />
| PP_GAMMA || Real*4 || || GNFW pressure profile &gamma; parameter<br />
|- <br />
| PP_C500 || Real*4 || || GNFW pressure profile c<sub>500</sub> parameter<br />
|- <br />
| PP_Y2YFH || Real*4 || || Conversion factor from Y to Y<sub>500</sub><br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Extension 1: BINTABLE, EXTNAME = PSZ2_UNION<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|INDEX || Int*4 || || Index used to cross-reference with individual catalogues<br />
|-<br />
|NAME || String || || Source name (see note 1)<br />
|-<br />
|GLON || Real*8 || degrees || Galactic longitude<br />
|-<br />
|GLAT || Real*8 || degrees || Galactic latitude<br />
|-<br />
|RA || Real*8 || degrees || Right ascension (J2000) transformed from (GLON,GLAT)<br />
|-<br />
|DEC || Real*8 || degrees || Declination (J2000) transformed from (GLON,GLAT)<br />
|-<br />
|POS_ERR || Real*4 || arcmin || Position uncertainty (95% confidence interval)<br />
|-<br />
|SNR || Real*4 || || Signal-to-noise ratio of the detection<br />
|-<br />
|PIPELINE || Int*4 || || Pipeline from which information is taken (reference pipeline): 1= MMF1; 2 = MMF3; 3 = PwS<br />
|-<br />
|PIPE_DET || Int*4 || || Pipelines which detect this object (see note 2)<br />
|-<br />
|PCCS2 || Bool || || Indicates whether detection matches with any in PCCS2 catalogues<br />
|-<br />
|PSZ || Int*4 || || Index of matching detection in PSZ1, or -1 if new detection<br />
|-<br />
|IR_FLAG || Int*1 || || Flag denoting heavy infrared contamination<br />
|-<br />
|Q_NEURAL || Real*4 || || Neural network quality flag (see note 3)<br />
|-<br />
|Y5R500 || Real*4 || 10<sup>-3</sup>&nbsp;arcmin<sup>2</sup> || Mean marginal Y<sub>5R500</sub> as determined by reference pipeline<br />
|-<br />
|Y5R500_ERR || Real*4 || 10<sup>-3</sup>&nbsp;arcmin<sup>2</sup> || Uncertainty on Y<sub>5R500</sub> as determined by reference pipeline<br />
|-<br />
|VALIDATION || Int*4 || || External validation status (see note 4)<br />
|-<br />
|REDSHIFT_ID || String || || External identifier of cluster associated with redshift measurement (see note 5)<br />
|-<br />
|REDSHIFT || Real*4 || || Redshift of cluster (see note 5)<br />
|-<br />
|MSZ || Real*4 || 10<sup>14</sup>&nbsp;M<sub>sol</sub> || SZ mass proxy (see note 6)<br />
|-<br />
|MSZ_ERR_UP || Real*4 || 10<sup>14</sup>&nbsp;M<sub>sol</sub> || Upper bound of 68% SZ mass proxy confidence interval (see note 6)<br />
|-<br />
|MSZ_ERR_LOW || Real*4 || 10<sup>14</sup>&nbsp;M<sub>sol</sub> || Lower bound of 68% SZ mass proxy confidence interval (see note 6)<br />
|-<br />
|MCXC || String || || Identifier of X-ray counterpart in the MCXC, if one is present <br />
|-<br />
|REDMAPPER || String || || Identifier of optical counterpart in the RedMAPPer catalogue, if one is present <br />
|-<br />
|ACT || String || || Identifier of SZ counterpart in the ACT catalogues, if one is present <br />
|-<br />
|SPT || String || || Identifier of SZ counterpart in the SPT catalogues, if one is present <br />
|-<br />
|WISE_FLAG || Int*4 || || Confirmation flag of WISE overdensity (see note 7)<br />
|-<br />
|AMI_EVIDENCE || Real*4 || || Bayesian evidence for AMI counterpart detection (see note 8)<br />
|-<br />
|COSMO || Bool || || Indicates whether detection is in the cosmology sample<br />
|-<br />
|COMMENT|| String || || Comments on this detection<br />
|}<br />
<br />
'''Notes'''<br />
# Format is <tt>PSZ2 Glll.ll&plusmn;bb.b</tt> where (l,b) are the Galactic coordinates truncated to 2 decimal places.<br />
# The three least significant decimal digits are used to represent detection or non-detection by the pipelines. Order of the digits: hundreds = MMF1; tens = MMF3; units = PwS. If it is detected then the corresponding digit is set to 1, otherwise it is set to 0.<br />
# Neural network quality flag is 1-Q<sub>bad</sub>, following the definitions in Aghanim et al. 2014.<br />
# Summary of the external validation, encoding the most robust external identification: 10 = ENO follow-up; 11 = RTT follow-up; 12 = PanSTARRs; 13 = RedMAPPer non-blind; 14 = SDSS high-z; 15 = AMI; 16 = WISE; 20 = legacy identification from the PSZ1; 21 = MCXC; 22 = SPT; 23 = ACT; 24 = RedMAPPer; 25 = legacy identification from PSZ1 with externally updated redshift; 30 = NED; -1 = no known external counterpart.<br />
# Redshift source is the most robust external identification listed in the VALIDATION field.<br />
# M<sub>SZ</sub> is the hydrostatic mass assuming the best-fit Y-M scaling relation of Arnaud 2010 as a prior. The uncertainties are statistical and based on the Planck measurement uncertainties only. Not included in the uncertainties are the statistical errors on the scaling relation, the intrinsic scatter in the relation, or systematic errors in data selection for the scaling relation fit.<br />
# Assigned by visual inspection: 0 = no significant galaxy overdensity; 1 = possible galaxy overdensity; 2 = probable galaxy overdensity; 3 = significant galaxy overdensity detected; -1 = possible galaxy overdensity (affected by bright star artefacts); -2 = no significant galaxy overdensity (affected by bright star artefacts); -3 = no assessment possible (affected by bright star artefacts); -10 = not analysed.<br />
# Defined in the paper.<br />
<br />
=== Individual catalogues ===<br />
<br />
The individual pipeline catalogues are contained in the FITS files <br />
* {{PLASingleFile | fileType=cat | name=HFI_PCCS_SZ-MMF1_R2.08.fits | link=HFI_PCCS_SZ-MMF1_R2.08.fits }} (MMF1 pipeline)<br />
* {{PLASingleFile | fileType=cat | name=HFI_PCCS_SZ-MMF3_R2.08.fits | link=HFI_PCCS_SZ-MMF3_R2.08.fits }} (MMF3 pipeline)<br />
* {{PLASingleFile | fileType=cat | name=HFI_PCCS_SZ-PwS_R2.08.fits | link=HFI_PCCS_SZ-PwS_R2.08.fits }} (PowellSnakes pipeline)<br />
<br />
Their structure is as follows:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''FITS file structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Extension 0: Primary header, no data<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! FITS Keyword || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|- <br />
|INSTRUME || String || || Instrument (HFI)<br />
|- <br />
| VERSION || String || || Version of catalogue<br />
|- <br />
| DATE || String || || Date file created: yyyy-mm-dd<br />
|- <br />
| ORIGIN || String || || Name of organization responsible for the data (HFI-DPC)<br />
|- <br />
| TELESCOP || String || || Telescope (PLANCK)<br />
|- <br />
| CREATOR || String || || Pipeline version<br />
|- <br />
| DATE-OBS || String || || Start time of the survey: yyyy-mm-dd<br />
|- <br />
| DATE-END || String || || End time of the survey: yyyy-mm-dd<br />
|- <br />
| PROCVER || String || || Data version<br />
|- <br />
| PP_ALPHA || Real*4 || || GNFW pressure profile &alpha; parameter<br />
|- <br />
| PP_BETA || Real*4 || || GNFW pressure profile &beta; parameter<br />
|- <br />
| PP_GAMMA || Real*4 || || GNFW pressure profile &gamma; parameter<br />
|- <br />
| PP_C500 || Real*4 || || GNFW pressure profile c<sub>500</sub> parameter<br />
|- <br />
| PP_Y2YFH || Real*4 || || Conversion factor from Y to Y<sub>500</sub><br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Extension 1: BINTABLE, EXTNAME = PSZ2_INDIVIDUAL<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|INDEX || Int*4 || || Index from union catalogue<br />
|-<br />
|NAME || String || || Source name (see note 1)<br />
|-<br />
|GLON || Real*8 || degrees || Galactic longitude<br />
|-<br />
|GLAT || Real*8 || degrees || Galactic latitude<br />
|-<br />
|RA || Real*8 || degrees || Right ascension (J2000) transformed from (GLON, GLAT)<br />
|-<br />
|DEC || Real*8 || degrees || Declination (J2000) transformed from (GLON, GLAT)<br />
|-<br />
|POS_ERR || Real*4 || arcmin || Position uncertainty (95% confidence interval)<br />
|-<br />
|SNR || Real*4 || || Signal-to-noise ratio of detection<br />
|-<br />
|TS_MIN || Real*4 || || Minimum value of &theta;<sub>s</sub> in grid in second extension HDU (see note 2)<br />
|-<br />
|TS_MAX || Real*4 || || Maximum value of &theta;<sub>s</sub> in grid in second extension HDU (see note 2)<br />
|-<br />
|Y_MIN || Real*4 || || Minimum value of Y in grid in second extension HDU (see note 2)<br />
|-<br />
|Y_MAX || Real*4 || || Maximum value of Y in grid in second extension HDU (see note 2)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|- <br />
| PIPELINE || String || || Name of detection pipeline<br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Extension 2: IMAGE, EXTNAME = PSZ2_PROBABILITY (see note 2)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|- <br />
| NAXIS1 || Integer || 256 || Dimension 1<br />
|- <br />
| NAXIS2 || Integer || 256 || Dimension 2 <br />
|- <br />
| NAXIS3 || Integer || N<sub>det</sub> || Dimension 3 = Number of detections<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|- <br />
| PIPELINE || String || || Name of detection pipeline<br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! colspan="4" | Extension 3: IMAGE, EXTNAME = PSZ2_MSZ_ARRAY (see note 3)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|- <br />
| NAXIS1 || Integer || 100 || Dimension 1<br />
|- <br />
| NAXIS2 || Integer || 4 || Dimension 2 <br />
|- <br />
| NAXIS3 || Integer || N<sub>det</sub> || Dimension 3 = Number of detections<br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|- <br />
| PIPELINE || String || || Name of detection pipeline<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
'''Notes'''<br />
# Format <tt>PSZ2 Glll.ll&plusmn;bb.bb</tt> where (l, b) are the Galactic coordinates truncated to 2 decimal places.<br />
# Extension 2 contains a three-dimensional image with the two-dimensional probability distribution in &theta;<sub>s</sub> and Y for each detection. The probability distributions are evaluated on a 256 &times; 256 linear grid between the limits specified in extension 1. The limits are determined independently for each detection. The dimension of the 3D image is 256 &times; 256 &times; N<sub>det</sub>, where N<sub>det</sub> is the number of detections. The first dimension is &theta;<sub>s</sub> and the second dimension is Y.<br />
# Extension 3 contains a three-dimensional image with the information on the M<sub>SZ</sub> observable per cluster as a function of assumed redshift. The image dimensions are 100 &times; 4 &times; N<sub>det</sub>, where N<sub>det</sub> is the number of detections. The first dimension is the assumed redshift. The second dimension has size 4: the first element is the assumed redshift value corresponding to the M<sub>SZ</sub> values. The second element is the M<sub>SZ</sub> lower 68% confidence bound, the third element is the M<sub>SZ</sub> estimate and the fourth element is the M<sub>SZ</sub> upper 68% confidence bound, all in units of 10<sup>14</sup>&nbsp;M<sub>sol</sub>. These uncertainties are based on the Planck measurement uncertainties only. Not included in the error estimates are the statistical errors on the scaling relation, the intrinsic scatter in the relation, or systematic errors in data selection for the scaling relation fit.<br />
<br />
=== Selection function ===<br />
<br />
The selection function for the union, intersection and individual pipeline catalogues are contained in the FITS files:<br />
* {{PLASingleFile | fileType=cat | name=HFI_PCCS_SZ-selfunc-union-survey_R2.08.fits | link=HFI_PCCS_SZ-selfunc-union-survey_R2.08.fits }} (union catalogue, survey mask)<br />
* {{PLASingleFile | fileType=cat | name=HFI_PCCS_SZ-selfunc-union-cosmolog_R2.08.fits | link=HFI_PCCS_SZ-selfunc-union-cosmology_R2.08.fits }} (union catalogue, cosmology mask)<br />
* {{PLASingleFile | fileType=cat | name=HFI_PCCS_SZ-selfunc-intersec-survey_R2.08.fits | link=HFI_PCCS_SZ-selfunc-intersec-survey_R2.08.fits }} (intersection catalogue, survey mask)<br />
* {{PLASingleFile | fileType=cat | name=HFI_PCCS_SZ-selfunc-intersec-cosmolog_R2.08.fits | link=HFI_PCCS_SZ-selfunc-intersec-cosmolog_R2.08.fits }} (intersection catalogue, cosmology mask)<br />
* {{PLASingleFile | fileType=cat | name=HFI_PCCS_SZ-selfunc-MMF1-survey_R2.08.fits | link=HFI_PCCS_SZ-selfunc-MMF1-survey_R2.08.fits }} (MMF1 catalogue, survey mask)<br />
* {{PLASingleFile | fileType=cat | name=HFI_PCCS_SZ-selfunc-MMF1-cosmolog_R2.08.fits | link=HFI_PCCS_SZ-selfunc-MMF1-cosmolog_R2.08.fits }} (MMF1 catalogue, cosmology mask)<br />
* {{PLASingleFile | fileType=cat | name=HFI_PCCS_SZ-selfunc-MMF3-survey_R2.08.fits | link=HFI_PCCS_SZ-selfunc-MMF3-survey_R2.08.fits }} (MMF3 catalogue, survey mask)<br />
* {{PLASingleFile | fileType=cat | name=HFI_PCCS_SZ-selfunc-MMF3-cosmolog_R2.08.fits | link=HFI_PCCS_SZ-selfunc-MMF3-cosmolog_R2.08.fits }} (MMF3 catalogue, cosmology mask)<br />
* {{PLASingleFile | fileType=cat | name=HFI_PCCS_SZ-selfunc-PwS-survey_R2.08.fits | link=HFI_PCCS_SZ-selfunc-PwS-survey_R2.08.fits }} (PowellSnakes catalogue, survey mask)<br />
* {{PLASingleFile | fileType=cat | name=HFI_PCCS_SZ-selfunc-PwS-cosmolog_R2.08.fits | link=HFI_PCCS_SZ-selfunc-PwS-cosmolog_R2.08.fits }} (PowellSnakes catalogue, cosmology mask)<br />
<br />
Their structure is as follows:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''FITS file structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Extension 0: Primary header, no data<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! FITS Keyword || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|- <br />
|INSTRUME || String || || Instrument (HFI)<br />
|- <br />
| VERSION || String || || Version of catalogue<br />
|- <br />
| DATE || String || || Date file created: yyyy-mm-dd<br />
|- <br />
| ORIGIN || String || || Name of organization responsible for the data (HFI-DPC)<br />
|- <br />
| TELESCOP || String || || Telescope (PLANCK)<br />
|- <br />
| CREATOR || String || || Pipeline version<br />
|- <br />
| DATE-OBS || String || || Start time of the survey: yyyy-mm-dd<br />
|- <br />
| DATE-END || String || || End time of the survey: yyyy-mm-dd<br />
|- <br />
| PROCVER || String || || Data version<br />
|- <br />
| JOIN || String || || Join type (UNION, INTERSEC, MMF1, MMF3, PwS)<br />
|- <br />
| MASK || String || || Mask name (SURVEY, COSMOLOG)<br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Extension 1: BINTABLE, HEALPix map (see note 1)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! FITS keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX || HEALPix pixelation <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || RING || Pixel ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int*4 || 2048 || HEALPix resolution parameter<br />
|-<br />
|NPIX ||Int*4 || 50331648 || Number of pixels<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || G || Coordinate system<br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Extension 2: IMAGE, EXTNAME = SELFUNC (see note 2)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|- <br />
| NAXIS1 || Integer || 30 || Dimension 1<br />
|- <br />
| NAXIS2 || Integer || 32 || Dimension 2 <br />
|- <br />
| NAXIS3 || Integer || 12 || Dimension 3<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|- <br />
| AXIS1 || String || CY500 || Name of axis 1<br />
|- <br />
| AXIS2 || String || T500 || Name of axis 2<br />
|- <br />
| AXIS3 || String || SNRCUT || Name of axis 3<br />
|- <br />
| UNITS || String || PERCENT || Units of selection function<br />
|- <br />
| COMPTYPE || String || DIFF || Type of selection function (differential)<br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! colspan="4" | Extension 3: IMAGE, EXTNAME = YGRID (see note 3)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|- <br />
| NAXIS1 || Integer || 30 || Dimension 1<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|- <br />
| COL1 || String || CY500 || Grid values of Y<sub>500</sub><br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! colspan="4" | Extension 4: IMAGE, EXTNAME = TGRID (see note 4)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|- <br />
| NAXIS1 || Integer || 32 || Dimension 1<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|- <br />
| COL1 || String || T500 || Grid values of &theta;<sub>500</sub><br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! colspan="4" | Extension 5: IMAGE, EXTNAME = SNR_THRESH (see note 5)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|- <br />
| NAXIS1 || Integer || 12 || Dimension 1<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|- <br />
| COL1 || String || S/N || Grid values of S/N threshold<br />
<br />
|}<br />
<br />
'''Notes'''<br />
# Extension 1 contains a mask defining the survey region, given by an N<sub>side</sub> = 2048 ring-ordered HEALPix map in GALACTIC coordinates. Pixels in the survey region have the value 1.0 while pixels outside of the survey region have value 0.0.<br />
# Extension 2 contains a three-dimensional image containing the survey completeness probability distribution for various S/N thresholds. The information is stored in an image of size 30 &times; 32 &times; 12. The first dimension is Y<sub>500</sub>, the second dimension is &theta;<sub>500</sub> and the third dimension is the signal-to-noise threshold. The units are percent and lie in the range 0-100 and denote the detection probability of a cluster in the given (Y<sub>500</sub>, &theta;<sub>500</sub>) bin.<br />
# Extension 3 contains the Y<sub>500</sub> grid values for the completeness data cube in the second extension. It has length 30 and spans the range from 1.12480 &times; 10<sup>-4</sup> arcmin<sup>2</sup> to 7.20325 &times; 10<sup>-2</sup> arcmin<sup>2</sup> in logarithmic steps.<br />
# Extension 4 contains the θ<sub>500</sub> grid values for the completeness data cube in the second extension. It has length 32 and spans the range from 0.9416 arcmin to 35.31 arcmin in logarithmic steps.<br />
# Extension 5 contains the signal-to-noise threshold grid values for the completeness data cube in the second extension. It has length 12 and contains thresholds from 4.5 to 10.0 in steps of 0.5.<br />
<br />
==Catalogue of Planck Galactic Cold Clumps==<br />
<br />
The catalogue of ''Planck'' Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCC) is a list of 13188 Galactic sources and 54 sources located in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds. The sources have been identified in Planck data as sources colder than their environment. It has been buit using the 48 months Planck data at 857, 545, and 353 GHz combined with the 3 THz IRAS data, as it is described in {{PlanckPapers | planck2014-a37}}.<br />
<br />
The all-sky distribution of the PGCC sources is shown below on top of the 857 GHz emission shown in logarithmic scale between 10<sup>-2</sup> to 10<sup>2</sup> MJy/sr.<br />
[[File:PGCC_allsky.png|800px|thumb|center|All-sky distribution of the PGCC sources.]]<br />
<br />
Sources are divided into three categories based on the reliability of the flux density estimates in IRAS 3 THz and Planck 857, 545, and 353 GHz bands.<br />
* FLUX_QUALITY=1 : sources with flux density estimates S/N > 1 in all bands ;<br />
* FLUX_QUALITY=2 : sources with flux density estimates S/N > 1 only in 857, 545, and 353 GHz Planck bands, considered as very cold source candidates ;<br />
* FLUX_QUALITY=3 : sources without any reliable flux density estimates, listed as poor candidates.<br />
The all-sky distributions of the PGCC sources per FLUX_QUALITY category are shown below on top of the 857 GHz map in grey scale shown in logarithmic scale between 10<sup>-2</sup> to 10<sup>2</sup> MJy/sr.<br />
[[File:PGCC_allsky_FQ1.png|800px|thumb|center|All-sky distribution of the PGCC sources with FLUX_QUALITY=1.]]<br />
[[File:PGCC_allsky_FQ2.png|800px|thumb|center|All-sky distribution of the PGCC sources with FLUX_QUALITY=2.]]<br />
[[File:PGCC_allsky_FQ3.png|800px|thumb|center|All-sky distribution of the PGCC sources with FLUX_QUALITY=3.]]<br />
<br />
Distance estimates have been obtained on 5574 PGCC sources using seven different methods/technics, as described in {{PlanckPapers | planck2014-a37}}. A flag is raised to quantify the quality of the distance estimates, defined as follows:<br />
* DIST_QUALITY=0 : No distance estimate ;<br />
* DIST_QUALITY=1 : Single distance estimate ;<br />
* DIST_QUALITY=2 : Multiple distance estimates which are consistent within 1<math>\sigma</math> ;<br />
* DIST_QUALITY=3 : Multiple distance estimates which are not consistent within 1<math>\sigma</math> ;<br />
* DIST_QUALITY=4 : Single upper limits.<br />
The all-sky distribution of the sources with robust distance estimates is shown below.<br />
[[File:PGCC_allsky_DIST.png|800px|thumb|center|All-sky distribution of the 4655 PGCC sources for which a distance estimate with a DIST_QUALITY flag equal to 1 or 2 is available. The various types of distance estimates are defined as follows : kinematic (purple), optical extinction (blue), near-infrared extinction (green), molecular complex association (orange), and Herschel HKP-GCC (red). We also show the distribution of the 664 sources with an upper-limit estimate (DIST_QUALITY=4) provided by the near-infrared extinction method (light green). Molecular complexes are outlined with black contours.]]<br />
<br />
The catalogue is contained in the FITS file {{PLASingleFile | fileType=cat | name=HFI_PCCS_GCC_R2.02.fits | link=HFI_PCCS_GCC_R2.02.fits }}. <br />
It structure is as follows:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=1000px<br />
|+ '''FITS file structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Identification<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! FITS Keyword || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|- <br />
|NAME || String || || Source Name<br />
|- <br />
|SNR || real*8 || || Maximum S/N over the 857, 545, and 353 GHz Planck cold residual maps<br />
|- <br />
|SNR_857 || real*8 || || S/N of the cold residual detection at 857 GHz<br />
|- <br />
|SNR_545 || real*8 || || S/N of the cold residual detection at 545 GHz<br />
|- <br />
|SNR_353 || real*8 || || S/N of the cold residual detection at 353 GHz<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Source position<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! FITS Keyword || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|- <br />
|GLON || real*8 || deg || Galactic longitude based on morphology fitting<br />
|- <br />
|GLAT || real*8 || deg || Galactic latitude based on morphology fitting<br />
|- <br />
|RA || real*8 || deg || Right ascension (J2000) in degrees transformed from (GLON, GLAT)<br />
|- <br />
|DEC || real*8 || deg || Declination (J2000) in degrees transformed from (GLON, GLAT)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Morphology<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! FITS Keyword || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|- <br />
|GAU_MAJOR_AXIS || real*8 || arcmin || FWHM along the major axis of the elliptical Gaussian<br />
|- <br />
|GAU_MAJOR_AXIS_SIG || real*8 || arcmin || 1<math>\sigma</math> uncertainty on the FWHM along the major axis<br />
|- <br />
|GAU_MINOR_AXIS || real*8 || arcmin || FWHM along the minor axis of the elliptical Gaussian<br />
|- <br />
|GAU_MINOR_AXIS_SIG || real*8 || arcmin || 1<math>\sigma</math> uncertainty on the FWHM along the minor axis<br />
|- <br />
|GAU_POSITION_ANGLE || real*8 || rad || Position angle of the elliptical gaussian (see note 1) <br />
|- <br />
|GAU_POSITION_ANGLE_SIG || real*8 || rad || 1<math>\sigma</math> uncertainty on the position angle<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Photometry<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! FITS Keyword || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|- <br />
|FLUX_3000_CLUMP || real*8 || Jy || Flux density of the clump at 3 THz<br />
|- <br />
|FLUX_3000_CLUMP_SIG || real*8 || Jy || 1<math>\sigma</math> uncertainty on the flux density of the clump at 3 THz<br />
|- <br />
|FLUX_857_CLUMP || real*8 || Jy || Flux density of the clump at 857 GHz<br />
|- <br />
|FLUX_857_CLUMP_SIG || real*8 || Jy || 1<math>\sigma</math> uncertainty on the flux density of the clump at 857 GHz<br />
|- <br />
|FLUX_545_CLUMP || real*8 || Jy || Flux density of the clump at 545 GHz<br />
|- <br />
|FLUX_545_CLUMP_SIG || real*8 || Jy || 1<math>\sigma</math> uncertainty on the flux density of the clump at 545 GHz<br />
|- <br />
|FLUX_353_CLUMP || real*8 || Jy || Flux density of the clump at 353 GHz<br />
|- <br />
|FLUX_353_CLUMP_SIG || real*8 || Jy || 1<math>\sigma</math> uncertainty on the flux density of the clump at 353 GHz<br />
|- <br />
|FLUX_3000_WBKG || real*8 || Jy || Flux density of the warm background at 3 THz (see note 2)<br />
|- <br />
|FLUX_3000_WBKG_SIG || real*8 || Jy || 1<math>\sigma</math> uncertainty on the flux density of warm background at 3 THz<br />
|- <br />
|FLUX_857_WBKG || real*8 || Jy || Flux density of the warm background at 857 GHz<br />
|- <br />
|FLUX_857_WBKG_SIG || real*8 || Jy || 1<math>\sigma</math> uncertainty on the flux density of the warm background at 857 GHz<br />
|- <br />
|FLUX_545_WBKG || real*8 || Jy || Flux density of the warm background at 545 GHz<br />
|- <br />
|FLUX_545_WBKG_SIG || real*8 || Jy || 1<math>\sigma</math> uncertainty on the flux density of the warm background at 545 GHz<br />
|- <br />
|FLUX_353_WBKG || real*8 || Jy || Flux density of the warm background at 353 GHz<br />
|- <br />
|FLUX_353_WBKG_SIG || real*8 || Jy || 1<math>\sigma</math> uncertainty on the flux density of the warm background at 353 GHz<br />
|- <br />
|FLUX_QUALITY || int*4 || 1-3 || Category of flux density reliability (see note 3)<br />
|- <br />
|FLUX_BLENDING || int*4 || 0/1 || 1 if blending issue with flux density estimate (see note 4)<br />
|- <br />
|FLUX_BLENDING_IDX || int*8 || || Catalogue index of the closest source responsible for blending<br />
|- <br />
|FLUX_BLENDING_ANG_DIST || real*8 || arcmin || Angular distance to the closest source responsible for blending<br />
|- <br />
|FLUX_BLENDING_BIAS_3000 || real*8 || % || Relative bias of the flux density at 3000 GHz due to blending<br />
|- <br />
|FLUX_BLENDING_BIAS_857 || real*8 || % || Relative bias of the flux density at 857 GHz due to blending<br />
|- <br />
|FLUX_BLENDING_BIAS_545 || real*8 || % || Relative bias of the flux density at 545 GHz due to blending<br />
|- <br />
|FLUX_BLENDING_BIAS_353 || real*8 || % || Relative bias of the flux density at 353 GHz due to blending<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Distance<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! FITS Keyword || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|- <br />
|DIST_KINEMATIC || real*8 || kpc || Distance estimate [1] using kinematics<br />
|- <br />
|DIST_KINEMATIC_SIG || real*8 || kpc || 1<math>\sigma</math> uncertainty on the distance estimate [1] using kinematics<br />
|- <br />
|DIST_OPT_EXT_DR7 || real*8 || kpc || Distance estimate [2] using optical extinction on SDSS DR7<br />
|- <br />
|DIST_OPT_EXT_DR7_SIG || real*8 || kpc || 1<math>\sigma</math> uncertainty on the distance estimate [2] using optical extinction on SDSS DR7<br />
|- <br />
|DIST_OPT_EXT_DR9 || real*8 || kpc || Distance estimate [3] using optical extinction on SDSS DR9<br />
|- <br />
|DIST_OPT_EXT_DR9_SIG || real*8 || kpc || 1<math>\sigma</math> uncertainty on the distance estimate [3] using optical extinction on SDSS DR9<br />
|- <br />
|DIST_NIR_EXT_IRDC || real*8 || kpc || Distance estimate [4] using near-infrared extinction towards IRDCs<br />
|- <br />
|DIST_NIR_EXT_IRDC_SIG || real*8 || kpc || 1<math>\sigma</math> uncertainty on the distance estimate [4] using near-infrared extinction towards IRDCs<br />
|- <br />
|DIST_NIR_EXT || real*8 || kpc || Distance estimate [5] using near-infrared extinction<br />
|- <br />
|DIST_NIR_EXT_SIG || real*8 || kpc || 1<math>\sigma</math> uncertainty on the distance estimate [5] using near-infrared extinction<br />
|- <br />
|DIST_MOLECULAR_COMPLEX || real*8 || kpc || Distance estimate [6] using molecular complex association<br />
|- <br />
|DIST_MOLECULAR_COMPLEX_SIG || real*8 || kpc || 1<math>\sigma</math> uncertainty on the distance estimate [6] using molecular complex association<br />
|- <br />
|DIST_HKP_GCC || real*8 || kpc || Distance estimate [7] from the Herschel Key-Programme Galactic Cold Cores<br />
|- <br />
|DIST_HKP_GCC_SIG || real*8 || kpc || 1<math>\sigma</math> uncertainty on the distance estimate [7] from the Herschel Key-Programme Galactic Cold Cores<br />
|- <br />
|DIST_OPTION || int*4 || 0-7 || Option of the best distance estimate used in other physical properties<br />
|- <br />
|DIST_QUALITY || int*4 || 0-4 || Quality Flag of the consistency between distance estimates (see note 5)<br />
|- <br />
|DIST || real*8 || kpc || Best distance estimate used for further physical properties<br />
|- <br />
|DIST_SIG || real*8 || kpc || 1<math>\sigma</math> uncertainty on the best distance estimate <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Temperature<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! FITS Keyword || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|- <br />
|TEMP_CLUMP || real*8 || K || Temperature of the clump with <math>\beta</math> as a free parameter<br />
|- <br />
|TEMP_CLUMP_SIG || real*8 || K || 1<math>\sigma</math> uncertainty on the clump temperature with <math>\beta</math> free <br />
|- <br />
|TEMP_CLUMP_LOW1 || real*8 || K || Lower 68% confidence limit of the clump temperature with <math>\beta</math> free <br />
|- <br />
|TEMP_CLUMP_UP1 || real*8 || K || Upper 68% confidence limit of the clump temperature with <math>\beta</math> free <br />
|- <br />
|BETA_CLUMP || real*8 || || Spectral index <math>\beta</math> of the clump<br />
|- <br />
|BETA_CLUMP_SIG || real*8 || || 1<math>\sigma</math> uncertainty (from MCMC) on the emissivity spectral index <math>\beta</math> of the clump<br />
|- <br />
|BETA_CLUMP_LOW1 || real*8 || || Lower 68% confidence limit of the emissivity spectral index <math>\beta</math> of the clump<br />
|- <br />
|BETA_CLUMP_UP1 || real*8 || || Upper 68% confidence limit of the emissivity spectral index <math>\beta</math> of the clump<br />
|- <br />
|TEMP_BETA2_CLUMP || real*8 || K || Temperature of the clump with <math>\beta</math> = 2<br />
|- <br />
|TEMP_BETA2_CLUMP_SIG || real*8 || K || 1<math>\sigma</math> uncertainty on the temperature of the clump with <math>\beta</math> = 2<br />
|- <br />
|TEMP_BETA2_CLUMP_LOW1 || real*8 || K || Lower 68% confidence limit of the clump temperature with <math>\beta</math> = 2<br />
|- <br />
|TEMP_BETA2_CLUMP_UP1 || real*8 || K || Upper 68% confidence limit of the clump temperature with <math>\beta</math> = 2<br />
|- <br />
|TEMP_WBKG || real*8 || K || Temperature of the warm background with <math>\beta</math> as a free parameter (see note 6)<br />
|- <br />
|TEMP_WBKG_SIG || real*8 || K || 1<math>\sigma</math> dispersion of the warm background temperature with <math>\beta</math> free <br />
|- <br />
|TEMP_WBKG_LOW1 || real*8 || K || Lower 68% confidence limit of the warm background temperature with <math>\beta</math> free <br />
|- <br />
|TEMP_WBKG_UP1 || real*8 || K || Upper 68% confidence limit of the warm background temperature with <math>\beta</math> free <br />
|- <br />
|BETA_WBKG || real*8 || || Spectral index <math>\beta</math> of the warm background (see note 6)<br />
|- <br />
|BETA_WBKG_SIG || real*8 || || 1<math>\sigma</math> uncertainty (from MCMC) of the emissivity spectral index <math>\beta</math> of the warm background<br />
|- <br />
|BETA_WBKG_LOW1 || real*8 || || Lower 68% confidence limit of the emissivity spectral index <math>\beta</math> of the warm background<br />
|- <br />
|BETA_WBKG_UP1 || real*8 || || Upper 68% confidence limit of the emissivity spectral index <math>\beta</math> of the warm background<br />
|- <br />
|TEMP_BETA2_WBKG || real*8 || K || Temperature of the warm background with <math>\beta</math> = 2<br />
|- <br />
|TEMP_BETA2_WBKG_SIG || real*8 || K || 1<math>\sigma</math> uncertainty on the temperature of the warm background with <math>\beta</math> = 2<br />
|- <br />
|TEMP_BETA2_WBKG_LOW1 || real*8 || K || Lower 68% confidence limit of the warm background temperature with <math>\beta</math> = 2<br />
|- <br />
|TEMP_BETA2_WBKG_UP1 || real*8 || K || Upper 68% confidence limit of the warm background temperature with <math>\beta</math> = 2<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Physical properties<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! FITS Keyword || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|- <br />
|NH2 || real*8 || cm<sup>-2</sup> || Column density <math>N_{H_2}</math> of the clump<br />
|- <br />
|NH2_SIG || real*8 || cm<sup>-2</sup> || 1<math>\sigma</math> uncertainty on the column density<br />
|- <br />
|NH2_LOW[1,2,3] || real*8 || cm<sup>-2</sup> || Lower 68%, 95% and 99% confidence limit of the column density<br />
|- <br />
|NH2_UP[1,2,3] || real*8 || cm<sup>-2</sup> || Upper 68%, 95% and 99% confidence limit of the column density<br />
|- <br />
|MASS || real*8 || <math>M_{o}</math> || Mass estimate of the clump<br />
|- <br />
|MASS_SIG || real*8 || <math>M_{o}</math> || 1<math>\sigma</math> uncertainty on the mass estimate of the clump<br />
|- <br />
|MASS_LOW[1,2,3] || real*8 || <math>M_{o}</math> || Lower 68%, 95% and 99% confidence limit of the mass estimate<br />
|- <br />
|MASS_UP[1,2,3] || real*8 || <math>M_{0}</math> || Upper 68%, 95% and 99% confidence limit of the mass estimate<br />
|- <br />
|DENSITY || real*8 || cm<sup>-3</sup> || Mean density of the clump<br />
|- <br />
|DENSITY_SIG || real*8 || cm<sup>-3</sup> || 1<math>\sigma</math> uncertainty on the mean density estimate of the clump<br />
|- <br />
|DENSITY_LOW[1,2,3] || real*8 || cm<sup>-3</sup> || Lower 68%, 95% and 99% confidence limit of the mean density estimate<br />
|- <br />
|DENSITY_UP[1,2,3] || real*8 || cm<sup>-3</sup> || Upper 68%, 95% and 99% confidence limit of the mean density estimate<br />
|- <br />
|SIZE || real*8 || pc || Physical size of the clump <br />
|- <br />
|SIZE_SIG || real*8 || pc || 1<math>\sigma</math> uncertainty on the physical size estimate of the clump<br />
|- <br />
|SIZE_LOW[1,2,3] || real*8 || pc || Lower 68%, 95% and 99% confidence limit of the physical size estimate<br />
|- <br />
|SIZE_UP[1,2,3] || real*8 || pc || Upper 68%, 95% and 99% confidence limit of the physical size estimate<br />
|- <br />
|LUMINOSITY || real*8 || L<sub>o</sub> || Luminosity of the clump<br />
|- <br />
|LUMINOSITY_SIG || real*8 || L<sub>o</sub> || 1<math>\sigma</math> uncertainty on the luminosity estimate of the clump<br />
|- <br />
|LUMINOSITY_LOW[1,2,3] || real*8 || L<sub>o</sub> || Lower 68%, 95% and 99% confidence limit of the luminosity estimate<br />
|- <br />
|LUMINOSITY_UP[1,2,3] || real*8 || L<sub>o</sub> || Upper 68%, 95% and 99% confidence limit of the luminosity estimate<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Flags<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! FITS Keyword || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|- <br />
|XFLAG_LMC || int*4 || 0/1 || 1 if part of the LMC<br />
|- <br />
|XFLAG_SMC || int*4 || 0/1 || 1 if part of the SMC<br />
|- <br />
|XFLAG_ECC || int*4 || 0/1 || 1 if present in the ECC<br />
|- <br />
|XFLAG_PCCS_857 || int*4 || 0/1 || 1 if present in the PCCS 857 GHz band<br />
|- <br />
|XFLAG_PCCS_545 || int*4 || 0/1 || 1 if present in the PCCS 545 GHz band<br />
|- <br />
|XFLAG_PCCS_353 || int*4 || 0/1 || 1 if present in the PCCS 353 GHz band<br />
|- <br />
|XFLAG_PCCS_217 || int*4 || 0/1 || 1 if present in the PCCS 217 GHz band<br />
|- <br />
|XFLAG_PCCS_143 || int*4 || 0/1 || 1 if present in the PCCS 143 GHz band<br />
|-<br />
|XFLAG_PCCS_100 || int*4 || 0/1 || 1 if present in the PCCS 100 GHz band<br />
|-<br />
|XFLAG_PCCS_70 || int*4 || 0/1 || 1 if present in the PCCS 70 GHz band<br />
|-<br />
|XFLAG_PCCS_44 || int*4 || 0/1 || 1 if present in the PCCS 44 GHz band<br />
|-<br />
|XFLAG_PCCS_30 || int*4 || 0/1 || 1 if present in the PCCS 30 GHz band<br />
|-<br />
|XFLAG_PSZ || int*4 || 0/1 || 1 if present in the PCCS PSZ<br />
|-<br />
|XFLAG_PHZ || int*4 || 0/1 || 1 if present in the PCCS HZ<br />
|-<br />
|XFLAG_HKP_GCC || int*4 || 0/1 || 1 if present in the Herschel HKP-GCC<br />
<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
Notes:<br />
* 1: The position angle of the 2D ellipse is defined as the angle between the axis parallele to the Galactic plane and the major axis, counted clockwise.<br />
* 2: The warm bakcground flux densities are computed using the same solid angle as for the clumps flux densities, but on the warm conponent map.<br />
* 3: See text above for a full description of the FLUX_QUALITY flag, for which 1 is best.<br />
* 4: This relative bias due to blending provides a rough estimate of the factor that should be applied on the clumpds flux densities to get a corrected estimate. It has been obtained on a very simple modelling of clumps morphology and the local environment. It has therefore to be taken very carefully.<br />
* 5: See text above for a full description of the DIST_QUALITY flag.<br />
* 6: Temperature and spectral index of the warm background are based on the warm background flux density estimates obtained on the same solid angle used for clumps<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<References /> <br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|005]]</div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=Specially_processed_maps&diff=10983Specially processed maps2015-02-03T13:31:44Z<p>Amoneti: </p>
<hr />
<div>{{DISPLAYTITLE:Additional maps}}<br />
==Overview==<br />
<br />
This section describes products that require special processing. This section will be expanded with time as more products are added.<br />
<br />
== Lensing map ==<br />
<br />
We distribute the minimum-variance (MV) lensing potential estimate presented in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-xxx}} as part of the 2014 data release. This map represents an estimate of the CMB lensing potential on approximately 70% of the sky, and also forms the basis for the Planck 2014 lensing likelihood. It is produced using filtered temperature and polarization data from the SMICA DX11 CMB map; its construction is discussed in detail in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-xxx}}.<br />
<br />
<br />
The estimate is contained in a single gzipped tarball named ''{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Lensing_2048_R2.00.tgz|link=COM_CompMap_Lensing_2048_R2.00.tgz}}''. Its contents are described below.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left"<br />
|+ ''' Contents of Lensing package '''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Filename || Format || Description<br />
|-<br />
| dat_klm.fits || HEALPIX FITS format alm, with <math> L_{\rm max} = 2048 </math> || Contains the estimated lensing convergence <math> \hat{\kappa}_{LM} = \frac{1}{2} L(L+1)\hat{\phi}_{LM} </math>.<br />
|-<br />
| mask.fits.gz || HEALPIX FITS format map, with <math> N_{\rm side} = 2048 </math> || Contains the lens reconstruction analysis mask.<br />
|-<br />
| nlkk.dat || ASCII text file, with columns = (<math>L</math>, <math>N_L </math>, <math>C_L+N_L</math>) || The approximate noise <math>N_L</math> (and signal+noise, <math>C_L+N_L</math>) power spectrum of <math> \hat{\kappa}_{LM} </math>, for the fiducial cosmology used in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-xxx}}.<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
== Compton parameter map ==<br />
<br />
We distribute here the Planck full mission Compton parameter maps (y-maps hereafter) obtained using the NILC and MILCA component separation algorithms as described in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-xxii}}. We also provide the ILC weights per scale and per frequency that were used to produce these y-maps. IDL routines are also provide to allow the user to apply those weights. Compton parameters produced by keeping either the first or the second half of stable pointing periods are also provide and we call them FIRST and LAST y-maps. Additionally we construct a noise estimates of full mission Planck y-maps from the half difference of the FIRST and LAST y-maps. These estimates are used to construct standard deviation maps of the noise in the full mission Planck y-maps that are also provided. To complement this we also provide the power spectra of the noise estimate maps after correcting for inhomogeneities using the standard deviation maps. We also deliver foreground masks including point-source and galactic masks.<br />
<br />
The full data set is contained in a single gzipped tarball named ''{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=ymap_R0.00.tgz|link=ymap_R0.00.tgz}}''. Its contents are described below.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left"<br />
|+ ''' Contents of {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=ymap_R0.00.tgz|link=ymap_R0.00.tgz}} '''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Filename || Format || Description<br />
|-<br />
| nilc_ymaps.fits || HEALPIX FITS format map in Galactic coordinates with <math> N_{\rm side} = 2048 </math>|| Contains the NILC full mission, FIRST and LAST ymaps.<br />
|-<br />
| milca_ymaps.fits || HEALPIX FITS format map in Galactic coordinates with <math> N_{\rm side} = 2048 </math> || Contains the MILCA full mission, FIRST and LAST ymaps.<br />
|-<br />
| nilc_weights_BAND.fits || HEALPIX FITS format map in Galactic coordinates with <math> N_{\rm side} = 128 </math>|| Contains the NILC ILC weights for the full mission ymap for band BAND 0 to 9. For each band we provide a weight map per frequency.<br />
|-<br />
| milca_FREQ_Csz.fits || HEALPIX FITS format map in Galactic coordinates with <math> N_{\rm side} = 2048 </math> || Contains the MILCA ILC weights for the full mission ymap for frequency FREQ (100,143,217,353,545,857). For each frequency we provide a weight map per filter band.<br />
|-<br />
| nilc_stddev.fits || HEALPIX FITS format map in Galactic coordinates with <math> N_{\rm side} = 2048 </math>|| Contains the stddev map for the NILC full mission y-map.<br />
|-<br />
| milca_stddev.fits || HEALPIX FITS format map in Galactic coordinates with <math> N_{\rm side} = 2048 </math> || Contains the stddev maps for the MILCA full mission ymap.<br />
|-<br />
| nilc_homnoise_spect.fits || ASCII table FITS format || Contains the angular power spectrum of the homogeneous noise in the NILC full mission ymap.<br />
|-<br />
| milca_homnoise_spect.fits || ASCII table FITS format || Contains the angular power spectrum of the homogeneous noise in the MILCA full mission ymap.<br />
|-<br />
| masks.fits || HEALPIX FITS format map, with <math> N_{\rm side} = 2048 </math> || Contains foreground masks.<br />
|-<br />
| nilc_bands.fits || ASCII table FITS format || Contains NILC wavelet bands in multipole space<br />
|}<br />
<!---<br />
== IRAM Maps of the Crab nebula ==<br />
<br />
Maps of the Crab nebula at 89.189 GHz (HCO+(1-0) transition) in both temperature and polarization, prodouced from observations performed at the IRAM 30m telescope from January 9th to January 12th 2009, are delivered as a tarball of 416 KB in the file<br />
<br />
: [[File:Crab_IRAM_2010.zip]]<br />
<br />
See README in the tarball for full details. These data were used in{{BibCite|aumont2010}}<br />
---><br />
<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|010]]</div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=Main_Page&diff=10642Main Page2015-01-29T16:30:16Z<p>Amoneti: cleaning</p>
<hr />
<div><br />
<br />
'''<span style="font-size:180%"> <span style="color:Blue"> This is the Explanatory Supplement development page for the Planck 2015 data release </span><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
* Instructions for new users: [[Help:READ ME FIRST|Read me first]]<br />
* See [http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Help:Contents User's Guide] for a detailed User Guide of the MediaWiki software;<br />
* See [[Help:Contents|Explanatory Supplement Help page]] for Planck-specific guidelines.<br />
<br />
<br />
== [[:Category:Explanatory Supplement|Explanatory Supplement]] ==<br />
<br />
By the [[Planck Collaboration]]<br />
<br />
The Explanatory Supplement is a reference text accompanying the public data delivered from the operations of the European Space Agency’s Planck satellite during its mission.<br />
*[[Questions and Answers|Q&A from PR1]]<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Introduction_WiP|Introduction]]<br />
##[[The Planck mission_WiP|The Planck mission]] <br />
##[[The satellite_WiP|The spacecraft]]<br />
##[[Ground Segment and Operations|Ground segment and operations]]<br />
##[[Survey_scanning_and_performance|Survey scanning and performance]]<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[The Instruments_WiP|The Instruments]]<br />
##[[HFI design, qualification, and performance|HFI design, qualification, and performance]]<br />
###[[HFI_cryogenics | Cryogenics]]<br />
###[[HFI_cold_optics | Cold optics]]<br />
###[[HFI_detection_chain | Detection chain]]<br />
###[[HFI_operations | Operations]]<br />
###[[HFI_performance_summary | Performance summary]]<br />
###[[HFI_instrument_annexes | Annexes]]<br />
##[[LFI overview|LFI design, qualification, and performance]]<span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFIDescription| Instrument description]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFITests| Ground tests]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFICalibration| In-flight calibration]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFIPerformance| Performance summary]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFISystematics| Systematic effects]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#SCS| Sorption cooler]]<br />
###[[LFIAppendix| Annexes]]<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Data processing]]<br />
##[[The HFI DPC| HFI Data Processing]]<br />
###[[Pre-processing | Pre-processing]]<br />
###[[TOI processing|TOI processing]]<br />
###[[ADC correction]]<br />
###[[Beams | Beams]]<br />
###[[Map-making | Mapmaking]]<br />
###[[Spectral response | Spectral response]]<br />
###[[HFI-Validation | Internal overall validation]]<br />
###[[Power spectra | Power spectra]]<br />
###[[Summary_of_HFI_data_characteristics | Summary of HFI data characteristics]]<br />
##[[The LFI DPC| LFI data processing]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[Pre-processing_LFI| Pre-processing]]<br />
###[[TOI processing_LFI| TOI processing]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[Beams_LFI | Beams]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[Galactic stray light removal]]<br />
###[[Map-making_LFI | Mapmaking]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[LFI systematic effect uncertainties | Systematic effects uncertainties]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[LFI-Validation | Internal overall validation]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[L3_LFI | Power spectra]] <br />
###[[Summary_LFI | Summary of LFI data characteristics ]]<br />
##[[HFI/LFI joint data processing]]<br />
###[[Detector pointing| Detector pointing]]<br />
<!--- ###[[NoiseCovarMatrices | Noise covariance matrices and low-resolution maps ]] ---><br />
###[[Compact Source catalogues| Compact Source Catalogues]] <span style="color:red">(Ashdown/Nuevo/Caniego)</span><br />
###[[Astrophysical component separation]] <span style="color:red">(Ashdown/Baccigalupi)</span><br />
###[[C2 | CMB Power spectra and Planck likelihood code]] <span style="color:red">Not in PR1 (Bouchet/Natoli)</span><br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Mission products]]<br />
##[[Timelines | Time-ordered data]]<br />
##[[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature and polarization maps]]<br />
<!--- ##[[NoiseCovariance | Noise covariance matrices and low-resolution maps ]]<span style="color:red">(Keskitalo)</span ---><br />
##[[The RIMO|Instrument model]] <br />
##[[Scanning Beams | Scanning Beams]]<br />
##[[Effective Beams | Effective beams]]<br />
##[[Catalogues|Catalogues]]: [[Catalogues#Catalogue of Compact Sources|PCCS]] • [[Catalogues#SZ Catalogue|PSZ]]<br />
<!---##[[Frequency maps angular power spectra | Sky temperature power spectra]] <span style="color:red">To be removed: this product not in Rel 2</span> ---><br />
##[[CMB_and_astrophysical_component maps | CMB and astrophysical component maps]]<br />
##[[CMB spectrum & Likelihood Code | CMB spectrum and likelihood code]]<br />
##[[Cosmological Parameters | Cosmological parameters]]<br />
##[[Specially processed maps | Additional maps]]: [[Specially processed maps#Lensing map | Lensing map]] • [[Specially processed maps#Compton parameter map | Compton parameter map]] <br />
##[[Scientific data used to generate Planck products | Scientific data used to generate Planck products]]<br />
##[[Simulation data | Simulation data]] <!--: [[Simulation data#The Planck Sky Model|The Planck Sky Model]] • [[Simulation data#The Planck Simulator | The Planck Simulator]] • [[Simulation data#Products delivered | Products delivered]] --><br />
##[[DatesObs|Dates of observations]]<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Software utilities|Software utilities]]<br />
##[[Unit conversion and Color correction|Unit conversion and Colour correction]] <br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Operational data]]<br />
##[[Telescope|Telescope]] <span style="color:red">Not in PR1</span> (<span style="color:red">Tauber</span>/<span style="color:blue">Dupac</span>)<br />
##[[Thermal|Thermal and cooler system]] <span style="color:red">Not in PR1</span> (<span style="color:red">Mendes</span>)<br />
##[[Survey history | Survey history data]]<br />
##[[Satellite history | Satellite history data]] <span style="color:red">Not in PR1</span> (<span style="color:red">Mendes</span>/<span style="color:blue">Dupac</span>)<br />
##[[Planck operational state history]]<br />
##[[FOG|Fibre-optic gyro]] <span style="color:red">Not in PR1</span> (<span style="color:blue">Mendes</span>)<br />
##[[SREM|Space radiation environment monitor]] (<span style="color:red">Mendes</span>)<br />
#[[Appendix]]<br />
##[[Glossary]]<br />
##[[List of acronyms]]<br />
[[Category:PSOBook]]</div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=CMB_and_astrophysical_component_maps&diff=10641CMB and astrophysical component maps2015-01-29T16:14:46Z<p>Amoneti: /* CMB maps */ add fig captions</p>
<hr />
<div>== Overview ==<br />
This section describes the maps of astrophysical components produced from the Planck data. These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps described above using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of the product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITS file containing the data and associated information.<br />
All the details can be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}.<br />
<br />
==CMB maps==<br />
CMB maps have been produced by the SMICA SEVEM, NILC and COMMANDER pipelines, which are described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation | CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Section 3 and Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}} and references therein.. For each pipeline we provide:<br />
* Full-mission CMB intensity map, confidence mask and beam transfer function.<br />
* Full-mission high-pass filtered CMB polarisation map, <br />
* A confidence mask.<br />
* A beam transfer function.<br />
In addition, and for characterisation purposes, there are six other sets of maps from three data splits: first/second half-ring, odd/even years and first/second half-mission. And for each of these data splits we provide half-sum and half-difference maps. The half-difference maps can be used to provide an approximate noise estimate for the full mission, but they should be used with caution. Each split has caveats in this regard: there are noise correlations between the half-ring maps, and missing pixels in the other splits. The Intensity maps are provided at Nside = 2048, at 5 arcmin resolution, while the Polarisation ones are provided at Nside = 1024 at 10 arcmin resolution. All maps are in units of K<sub>cmb</sub>.<br />
<br />
These maps can be found in the files <br />
* ''COM_CMB_IQU-{pipeline}-field-{Int/Pol}_Nside_R2.00.fits''. <br />
The ''Int'' files have two extensions, for the Intensity maps and the beam transfer function, the ''Pol'' files have three extensions, for Q and U maps, and for the beam transfer function.<br />
For a complete description of the data structure, see the [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
The gallery below shows the Intensity, noise from half-mission, half-difference, and confidence mask for the four pipelines, in the order SMICA, SEVEM, NILC and COMMANDER, from top to bottom. The Intensity maps scale is [–500.+500] μK, and the noise are between [–25,+25] μK. We do not show the Q and U maps since they have no significant visible structure to contemplate.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=300px heights=180> <br />
File:CMB_smica_tsig.png | '''simca temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tnoi.png | '''smica noise'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tmask.png | '''smica mask'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tsig.png | '''sevem temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tnoi.png | '''sevem noise'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tmask.png | '''sevem mask'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tsig.png | '''nilc temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tnoi.png | '''nilc noise'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tmask.png | '''nilc mask'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tsig.png | '''commander temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tnoi.png | '''commander noise'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tmask.png | '''commander mask'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
===Product description ===<br />
====SMICA====<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces a CMB map by linearly combining all Planck input channels (from 30 to 857 GHz) with weights which vary with the multipole. It includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math> '''and deconvolved from the pixel window'''. It means that, ideally, one would have <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) * B_\ell(5')^2</math>, where <math>C_\ell(map)</math> is the angular spectrum of the map, where <math>C_\ell(sky)</math> is the angular spectrum of the CMB and <math>B_\ell(5')</math> is a 5-arcminute Gaussian beam function. Note however that, by convention, the effective beam window function <math>B_\ell(fits)</math> provided in the FITS file does include a pixel window function. Therefore, it is equal to <math>B_\ell(fits) = B_\ell(5') / p_\ell(2048)</math> where <math>p_\ell(2048)</math> denotes the pixel window function for an Nside=2048 pixelization.<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. <br />
; Masks and inpainting<br />
: The raw SMICA CMB map has valid pixels except at the location of masked areas: point sources, Galactic plane, some other bright regions. Those invalid pixels are indicated with the mask named 'I_MASK'. The raw SMICA map has been inpainted, producing the map named "INP_CMB". Inpainting consists in replacing some pixels (as indicated by the mask named INP_MASK) by the values of a constrained Gaussian realization which is computed to ensure good statistical properties of the whole map (technically, the inpainted pixels are a sample realisation drawn under the posterior distribution given the un-masked pixels.<br />
<br />
====NILC (done by CB, checks with producers in progress)====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: The Needlet-ILC (hereafter NILC) CMB map is constructed both in total intensity as well as polarization, Q and U Stokes parameters. For total intensity, all Planck frequency channels are included. For polarization, all polarization sensitive frequency channels are included, from 30 to 353 GHz. The solution, for T, Q and U is obtained by applying the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) technique in needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range. <br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The spectral analysis, and estimation of the NILC coefficients, is performed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math>. The effective beam is equivalent of a Gaussian circular beam with FWHM=5 arcminutes. <br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The same procedure is followed by SMICA and NILC for producing confidence masks, though with different parametrizations. A low resolution smoothed version of the NILC map, noise subtracted, is thresholded to 73.5 squared micro-K for T, and 6,75 squared micro-K for Q and U.<br />
<br />
{{PlanckPapers|planck2014-p11}}<br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
:The aim of SEVEM is to produce clean CMB maps at one or several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting in real space. The templates are internal, i.e., they are constructed from Planck data, avoiding the need for external data sets, which usually complicates the analyses and may introduce inconsistencies. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. The single frequency clean maps are then combined to obtain the final CMB map.<br />
<br />
;Resolution<br />
<br />
:For intensity the clean CMB map is constructed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math> at Nside=2048 and at the standard resolution of 5 arcminutes (Gaussian beam).<br />
:For polarization the clean CMB map is produced at Nside=1024 with a resolution of 10 arcminutes (Gaussian beam) and a maximum <math>\ell=3071</math>.<br />
<br />
;Confidence masks<br />
<br />
:The confidence masks cover the most contaminated regions of the sky, leaving approximately 85 per cent of useful sky for intensity and 80 per cent for polarization.<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER-Ruler====<br />
COMMANDER-Ruler is the Planck software implementing a pixel based parametric component separation. Amplitude of CMB and the main diffuse foregrounds along with the relevant spectral parameters for those (see below in the Astrophysical Foreground Section for the latter) are parametrized and fitted in single MCMC chains conducted at N<sub>side</sub>=256 using COMMANDER, implementing a Gibbs Sampling. The CMB amplitude which <br />
is obtained in these runs corresponds to the delivered low resolution CMB component from COMMANDER-Ruler which has a FWHM of 40 arcminutes. The sampling of the foreground parameters is applied to the data at full resolution for obtaining the high resolution CMB component from Ruler which is available on the PLA. In the Planck Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}additional material is discussed, specifically concerning the sky region where the solutions are reliable, in terms of chi2 maps. The products mainly consist of: <br />
<br />
* Maps of the Amplitudes of the CMB at low resolution, N<sub>side</sub>=256, along with the standard deviations of the outputs, beam profiles derived from the production process. <br />
* Maps of the CMB amplitude, along with the standard deviations, at high resolution, N<sub>side=2048, beam profiles derived from the production process. <br />
* Mask obtained on the basis of the precision in the fitting procedure; the thresholding is evaluated through the COMMANDER-Ruler likelihood analysis and excludes 13% of the sky, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}.<br />
<br />
===Production process===<br />
====SMICA====<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: All input maps undergo a pre-processing step to deal with point sources. The point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue are fitted in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole is filled in by a simple diffusive process to ensure a smooth transition and mitigate spectral leakage. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, here all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and filled-in similarly.<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHzare harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> and co-added with multipole-dependent weights as shown in the figure.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: The areas masked in the pre-processing step are replaced by a constrained Gaussian realization.<br />
<br />
Note: The visible power deficit in the raw CMB map around the galactic plane is due to the smooth fill-in of the masked areas in the input maps (the result of the pre-processing).<br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:smica.jpg|thumb|center|500px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input maps (after they are re-beamed to 5 arcmin and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), as a function of multipole.''']]<br />
<br />
====NILC (done by CB, check by producers in progress)====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky frequency maps are deconvolved using the DPC beam transfer function provided, and re-convolved with a 5 arcminutes FWHM circular Gaussian beam. In polarization, prior to the smoothing process, all sky E and B maps are derived from Q and U using standard HEALPix tools from each individual frequency channels <br />
<br />
; Linear combination<br />
<br />
: Pre-processed input frequency maps are decomposed in needlet coefficients, specified in the Appendix B of the Planck A11 paper, with shape given by Table B.1. Minimum variance coefficients are then obtained, using all channels for T, from 30 to 353 for E and B. <br />
<br />
; Post-processing<br />
<br />
: E and B maps are re-combined into Q and U products using standard HEALPix tools. <br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
The templates are internal, i.e., they are constructed from Planck data, avoiding the need for external data sets, which usually complicates the analyses and may introduce inconsistencies. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust.<br />
<br />
Usually we construct our templates by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMB map at that frequency. This is done in real space at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. The <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. Note that the same expression applies for I, Q and U. Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).<br />
<br />
It should be stressed that the method is very fast and permits the generation of thousands of simulations to characterize the statistical properties of the outputs, a critical need for many cosmological applications. The final CMB map retains the angular resolution of the original frequency map.<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of clean maps at different frequencies is of great interest in order to test the robustness of the results. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned independently and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
;Intensity<br />
<br />
For the CMB intensity map, we have cleaned the 100 GHz, 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps using three templates constructed as the difference of the following Planck channels (smoothed to a common resolution): (30-44), (44-70), (545-353) and 857 as the fourth template. First of all, the six frequency channels which are going to be used to construct templates are inpainted at the point source positions detected using the Mexican Hat Wavelet algorithm (Planck Collaboration A35 2014). The size of the holes to be inpainted is determined taking into account the beam size of the channel as well as the flux of each source. The inpainting algorithm is based on simple diffuse inpainting, which fills one pixel with the mean value of the neighbouring pixels in an iterative way. To avoid inconsistencies when subtracting two channels, each frequency map is inpainted on the sources detected in that map and on the second map (if any) used to construct the template. Then the maps are smoothed to a common resolution (the first channel in the subtraction is smoothed with the beam of the second map and viceversa). For the 857 GHz template, we simply filter this map with the beam from 545 GHz (this is for comparison with the previous pipeline, where the 857 GHz was smoothed at this resolution when using it to construct the 857–545 template). <br />
<br />
The coefficients are obtained outside the analysis mask, that covers the 1 per cent brightest emission of the sky as well as point sources detected at all frequency channels. Once the maps are cleaned, each of them is inpainted on the point sources positions detected at that (raw) channel. Then, the MHW algorithm is run again, now on the clean maps. A relatively small number of new sources are found and are also inpainted at each channel. The resolution of the clean map is the same as that of the raw map. Our final CMB map has then been constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask is produced by looking at differences between three different SEVEM CMB reconstructions, leaving a suitable sky fraction of approximately 85 per cent.<br />
<br />
;Polarization<br />
<br />
To clean the polarization maps, a procedure similar to the one used for intensity data is applied to the Q and U maps independently. In particular, we clean the 70, 100 and 143 GHz using four templates: 30-44 (after being convolved with the beam of each other), 353-217 (smoothed at 10' resolution) and 217-143 and 217-100 (both at 1 degree resolution). Conversely to the intensity case and due to the lower availability of frequency channels, it becomes necessary to use the maps to be cleaned as part of one of the templates: the 100 GHz map is used in the 217-100 template to clean the 143 GHz one and the 143 GHz map is used in the 217-143 template to clean the 100 GHz one, making the clean maps less independent between them than in the intensity case.<br />
<br />
The linear coefficients are estimated independently for Q and U outside a mask, that covers point sources and the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission. Once the maps have been cleaned, inpainting of the point sources detected at each map is carried out. The size of the holes to be inpainted takes into account the additional smoothing of the 100 and 143 GHz maps. The 100 and 143 GHz clean maps are then combined in harmonic space, using E and B decomposition, to produce the final CMB maps for the Q and U components at a resolution of 10′ (Gaussian beam) for a HEALPix parameter nside = 1024. Each map is weighted taking into account its corresponding noise level at each multipole. Finally, before applying the post-processing HPF to the clean polarization data, the region with the brightest Galactic residuals is inpainted (5 per cent of the sky).<br />
<br />
The confidence mask includes all the pixels above a given threshold, the CO emission and those pixels more affected by the high-pass filtering, leaving a useful sky fraction os approximately 80 per cent.<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER-Ruler====<br />
The production process consist in low and high resolution runs according to the description above. <br />
; Low Resolution Runs: Same as the Astrophysics Foregrounds Section below; The CMB amplitude is fitted along with the other foreground parameters and constitutes the CMB Low Resolution Rendering which is in the PLA. <br />
; Ruler Runs: the sampling at high resolution is used to infer the probability distribution of spectral parameters which is exploited at full resolution in order to obtain the High Resolution CMB Rendering which is in the PLA. <br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. SMICA and SEVEM use all the maps between 30 and 857 GHz; NILC uses the ones between 44 and 857 GHz. Commander-Ruler uses frequency channel maps from 30 to 353 GHz. <br />
<br />
===File names and structure===<br />
The FITS files corresponding to the three CMB products are the following:<br />
<br />
''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}-field-{Int,Pol}_Nside_R2.nn.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''method'' is mica, nilc, sevem, or commander, and Int and Pol indicate whether the file contains the temperature (Int) or the polarisation (Pol) maps. For this release the temperature maps are provided at Nside = 2048, and the polarisation maps at Nside = 1024. <br />
<br />
The files contain <br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data;<br />
* one or two ''BINTABLE'' data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 14 columns in which the first 13 columns is a CMB maps produced from the full or a subset of the data, as described in the table below, and the last column in a confidence mask. There is a single extension for ''Int'' files, and two, for Q and U, for ''Pol'' files. <br />
* a ''BINTABLE'' extension containing the beam window function.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I or Q or U || Real*4 || uK_cmb || I or Q or U map <br />
|- <br />
|HM1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HM2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 2 <br />
|-<br />
|YR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 1 <br />
|-<br />
|YR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HMHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HMHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|YRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|YRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|HRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half diff <br />
|-<br />
|MASK || BYTE || || Confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (smica/nilc/sevem/commander)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Notes:<br />
# The beam window function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>.<br />
<br />
<!--- mi sembra che questa non serva più <br />
The low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler CMB product is organized in the following way:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK_cmb || CMB temperature map obtained as average over 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Corresponding Standard deviation amongst the 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Confidence mask<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. EXTNAME = ''CMB-Sample'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM01 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM02 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM03 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM04 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM05 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM06 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM07 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM08 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM09 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM10 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
<!---- anche queste non servono più <br />
<br />
The FITS files containing the ''union'' (or common) maks is:<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-union_2048_R1.10.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common}}<br />
which contains a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with a single column (named ''U73'') for the mask, which is boolean (FITS ''TFORM = B''), in GALACTIC coordinates, NESTED ordering, and Nside=2048.<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for a small file containing the SMICA cmb map with no additional information (noise or masks) we provide such a file here<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
This file contains a single extension with a single column containing the SMICA cmb temperature map.<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
== Astrophysical foregrounds from parametric component separation ==<br />
We describe diffuse foreground products for the Planck 2013 release. See Planck Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}} for a detailed description and astrophysical discussion of those.<br />
<br />
===Product description===<br />
; Low frequency foreground component<br />
: The products below contain the result of the fitting for one foreground component at low frequencies in Planck bands,along with its spectral behavior parametrized by a power law spectral index. Amplitude and spectral indeces are evaluated at N$_\rm{side}$ 256 (see below in the production process), along with standard deviation from sampling and instrumental noise on both. An amplitude solution at N$_\rm{side}$=2048 is also given, along with standard deviation from sampling and instrumental noise as well as solutions on halfrings. The beam profile associated to this component is also provided as a secondary Extension in the N$_\rm{side}$ 2048 product.<br />
<br />
; Thermal dust<br />
: The products below contain the result of the fitting for one foreground component at high frequencies in Planck bands, along with its spectral behavior parametrized by temperature and emissivity. Amplitude, temperature and emissivity are evaluated at N$_\rm{side}$ 256 (see below in the production process), along with standard deviation from sampling and instrumental noise on all of them. An amplitude solution at N$_\rm{side}$=2048 is also given, along with standard deviation from sampling and instrumental noise as well as solutions on halfrings. The beam profile associated to this component is provided. <br />
<br />
; Sky mask<br />
: The delivered mask is defined as the sky region where the fitting procedure was conducted and the solutions presented here were obtained. It is made by masking a region where the Galactic emission is too intense to perform the fitting, plus the masking of brightest point sources.<br />
<br />
===Production process===<br />
CODE: COMMANDER-RULER. The code exploits a parametrization of CMB and main diffuse foreground observables. The naive resolution of input <br />
frequency channels is reduced to N$_\rm{side}$=256 first. Parameters related to the foreground scaling with frequency are estimated at that resolution <br />
by using Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis using Gibbs sampling. The foreground parameters make the foreground mixing matrix which is <br />
applied to the data at full resolution in order to obtain the provided products at N$_\rm{side}$=2048. In the Planck Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}} additional material is discussed, specifically concerning the sky region where the solutions are reliable, in terms of chi2 maps.<br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
Nominal frequency maps at 30, 44, 70, 100, 143, 217, 353 GHz ({{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=30|period=Nominal|link=LFI 30 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=44|period=Nominal|link=LFI 44 GHz frequency maps}} and {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=70|period=Nominal|link=LFI 70 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=100|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 100 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=143|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 143 GHz frequency maps}},{{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=217|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 217 GHz frequency maps}} and {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=353|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 353 GHz frequency maps}}) and their II column corresponding to the noise covariance matrix. <br />
Halfrings at the same frequencies. Beam window functions as reported in the [[The RIMO#Beam Window Functions|LFI and HFI RIMO]].<br />
<br />
===Related products===<br />
None. <br />
<br />
===File names===<br />
* Low frequency component at N$_\rm{side}$ 256: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits}}<br />
* Low frequency component at N$_\rm{side}$ 2048: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits}}<br />
* Thermal dust at N$_\rm{side}$ 256: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits}}<br />
* Thermal dust at N$_\rm{side}$ 2048: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits}}<br />
* Mask: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Mask-rulerminimal_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Mask-rulerminimal_2048_R1.00.fits}}<br />
<br />
===Meta Data===<br />
====Low frequency foreground component====<br />
=====Low frequency component at N<sub>side</sub> = 256=====<br />
File name: COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits<br />
: '''Name HDU -- COMP-MAP'''<br />
<br />
The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK<sub>CMB</sub>|| Intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || uK<sub>CMB</sub> || standard deviation of intensity <br />
|-<br />
|Beta || Real*4 || || effective spectral index <br />
|-<br />
|B_stdev || Real*4 || || standard deviation on the effective spectral index <br />
|}<br />
<br />
; Notes:<br />
: Comment: The Intensity is normalized at 30 GHz<br />
: Comment: The intensity was estimated during mixing matrix estimation<br />
<br />
=====Low frequency component at N<sub>side</sub> = 2048=====<br />
: File name: COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits<br />
<br />
<br />
: '''Name HDU -- COMP-MAP'''<br />
<br />
The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*8 || uK<sub>CMB</sub>|| Intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*8 || uK<sub>CMB</sub> || standard deviation of intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_hr1 || Real*8 || uK<sub>CMB</sub> || Intensity on half ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|I_hr2 || Real*8 || uK<sub>CMB</sub> || Intensity on half ring 2 <br />
|}<br />
<br />
; Notes:<br />
: Comment: The intensity was computed after mixing matrix application<br />
<br />
<br />
: '''Name HDU -- BeamWF'''<br />
<br />
The Fits second extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BeamWF || Real*4 || || beam profile <br />
|}<br />
<br />
; Notes:<br />
: Comment: Beam window function used in the Component separation process<br />
<br />
====Thermal dust====<br />
=====Thermal dust component at N<sub>side</sub>=256=====<br />
: File name: COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits<br />
<br />
: '''Name HDU -- COMP-MAP'''<br />
<br />
The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || MJy/sr || Intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || MJy/sr || standard deviation of intensity <br />
|-<br />
|Em || Real*4 || || emissivity <br />
|-<br />
|Em_stdev || Real*4 || || standard deviation on emissivity <br />
|-<br />
|T || Real*4 || uK<sub>CMB</sub> || temperature <br />
|-<br />
|T_stdev || Real*4 || uK<sub>CMB</sub> || standard deviation on temerature <br />
|}<br />
<br />
; Notes:<br />
: Comment: The intensity is normalized at 353 GHz<br />
<br />
=====Thermal dust component at N<sub>side</sub>=2048=====<br />
File name: COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits<br />
<br />
<br />
: '''Name HDU -- COMP-MAP'''<br />
<br />
The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*8 || MJy/sr || Intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*8 || MJy/sr || standard deviation of intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_hr1 || Real*8 || MJy/sr || Intensity on half ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|I_hr2 || Real*8 || MJy/sr || Intensity on half ring 2 <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
: '''Name HDU -- BeamWF'''<br />
<br />
The Fits second extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BeamWF || Real*4 || || beam profile <br />
|}<br />
<br />
; Notes:<br />
: Comment: Beam window function used in the Component separation process<br />
<br />
====Sky mask====<br />
File name: COM_CompMap_Mask-rulerminimal_2048.fits<br />
<br />
; '''Name HDU -- COMP-MASK'''<br />
<br />
The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Mask || Real*4 || || Mask <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|007]]</div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=CMB_and_astrophysical_component_maps&diff=10638CMB and astrophysical component maps2015-01-29T15:57:37Z<p>Amoneti: /* CMB maps */</p>
<hr />
<div>== Overview ==<br />
This section describes the maps of astrophysical components produced from the Planck data. These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps described above using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of the product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITS file containing the data and associated information.<br />
All the details can be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}.<br />
<br />
==CMB maps==<br />
CMB maps have been produced by the SMICA SEVEM, NILC and COMMANDER pipelines, which are described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation | CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Section 3 and Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}} and references therein.. For each pipeline we provide:<br />
* Full-mission CMB intensity map, confidence mask and beam transfer function.<br />
* Full-mission high-pass filtered CMB polarisation map, <br />
* A confidence mask.<br />
* A beam transfer function.<br />
In addition, and for characterisation purposes, there are six other sets of maps from three data splits: first/second half-ring, odd/even years and first/second half-mission. And for each of these data splits we provide half-sum and half-difference maps. The half-difference maps can be used to provide an approximate noise estimate for the full mission, but they should be used with caution. Each split has caveats in this regard: there are noise correlations between the half-ring maps, and missing pixels in the other splits. The Intensity maps are provided at Nside = 2048, at 5 arcmin resolution, while the Polarisation ones are provided at Nside = 1024 at 10 arcmin resolution. All maps are in units of K<sub>cmb</sub>.<br />
<br />
These maps can be found in the files <br />
* ''COM_CMB_IQU-{pipeline}-field-{Int/Pol}_Nside_R2.00.fits''. <br />
The ''Int'' files have two extensions, for the Intensity maps and the beam transfer function, the ''Pol'' files have three extensions, for Q and U maps, and for the beam transfer function.<br />
For a complete description of the data structure, see the [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
The gallery below shows the Intensity, noise from half-mission, half-difference, and confidence mask for the four pipelines, in the order SMICA, SEVEM, NILC and COMMANDER, from top to bottom. The Intensity maps scale is [–500.+500] μK, and the noise are between [–25,+25] μK. We do not show the Q and U maps since they have no significant visible structure to contemplate.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=300px heights=180> <br />
File:CMB_smica_tsig.png<br />
File:CMB_smica_tnoi.png<br />
File:CMB_smica_tmask.png<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tsig.png<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tnoi.png<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tmask.png<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tsig.png<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tnoi.png<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tmask.png<br />
File:CMB_commander_tsig.png<br />
File:CMB_commander_tnoi.png<br />
File:CMB_commander_tmask.png<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
===Product description ===<br />
====SMICA====<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces a CMB map by linearly combining all Planck input channels (from 30 to 857 GHz) with weights which vary with the multipole. It includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math> '''and deconvolved from the pixel window'''. It means that, ideally, one would have <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) * B_\ell(5')^2</math>, where <math>C_\ell(map)</math> is the angular spectrum of the map, where <math>C_\ell(sky)</math> is the angular spectrum of the CMB and <math>B_\ell(5')</math> is a 5-arcminute Gaussian beam function. Note however that, by convention, the effective beam window function <math>B_\ell(fits)</math> provided in the FITS file does include a pixel window function. Therefore, it is equal to <math>B_\ell(fits) = B_\ell(5') / p_\ell(2048)</math> where <math>p_\ell(2048)</math> denotes the pixel window function for an Nside=2048 pixelization.<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. <br />
; Masks and inpainting<br />
: The raw SMICA CMB map has valid pixels except at the location of masked areas: point sources, Galactic plane, some other bright regions. Those invalid pixels are indicated with the mask named 'I_MASK'. The raw SMICA map has been inpainted, producing the map named "INP_CMB". Inpainting consists in replacing some pixels (as indicated by the mask named INP_MASK) by the values of a constrained Gaussian realization which is computed to ensure good statistical properties of the whole map (technically, the inpainted pixels are a sample realisation drawn under the posterior distribution given the un-masked pixels.<br />
<br />
====NILC (done by CB, checks with producers in progress)====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: The Needlet-ILC (hereafter NILC) CMB map is constructed both in total intensity as well as polarization, Q and U Stokes parameters. For total intensity, all Planck frequency channels are included. For polarization, all polarization sensitive frequency channels are included, from 30 to 353 GHz. The solution, for T, Q and U is obtained by applying the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) technique in needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range. <br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The spectral analysis, and estimation of the NILC coefficients, is performed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math>. The effective beam is equivalent of a Gaussian circular beam with FWHM=5 arcminutes. <br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The same procedure is followed by SMICA and NILC for producing confidence masks, though with different parametrizations. A low resolution smoothed version of the NILC map, noise subtracted, is thresholded to 73.5 squared micro-K for T, and 6,75 squared micro-K for Q and U.<br />
<br />
{{PlanckPapers|planck2014-p11}}<br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
:The aim of SEVEM is to produce clean CMB maps at one or several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting. The templates are internal, i.e., they are constructed from Planck data, avoiding the need for external data sets, which usually complicates the analyses and may introduce inconsistencies. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. <br />
<br />
;Resolution<br />
<br />
:For intensity the clean CMB map is at nside=2048 with 5' resolution and up to lmax=4000; note that SEVEM also produces additional clean single frequency maps at 100, 143 and 217 GHz at their native resolution.<br />
:For polarization the clean CMB map is at nside=1024 with a resolution of 10' and lmax=3071; the additional clean maps are at 70 GHz (native resolution) and at 100 and 143 GHz (with 10' resolution).<br />
<br />
;Confidence masks<br />
<br />
:The confidence masks cover the most contaminated regions of the sky, leaving approximately 85 per cent of useful sky for intensity and 80 per cent for polarization.<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER-Ruler====<br />
COMMANDER-Ruler is the Planck software implementing a pixel based parametric component separation. Amplitude of CMB and the main diffuse foregrounds along with the relevant spectral parameters for those (see below in the Astrophysical Foreground Section for the latter) are parametrized and fitted in single MCMC chains conducted at N<sub>side</sub>=256 using COMMANDER, implementing a Gibbs Sampling. The CMB amplitude which <br />
is obtained in these runs corresponds to the delivered low resolution CMB component from COMMANDER-Ruler which has a FWHM of 40 arcminutes. The sampling of the foreground parameters is applied to the data at full resolution for obtaining the high resolution CMB component from Ruler which is available on the PLA. In the Planck Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}additional material is discussed, specifically concerning the sky region where the solutions are reliable, in terms of chi2 maps. The products mainly consist of: <br />
<br />
* Maps of the Amplitudes of the CMB at low resolution, N<sub>side</sub>=256, along with the standard deviations of the outputs, beam profiles derived from the production process. <br />
* Maps of the CMB amplitude, along with the standard deviations, at high resolution, N<sub>side=2048, beam profiles derived from the production process. <br />
* Mask obtained on the basis of the precision in the fitting procedure; the thresholding is evaluated through the COMMANDER-Ruler likelihood analysis and excludes 13% of the sky, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}.<br />
<br />
===Production process===<br />
====SMICA====<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: All input maps undergo a pre-processing step to deal with point sources. The point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue are fitted in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole is filled in by a simple diffusive process to ensure a smooth transition and mitigate spectral leakage. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, here all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and filled-in similarly.<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHzare harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> and co-added with multipole-dependent weights as shown in the figure.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: The areas masked in the pre-processing step are replaced by a constrained Gaussian realization.<br />
<br />
Note: The visible power deficit in the raw CMB map around the galactic plane is due to the smooth fill-in of the masked areas in the input maps (the result of the pre-processing). It is not to be confused with the post-processing step of inpainting of the CMB map with a constrained Gaussian realization.<br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:smica.jpg|thumb|center|500px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input maps (after they are re-beamed to 5 arcmin and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), as a function of multipole.''']]<br />
<br />
====NILC (done by CB, check by producers in progress)====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky frequency maps are deconvolved using the DPC beam transfer function provided, and re-convolved with a 5 arcminutes FWHM circular Gaussian beam. In polarization, prior to the smoothing process, all sky E and B maps are derived from Q and U using standard HEALPix tools from each individual frequency channels <br />
<br />
; Linear combination<br />
<br />
: Pre-processed input frequency maps are decomposed in needlet coefficients, specified in the Appendix B of the Planck A11 paper, with shape given by Table B.1. Minimum variance coefficients are then obtained, using all channels for T, from 30 to 353 for E and B. <br />
<br />
; Post-processing<br />
<br />
: E and B maps are re-combined into Q and U products using standard HEALPix tools. <br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
The templates are internal, i.e., they are constructed from Planck data, avoiding the need for external data sets, which usually complicates the analyses and may introduce inconsistencies. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust.<br />
<br />
Usually we construct our templates by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMB map at that frequency. This is done in real space at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. The <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. Note that the same expression applies for I, Q and U. Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).<br />
<br />
It should be stressed that the method is very fast and permits the generation of thousands of simulations to characterize the statistical properties of the outputs, a critical need for many cosmological applications. The final CMB map retains the angular resolution of the original frequency map.<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of clean maps at different frequencies is of great interest in order to test the robustness of the results. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned independently and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
;Intensity<br />
<br />
For the CMB intensity map, we have cleaned the 100 GHz, 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps using three templates constructed as the difference of the following Planck channels (smoothed to a common resolution): (30-44), (44-70), (545-353) and 857 as the fourth template. First of all, the six frequency channels which are going to be used to construct templates are inpainted at the point source positions detected using the Mexican Hat Wavelet algorithm (Planck Collaboration A35 2014). The size of the holes to be inpainted is determined taking into account the beam size of the channel as well as the flux of each source. The inpainting algorithm is based on simple diffuse inpainting, which fills one pixel with the mean value of the neighbouring pixels in an iterative way. To avoid inconsistencies when subtracting two channels, each frequency map is inpainted on the sources detected in that map and on the second map (if any) used to construct the template. Then the maps are smoothed to a common resolution (the first channel in the subtraction is smoothed with the beam of the second map and viceversa). For the 857 GHz template, we simply filter this map with the beam from 545 GHz (this is for comparison with the previous pipeline, where the 857 GHz was smoothed at this resolution when using it to construct the 857–545 template). <br />
<br />
The coefficients are obtained outside the analysis mask, that covers the 1 per cent brightest emission of the sky as well as point sources detected at all frequency channels. Once the maps are cleaned, each of them is inpainted on the point sources positions detected at that (raw) channel. Then, the MHW algorithm is run again, now on the clean maps. A relatively small number of new sources are found and are also inpainted at each channel. The resolution of the clean map is the same as that of the raw map. Our final CMB map has then been constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask is produced by looking at differences between three different SEVEM CMB reconstructions, leaving a suitable sky fraction of approximately 85 per cent.<br />
<br />
;Polarization<br />
<br />
To clean the polarization maps, a procedure similar to the one used for intensity data is applied to the Q and U maps independently. In particular, we clean the 70, 100 and 143 GHz using four templates: 30-44 (after being convolved with the beam of each other), 353-217 (smoothed at 10' resolution) and 217-143 and 217-100 (both at 1 degree resolution). Conversely to the intensity case and due to the lower availability of frequency channels, it becomes necessary to use the maps to be cleaned as part of one of the templates: the 100 GHz map is used in the 217-100 template to clean the 143 GHz one and the 143 GHz map is used in the 217-143 template to clean the 100 GHz one, making the clean maps less independent between them than in the intensity case.<br />
<br />
The linear coefficients are estimated independently for Q and U outside a mask, that covers point sources and the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission. Once the maps have been cleaned, inpainting of the point sources detected at each map is carried out. The size of the holes to be inpainted takes into account the additional smoothing of the 100 and 143 GHz maps. The 100 and 143 GHz clean maps are then combined in harmonic space, using E and B decomposition, to produce the final CMB maps for the Q and U components at a resolution of 10′ (Gaussian beam) for a HEALPix parameter nside = 1024. Each map is weighted taking into account its corresponding noise level at each multipole. Finally, before applying the post-processing HPF to the clean polarization data, the region with the brightest Galactic residuals is inpainted (5 per cent of the sky).<br />
<br />
The confidence mask includes all the pixels above a given threshold, the CO emission and those pixels more affected by the high-pass filtering, leaving a useful sky fraction os approximately 80 per cent.<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER-Ruler====<br />
The production process consist in low and high resolution runs according to the description above. <br />
; Low Resolution Runs: Same as the Astrophysics Foregrounds Section below; The CMB amplitude is fitted along with the other foreground parameters and constitutes the CMB Low Resolution Rendering which is in the PLA. <br />
; Ruler Runs: the sampling at high resolution is used to infer the probability distribution of spectral parameters which is exploited at full resolution in order to obtain the High Resolution CMB Rendering which is in the PLA. <br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. SMICA and SEVEM use all the maps between 30 and 857 GHz; NILC uses the ones between 44 and 857 GHz. Commander-Ruler uses frequency channel maps from 30 to 353 GHz. <br />
<br />
===File names and structure===<br />
The FITS files corresponding to the three CMB products are the following:<br />
<br />
''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}-field-{Int,Pol}_Nside_R2.nn.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''method'' is mica, nilc, sevem, or commander, and Int and Pol indicate whether the file contains the temperature (Int) or the polarisation (Pol) maps. For this release the temperature maps are provided at Nside = 2048, and the polarisation maps at Nside = 1024. <br />
<br />
The files contain <br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data;<br />
* one or two ''BINTABLE'' data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 14 columns in which the first 13 columns is a CMB maps produced from the full or a subset of the data, as described in the table below, and the last column in a confidence mask. There is a single extension for ''Int'' files, and two, for Q and U, for ''Pol'' files. <br />
* a ''BINTABLE'' extension containing the beam window function.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I or Q or U || Real*4 || uK_cmb || I or Q or U map <br />
|- <br />
|HM1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HM2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 2 <br />
|-<br />
|YR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 1 <br />
|-<br />
|YR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HMHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HMHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|YRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|YRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|HRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half diff <br />
|-<br />
|MASK || BYTE || || Confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (smica/nilc/sevem/commander)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Notes:<br />
# The beam window function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>.<br />
<br />
<!--- mi sembra che questa non serva più <br />
The low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler CMB product is organized in the following way:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK_cmb || CMB temperature map obtained as average over 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Corresponding Standard deviation amongst the 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Confidence mask<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. EXTNAME = ''CMB-Sample'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM01 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM02 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM03 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM04 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM05 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM06 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM07 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM08 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM09 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM10 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
<!---- anche queste non servono più <br />
<br />
The FITS files containing the ''union'' (or common) maks is:<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-union_2048_R1.10.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common}}<br />
which contains a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with a single column (named ''U73'') for the mask, which is boolean (FITS ''TFORM = B''), in GALACTIC coordinates, NESTED ordering, and Nside=2048.<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for a small file containing the SMICA cmb map with no additional information (noise or masks) we provide such a file here<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
This file contains a single extension with a single column containing the SMICA cmb temperature map.<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
== Astrophysical foregrounds from parametric component separation ==<br />
We describe diffuse foreground products for the Planck 2013 release. See Planck Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}} for a detailed description and astrophysical discussion of those.<br />
<br />
===Product description===<br />
; Low frequency foreground component<br />
: The products below contain the result of the fitting for one foreground component at low frequencies in Planck bands,along with its spectral behavior parametrized by a power law spectral index. Amplitude and spectral indeces are evaluated at N$_\rm{side}$ 256 (see below in the production process), along with standard deviation from sampling and instrumental noise on both. An amplitude solution at N$_\rm{side}$=2048 is also given, along with standard deviation from sampling and instrumental noise as well as solutions on halfrings. The beam profile associated to this component is also provided as a secondary Extension in the N$_\rm{side}$ 2048 product.<br />
<br />
; Thermal dust<br />
: The products below contain the result of the fitting for one foreground component at high frequencies in Planck bands, along with its spectral behavior parametrized by temperature and emissivity. Amplitude, temperature and emissivity are evaluated at N$_\rm{side}$ 256 (see below in the production process), along with standard deviation from sampling and instrumental noise on all of them. An amplitude solution at N$_\rm{side}$=2048 is also given, along with standard deviation from sampling and instrumental noise as well as solutions on halfrings. The beam profile associated to this component is provided. <br />
<br />
; Sky mask<br />
: The delivered mask is defined as the sky region where the fitting procedure was conducted and the solutions presented here were obtained. It is made by masking a region where the Galactic emission is too intense to perform the fitting, plus the masking of brightest point sources.<br />
<br />
===Production process===<br />
CODE: COMMANDER-RULER. The code exploits a parametrization of CMB and main diffuse foreground observables. The naive resolution of input <br />
frequency channels is reduced to N$_\rm{side}$=256 first. Parameters related to the foreground scaling with frequency are estimated at that resolution <br />
by using Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis using Gibbs sampling. The foreground parameters make the foreground mixing matrix which is <br />
applied to the data at full resolution in order to obtain the provided products at N$_\rm{side}$=2048. In the Planck Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}} additional material is discussed, specifically concerning the sky region where the solutions are reliable, in terms of chi2 maps.<br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
Nominal frequency maps at 30, 44, 70, 100, 143, 217, 353 GHz ({{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=30|period=Nominal|link=LFI 30 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=44|period=Nominal|link=LFI 44 GHz frequency maps}} and {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=70|period=Nominal|link=LFI 70 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=100|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 100 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=143|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 143 GHz frequency maps}},{{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=217|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 217 GHz frequency maps}} and {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=353|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 353 GHz frequency maps}}) and their II column corresponding to the noise covariance matrix. <br />
Halfrings at the same frequencies. Beam window functions as reported in the [[The RIMO#Beam Window Functions|LFI and HFI RIMO]].<br />
<br />
===Related products===<br />
None. <br />
<br />
===File names===<br />
* Low frequency component at N$_\rm{side}$ 256: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits}}<br />
* Low frequency component at N$_\rm{side}$ 2048: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits}}<br />
* Thermal dust at N$_\rm{side}$ 256: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits}}<br />
* Thermal dust at N$_\rm{side}$ 2048: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits}}<br />
* Mask: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Mask-rulerminimal_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Mask-rulerminimal_2048_R1.00.fits}}<br />
<br />
===Meta Data===<br />
====Low frequency foreground component====<br />
=====Low frequency component at N<sub>side</sub> = 256=====<br />
File name: COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits<br />
: '''Name HDU -- COMP-MAP'''<br />
<br />
The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK<sub>CMB</sub>|| Intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || uK<sub>CMB</sub> || standard deviation of intensity <br />
|-<br />
|Beta || Real*4 || || effective spectral index <br />
|-<br />
|B_stdev || Real*4 || || standard deviation on the effective spectral index <br />
|}<br />
<br />
; Notes:<br />
: Comment: The Intensity is normalized at 30 GHz<br />
: Comment: The intensity was estimated during mixing matrix estimation<br />
<br />
=====Low frequency component at N<sub>side</sub> = 2048=====<br />
: File name: COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits<br />
<br />
<br />
: '''Name HDU -- COMP-MAP'''<br />
<br />
The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*8 || uK<sub>CMB</sub>|| Intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*8 || uK<sub>CMB</sub> || standard deviation of intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_hr1 || Real*8 || uK<sub>CMB</sub> || Intensity on half ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|I_hr2 || Real*8 || uK<sub>CMB</sub> || Intensity on half ring 2 <br />
|}<br />
<br />
; Notes:<br />
: Comment: The intensity was computed after mixing matrix application<br />
<br />
<br />
: '''Name HDU -- BeamWF'''<br />
<br />
The Fits second extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BeamWF || Real*4 || || beam profile <br />
|}<br />
<br />
; Notes:<br />
: Comment: Beam window function used in the Component separation process<br />
<br />
====Thermal dust====<br />
=====Thermal dust component at N<sub>side</sub>=256=====<br />
: File name: COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits<br />
<br />
: '''Name HDU -- COMP-MAP'''<br />
<br />
The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || MJy/sr || Intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || MJy/sr || standard deviation of intensity <br />
|-<br />
|Em || Real*4 || || emissivity <br />
|-<br />
|Em_stdev || Real*4 || || standard deviation on emissivity <br />
|-<br />
|T || Real*4 || uK<sub>CMB</sub> || temperature <br />
|-<br />
|T_stdev || Real*4 || uK<sub>CMB</sub> || standard deviation on temerature <br />
|}<br />
<br />
; Notes:<br />
: Comment: The intensity is normalized at 353 GHz<br />
<br />
=====Thermal dust component at N<sub>side</sub>=2048=====<br />
File name: COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits<br />
<br />
<br />
: '''Name HDU -- COMP-MAP'''<br />
<br />
The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*8 || MJy/sr || Intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*8 || MJy/sr || standard deviation of intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_hr1 || Real*8 || MJy/sr || Intensity on half ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|I_hr2 || Real*8 || MJy/sr || Intensity on half ring 2 <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
: '''Name HDU -- BeamWF'''<br />
<br />
The Fits second extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BeamWF || Real*4 || || beam profile <br />
|}<br />
<br />
; Notes:<br />
: Comment: Beam window function used in the Component separation process<br />
<br />
====Sky mask====<br />
File name: COM_CompMap_Mask-rulerminimal_2048.fits<br />
<br />
; '''Name HDU -- COMP-MASK'''<br />
<br />
The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Mask || Real*4 || || Mask <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|007]]</div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=Sky_temperature_maps&diff=10637Sky temperature maps2015-01-29T15:53:54Z<p>Amoneti: /* FITS file structure */ add file sizes</p>
<hr />
<div>{{DISPLAYTITLE:Sky temperature and polarization maps}}<br />
==General description==<br />
<br />
Sky maps give the best estimate of the intensity and polarization (Stokes Q and U components), if available, of the signal from the sky after removal, as far as possible, of known systematic effects (mostly instrumental, but including also the solar and earth-motion dipole, and the Zodiacal light). Sky maps are provided for the full Planck mission using all valid detectors in each frequency channel, and also for various subsets by splitting the mission in various time ranges or in subsets of the detectors in a given channel. These products are useful for the study of source variability, but they are especially interesting for characterisation purposes (see also the [[HFI-Validation | data validation]] section). The details of the start and end of the time ranges are given in the table below.<br />
<br />
To help in further processing, there are also masks of the Galactic Plane and of point sources, each provided for several different depths.<br />
<br />
All sky maps are in Healpix format, with Nside of 2048, in Galactic coordinates, and Nested ordering. The signal is given in units of K<sub>cmb</sub> for 30-353 GHz, and of MJy/sr (for a constant <math>\nu F_\nu</math> energy distribution ) for 545 and 857 GHz. For each frequency channel, the intensity and polarization maps are packaged into a ''BINTABLE'' extension of a FITS file together with a hit-count map (or hit map, for short, giving the number of observation samples that are cumulated in a pixel, all detectors combined) and with the variance and covariance maps. Additional information is given in the FITS file header. The structure of the FITS file is given in the [[#Format | FITS file structure]] section below. <br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Ranges for mission and surveys'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Range || ODs || rings || pointing-IDs || Comment<br />
|-<br />
|nominal mission || 91 - 563 || 240 - 14723 || 00004200 - 03180200 ||<br />
|-<br />
|full mission || 91 - 974 || 240 - 27005 || 00004200 - 05322620 || for HFI<br />
|-<br />
|full mission || 91 - 993 || 240 - 27641 || 00004200 - 06344800 || for LFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 1 || 91 - 270 || 240 - 5720 || 00004200 - 01059820 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 2 || 270 - 456 || 5721 - 11194 || 01059830 - 02114520 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 3 || 456 - 636 || 11195 - 16691 || 02114530 - 03193660 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 4 || 636 - 807 || 16692 - 21720 || 03193670 - 04243900 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 5 || 807 - 974 || 21721 - 27005 || 05267180 - 05322590 || end of mission for HFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 5 || 807 - 993 || 21721 - 27641 || 05267180 - 06344800 || end of survey for LFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 6 || 993 - 1177 || 27642 - tbd || 06344810 - 06398120 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|Survey 7 || 1177 - 1358 || tbd - tbd || 06398130 - 06456410 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|Survey 8 || 1358 - 1543 || tbd - tbd || 06456420 - 06511160 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|Survey 9 || 1543 - 1604 || tbd - tbd || 06511170 - 06533320 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|HFI mission-half-1 || 91 - 531 || 240 - 13471 || 00004200 - 03155580 ||<br />
|-<br />
|HFI mission-half-2 || 531 - 974 || 13472 - 27005 || 03155590 - 05322590 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 1 || 91 - 456 || 240 - 11194 || 00004200 - 02114520 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 2 || 456 - 807 || 11195 - 21720 || 02114530 - 04243900 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 3 || 807 - 1177 || 21721 - tbd || 05267180 - 06398120 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 4 || 1177 - 1543 || tbd - tbd || 06398130 - 06511160 ||<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
==Production process==<br />
<br />
Sky maps are produced by combining appropriately the data of all working detectors in a frequency channel over some period of the mission. They give the best estimate of the signal from the sky (unpolarised) after removal, as far as possible, of known systematic effects and of the dipole signals induced by the motion of the solar system in the CMB and of the Planck satellite in the solar system. In particular, they include the Zodiacal light emission (Zodi for short) and also the scattering from the far-side lobes of the beams (FSL). More on this below.<br />
<br />
=== HFI processing ===<br />
<br />
The mapmaking and calibration process is described in detail in the [[Map-making_LFI | Map-making]] section and in the [[A08 paper| mapmaking]] paper, where detailed references are found. In brief it consists of:<br />
<br />
; binning the TOI data onto ''rings'' : Healpix rings (HPRs) are used here, each ring containing the combined data of one pointing period. <br />
; flux calibration : at 100-353 GHz, the flux calibration factors are determined by correlating the signal with the orbital dipole, which is determined very accurately from the Planck satellite orbital parameters provided by Flight Dynamics. This provides a single gain factor per bolometer. At 545 and 857 GHz the gain is determined from the observation of Uranus and Neptune (but not Jupiter which is too bright) and comparison to recent models made explicitly for this mission. A single gain is applied to all rings at these frequencies.<br />
; destriping : in order to remove low-frequency noise, an offset per ring is determined by minimizing the differences between HPRs at their crossings, and removed.<br />
; Zodiacal light correction : a Zodiacal light model is used to build HPRs of the the Zodi emission, which is subtracted from the calibrated HPRs.<br />
; projection onto the map : the offset-corrected, flux-calibrated, and Zodi-cleaned HPRs are projected onto Healpix maps, with the data of each bolometer weighted by a factor of 1/NET of that bolometer.<br />
<br />
These steps are followed by some post-processing which is designed to prepare the maps for the component separation work. This post processing consists of: <br />
<br />
; Dust bandpass leakage correction : the Q and U maps are corrected for the dust leakage due to the different bandpasses that is determined using the ''ground'' method as described [[MISSING REF| here]]<br />
; Far Side Lobe calibration correction : the 100-217 maps are multiplied by factors of 1.00087, 1.00046, and 1.00043, respectively, to compensate for the non-removal of the far-side lobes, and similarly the corresponding covariance maps have also been corrected by multiplication by the square of the factor.<br />
; Fill missing pixels : missing pixels are filled in with a value that is the mean of valid pixels within a given radius. A radius of 1 deg is used for the full channel maps, and 1.5 deg is used for the detset maps. This step is not applied to the single survey maps since they have large swaths of the sky that are not covered.<br />
<br />
These maps provide the main mission products. Together with signal maps, hit count, variance, and variance maps are also produced. The hit maps give the (integer) number of valid TOI-level samples that contribute to the signal of each pixel. All valid samples are counted in the same way, i.e., there is no weighting factor applied. The variance maps project the white noise estimate, provided by the NETs, in the sky domain.<br />
<br />
Note that the nominal mission maps have not had the post-processing applied, which makes them more easily comparable to the PR1 products.<br />
<br />
=== LFI processing ===<br />
LFI maps were constructed with the Madam map-making code, version 3.7.4. The code is based on generalized destriping technique, where the correlated noise component is modeled as a sequence of constant offset, called baselines. A noise filter was used to constrain the baseline solution allowing the use of 1 second baselines.<br />
<br />
Radiometers were combined according to the horn-uniform weighting scheme to minimize systematics. The used weights are listed in [[Map-making LFI#Map-making|Map-making]]. The flagged samples were excluded from the analysis by setting their weights to <math>C_{w}^{-1}</math> = 0. The galaxy region was masked out in the destriping phase, to reduce error arising from strong signal gradients. The polarization component was included in the analysis... <br />
<br />
A detailed description of the map-making procedure is given in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p02}} and in section [[Map-making LFI#Map-making|Map-making]].<br />
<br />
==Types of maps ==<br />
<br />
=== Full mission, full channel maps (6 HFI, 3 LFI)===<br />
<br />
Full channel maps are built using all the valid detectors of a frequency channel and cover the either the full or the nominal mission. For HFI, the 143-8 and 545-3 bolometers are rejected entirely as they are seriously affected by RTS noise. For this release, HFI provides the Q and U components for the 353 GHz channel only. LFI provides the I, Q and U maps for all the channels. The I maps are displayed in the figures below. The color range is set using a histogram equalisation scheme (from HEALPIX) that is useful for these non-Gaussian data fields. The Q and U maps are not shown as they look like noise to the naked eye.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=260px heights=160px> <br />
File: SkyMap30e.png| '''Full mission, 30 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap44e.png | '''Full mission, 44 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap70e.png | '''Full mission, 70 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap100e.png | '''Full mission, 100 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap143e.png | '''Full mission, 143 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap217e.png | '''Full mission, 217 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap353e.png | '''Full mission, 353 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap545e.png | '''Full mission, 545 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap857e.png | '''Full mission, 857 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
=== Nominal mission, full channel maps (6 HFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are similar to the ones above, but cover the nominal mission only. They are meant primarily to be compared to the PR1 products in order to see the level of improvements in the processing. Because of this, they are produced in Temperature only, and have not had the post-processing applied.<br />
<br />
=== Single survey, full channel maps (30 HFI, 24 LFI)===<br />
<br />
Single survey maps are built using all valid detectors of a frequency channel; they cover separately the different sky surveys. The surveys are defined as the times over which the satellite spin axis rotates but 180 degrees, which, due to the position of the detectors in the focal plane does not cover the full sky, but a fraction between ~80 and 90% depending on detector position. During adjacent surveys the sky is scanned in opposite directions. More precisely it is the ecliptic equator that is scanned in opposite directions. While these are useful to investigate variable sources, they are also used to study the systematics of the time-response of the detectors as they scan bright sources, like the Galactic Plane, in different directions during different survey. Note that the HFI and LFI missions cover 5 and 9 surveys, respectively, and in both cases the last survey in incomplete.<br />
<br />
=== Year maps, full channel maps (12 HFI, 24 LFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are built using the data of surveys 1+2, surveys 3+4, and so forth. They are used to study long-term systematic effects.<br />
<br />
===Half-mission maps, full channel maps (12 HFI, 6 LFI)===<br />
<br />
For HFI, the half mission is defined after eliminating those rings discarded for all bolometers. There are 347 such rings, may of which are during the 5th survey when the ''End-of-Life'' tests were performed. The remaining 26419 rings are divided in half (up to the odd ring) to define the two halves of the mission. This exercise is done for the full mission only.<br />
<br />
===Full mission, single detector maps (18 HFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are built only for the HFI SWBs (non polarized) and contain only temperature data, of course. They are not built for the polarisation sensitive detectors because they are not fixed on the sky as the polarisation component depends on the position angle at the time of observation. Instead, we provide maps built by ''quads'' of polarisation-sensitive detectors (see next section), which have different polarisation angles and that can be used to built I, Q, and U maps<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=600px<br />
|+ '''HFI Temperature sensitive bolometers'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!Frequency || Detector names<br />
|-<br />
|143 GHz || 143-5, 6, 7<br />
|-<br />
|217 GHz || 217-1, 2, 3, 4<br />
|-<br />
|353 GHz || 353-1, 2, 7, 8<br />
|-<br />
|545 GHz || 545-1, 2, 4<br />
|-<br />
|857 GHz || 857-1, 2 , 3, 4<br />
|}<br />
<br />
The 143-8 and 353-3 bolometer data are affected by strong RTS (random telegraphic signal) noise. They have not been used in the data processing, and are not delivered. For a figure showing the focal plane layout, see [[Detector_pointing#Introduction_and_Summary | this Introduction]] of the Detector Pointing chapter.<br />
<br />
===Full mission, detector set or detector pairs maps (8 HFI, 8 LFI)===<br />
<br />
The objective here is to build independent temperature (I) and polarisation (Q and U) maps with the two pairs of polarisation sensitive detectors of each channel where they are available, i.e. in the 30-353 GHz channels. The table below indicates which detectors were used to built each detector set (detset).<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=600px<br />
|+ '''Definition of HFI Detector Sets'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!Frequency || DetSet1 || DetSet2 <br />
|-<br />
|100 GHz || 100-1a/b & 100-4a/b || 100-2a/b & 100-3a/b<br />
|-<br />
|143 GHz || 143-1a/b 1 & 43-3a/b || 143-2a/b & 143-4a/b<br />
|-<br />
|217 GHz || 217-5a/b & 217-7a/b || 217-6a/b & 217-8a/b<br />
|-<br />
|353 GHz || 353-3a/b & 353-5a/b || 353-4a/b & 353-6a/b<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
===Half-ring maps (64 HFI, ??? LFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are similar to the ones above, but are built using only the first or the second half of each ring (or pointing period). The HFI provides half-ring maps for the full mission only, and for the full channel, the detsets, and the single bolometers. The LFI .....<br />
<br />
<!----<br />
===Masks===<br />
<br />
Masks are provided of the Galactic Plane and of the point sources. For the Galactic Plane, eight masks are given covering different fractions of the sky, and for the points sources two masks are given, at the 5 and 10 sigma level, for each Planck HFI frequency channel. These are generic masks, specific masks applicable to other products are delivered with the products themselves.<br />
---><br />
<br />
=== The Zodiacal light correction maps ===<br />
<br />
The Zodiacal light signal depends on the location of the observer relative to the Zodiacal light bands, and thus it is not a fixed pattern on the sky but depends on the period of observation. The maps presented here are the difference between the uncorrected (and not delivered) and the corrected maps. <br />
<br />
<br />
<!---center><br />
<gallery perrow=3 widths=260px heights=170px><br />
File: ZodiRes100.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 100 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes143.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 143 GHz''' <br />
File: ZodiRes217.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 217 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes353.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 353 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes545.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 545 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes857.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 857 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center ---><br />
<br />
=== Caveats and known issues ===<br />
<br />
TBW<br />
<br />
==== Map zero-level ====<br />
<br />
For the 100 to 857 GHz maps, the zero levels are set to their optimal levels for Galactic and CIB studies. A procedure for adjusting them to astrophysical values is given in the HFI Mapmaking and Calibration paper {{PlanckPapers|????}}.<br />
<br />
For the 30, 44 and 70 GHz, maps are corrected for zero level monopole by applying an offset correction, see LFI Calibration paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p02b}} section 3.4 "Setting the zero levels in the maps". Note that the offset applied is indicated in the header as a comment keyword.<br />
<br />
==Inputs==<br />
=== HFI inputs ===<br />
<br />
* The cleaned TOIs of signal of each detector, together with their flags, produced by the [[TOI processing|TOI processing]] pipeline<br />
* The TOIs of pointing (quaternions), described in [[Detector_pointing|Detector pointing]]<br />
* Bolometer-level characterization data, from the DPC's internal IMO (not distributed)<br />
* Planck orbit data used to compute and remove the earth dipole<br />
* WMAP solar dipole information used to calibrate the CMB channels<br />
* Planet models used to calibrate the Galactic channels.<br />
<br />
=== LFI inputs ===<br />
<br />
The Madam map-maker takes as an input:<br />
<br />
* The calibrated timelines (for details see [[TOI processing LFI|TOI Processing]])<br />
* The detector pointings (for details see [[Detector_pointing|Detector pointing]])<br />
* The noise information in the form of three-parameter (white noise level (<math>\sigma</math>), slope, and knee frequency ($f_\mathrm{knee}$)) noise model (for details see [[The RIMO|RIMO]])<br />
<br />
==Related products==<br />
=== Masks ===<br />
<br />
This section presents the masks of the point sources and of the Galactic plane. These are ''general purpose'' masks. Other masks specific to certain products are packaged with the products.<br />
<br />
====Point source masks====<br />
<br />
For HFI, two sets of masks are provided: <br />
* Intensity masks, which removes sources detected with SNR > 5. <br />
* Polarisation masks, which remove sources which have polarisation detection significance of 99.97 % or greater at the position of a source detected in intensity. They were derived from the polarisation maps with dust ground bandpass mismatch leakage correction applied. The cut around each source has a radius of 3σ (width) of the beam ~ 1.27 FWHM.<br />
<br />
Both sets are found in the file ''HFI_Mask_PointSrc_2048_R2.00.fits'' in which the first extension contains the Intensity masks, and the second contains the Polarisation masks.<br />
<br />
====Galactic Plane masks====<br />
<br />
Eight masks are provided giving 20, 40, 60, 70, 80, 90, 97, and 99% sky coverage derived from the 353 GHz map, after CMB subtraction. They are independent of frequency channel. Three versions of these are given: not apodized, and apodized by 2 and 5 deg. The filenames are ''HFI_Mask_GalPlane-apoN_2048_R2.00.fits'', where N = 0, 2, 5.<br />
<br />
The masks are shows below. The 8 GalPlane masks are combined (added together) and shown in a single figure for each of the three apodization. While the result is quite clear for the case of no apodization, it is less so for the apodized case. The point source masks are shown separately for the Intensity case.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery perrow=3 widths=260px heights=160px ><br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo0.png | '''Galactic Plane masks, no apod'''<br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo2.png | '''Galactic Plane masks, apod 2 deg'''<br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo5.png | '''Galactic Plane masks, apod 5 deg'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_100.png | '''PointSource mask 100 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_143.png | '''PointSource mask 143 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_217.png | '''PointSource mask 217 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_353.png | '''PointSource mask 343 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_545.png | '''PointSource mask 545 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_857.png | '''PointSource mask 857 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
== File names ==<br />
The FITS filenames are of the form ''{H|L}FI_SkyMap_fff{-tag}_Nside_R2.nn_{coverage}-{type}.fits'', where ''fff'' are three digits to indicate the Planck frequency band, ''tag'' indicates the single detector or the detset, ''Nside'' is the Healpix Nside of the map, ''coverage'' indicates which part of the mission is covered (full, half mission, survey, year, ...) , and the optional ''type'' indicates the subset of input data used. The table below lists the products by type, with the appropriate unix wildcards that form the full filename.<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align"left" border="1" cellpadding="15" cellspacing="20" width=880px<br />
|+ '''FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Coverage || filename || half-ring filename <br />
|-<br />
| Full chan, full mission ||HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_full.fits ||HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, nominal mission ||HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_nominal.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, single survey || HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_survey-?.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, single year || HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_year-?.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, half mission || HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_halfmission*-?.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Det-set, full mission || HFI_SkyMap_???-ds?_2048_R2.??_full.fits || HFI_SkyMap_???-ds?_2048_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits<br />
|-<br />
|Single SWB, full mission || HFI_SkyMap_???-?_2048_R2.??_full.fits || HFI_SkyMap_???-?_2048_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits<br />
|}<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for the frequency maps with no additional information, we also provide a file combining the 9 frequency maps as separate columns in a single extension. The 9 columns in this file contain the intensity maps ONLY and no other information (hit maps and variance maps) is provided.<br />
<br />
<!---<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align:center" border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" width=500px<br />
|+ '''FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Full channel maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''30GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''44GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Full channel, Zodi-corrected maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}} <br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Combined frequency maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''All''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=file|name=COM_MapSet_I-allFreqs_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=COM_MapSet_I-allFreqs_R1.10_nominal.fits}} <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align:center" border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" width=850px<br />
|+ '''FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Survey 1 maps || Survey 2 maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''30GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''44GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Survey 1 Zodi-corrected maps || Survey 2 Zodi-corrected maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Half-ring 1 maps ||Half-ring 2 maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''30GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''44GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|}<br />
---><br />
<br />
== FITS file structure ==<br />
<br />
The FITS files for the sky maps contain a minimal primary header with no data, and a ''BINTABLE'' extension (EXTENSION 1, EXTNAME = ''FREQ-MAP'') containing the data. The structure is shows schematically in the figure below. The ''FREQ-MAP'' extension contains a 3- or a 10-column table that contain the signal, hit-count and variance maps, all in Healpix format. The 3-column case is for intensity only maps, the 10-column case is for polarisation. The number of rows is the number of map pixels, which is Npix = 12 Nside<sup>2</sup> for Healpix maps, where Nside = 2048 for most the maps presented in this chapter.<br />
<br />
[[File:FITS_FreqMap.png | 550px | center | thumb | '''FITS file structure''']]<br />
<br />
Note that file sizes are ~0.6 GB for I-only maps and ~1.9 GB for I,Q,U maps.<br />
<br />
Keywords indicate the coordinate system (GALACTIC), the Healpix ordering scheme (NESTED), the units (K_cmb or MJy/sr) of each column, and of course the frequency channel (FREQ). Where polarisation Q and U maps are provided, the ''COSMO'' polarisation convention (used in HEALPIX) is adopted, and it is specified in the ''POLCCONV'' keyword (see [[Sky_temperature_maps#Polarization_convention_used_in_the_Planck_project|this section]]. The COMMENT fields give a one-line summary of the product, and some other information useful for traceability within the DPCs. The original filename is also given in the ''FILENAME'' keyword. The ''BAD_DATA'' keyword gives the value used by Healpix to indicate pixels for which no signal is present (these will also have a hit-count value of 0). The main parameters are summarised below:<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Sky map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb or MJy/sr || The Stokes I map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb or MJy/sr || The Stokes Q map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|U_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb or MJy/sr || The Stokes U map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|HITS || Int*4 || none || The hit-count map<br />
|-<br />
|II_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The II variance map<br />
|-<br />
|IQ_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The IQ variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|IU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The IQ variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QQ_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The QQ variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The QU variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|UU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The UU variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix Nside <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12 Nside<sup>2</sup> – 1 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ || string || nnn || The frequency channel <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
The same structure applies to all ''SkyMap'' products, independent of whether they are full channel, survey of half-ring. The distinction between the types of maps is present in the FITS filename (and in the traceability comment fields).<br />
<br />
==Polarization convention used in the Planck project==<br />
<br />
The Planck collaboration used the COSMO convention for the polarization angle (as usually used in space based CMB missions), whereas other astronomical fields usually use the IAU convention. In the following document we report the difference between these two conventions, and the consequence if it is NOT taken into account correctly in the analysis.<br />
<br />
[[File:conventions.png|thumb|center|400px|'''Figure 1. COSMO convention (left) and IAU convention (right). The versor <math>\hat{z}</math> points outwards the pointing direction in COSMO, and inwards in IAU. The bottom panel refers to the plane tangent to the sphere.''']]<br />
<br />
Changing the orientation convention is equivalent to a transformation <math>\psi'=\pi-\psi</math> of the polarization angle (Figure 1). The consequence of this transformation is the inversion of the Stokes parameter <math>U</math>.<br />
The components of the polarization tensor in the helicity basis <math>\epsilon^{\pm}=1/\sqrt{2}(\hat{x}\pm i\hat{y})</math> are:<br />
<br />
<math><br />
(Q+iU)(\hat{n}) = \sum _{\ell m}a_{2,lm}{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
\\(Q-iU)(\hat{n}) = \sum _{\ell m}a_{-2,lm}{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
</math><br />
<br />
where <math>{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})</math> are the spin weighted spherical harmonic functions.<br />
The <math>E</math> and <math>B</math> modes can be defined as:<br />
<math><br />
E(\hat{n}) = \sum_{\ell m}a_{E,\ell m}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
\\B(\hat{n}) = \sum_{\ell m}a_{B,\ell m}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
</math><br />
<br />
where the coefficients <math>a_{E,\ell m}</math> and <math>a_{B,\ell m}</math> are derived from linear combinations of the <math>a_{2,\ell m}</math> , <math>a_{-2,\ell m}</math> defined implicitly in the first equation (<math>Q\pm iU</math>).<br />
<br />
[[File:test_gradient.jpg|thumb|center|400px|]]<br />
[[File:test_curl.jpg|thumb|center|400px|'''Figure 2. Error on Planck-LFI 70 GHz <math>EE</math> (top) and <math>BB</math> (bottom) spectra, in case of wrong choice of the coordinate system convention (IAU instead of COSMO).''']]<br />
<br />
The effect of the sign inversion of <math>U</math> on the polarization spectra is a non trivial mixing of <math>E</math> and <math>B</math> modes. <br />
<br />
An example of the typical error on <math>EE</math> and <math>BB</math> auto-spectra in case of a wrong choice of the polarization basis is shown in Figure 2.<br />
<br />
BE CAREFUL about the polarization convention you are using. If the IAU convention is used in computing the power spectra, the sign of the <math>U</math> component of the Planck maps must be inverted before computing <math>E</math> and <math>B</math> modes.<br />
<br />
=== Note on the convention used by the Planck Catalog of Compact Sources (PCCS) ===<br />
For continuity with other compact sources catolgues, the Catalogue of Compact Sources provided by Planck follows the IAU convention, and the polarization angles are defined on an interval of [-90,90] degrees. To switch to the COSMO convention, the polarization angles listed in the catalogue have to be shifted by 90 degrees and multiplied by -1.<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|002]]</div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=Sky_temperature_maps&diff=10636Sky temperature maps2015-01-29T15:50:28Z<p>Amoneti: /* FITS file structure */ add POLCCONV and other details</p>
<hr />
<div>{{DISPLAYTITLE:Sky temperature and polarization maps}}<br />
==General description==<br />
<br />
Sky maps give the best estimate of the intensity and polarization (Stokes Q and U components), if available, of the signal from the sky after removal, as far as possible, of known systematic effects (mostly instrumental, but including also the solar and earth-motion dipole, and the Zodiacal light). Sky maps are provided for the full Planck mission using all valid detectors in each frequency channel, and also for various subsets by splitting the mission in various time ranges or in subsets of the detectors in a given channel. These products are useful for the study of source variability, but they are especially interesting for characterisation purposes (see also the [[HFI-Validation | data validation]] section). The details of the start and end of the time ranges are given in the table below.<br />
<br />
To help in further processing, there are also masks of the Galactic Plane and of point sources, each provided for several different depths.<br />
<br />
All sky maps are in Healpix format, with Nside of 2048, in Galactic coordinates, and Nested ordering. The signal is given in units of K<sub>cmb</sub> for 30-353 GHz, and of MJy/sr (for a constant <math>\nu F_\nu</math> energy distribution ) for 545 and 857 GHz. For each frequency channel, the intensity and polarization maps are packaged into a ''BINTABLE'' extension of a FITS file together with a hit-count map (or hit map, for short, giving the number of observation samples that are cumulated in a pixel, all detectors combined) and with the variance and covariance maps. Additional information is given in the FITS file header. The structure of the FITS file is given in the [[#Format | FITS file structure]] section below. <br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Ranges for mission and surveys'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Range || ODs || rings || pointing-IDs || Comment<br />
|-<br />
|nominal mission || 91 - 563 || 240 - 14723 || 00004200 - 03180200 ||<br />
|-<br />
|full mission || 91 - 974 || 240 - 27005 || 00004200 - 05322620 || for HFI<br />
|-<br />
|full mission || 91 - 993 || 240 - 27641 || 00004200 - 06344800 || for LFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 1 || 91 - 270 || 240 - 5720 || 00004200 - 01059820 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 2 || 270 - 456 || 5721 - 11194 || 01059830 - 02114520 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 3 || 456 - 636 || 11195 - 16691 || 02114530 - 03193660 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 4 || 636 - 807 || 16692 - 21720 || 03193670 - 04243900 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 5 || 807 - 974 || 21721 - 27005 || 05267180 - 05322590 || end of mission for HFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 5 || 807 - 993 || 21721 - 27641 || 05267180 - 06344800 || end of survey for LFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 6 || 993 - 1177 || 27642 - tbd || 06344810 - 06398120 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|Survey 7 || 1177 - 1358 || tbd - tbd || 06398130 - 06456410 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|Survey 8 || 1358 - 1543 || tbd - tbd || 06456420 - 06511160 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|Survey 9 || 1543 - 1604 || tbd - tbd || 06511170 - 06533320 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|HFI mission-half-1 || 91 - 531 || 240 - 13471 || 00004200 - 03155580 ||<br />
|-<br />
|HFI mission-half-2 || 531 - 974 || 13472 - 27005 || 03155590 - 05322590 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 1 || 91 - 456 || 240 - 11194 || 00004200 - 02114520 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 2 || 456 - 807 || 11195 - 21720 || 02114530 - 04243900 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 3 || 807 - 1177 || 21721 - tbd || 05267180 - 06398120 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 4 || 1177 - 1543 || tbd - tbd || 06398130 - 06511160 ||<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
==Production process==<br />
<br />
Sky maps are produced by combining appropriately the data of all working detectors in a frequency channel over some period of the mission. They give the best estimate of the signal from the sky (unpolarised) after removal, as far as possible, of known systematic effects and of the dipole signals induced by the motion of the solar system in the CMB and of the Planck satellite in the solar system. In particular, they include the Zodiacal light emission (Zodi for short) and also the scattering from the far-side lobes of the beams (FSL). More on this below.<br />
<br />
=== HFI processing ===<br />
<br />
The mapmaking and calibration process is described in detail in the [[Map-making_LFI | Map-making]] section and in the [[A08 paper| mapmaking]] paper, where detailed references are found. In brief it consists of:<br />
<br />
; binning the TOI data onto ''rings'' : Healpix rings (HPRs) are used here, each ring containing the combined data of one pointing period. <br />
; flux calibration : at 100-353 GHz, the flux calibration factors are determined by correlating the signal with the orbital dipole, which is determined very accurately from the Planck satellite orbital parameters provided by Flight Dynamics. This provides a single gain factor per bolometer. At 545 and 857 GHz the gain is determined from the observation of Uranus and Neptune (but not Jupiter which is too bright) and comparison to recent models made explicitly for this mission. A single gain is applied to all rings at these frequencies.<br />
; destriping : in order to remove low-frequency noise, an offset per ring is determined by minimizing the differences between HPRs at their crossings, and removed.<br />
; Zodiacal light correction : a Zodiacal light model is used to build HPRs of the the Zodi emission, which is subtracted from the calibrated HPRs.<br />
; projection onto the map : the offset-corrected, flux-calibrated, and Zodi-cleaned HPRs are projected onto Healpix maps, with the data of each bolometer weighted by a factor of 1/NET of that bolometer.<br />
<br />
These steps are followed by some post-processing which is designed to prepare the maps for the component separation work. This post processing consists of: <br />
<br />
; Dust bandpass leakage correction : the Q and U maps are corrected for the dust leakage due to the different bandpasses that is determined using the ''ground'' method as described [[MISSING REF| here]]<br />
; Far Side Lobe calibration correction : the 100-217 maps are multiplied by factors of 1.00087, 1.00046, and 1.00043, respectively, to compensate for the non-removal of the far-side lobes, and similarly the corresponding covariance maps have also been corrected by multiplication by the square of the factor.<br />
; Fill missing pixels : missing pixels are filled in with a value that is the mean of valid pixels within a given radius. A radius of 1 deg is used for the full channel maps, and 1.5 deg is used for the detset maps. This step is not applied to the single survey maps since they have large swaths of the sky that are not covered.<br />
<br />
These maps provide the main mission products. Together with signal maps, hit count, variance, and variance maps are also produced. The hit maps give the (integer) number of valid TOI-level samples that contribute to the signal of each pixel. All valid samples are counted in the same way, i.e., there is no weighting factor applied. The variance maps project the white noise estimate, provided by the NETs, in the sky domain.<br />
<br />
Note that the nominal mission maps have not had the post-processing applied, which makes them more easily comparable to the PR1 products.<br />
<br />
=== LFI processing ===<br />
LFI maps were constructed with the Madam map-making code, version 3.7.4. The code is based on generalized destriping technique, where the correlated noise component is modeled as a sequence of constant offset, called baselines. A noise filter was used to constrain the baseline solution allowing the use of 1 second baselines.<br />
<br />
Radiometers were combined according to the horn-uniform weighting scheme to minimize systematics. The used weights are listed in [[Map-making LFI#Map-making|Map-making]]. The flagged samples were excluded from the analysis by setting their weights to <math>C_{w}^{-1}</math> = 0. The galaxy region was masked out in the destriping phase, to reduce error arising from strong signal gradients. The polarization component was included in the analysis... <br />
<br />
A detailed description of the map-making procedure is given in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p02}} and in section [[Map-making LFI#Map-making|Map-making]].<br />
<br />
==Types of maps ==<br />
<br />
=== Full mission, full channel maps (6 HFI, 3 LFI)===<br />
<br />
Full channel maps are built using all the valid detectors of a frequency channel and cover the either the full or the nominal mission. For HFI, the 143-8 and 545-3 bolometers are rejected entirely as they are seriously affected by RTS noise. For this release, HFI provides the Q and U components for the 353 GHz channel only. LFI provides the I, Q and U maps for all the channels. The I maps are displayed in the figures below. The color range is set using a histogram equalisation scheme (from HEALPIX) that is useful for these non-Gaussian data fields. The Q and U maps are not shown as they look like noise to the naked eye.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=260px heights=160px> <br />
File: SkyMap30e.png| '''Full mission, 30 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap44e.png | '''Full mission, 44 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap70e.png | '''Full mission, 70 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap100e.png | '''Full mission, 100 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap143e.png | '''Full mission, 143 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap217e.png | '''Full mission, 217 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap353e.png | '''Full mission, 353 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap545e.png | '''Full mission, 545 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap857e.png | '''Full mission, 857 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
=== Nominal mission, full channel maps (6 HFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are similar to the ones above, but cover the nominal mission only. They are meant primarily to be compared to the PR1 products in order to see the level of improvements in the processing. Because of this, they are produced in Temperature only, and have not had the post-processing applied.<br />
<br />
=== Single survey, full channel maps (30 HFI, 24 LFI)===<br />
<br />
Single survey maps are built using all valid detectors of a frequency channel; they cover separately the different sky surveys. The surveys are defined as the times over which the satellite spin axis rotates but 180 degrees, which, due to the position of the detectors in the focal plane does not cover the full sky, but a fraction between ~80 and 90% depending on detector position. During adjacent surveys the sky is scanned in opposite directions. More precisely it is the ecliptic equator that is scanned in opposite directions. While these are useful to investigate variable sources, they are also used to study the systematics of the time-response of the detectors as they scan bright sources, like the Galactic Plane, in different directions during different survey. Note that the HFI and LFI missions cover 5 and 9 surveys, respectively, and in both cases the last survey in incomplete.<br />
<br />
=== Year maps, full channel maps (12 HFI, 24 LFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are built using the data of surveys 1+2, surveys 3+4, and so forth. They are used to study long-term systematic effects.<br />
<br />
===Half-mission maps, full channel maps (12 HFI, 6 LFI)===<br />
<br />
For HFI, the half mission is defined after eliminating those rings discarded for all bolometers. There are 347 such rings, may of which are during the 5th survey when the ''End-of-Life'' tests were performed. The remaining 26419 rings are divided in half (up to the odd ring) to define the two halves of the mission. This exercise is done for the full mission only.<br />
<br />
===Full mission, single detector maps (18 HFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are built only for the HFI SWBs (non polarized) and contain only temperature data, of course. They are not built for the polarisation sensitive detectors because they are not fixed on the sky as the polarisation component depends on the position angle at the time of observation. Instead, we provide maps built by ''quads'' of polarisation-sensitive detectors (see next section), which have different polarisation angles and that can be used to built I, Q, and U maps<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=600px<br />
|+ '''HFI Temperature sensitive bolometers'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!Frequency || Detector names<br />
|-<br />
|143 GHz || 143-5, 6, 7<br />
|-<br />
|217 GHz || 217-1, 2, 3, 4<br />
|-<br />
|353 GHz || 353-1, 2, 7, 8<br />
|-<br />
|545 GHz || 545-1, 2, 4<br />
|-<br />
|857 GHz || 857-1, 2 , 3, 4<br />
|}<br />
<br />
The 143-8 and 353-3 bolometer data are affected by strong RTS (random telegraphic signal) noise. They have not been used in the data processing, and are not delivered. For a figure showing the focal plane layout, see [[Detector_pointing#Introduction_and_Summary | this Introduction]] of the Detector Pointing chapter.<br />
<br />
===Full mission, detector set or detector pairs maps (8 HFI, 8 LFI)===<br />
<br />
The objective here is to build independent temperature (I) and polarisation (Q and U) maps with the two pairs of polarisation sensitive detectors of each channel where they are available, i.e. in the 30-353 GHz channels. The table below indicates which detectors were used to built each detector set (detset).<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=600px<br />
|+ '''Definition of HFI Detector Sets'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!Frequency || DetSet1 || DetSet2 <br />
|-<br />
|100 GHz || 100-1a/b & 100-4a/b || 100-2a/b & 100-3a/b<br />
|-<br />
|143 GHz || 143-1a/b 1 & 43-3a/b || 143-2a/b & 143-4a/b<br />
|-<br />
|217 GHz || 217-5a/b & 217-7a/b || 217-6a/b & 217-8a/b<br />
|-<br />
|353 GHz || 353-3a/b & 353-5a/b || 353-4a/b & 353-6a/b<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
===Half-ring maps (64 HFI, ??? LFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are similar to the ones above, but are built using only the first or the second half of each ring (or pointing period). The HFI provides half-ring maps for the full mission only, and for the full channel, the detsets, and the single bolometers. The LFI .....<br />
<br />
<!----<br />
===Masks===<br />
<br />
Masks are provided of the Galactic Plane and of the point sources. For the Galactic Plane, eight masks are given covering different fractions of the sky, and for the points sources two masks are given, at the 5 and 10 sigma level, for each Planck HFI frequency channel. These are generic masks, specific masks applicable to other products are delivered with the products themselves.<br />
---><br />
<br />
=== The Zodiacal light correction maps ===<br />
<br />
The Zodiacal light signal depends on the location of the observer relative to the Zodiacal light bands, and thus it is not a fixed pattern on the sky but depends on the period of observation. The maps presented here are the difference between the uncorrected (and not delivered) and the corrected maps. <br />
<br />
<br />
<!---center><br />
<gallery perrow=3 widths=260px heights=170px><br />
File: ZodiRes100.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 100 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes143.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 143 GHz''' <br />
File: ZodiRes217.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 217 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes353.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 353 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes545.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 545 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes857.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 857 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center ---><br />
<br />
=== Caveats and known issues ===<br />
<br />
TBW<br />
<br />
==== Map zero-level ====<br />
<br />
For the 100 to 857 GHz maps, the zero levels are set to their optimal levels for Galactic and CIB studies. A procedure for adjusting them to astrophysical values is given in the HFI Mapmaking and Calibration paper {{PlanckPapers|????}}.<br />
<br />
For the 30, 44 and 70 GHz, maps are corrected for zero level monopole by applying an offset correction, see LFI Calibration paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p02b}} section 3.4 "Setting the zero levels in the maps". Note that the offset applied is indicated in the header as a comment keyword.<br />
<br />
==Inputs==<br />
=== HFI inputs ===<br />
<br />
* The cleaned TOIs of signal of each detector, together with their flags, produced by the [[TOI processing|TOI processing]] pipeline<br />
* The TOIs of pointing (quaternions), described in [[Detector_pointing|Detector pointing]]<br />
* Bolometer-level characterization data, from the DPC's internal IMO (not distributed)<br />
* Planck orbit data used to compute and remove the earth dipole<br />
* WMAP solar dipole information used to calibrate the CMB channels<br />
* Planet models used to calibrate the Galactic channels.<br />
<br />
=== LFI inputs ===<br />
<br />
The Madam map-maker takes as an input:<br />
<br />
* The calibrated timelines (for details see [[TOI processing LFI|TOI Processing]])<br />
* The detector pointings (for details see [[Detector_pointing|Detector pointing]])<br />
* The noise information in the form of three-parameter (white noise level (<math>\sigma</math>), slope, and knee frequency ($f_\mathrm{knee}$)) noise model (for details see [[The RIMO|RIMO]])<br />
<br />
==Related products==<br />
=== Masks ===<br />
<br />
This section presents the masks of the point sources and of the Galactic plane. These are ''general purpose'' masks. Other masks specific to certain products are packaged with the products.<br />
<br />
====Point source masks====<br />
<br />
For HFI, two sets of masks are provided: <br />
* Intensity masks, which removes sources detected with SNR > 5. <br />
* Polarisation masks, which remove sources which have polarisation detection significance of 99.97 % or greater at the position of a source detected in intensity. They were derived from the polarisation maps with dust ground bandpass mismatch leakage correction applied. The cut around each source has a radius of 3σ (width) of the beam ~ 1.27 FWHM.<br />
<br />
Both sets are found in the file ''HFI_Mask_PointSrc_2048_R2.00.fits'' in which the first extension contains the Intensity masks, and the second contains the Polarisation masks.<br />
<br />
====Galactic Plane masks====<br />
<br />
Eight masks are provided giving 20, 40, 60, 70, 80, 90, 97, and 99% sky coverage derived from the 353 GHz map, after CMB subtraction. They are independent of frequency channel. Three versions of these are given: not apodized, and apodized by 2 and 5 deg. The filenames are ''HFI_Mask_GalPlane-apoN_2048_R2.00.fits'', where N = 0, 2, 5.<br />
<br />
The masks are shows below. The 8 GalPlane masks are combined (added together) and shown in a single figure for each of the three apodization. While the result is quite clear for the case of no apodization, it is less so for the apodized case. The point source masks are shown separately for the Intensity case.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery perrow=3 widths=260px heights=160px ><br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo0.png | '''Galactic Plane masks, no apod'''<br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo2.png | '''Galactic Plane masks, apod 2 deg'''<br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo5.png | '''Galactic Plane masks, apod 5 deg'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_100.png | '''PointSource mask 100 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_143.png | '''PointSource mask 143 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_217.png | '''PointSource mask 217 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_353.png | '''PointSource mask 343 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_545.png | '''PointSource mask 545 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_857.png | '''PointSource mask 857 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
== File names ==<br />
The FITS filenames are of the form ''{H|L}FI_SkyMap_fff{-tag}_Nside_R2.nn_{coverage}-{type}.fits'', where ''fff'' are three digits to indicate the Planck frequency band, ''tag'' indicates the single detector or the detset, ''Nside'' is the Healpix Nside of the map, ''coverage'' indicates which part of the mission is covered (full, half mission, survey, year, ...) , and the optional ''type'' indicates the subset of input data used. The table below lists the products by type, with the appropriate unix wildcards that form the full filename.<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align"left" border="1" cellpadding="15" cellspacing="20" width=880px<br />
|+ '''FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Coverage || filename || half-ring filename <br />
|-<br />
| Full chan, full mission ||HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_full.fits ||HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, nominal mission ||HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_nominal.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, single survey || HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_survey-?.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, single year || HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_year-?.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, half mission || HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_halfmission*-?.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Det-set, full mission || HFI_SkyMap_???-ds?_2048_R2.??_full.fits || HFI_SkyMap_???-ds?_2048_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits<br />
|-<br />
|Single SWB, full mission || HFI_SkyMap_???-?_2048_R2.??_full.fits || HFI_SkyMap_???-?_2048_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits<br />
|}<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for the frequency maps with no additional information, we also provide a file combining the 9 frequency maps as separate columns in a single extension. The 9 columns in this file contain the intensity maps ONLY and no other information (hit maps and variance maps) is provided.<br />
<br />
<!---<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align:center" border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" width=500px<br />
|+ '''FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Full channel maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''30GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''44GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Full channel, Zodi-corrected maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}} <br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Combined frequency maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''All''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=file|name=COM_MapSet_I-allFreqs_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=COM_MapSet_I-allFreqs_R1.10_nominal.fits}} <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align:center" border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" width=850px<br />
|+ '''FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Survey 1 maps || Survey 2 maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''30GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''44GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Survey 1 Zodi-corrected maps || Survey 2 Zodi-corrected maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Half-ring 1 maps ||Half-ring 2 maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''30GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''44GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|}<br />
---><br />
<br />
== FITS file structure ==<br />
<br />
The FITS files for the sky maps contain a minimal primary header with no data, and a ''BINTABLE'' extension (EXTENSION 1, EXTNAME = ''FREQ-MAP'') containing the data. The structure is shows schematically in the figure below. The ''FREQ-MAP'' extension contains a 3- or a 10-column table that contain the signal, hit-count and variance maps, all in Healpix format. The 3-column case is for intensity only maps, the 10-column case is for polarisation. The number of rows is the number of map pixels, which is Npix = 12 Nside<sup>2</sup> for Healpix maps, where Nside = 2048 for most the maps presented in this chapter.<br />
<br />
[[File:FITS_FreqMap.png | 550px | center | thumb | '''FITS file structure''']]<br />
<br />
Keywords indicate the coordinate system (GALACTIC), the Healpix ordering scheme (NESTED), the units (K_cmb or MJy/sr) of each column, and of course the frequency channel (FREQ). Where polarisation Q and U maps are provided, the ''COSMO'' polarisation convention (used in HEALPIX) is adopted, and it is specified in the ''POLCCONV'' keyword (see [[Sky_temperature_maps#Polarization_convention_used_in_the_Planck_project|this section]]. The COMMENT fields give a one-line summary of the product, and some other information useful for traceability within the DPCs. The original filename is also given in the ''FILENAME'' keyword. The ''BAD_DATA'' keyword gives the value used by Healpix to indicate pixels for which no signal is present (these will also have a hit-count value of 0). The main parameters are summarised below:<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Sky map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb or MJy/sr || The Stokes I map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb or MJy/sr || The Stokes Q map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|U_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb or MJy/sr || The Stokes U map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|HITS || Int*4 || none || The hit-count map<br />
|-<br />
|II_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The II variance map<br />
|-<br />
|IQ_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The IQ variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|IU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The IQ variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QQ_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The QQ variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The QU variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|UU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The UU variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix Nside <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12 Nside<sup>2</sup> – 1 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ || string || nnn || The frequency channel <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
The same structure applies to all ''SkyMap'' products, independent of whether they are full channel, survey of half-ring. The distinction between the types of maps is present in the FITS filename (and in the traceability comment fields).<br />
<br />
==Polarization convention used in the Planck project==<br />
<br />
The Planck collaboration used the COSMO convention for the polarization angle (as usually used in space based CMB missions), whereas other astronomical fields usually use the IAU convention. In the following document we report the difference between these two conventions, and the consequence if it is NOT taken into account correctly in the analysis.<br />
<br />
[[File:conventions.png|thumb|center|400px|'''Figure 1. COSMO convention (left) and IAU convention (right). The versor <math>\hat{z}</math> points outwards the pointing direction in COSMO, and inwards in IAU. The bottom panel refers to the plane tangent to the sphere.''']]<br />
<br />
Changing the orientation convention is equivalent to a transformation <math>\psi'=\pi-\psi</math> of the polarization angle (Figure 1). The consequence of this transformation is the inversion of the Stokes parameter <math>U</math>.<br />
The components of the polarization tensor in the helicity basis <math>\epsilon^{\pm}=1/\sqrt{2}(\hat{x}\pm i\hat{y})</math> are:<br />
<br />
<math><br />
(Q+iU)(\hat{n}) = \sum _{\ell m}a_{2,lm}{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
\\(Q-iU)(\hat{n}) = \sum _{\ell m}a_{-2,lm}{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
</math><br />
<br />
where <math>{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})</math> are the spin weighted spherical harmonic functions.<br />
The <math>E</math> and <math>B</math> modes can be defined as:<br />
<math><br />
E(\hat{n}) = \sum_{\ell m}a_{E,\ell m}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
\\B(\hat{n}) = \sum_{\ell m}a_{B,\ell m}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
</math><br />
<br />
where the coefficients <math>a_{E,\ell m}</math> and <math>a_{B,\ell m}</math> are derived from linear combinations of the <math>a_{2,\ell m}</math> , <math>a_{-2,\ell m}</math> defined implicitly in the first equation (<math>Q\pm iU</math>).<br />
<br />
[[File:test_gradient.jpg|thumb|center|400px|]]<br />
[[File:test_curl.jpg|thumb|center|400px|'''Figure 2. Error on Planck-LFI 70 GHz <math>EE</math> (top) and <math>BB</math> (bottom) spectra, in case of wrong choice of the coordinate system convention (IAU instead of COSMO).''']]<br />
<br />
The effect of the sign inversion of <math>U</math> on the polarization spectra is a non trivial mixing of <math>E</math> and <math>B</math> modes. <br />
<br />
An example of the typical error on <math>EE</math> and <math>BB</math> auto-spectra in case of a wrong choice of the polarization basis is shown in Figure 2.<br />
<br />
BE CAREFUL about the polarization convention you are using. If the IAU convention is used in computing the power spectra, the sign of the <math>U</math> component of the Planck maps must be inverted before computing <math>E</math> and <math>B</math> modes.<br />
<br />
=== Note on the convention used by the Planck Catalog of Compact Sources (PCCS) ===<br />
For continuity with other compact sources catolgues, the Catalogue of Compact Sources provided by Planck follows the IAU convention, and the polarization angles are defined on an interval of [-90,90] degrees. To switch to the COSMO convention, the polarization angles listed in the catalogue have to be shifted by 90 degrees and multiplied by -1.<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|002]]</div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=Sky_temperature_maps&diff=10635Sky temperature maps2015-01-29T15:41:50Z<p>Amoneti: /* General description */ cleaning</p>
<hr />
<div>{{DISPLAYTITLE:Sky temperature and polarization maps}}<br />
==General description==<br />
<br />
Sky maps give the best estimate of the intensity and polarization (Stokes Q and U components), if available, of the signal from the sky after removal, as far as possible, of known systematic effects (mostly instrumental, but including also the solar and earth-motion dipole, and the Zodiacal light). Sky maps are provided for the full Planck mission using all valid detectors in each frequency channel, and also for various subsets by splitting the mission in various time ranges or in subsets of the detectors in a given channel. These products are useful for the study of source variability, but they are especially interesting for characterisation purposes (see also the [[HFI-Validation | data validation]] section). The details of the start and end of the time ranges are given in the table below.<br />
<br />
To help in further processing, there are also masks of the Galactic Plane and of point sources, each provided for several different depths.<br />
<br />
All sky maps are in Healpix format, with Nside of 2048, in Galactic coordinates, and Nested ordering. The signal is given in units of K<sub>cmb</sub> for 30-353 GHz, and of MJy/sr (for a constant <math>\nu F_\nu</math> energy distribution ) for 545 and 857 GHz. For each frequency channel, the intensity and polarization maps are packaged into a ''BINTABLE'' extension of a FITS file together with a hit-count map (or hit map, for short, giving the number of observation samples that are cumulated in a pixel, all detectors combined) and with the variance and covariance maps. Additional information is given in the FITS file header. The structure of the FITS file is given in the [[#Format | FITS file structure]] section below. <br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Ranges for mission and surveys'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Range || ODs || rings || pointing-IDs || Comment<br />
|-<br />
|nominal mission || 91 - 563 || 240 - 14723 || 00004200 - 03180200 ||<br />
|-<br />
|full mission || 91 - 974 || 240 - 27005 || 00004200 - 05322620 || for HFI<br />
|-<br />
|full mission || 91 - 993 || 240 - 27641 || 00004200 - 06344800 || for LFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 1 || 91 - 270 || 240 - 5720 || 00004200 - 01059820 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 2 || 270 - 456 || 5721 - 11194 || 01059830 - 02114520 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 3 || 456 - 636 || 11195 - 16691 || 02114530 - 03193660 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 4 || 636 - 807 || 16692 - 21720 || 03193670 - 04243900 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 5 || 807 - 974 || 21721 - 27005 || 05267180 - 05322590 || end of mission for HFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 5 || 807 - 993 || 21721 - 27641 || 05267180 - 06344800 || end of survey for LFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 6 || 993 - 1177 || 27642 - tbd || 06344810 - 06398120 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|Survey 7 || 1177 - 1358 || tbd - tbd || 06398130 - 06456410 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|Survey 8 || 1358 - 1543 || tbd - tbd || 06456420 - 06511160 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|Survey 9 || 1543 - 1604 || tbd - tbd || 06511170 - 06533320 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|HFI mission-half-1 || 91 - 531 || 240 - 13471 || 00004200 - 03155580 ||<br />
|-<br />
|HFI mission-half-2 || 531 - 974 || 13472 - 27005 || 03155590 - 05322590 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 1 || 91 - 456 || 240 - 11194 || 00004200 - 02114520 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 2 || 456 - 807 || 11195 - 21720 || 02114530 - 04243900 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 3 || 807 - 1177 || 21721 - tbd || 05267180 - 06398120 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 4 || 1177 - 1543 || tbd - tbd || 06398130 - 06511160 ||<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
==Production process==<br />
<br />
Sky maps are produced by combining appropriately the data of all working detectors in a frequency channel over some period of the mission. They give the best estimate of the signal from the sky (unpolarised) after removal, as far as possible, of known systematic effects and of the dipole signals induced by the motion of the solar system in the CMB and of the Planck satellite in the solar system. In particular, they include the Zodiacal light emission (Zodi for short) and also the scattering from the far-side lobes of the beams (FSL). More on this below.<br />
<br />
=== HFI processing ===<br />
<br />
The mapmaking and calibration process is described in detail in the [[Map-making_LFI | Map-making]] section and in the [[A08 paper| mapmaking]] paper, where detailed references are found. In brief it consists of:<br />
<br />
; binning the TOI data onto ''rings'' : Healpix rings (HPRs) are used here, each ring containing the combined data of one pointing period. <br />
; flux calibration : at 100-353 GHz, the flux calibration factors are determined by correlating the signal with the orbital dipole, which is determined very accurately from the Planck satellite orbital parameters provided by Flight Dynamics. This provides a single gain factor per bolometer. At 545 and 857 GHz the gain is determined from the observation of Uranus and Neptune (but not Jupiter which is too bright) and comparison to recent models made explicitly for this mission. A single gain is applied to all rings at these frequencies.<br />
; destriping : in order to remove low-frequency noise, an offset per ring is determined by minimizing the differences between HPRs at their crossings, and removed.<br />
; Zodiacal light correction : a Zodiacal light model is used to build HPRs of the the Zodi emission, which is subtracted from the calibrated HPRs.<br />
; projection onto the map : the offset-corrected, flux-calibrated, and Zodi-cleaned HPRs are projected onto Healpix maps, with the data of each bolometer weighted by a factor of 1/NET of that bolometer.<br />
<br />
These steps are followed by some post-processing which is designed to prepare the maps for the component separation work. This post processing consists of: <br />
<br />
; Dust bandpass leakage correction : the Q and U maps are corrected for the dust leakage due to the different bandpasses that is determined using the ''ground'' method as described [[MISSING REF| here]]<br />
; Far Side Lobe calibration correction : the 100-217 maps are multiplied by factors of 1.00087, 1.00046, and 1.00043, respectively, to compensate for the non-removal of the far-side lobes, and similarly the corresponding covariance maps have also been corrected by multiplication by the square of the factor.<br />
; Fill missing pixels : missing pixels are filled in with a value that is the mean of valid pixels within a given radius. A radius of 1 deg is used for the full channel maps, and 1.5 deg is used for the detset maps. This step is not applied to the single survey maps since they have large swaths of the sky that are not covered.<br />
<br />
These maps provide the main mission products. Together with signal maps, hit count, variance, and variance maps are also produced. The hit maps give the (integer) number of valid TOI-level samples that contribute to the signal of each pixel. All valid samples are counted in the same way, i.e., there is no weighting factor applied. The variance maps project the white noise estimate, provided by the NETs, in the sky domain.<br />
<br />
Note that the nominal mission maps have not had the post-processing applied, which makes them more easily comparable to the PR1 products.<br />
<br />
=== LFI processing ===<br />
LFI maps were constructed with the Madam map-making code, version 3.7.4. The code is based on generalized destriping technique, where the correlated noise component is modeled as a sequence of constant offset, called baselines. A noise filter was used to constrain the baseline solution allowing the use of 1 second baselines.<br />
<br />
Radiometers were combined according to the horn-uniform weighting scheme to minimize systematics. The used weights are listed in [[Map-making LFI#Map-making|Map-making]]. The flagged samples were excluded from the analysis by setting their weights to <math>C_{w}^{-1}</math> = 0. The galaxy region was masked out in the destriping phase, to reduce error arising from strong signal gradients. The polarization component was included in the analysis... <br />
<br />
A detailed description of the map-making procedure is given in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p02}} and in section [[Map-making LFI#Map-making|Map-making]].<br />
<br />
==Types of maps ==<br />
<br />
=== Full mission, full channel maps (6 HFI, 3 LFI)===<br />
<br />
Full channel maps are built using all the valid detectors of a frequency channel and cover the either the full or the nominal mission. For HFI, the 143-8 and 545-3 bolometers are rejected entirely as they are seriously affected by RTS noise. For this release, HFI provides the Q and U components for the 353 GHz channel only. LFI provides the I, Q and U maps for all the channels. The I maps are displayed in the figures below. The color range is set using a histogram equalisation scheme (from HEALPIX) that is useful for these non-Gaussian data fields. The Q and U maps are not shown as they look like noise to the naked eye.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=260px heights=160px> <br />
File: SkyMap30e.png| '''Full mission, 30 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap44e.png | '''Full mission, 44 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap70e.png | '''Full mission, 70 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap100e.png | '''Full mission, 100 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap143e.png | '''Full mission, 143 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap217e.png | '''Full mission, 217 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap353e.png | '''Full mission, 353 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap545e.png | '''Full mission, 545 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap857e.png | '''Full mission, 857 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
=== Nominal mission, full channel maps (6 HFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are similar to the ones above, but cover the nominal mission only. They are meant primarily to be compared to the PR1 products in order to see the level of improvements in the processing. Because of this, they are produced in Temperature only, and have not had the post-processing applied.<br />
<br />
=== Single survey, full channel maps (30 HFI, 24 LFI)===<br />
<br />
Single survey maps are built using all valid detectors of a frequency channel; they cover separately the different sky surveys. The surveys are defined as the times over which the satellite spin axis rotates but 180 degrees, which, due to the position of the detectors in the focal plane does not cover the full sky, but a fraction between ~80 and 90% depending on detector position. During adjacent surveys the sky is scanned in opposite directions. More precisely it is the ecliptic equator that is scanned in opposite directions. While these are useful to investigate variable sources, they are also used to study the systematics of the time-response of the detectors as they scan bright sources, like the Galactic Plane, in different directions during different survey. Note that the HFI and LFI missions cover 5 and 9 surveys, respectively, and in both cases the last survey in incomplete.<br />
<br />
=== Year maps, full channel maps (12 HFI, 24 LFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are built using the data of surveys 1+2, surveys 3+4, and so forth. They are used to study long-term systematic effects.<br />
<br />
===Half-mission maps, full channel maps (12 HFI, 6 LFI)===<br />
<br />
For HFI, the half mission is defined after eliminating those rings discarded for all bolometers. There are 347 such rings, may of which are during the 5th survey when the ''End-of-Life'' tests were performed. The remaining 26419 rings are divided in half (up to the odd ring) to define the two halves of the mission. This exercise is done for the full mission only.<br />
<br />
===Full mission, single detector maps (18 HFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are built only for the HFI SWBs (non polarized) and contain only temperature data, of course. They are not built for the polarisation sensitive detectors because they are not fixed on the sky as the polarisation component depends on the position angle at the time of observation. Instead, we provide maps built by ''quads'' of polarisation-sensitive detectors (see next section), which have different polarisation angles and that can be used to built I, Q, and U maps<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=600px<br />
|+ '''HFI Temperature sensitive bolometers'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!Frequency || Detector names<br />
|-<br />
|143 GHz || 143-5, 6, 7<br />
|-<br />
|217 GHz || 217-1, 2, 3, 4<br />
|-<br />
|353 GHz || 353-1, 2, 7, 8<br />
|-<br />
|545 GHz || 545-1, 2, 4<br />
|-<br />
|857 GHz || 857-1, 2 , 3, 4<br />
|}<br />
<br />
The 143-8 and 353-3 bolometer data are affected by strong RTS (random telegraphic signal) noise. They have not been used in the data processing, and are not delivered. For a figure showing the focal plane layout, see [[Detector_pointing#Introduction_and_Summary | this Introduction]] of the Detector Pointing chapter.<br />
<br />
===Full mission, detector set or detector pairs maps (8 HFI, 8 LFI)===<br />
<br />
The objective here is to build independent temperature (I) and polarisation (Q and U) maps with the two pairs of polarisation sensitive detectors of each channel where they are available, i.e. in the 30-353 GHz channels. The table below indicates which detectors were used to built each detector set (detset).<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=600px<br />
|+ '''Definition of HFI Detector Sets'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!Frequency || DetSet1 || DetSet2 <br />
|-<br />
|100 GHz || 100-1a/b & 100-4a/b || 100-2a/b & 100-3a/b<br />
|-<br />
|143 GHz || 143-1a/b 1 & 43-3a/b || 143-2a/b & 143-4a/b<br />
|-<br />
|217 GHz || 217-5a/b & 217-7a/b || 217-6a/b & 217-8a/b<br />
|-<br />
|353 GHz || 353-3a/b & 353-5a/b || 353-4a/b & 353-6a/b<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
===Half-ring maps (64 HFI, ??? LFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are similar to the ones above, but are built using only the first or the second half of each ring (or pointing period). The HFI provides half-ring maps for the full mission only, and for the full channel, the detsets, and the single bolometers. The LFI .....<br />
<br />
<!----<br />
===Masks===<br />
<br />
Masks are provided of the Galactic Plane and of the point sources. For the Galactic Plane, eight masks are given covering different fractions of the sky, and for the points sources two masks are given, at the 5 and 10 sigma level, for each Planck HFI frequency channel. These are generic masks, specific masks applicable to other products are delivered with the products themselves.<br />
---><br />
<br />
=== The Zodiacal light correction maps ===<br />
<br />
The Zodiacal light signal depends on the location of the observer relative to the Zodiacal light bands, and thus it is not a fixed pattern on the sky but depends on the period of observation. The maps presented here are the difference between the uncorrected (and not delivered) and the corrected maps. <br />
<br />
<br />
<!---center><br />
<gallery perrow=3 widths=260px heights=170px><br />
File: ZodiRes100.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 100 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes143.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 143 GHz''' <br />
File: ZodiRes217.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 217 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes353.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 353 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes545.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 545 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes857.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 857 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center ---><br />
<br />
=== Caveats and known issues ===<br />
<br />
TBW<br />
<br />
==== Map zero-level ====<br />
<br />
For the 100 to 857 GHz maps, the zero levels are set to their optimal levels for Galactic and CIB studies. A procedure for adjusting them to astrophysical values is given in the HFI Mapmaking and Calibration paper {{PlanckPapers|????}}.<br />
<br />
For the 30, 44 and 70 GHz, maps are corrected for zero level monopole by applying an offset correction, see LFI Calibration paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p02b}} section 3.4 "Setting the zero levels in the maps". Note that the offset applied is indicated in the header as a comment keyword.<br />
<br />
==Inputs==<br />
=== HFI inputs ===<br />
<br />
* The cleaned TOIs of signal of each detector, together with their flags, produced by the [[TOI processing|TOI processing]] pipeline<br />
* The TOIs of pointing (quaternions), described in [[Detector_pointing|Detector pointing]]<br />
* Bolometer-level characterization data, from the DPC's internal IMO (not distributed)<br />
* Planck orbit data used to compute and remove the earth dipole<br />
* WMAP solar dipole information used to calibrate the CMB channels<br />
* Planet models used to calibrate the Galactic channels.<br />
<br />
=== LFI inputs ===<br />
<br />
The Madam map-maker takes as an input:<br />
<br />
* The calibrated timelines (for details see [[TOI processing LFI|TOI Processing]])<br />
* The detector pointings (for details see [[Detector_pointing|Detector pointing]])<br />
* The noise information in the form of three-parameter (white noise level (<math>\sigma</math>), slope, and knee frequency ($f_\mathrm{knee}$)) noise model (for details see [[The RIMO|RIMO]])<br />
<br />
==Related products==<br />
=== Masks ===<br />
<br />
This section presents the masks of the point sources and of the Galactic plane. These are ''general purpose'' masks. Other masks specific to certain products are packaged with the products.<br />
<br />
====Point source masks====<br />
<br />
For HFI, two sets of masks are provided: <br />
* Intensity masks, which removes sources detected with SNR > 5. <br />
* Polarisation masks, which remove sources which have polarisation detection significance of 99.97 % or greater at the position of a source detected in intensity. They were derived from the polarisation maps with dust ground bandpass mismatch leakage correction applied. The cut around each source has a radius of 3σ (width) of the beam ~ 1.27 FWHM.<br />
<br />
Both sets are found in the file ''HFI_Mask_PointSrc_2048_R2.00.fits'' in which the first extension contains the Intensity masks, and the second contains the Polarisation masks.<br />
<br />
====Galactic Plane masks====<br />
<br />
Eight masks are provided giving 20, 40, 60, 70, 80, 90, 97, and 99% sky coverage derived from the 353 GHz map, after CMB subtraction. They are independent of frequency channel. Three versions of these are given: not apodized, and apodized by 2 and 5 deg. The filenames are ''HFI_Mask_GalPlane-apoN_2048_R2.00.fits'', where N = 0, 2, 5.<br />
<br />
The masks are shows below. The 8 GalPlane masks are combined (added together) and shown in a single figure for each of the three apodization. While the result is quite clear for the case of no apodization, it is less so for the apodized case. The point source masks are shown separately for the Intensity case.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery perrow=3 widths=260px heights=160px ><br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo0.png | '''Galactic Plane masks, no apod'''<br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo2.png | '''Galactic Plane masks, apod 2 deg'''<br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo5.png | '''Galactic Plane masks, apod 5 deg'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_100.png | '''PointSource mask 100 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_143.png | '''PointSource mask 143 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_217.png | '''PointSource mask 217 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_353.png | '''PointSource mask 343 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_545.png | '''PointSource mask 545 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_857.png | '''PointSource mask 857 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
== File names ==<br />
The FITS filenames are of the form ''{H|L}FI_SkyMap_fff{-tag}_Nside_R2.nn_{coverage}-{type}.fits'', where ''fff'' are three digits to indicate the Planck frequency band, ''tag'' indicates the single detector or the detset, ''Nside'' is the Healpix Nside of the map, ''coverage'' indicates which part of the mission is covered (full, half mission, survey, year, ...) , and the optional ''type'' indicates the subset of input data used. The table below lists the products by type, with the appropriate unix wildcards that form the full filename.<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align"left" border="1" cellpadding="15" cellspacing="20" width=880px<br />
|+ '''FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Coverage || filename || half-ring filename <br />
|-<br />
| Full chan, full mission ||HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_full.fits ||HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, nominal mission ||HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_nominal.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, single survey || HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_survey-?.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, single year || HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_year-?.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, half mission || HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_halfmission*-?.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Det-set, full mission || HFI_SkyMap_???-ds?_2048_R2.??_full.fits || HFI_SkyMap_???-ds?_2048_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits<br />
|-<br />
|Single SWB, full mission || HFI_SkyMap_???-?_2048_R2.??_full.fits || HFI_SkyMap_???-?_2048_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits<br />
|}<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for the frequency maps with no additional information, we also provide a file combining the 9 frequency maps as separate columns in a single extension. The 9 columns in this file contain the intensity maps ONLY and no other information (hit maps and variance maps) is provided.<br />
<br />
<!---<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align:center" border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" width=500px<br />
|+ '''FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Full channel maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''30GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''44GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Full channel, Zodi-corrected maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}} <br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Combined frequency maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''All''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=file|name=COM_MapSet_I-allFreqs_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=COM_MapSet_I-allFreqs_R1.10_nominal.fits}} <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align:center" border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" width=850px<br />
|+ '''FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Survey 1 maps || Survey 2 maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''30GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''44GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Survey 1 Zodi-corrected maps || Survey 2 Zodi-corrected maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Half-ring 1 maps ||Half-ring 2 maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''30GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''44GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|}<br />
---><br />
<br />
== FITS file structure ==<br />
<br />
The FITS files for the sky maps contain a minimal primary header with no data, and a ''BINTABLE'' extension (EXTENSION 1, EXTNAME = ''FREQ-MAP'') containing the data. The structure is shows schematically in the figure below. The ''FREQ-MAP'' extension contains a 3- or a 10-column table that contain the signal, hit-count and variance maps, all in Healpix format. The 3-column case is for intensity only maps, the 10-column case is for polarisation. The number of rows is the number of map pixels, which is Npix = 12 Nside<sup>2</sup> for Healpix maps, where Nside = 2048 for most the maps presented in this chapter.<br />
<br />
[[File:FITS_FreqMap.png | 550px | center | thumb | '''FITS file structure''']]<br />
<br />
Keywords indicate the coordinate system (GALACTIC), the Healpix ordering scheme (NESTED), the units (K_cmb or MJy/sr) of each column, and of course the frequency channel (FREQ). The COMMENT fields give a one-line summary of the product, and some other information useful for traceability within the DPCs. The original filename is also given in the ''FILENAME'' keyword. The ''BAD_DATA'' keyword gives the value used by Healpix to indicate pixels for which no signal is present (these will also have a hit-count value of 0). The main parameters are summarised below:<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Sky map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb or MJy/sr || The Stokes I map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb or MJy/sr || The Stokes Q map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|U_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb or MJy/sr || The Stokes U map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|HITS || Int*4 || none || The hit-count map<br />
|-<br />
|II_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The II variance map<br />
|-<br />
|IQ_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The IQvariance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|IU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The IQ variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QQ_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The QQ variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The QU variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|UU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The UU variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix Nside <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12 Nside<sup>2</sup> – 1 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ || string || nnn || The frequency channel <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
The same structure applies to all ''SkyMap'' products, independent of whether they are full channel, survey of half-ring. The distinction between the types of maps is present in the FITS filename (and in the traceability comment fields).<br />
<br />
==Polarization convention used in the Planck project==<br />
<br />
The Planck collaboration used the COSMO convention for the polarization angle (as usually used in space based CMB missions), whereas other astronomical fields usually use the IAU convention. In the following document we report the difference between these two conventions, and the consequence if it is NOT taken into account correctly in the analysis.<br />
<br />
[[File:conventions.png|thumb|center|400px|'''Figure 1. COSMO convention (left) and IAU convention (right). The versor <math>\hat{z}</math> points outwards the pointing direction in COSMO, and inwards in IAU. The bottom panel refers to the plane tangent to the sphere.''']]<br />
<br />
Changing the orientation convention is equivalent to a transformation <math>\psi'=\pi-\psi</math> of the polarization angle (Figure 1). The consequence of this transformation is the inversion of the Stokes parameter <math>U</math>.<br />
The components of the polarization tensor in the helicity basis <math>\epsilon^{\pm}=1/\sqrt{2}(\hat{x}\pm i\hat{y})</math> are:<br />
<br />
<math><br />
(Q+iU)(\hat{n}) = \sum _{\ell m}a_{2,lm}{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
\\(Q-iU)(\hat{n}) = \sum _{\ell m}a_{-2,lm}{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
</math><br />
<br />
where <math>{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})</math> are the spin weighted spherical harmonic functions.<br />
The <math>E</math> and <math>B</math> modes can be defined as:<br />
<math><br />
E(\hat{n}) = \sum_{\ell m}a_{E,\ell m}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
\\B(\hat{n}) = \sum_{\ell m}a_{B,\ell m}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
</math><br />
<br />
where the coefficients <math>a_{E,\ell m}</math> and <math>a_{B,\ell m}</math> are derived from linear combinations of the <math>a_{2,\ell m}</math> , <math>a_{-2,\ell m}</math> defined implicitly in the first equation (<math>Q\pm iU</math>).<br />
<br />
[[File:test_gradient.jpg|thumb|center|400px|]]<br />
[[File:test_curl.jpg|thumb|center|400px|'''Figure 2. Error on Planck-LFI 70 GHz <math>EE</math> (top) and <math>BB</math> (bottom) spectra, in case of wrong choice of the coordinate system convention (IAU instead of COSMO).''']]<br />
<br />
The effect of the sign inversion of <math>U</math> on the polarization spectra is a non trivial mixing of <math>E</math> and <math>B</math> modes. <br />
<br />
An example of the typical error on <math>EE</math> and <math>BB</math> auto-spectra in case of a wrong choice of the polarization basis is shown in Figure 2.<br />
<br />
BE CAREFUL about the polarization convention you are using. If the IAU convention is used in computing the power spectra, the sign of the <math>U</math> component of the Planck maps must be inverted before computing <math>E</math> and <math>B</math> modes.<br />
<br />
=== Note on the convention used by the Planck Catalog of Compact Sources (PCCS) ===<br />
For continuity with other compact sources catolgues, the Catalogue of Compact Sources provided by Planck follows the IAU convention, and the polarization angles are defined on an interval of [-90,90] degrees. To switch to the COSMO convention, the polarization angles listed in the catalogue have to be shifted by 90 degrees and multiplied by -1.<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|002]]</div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=Sky_temperature_maps&diff=10634Sky temperature maps2015-01-29T15:37:55Z<p>Amoneti: /* Types of maps */ comment Masks section</p>
<hr />
<div>{{DISPLAYTITLE:Sky temperature and polarization maps}}<br />
==General description==<br />
<br />
Sky maps give the best estimate of the intensity and polarization (Stokes Q and U components), if available, of the signal from the sky after removal, as far as possible, of known systematic effects (mostly instrumental, but including also the solar and earth-motion dipole, and the Zodiacal light). Sky maps are provided for the full Planck mission using all valid detectors in each frequency channel, and also for various subsets by splitting the mission in various time ranges or in subsets of the detectors in a given channel. These products are useful for the study of source variability, but they are especially interesting for characterisation purposes (see also the [[HFI-Validation | data validation]] section). The details of the start and end of the time ranges are given in the table below ( [[HFIpreprocessingstatics | this table is out of date - remove it??? where else is it referenced???]]. <br />
<br />
To help in further processing, there are also masks of the Galactic Plane and of point sources, each provided for several different depths.<br />
<br />
All sky maps are in Healpix format, with Nside of 2048, in Galactic coordinates, and Nested ordering. The signal is given in units of K<sub>cmb</sub> for 30-353 GHz, and of MJy/sr (for a constant <math>\nu F_\nu</math> energy distribution ) for 545 and 857 GHz. For each frequency channel, the intensity and polarization maps are packaged into a ''BINTABLE'' extension of a FITS file together with a hit-count map (or hit map, for short, giving the number of observation samples that are cumulated in a pixel, all detectors combined) and with the variance and covariance maps. Additional information is given in the FITS file header. The structure of the FITS file is given in the [[#Format | FITS file structure]] section below. <br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Ranges for mission and surveys'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Range || ODs || rings || pointing-IDs || Comment<br />
|-<br />
|nominal mission || 91 - 563 || 240 - 14723 || 00004200 - 03180200 ||<br />
|-<br />
|full mission || 91 - 974 || 240 - 27005 || 00004200 - 05322620 || for HFI<br />
|-<br />
|full mission || 91 - 993 || 240 - 27641 || 00004200 - 06344800 || for LFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 1 || 91 - 270 || 240 - 5720 || 00004200 - 01059820 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 2 || 270 - 456 || 5721 - 11194 || 01059830 - 02114520 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 3 || 456 - 636 || 11195 - 16691 || 02114530 - 03193660 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 4 || 636 - 807 || 16692 - 21720 || 03193670 - 04243900 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 5 || 807 - 974 || 21721 - 27005 || 05267180 - 05322590 || end of mission for HFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 5 || 807 - 993 || 21721 - 27641 || 05267180 - 06344800 || end of survey for LFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 6 || 993 - 1177 || 27642 - tbd || 06344810 - 06398120 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|Survey 7 || 1177 - 1358 || tbd - tbd || 06398130 - 06456410 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|Survey 8 || 1358 - 1543 || tbd - tbd || 06456420 - 06511160 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|Survey 9 || 1543 - 1604 || tbd - tbd || 06511170 - 06533320 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|HFI mission-half-1 || 91 - 531 || 240 - 13471 || 00004200 - 03155580 ||<br />
|-<br />
|HFI mission-half-2 || 531 - 974 || 13472 - 27005 || 03155590 - 05322590 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 1 || 91 - 456 || 240 - 11194 || 00004200 - 02114520 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 2 || 456 - 807 || 11195 - 21720 || 02114530 - 04243900 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 3 || 807 - 1177 || 21721 - tbd || 05267180 - 06398120 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 4 || 1177 - 1543 || tbd - tbd || 06398130 - 06511160 ||<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
==Production process==<br />
<br />
Sky maps are produced by combining appropriately the data of all working detectors in a frequency channel over some period of the mission. They give the best estimate of the signal from the sky (unpolarised) after removal, as far as possible, of known systematic effects and of the dipole signals induced by the motion of the solar system in the CMB and of the Planck satellite in the solar system. In particular, they include the Zodiacal light emission (Zodi for short) and also the scattering from the far-side lobes of the beams (FSL). More on this below.<br />
<br />
=== HFI processing ===<br />
<br />
The mapmaking and calibration process is described in detail in the [[Map-making_LFI | Map-making]] section and in the [[A08 paper| mapmaking]] paper, where detailed references are found. In brief it consists of:<br />
<br />
; binning the TOI data onto ''rings'' : Healpix rings (HPRs) are used here, each ring containing the combined data of one pointing period. <br />
; flux calibration : at 100-353 GHz, the flux calibration factors are determined by correlating the signal with the orbital dipole, which is determined very accurately from the Planck satellite orbital parameters provided by Flight Dynamics. This provides a single gain factor per bolometer. At 545 and 857 GHz the gain is determined from the observation of Uranus and Neptune (but not Jupiter which is too bright) and comparison to recent models made explicitly for this mission. A single gain is applied to all rings at these frequencies.<br />
; destriping : in order to remove low-frequency noise, an offset per ring is determined by minimizing the differences between HPRs at their crossings, and removed.<br />
; Zodiacal light correction : a Zodiacal light model is used to build HPRs of the the Zodi emission, which is subtracted from the calibrated HPRs.<br />
; projection onto the map : the offset-corrected, flux-calibrated, and Zodi-cleaned HPRs are projected onto Healpix maps, with the data of each bolometer weighted by a factor of 1/NET of that bolometer.<br />
<br />
These steps are followed by some post-processing which is designed to prepare the maps for the component separation work. This post processing consists of: <br />
<br />
; Dust bandpass leakage correction : the Q and U maps are corrected for the dust leakage due to the different bandpasses that is determined using the ''ground'' method as described [[MISSING REF| here]]<br />
; Far Side Lobe calibration correction : the 100-217 maps are multiplied by factors of 1.00087, 1.00046, and 1.00043, respectively, to compensate for the non-removal of the far-side lobes, and similarly the corresponding covariance maps have also been corrected by multiplication by the square of the factor.<br />
; Fill missing pixels : missing pixels are filled in with a value that is the mean of valid pixels within a given radius. A radius of 1 deg is used for the full channel maps, and 1.5 deg is used for the detset maps. This step is not applied to the single survey maps since they have large swaths of the sky that are not covered.<br />
<br />
These maps provide the main mission products. Together with signal maps, hit count, variance, and variance maps are also produced. The hit maps give the (integer) number of valid TOI-level samples that contribute to the signal of each pixel. All valid samples are counted in the same way, i.e., there is no weighting factor applied. The variance maps project the white noise estimate, provided by the NETs, in the sky domain.<br />
<br />
Note that the nominal mission maps have not had the post-processing applied, which makes them more easily comparable to the PR1 products.<br />
<br />
=== LFI processing ===<br />
LFI maps were constructed with the Madam map-making code, version 3.7.4. The code is based on generalized destriping technique, where the correlated noise component is modeled as a sequence of constant offset, called baselines. A noise filter was used to constrain the baseline solution allowing the use of 1 second baselines.<br />
<br />
Radiometers were combined according to the horn-uniform weighting scheme to minimize systematics. The used weights are listed in [[Map-making LFI#Map-making|Map-making]]. The flagged samples were excluded from the analysis by setting their weights to <math>C_{w}^{-1}</math> = 0. The galaxy region was masked out in the destriping phase, to reduce error arising from strong signal gradients. The polarization component was included in the analysis... <br />
<br />
A detailed description of the map-making procedure is given in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p02}} and in section [[Map-making LFI#Map-making|Map-making]].<br />
<br />
==Types of maps ==<br />
<br />
=== Full mission, full channel maps (6 HFI, 3 LFI)===<br />
<br />
Full channel maps are built using all the valid detectors of a frequency channel and cover the either the full or the nominal mission. For HFI, the 143-8 and 545-3 bolometers are rejected entirely as they are seriously affected by RTS noise. For this release, HFI provides the Q and U components for the 353 GHz channel only. LFI provides the I, Q and U maps for all the channels. The I maps are displayed in the figures below. The color range is set using a histogram equalisation scheme (from HEALPIX) that is useful for these non-Gaussian data fields. The Q and U maps are not shown as they look like noise to the naked eye.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=260px heights=160px> <br />
File: SkyMap30e.png| '''Full mission, 30 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap44e.png | '''Full mission, 44 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap70e.png | '''Full mission, 70 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap100e.png | '''Full mission, 100 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap143e.png | '''Full mission, 143 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap217e.png | '''Full mission, 217 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap353e.png | '''Full mission, 353 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap545e.png | '''Full mission, 545 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap857e.png | '''Full mission, 857 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
=== Nominal mission, full channel maps (6 HFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are similar to the ones above, but cover the nominal mission only. They are meant primarily to be compared to the PR1 products in order to see the level of improvements in the processing. Because of this, they are produced in Temperature only, and have not had the post-processing applied.<br />
<br />
=== Single survey, full channel maps (30 HFI, 24 LFI)===<br />
<br />
Single survey maps are built using all valid detectors of a frequency channel; they cover separately the different sky surveys. The surveys are defined as the times over which the satellite spin axis rotates but 180 degrees, which, due to the position of the detectors in the focal plane does not cover the full sky, but a fraction between ~80 and 90% depending on detector position. During adjacent surveys the sky is scanned in opposite directions. More precisely it is the ecliptic equator that is scanned in opposite directions. While these are useful to investigate variable sources, they are also used to study the systematics of the time-response of the detectors as they scan bright sources, like the Galactic Plane, in different directions during different survey. Note that the HFI and LFI missions cover 5 and 9 surveys, respectively, and in both cases the last survey in incomplete.<br />
<br />
=== Year maps, full channel maps (12 HFI, 24 LFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are built using the data of surveys 1+2, surveys 3+4, and so forth. They are used to study long-term systematic effects.<br />
<br />
===Half-mission maps, full channel maps (12 HFI, 6 LFI)===<br />
<br />
For HFI, the half mission is defined after eliminating those rings discarded for all bolometers. There are 347 such rings, may of which are during the 5th survey when the ''End-of-Life'' tests were performed. The remaining 26419 rings are divided in half (up to the odd ring) to define the two halves of the mission. This exercise is done for the full mission only.<br />
<br />
===Full mission, single detector maps (18 HFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are built only for the HFI SWBs (non polarized) and contain only temperature data, of course. They are not built for the polarisation sensitive detectors because they are not fixed on the sky as the polarisation component depends on the position angle at the time of observation. Instead, we provide maps built by ''quads'' of polarisation-sensitive detectors (see next section), which have different polarisation angles and that can be used to built I, Q, and U maps<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=600px<br />
|+ '''HFI Temperature sensitive bolometers'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!Frequency || Detector names<br />
|-<br />
|143 GHz || 143-5, 6, 7<br />
|-<br />
|217 GHz || 217-1, 2, 3, 4<br />
|-<br />
|353 GHz || 353-1, 2, 7, 8<br />
|-<br />
|545 GHz || 545-1, 2, 4<br />
|-<br />
|857 GHz || 857-1, 2 , 3, 4<br />
|}<br />
<br />
The 143-8 and 353-3 bolometer data are affected by strong RTS (random telegraphic signal) noise. They have not been used in the data processing, and are not delivered. For a figure showing the focal plane layout, see [[Detector_pointing#Introduction_and_Summary | this Introduction]] of the Detector Pointing chapter.<br />
<br />
===Full mission, detector set or detector pairs maps (8 HFI, 8 LFI)===<br />
<br />
The objective here is to build independent temperature (I) and polarisation (Q and U) maps with the two pairs of polarisation sensitive detectors of each channel where they are available, i.e. in the 30-353 GHz channels. The table below indicates which detectors were used to built each detector set (detset).<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=600px<br />
|+ '''Definition of HFI Detector Sets'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!Frequency || DetSet1 || DetSet2 <br />
|-<br />
|100 GHz || 100-1a/b & 100-4a/b || 100-2a/b & 100-3a/b<br />
|-<br />
|143 GHz || 143-1a/b 1 & 43-3a/b || 143-2a/b & 143-4a/b<br />
|-<br />
|217 GHz || 217-5a/b & 217-7a/b || 217-6a/b & 217-8a/b<br />
|-<br />
|353 GHz || 353-3a/b & 353-5a/b || 353-4a/b & 353-6a/b<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
===Half-ring maps (64 HFI, ??? LFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are similar to the ones above, but are built using only the first or the second half of each ring (or pointing period). The HFI provides half-ring maps for the full mission only, and for the full channel, the detsets, and the single bolometers. The LFI .....<br />
<br />
<!----<br />
===Masks===<br />
<br />
Masks are provided of the Galactic Plane and of the point sources. For the Galactic Plane, eight masks are given covering different fractions of the sky, and for the points sources two masks are given, at the 5 and 10 sigma level, for each Planck HFI frequency channel. These are generic masks, specific masks applicable to other products are delivered with the products themselves.<br />
---><br />
<br />
=== The Zodiacal light correction maps ===<br />
<br />
The Zodiacal light signal depends on the location of the observer relative to the Zodiacal light bands, and thus it is not a fixed pattern on the sky but depends on the period of observation. The maps presented here are the difference between the uncorrected (and not delivered) and the corrected maps. <br />
<br />
<br />
<!---center><br />
<gallery perrow=3 widths=260px heights=170px><br />
File: ZodiRes100.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 100 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes143.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 143 GHz''' <br />
File: ZodiRes217.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 217 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes353.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 353 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes545.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 545 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes857.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 857 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center ---><br />
<br />
=== Caveats and known issues ===<br />
<br />
TBW<br />
<br />
==== Map zero-level ====<br />
<br />
For the 100 to 857 GHz maps, the zero levels are set to their optimal levels for Galactic and CIB studies. A procedure for adjusting them to astrophysical values is given in the HFI Mapmaking and Calibration paper {{PlanckPapers|????}}.<br />
<br />
For the 30, 44 and 70 GHz, maps are corrected for zero level monopole by applying an offset correction, see LFI Calibration paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p02b}} section 3.4 "Setting the zero levels in the maps". Note that the offset applied is indicated in the header as a comment keyword.<br />
<br />
==Inputs==<br />
=== HFI inputs ===<br />
<br />
* The cleaned TOIs of signal of each detector, together with their flags, produced by the [[TOI processing|TOI processing]] pipeline<br />
* The TOIs of pointing (quaternions), described in [[Detector_pointing|Detector pointing]]<br />
* Bolometer-level characterization data, from the DPC's internal IMO (not distributed)<br />
* Planck orbit data used to compute and remove the earth dipole<br />
* WMAP solar dipole information used to calibrate the CMB channels<br />
* Planet models used to calibrate the Galactic channels.<br />
<br />
=== LFI inputs ===<br />
<br />
The Madam map-maker takes as an input:<br />
<br />
* The calibrated timelines (for details see [[TOI processing LFI|TOI Processing]])<br />
* The detector pointings (for details see [[Detector_pointing|Detector pointing]])<br />
* The noise information in the form of three-parameter (white noise level (<math>\sigma</math>), slope, and knee frequency ($f_\mathrm{knee}$)) noise model (for details see [[The RIMO|RIMO]])<br />
<br />
==Related products==<br />
=== Masks ===<br />
<br />
This section presents the masks of the point sources and of the Galactic plane. These are ''general purpose'' masks. Other masks specific to certain products are packaged with the products.<br />
<br />
====Point source masks====<br />
<br />
For HFI, two sets of masks are provided: <br />
* Intensity masks, which removes sources detected with SNR > 5. <br />
* Polarisation masks, which remove sources which have polarisation detection significance of 99.97 % or greater at the position of a source detected in intensity. They were derived from the polarisation maps with dust ground bandpass mismatch leakage correction applied. The cut around each source has a radius of 3σ (width) of the beam ~ 1.27 FWHM.<br />
<br />
Both sets are found in the file ''HFI_Mask_PointSrc_2048_R2.00.fits'' in which the first extension contains the Intensity masks, and the second contains the Polarisation masks.<br />
<br />
====Galactic Plane masks====<br />
<br />
Eight masks are provided giving 20, 40, 60, 70, 80, 90, 97, and 99% sky coverage derived from the 353 GHz map, after CMB subtraction. They are independent of frequency channel. Three versions of these are given: not apodized, and apodized by 2 and 5 deg. The filenames are ''HFI_Mask_GalPlane-apoN_2048_R2.00.fits'', where N = 0, 2, 5.<br />
<br />
The masks are shows below. The 8 GalPlane masks are combined (added together) and shown in a single figure for each of the three apodization. While the result is quite clear for the case of no apodization, it is less so for the apodized case. The point source masks are shown separately for the Intensity case.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery perrow=3 widths=260px heights=160px ><br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo0.png | '''Galactic Plane masks, no apod'''<br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo2.png | '''Galactic Plane masks, apod 2 deg'''<br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo5.png | '''Galactic Plane masks, apod 5 deg'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_100.png | '''PointSource mask 100 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_143.png | '''PointSource mask 143 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_217.png | '''PointSource mask 217 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_353.png | '''PointSource mask 343 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_545.png | '''PointSource mask 545 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_857.png | '''PointSource mask 857 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
== File names ==<br />
The FITS filenames are of the form ''{H|L}FI_SkyMap_fff{-tag}_Nside_R2.nn_{coverage}-{type}.fits'', where ''fff'' are three digits to indicate the Planck frequency band, ''tag'' indicates the single detector or the detset, ''Nside'' is the Healpix Nside of the map, ''coverage'' indicates which part of the mission is covered (full, half mission, survey, year, ...) , and the optional ''type'' indicates the subset of input data used. The table below lists the products by type, with the appropriate unix wildcards that form the full filename.<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align"left" border="1" cellpadding="15" cellspacing="20" width=880px<br />
|+ '''FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Coverage || filename || half-ring filename <br />
|-<br />
| Full chan, full mission ||HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_full.fits ||HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, nominal mission ||HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_nominal.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, single survey || HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_survey-?.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, single year || HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_year-?.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, half mission || HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_halfmission*-?.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Det-set, full mission || HFI_SkyMap_???-ds?_2048_R2.??_full.fits || HFI_SkyMap_???-ds?_2048_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits<br />
|-<br />
|Single SWB, full mission || HFI_SkyMap_???-?_2048_R2.??_full.fits || HFI_SkyMap_???-?_2048_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits<br />
|}<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for the frequency maps with no additional information, we also provide a file combining the 9 frequency maps as separate columns in a single extension. The 9 columns in this file contain the intensity maps ONLY and no other information (hit maps and variance maps) is provided.<br />
<br />
<!---<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align:center" border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" width=500px<br />
|+ '''FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Full channel maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''30GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''44GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Full channel, Zodi-corrected maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}} <br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Combined frequency maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''All''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=file|name=COM_MapSet_I-allFreqs_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=COM_MapSet_I-allFreqs_R1.10_nominal.fits}} <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align:center" border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" width=850px<br />
|+ '''FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Survey 1 maps || Survey 2 maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''30GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''44GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Survey 1 Zodi-corrected maps || Survey 2 Zodi-corrected maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Half-ring 1 maps ||Half-ring 2 maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''30GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''44GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|}<br />
---><br />
<br />
== FITS file structure ==<br />
<br />
The FITS files for the sky maps contain a minimal primary header with no data, and a ''BINTABLE'' extension (EXTENSION 1, EXTNAME = ''FREQ-MAP'') containing the data. The structure is shows schematically in the figure below. The ''FREQ-MAP'' extension contains a 3- or a 10-column table that contain the signal, hit-count and variance maps, all in Healpix format. The 3-column case is for intensity only maps, the 10-column case is for polarisation. The number of rows is the number of map pixels, which is Npix = 12 Nside<sup>2</sup> for Healpix maps, where Nside = 2048 for most the maps presented in this chapter.<br />
<br />
[[File:FITS_FreqMap.png | 550px | center | thumb | '''FITS file structure''']]<br />
<br />
Keywords indicate the coordinate system (GALACTIC), the Healpix ordering scheme (NESTED), the units (K_cmb or MJy/sr) of each column, and of course the frequency channel (FREQ). The COMMENT fields give a one-line summary of the product, and some other information useful for traceability within the DPCs. The original filename is also given in the ''FILENAME'' keyword. The ''BAD_DATA'' keyword gives the value used by Healpix to indicate pixels for which no signal is present (these will also have a hit-count value of 0). The main parameters are summarised below:<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Sky map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb or MJy/sr || The Stokes I map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb or MJy/sr || The Stokes Q map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|U_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb or MJy/sr || The Stokes U map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|HITS || Int*4 || none || The hit-count map<br />
|-<br />
|II_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The II variance map<br />
|-<br />
|IQ_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The IQvariance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|IU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The IQ variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QQ_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The QQ variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The QU variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|UU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The UU variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix Nside <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12 Nside<sup>2</sup> – 1 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ || string || nnn || The frequency channel <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
The same structure applies to all ''SkyMap'' products, independent of whether they are full channel, survey of half-ring. The distinction between the types of maps is present in the FITS filename (and in the traceability comment fields).<br />
<br />
==Polarization convention used in the Planck project==<br />
<br />
The Planck collaboration used the COSMO convention for the polarization angle (as usually used in space based CMB missions), whereas other astronomical fields usually use the IAU convention. In the following document we report the difference between these two conventions, and the consequence if it is NOT taken into account correctly in the analysis.<br />
<br />
[[File:conventions.png|thumb|center|400px|'''Figure 1. COSMO convention (left) and IAU convention (right). The versor <math>\hat{z}</math> points outwards the pointing direction in COSMO, and inwards in IAU. The bottom panel refers to the plane tangent to the sphere.''']]<br />
<br />
Changing the orientation convention is equivalent to a transformation <math>\psi'=\pi-\psi</math> of the polarization angle (Figure 1). The consequence of this transformation is the inversion of the Stokes parameter <math>U</math>.<br />
The components of the polarization tensor in the helicity basis <math>\epsilon^{\pm}=1/\sqrt{2}(\hat{x}\pm i\hat{y})</math> are:<br />
<br />
<math><br />
(Q+iU)(\hat{n}) = \sum _{\ell m}a_{2,lm}{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
\\(Q-iU)(\hat{n}) = \sum _{\ell m}a_{-2,lm}{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
</math><br />
<br />
where <math>{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})</math> are the spin weighted spherical harmonic functions.<br />
The <math>E</math> and <math>B</math> modes can be defined as:<br />
<math><br />
E(\hat{n}) = \sum_{\ell m}a_{E,\ell m}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
\\B(\hat{n}) = \sum_{\ell m}a_{B,\ell m}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
</math><br />
<br />
where the coefficients <math>a_{E,\ell m}</math> and <math>a_{B,\ell m}</math> are derived from linear combinations of the <math>a_{2,\ell m}</math> , <math>a_{-2,\ell m}</math> defined implicitly in the first equation (<math>Q\pm iU</math>).<br />
<br />
[[File:test_gradient.jpg|thumb|center|400px|]]<br />
[[File:test_curl.jpg|thumb|center|400px|'''Figure 2. Error on Planck-LFI 70 GHz <math>EE</math> (top) and <math>BB</math> (bottom) spectra, in case of wrong choice of the coordinate system convention (IAU instead of COSMO).''']]<br />
<br />
The effect of the sign inversion of <math>U</math> on the polarization spectra is a non trivial mixing of <math>E</math> and <math>B</math> modes. <br />
<br />
An example of the typical error on <math>EE</math> and <math>BB</math> auto-spectra in case of a wrong choice of the polarization basis is shown in Figure 2.<br />
<br />
BE CAREFUL about the polarization convention you are using. If the IAU convention is used in computing the power spectra, the sign of the <math>U</math> component of the Planck maps must be inverted before computing <math>E</math> and <math>B</math> modes.<br />
<br />
=== Note on the convention used by the Planck Catalog of Compact Sources (PCCS) ===<br />
For continuity with other compact sources catolgues, the Catalogue of Compact Sources provided by Planck follows the IAU convention, and the polarization angles are defined on an interval of [-90,90] degrees. To switch to the COSMO convention, the polarization angles listed in the catalogue have to be shifted by 90 degrees and multiplied by -1.<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|002]]</div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=Sky_temperature_maps&diff=10633Sky temperature maps2015-01-29T15:36:10Z<p>Amoneti: /* Masks */ cleaning</p>
<hr />
<div>{{DISPLAYTITLE:Sky temperature and polarization maps}}<br />
==General description==<br />
<br />
Sky maps give the best estimate of the intensity and polarization (Stokes Q and U components), if available, of the signal from the sky after removal, as far as possible, of known systematic effects (mostly instrumental, but including also the solar and earth-motion dipole, and the Zodiacal light). Sky maps are provided for the full Planck mission using all valid detectors in each frequency channel, and also for various subsets by splitting the mission in various time ranges or in subsets of the detectors in a given channel. These products are useful for the study of source variability, but they are especially interesting for characterisation purposes (see also the [[HFI-Validation | data validation]] section). The details of the start and end of the time ranges are given in the table below ( [[HFIpreprocessingstatics | this table is out of date - remove it??? where else is it referenced???]]. <br />
<br />
To help in further processing, there are also masks of the Galactic Plane and of point sources, each provided for several different depths.<br />
<br />
All sky maps are in Healpix format, with Nside of 2048, in Galactic coordinates, and Nested ordering. The signal is given in units of K<sub>cmb</sub> for 30-353 GHz, and of MJy/sr (for a constant <math>\nu F_\nu</math> energy distribution ) for 545 and 857 GHz. For each frequency channel, the intensity and polarization maps are packaged into a ''BINTABLE'' extension of a FITS file together with a hit-count map (or hit map, for short, giving the number of observation samples that are cumulated in a pixel, all detectors combined) and with the variance and covariance maps. Additional information is given in the FITS file header. The structure of the FITS file is given in the [[#Format | FITS file structure]] section below. <br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Ranges for mission and surveys'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Range || ODs || rings || pointing-IDs || Comment<br />
|-<br />
|nominal mission || 91 - 563 || 240 - 14723 || 00004200 - 03180200 ||<br />
|-<br />
|full mission || 91 - 974 || 240 - 27005 || 00004200 - 05322620 || for HFI<br />
|-<br />
|full mission || 91 - 993 || 240 - 27641 || 00004200 - 06344800 || for LFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 1 || 91 - 270 || 240 - 5720 || 00004200 - 01059820 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 2 || 270 - 456 || 5721 - 11194 || 01059830 - 02114520 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 3 || 456 - 636 || 11195 - 16691 || 02114530 - 03193660 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 4 || 636 - 807 || 16692 - 21720 || 03193670 - 04243900 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 5 || 807 - 974 || 21721 - 27005 || 05267180 - 05322590 || end of mission for HFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 5 || 807 - 993 || 21721 - 27641 || 05267180 - 06344800 || end of survey for LFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 6 || 993 - 1177 || 27642 - tbd || 06344810 - 06398120 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|Survey 7 || 1177 - 1358 || tbd - tbd || 06398130 - 06456410 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|Survey 8 || 1358 - 1543 || tbd - tbd || 06456420 - 06511160 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|Survey 9 || 1543 - 1604 || tbd - tbd || 06511170 - 06533320 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|HFI mission-half-1 || 91 - 531 || 240 - 13471 || 00004200 - 03155580 ||<br />
|-<br />
|HFI mission-half-2 || 531 - 974 || 13472 - 27005 || 03155590 - 05322590 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 1 || 91 - 456 || 240 - 11194 || 00004200 - 02114520 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 2 || 456 - 807 || 11195 - 21720 || 02114530 - 04243900 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 3 || 807 - 1177 || 21721 - tbd || 05267180 - 06398120 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 4 || 1177 - 1543 || tbd - tbd || 06398130 - 06511160 ||<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
==Production process==<br />
<br />
Sky maps are produced by combining appropriately the data of all working detectors in a frequency channel over some period of the mission. They give the best estimate of the signal from the sky (unpolarised) after removal, as far as possible, of known systematic effects and of the dipole signals induced by the motion of the solar system in the CMB and of the Planck satellite in the solar system. In particular, they include the Zodiacal light emission (Zodi for short) and also the scattering from the far-side lobes of the beams (FSL). More on this below.<br />
<br />
=== HFI processing ===<br />
<br />
The mapmaking and calibration process is described in detail in the [[Map-making_LFI | Map-making]] section and in the [[A08 paper| mapmaking]] paper, where detailed references are found. In brief it consists of:<br />
<br />
; binning the TOI data onto ''rings'' : Healpix rings (HPRs) are used here, each ring containing the combined data of one pointing period. <br />
; flux calibration : at 100-353 GHz, the flux calibration factors are determined by correlating the signal with the orbital dipole, which is determined very accurately from the Planck satellite orbital parameters provided by Flight Dynamics. This provides a single gain factor per bolometer. At 545 and 857 GHz the gain is determined from the observation of Uranus and Neptune (but not Jupiter which is too bright) and comparison to recent models made explicitly for this mission. A single gain is applied to all rings at these frequencies.<br />
; destriping : in order to remove low-frequency noise, an offset per ring is determined by minimizing the differences between HPRs at their crossings, and removed.<br />
; Zodiacal light correction : a Zodiacal light model is used to build HPRs of the the Zodi emission, which is subtracted from the calibrated HPRs.<br />
; projection onto the map : the offset-corrected, flux-calibrated, and Zodi-cleaned HPRs are projected onto Healpix maps, with the data of each bolometer weighted by a factor of 1/NET of that bolometer.<br />
<br />
These steps are followed by some post-processing which is designed to prepare the maps for the component separation work. This post processing consists of: <br />
<br />
; Dust bandpass leakage correction : the Q and U maps are corrected for the dust leakage due to the different bandpasses that is determined using the ''ground'' method as described [[MISSING REF| here]]<br />
; Far Side Lobe calibration correction : the 100-217 maps are multiplied by factors of 1.00087, 1.00046, and 1.00043, respectively, to compensate for the non-removal of the far-side lobes, and similarly the corresponding covariance maps have also been corrected by multiplication by the square of the factor.<br />
; Fill missing pixels : missing pixels are filled in with a value that is the mean of valid pixels within a given radius. A radius of 1 deg is used for the full channel maps, and 1.5 deg is used for the detset maps. This step is not applied to the single survey maps since they have large swaths of the sky that are not covered.<br />
<br />
These maps provide the main mission products. Together with signal maps, hit count, variance, and variance maps are also produced. The hit maps give the (integer) number of valid TOI-level samples that contribute to the signal of each pixel. All valid samples are counted in the same way, i.e., there is no weighting factor applied. The variance maps project the white noise estimate, provided by the NETs, in the sky domain.<br />
<br />
Note that the nominal mission maps have not had the post-processing applied, which makes them more easily comparable to the PR1 products.<br />
<br />
=== LFI processing ===<br />
LFI maps were constructed with the Madam map-making code, version 3.7.4. The code is based on generalized destriping technique, where the correlated noise component is modeled as a sequence of constant offset, called baselines. A noise filter was used to constrain the baseline solution allowing the use of 1 second baselines.<br />
<br />
Radiometers were combined according to the horn-uniform weighting scheme to minimize systematics. The used weights are listed in [[Map-making LFI#Map-making|Map-making]]. The flagged samples were excluded from the analysis by setting their weights to <math>C_{w}^{-1}</math> = 0. The galaxy region was masked out in the destriping phase, to reduce error arising from strong signal gradients. The polarization component was included in the analysis... <br />
<br />
A detailed description of the map-making procedure is given in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p02}} and in section [[Map-making LFI#Map-making|Map-making]].<br />
<br />
==Types of maps ==<br />
<br />
=== Full mission, full channel maps (6 HFI, 3 LFI)===<br />
<br />
Full channel maps are built using all the valid detectors of a frequency channel and cover the either the full or the nominal mission. For HFI, the 143-8 and 545-3 bolometers are rejected entirely as they are seriously affected by RTS noise. For this release, HFI provides the Q and U components for the 353 GHz channel only. LFI provides the I, Q and U maps for all the channels. The I maps are displayed in the figures below. The color range is set using a histogram equalisation scheme (from HEALPIX) that is useful for these non-Gaussian data fields. The Q and U maps are not shown as they look like noise to the naked eye.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=260px heights=160px> <br />
File: SkyMap30e.png| '''Full mission, 30 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap44e.png | '''Full mission, 44 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap70e.png | '''Full mission, 70 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap100e.png | '''Full mission, 100 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap143e.png | '''Full mission, 143 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap217e.png | '''Full mission, 217 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap353e.png | '''Full mission, 353 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap545e.png | '''Full mission, 545 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap857e.png | '''Full mission, 857 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
=== Nominal mission, full channel maps (6 HFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are similar to the ones above, but cover the nominal mission only. They are meant primarily to be compared to the PR1 products in order to see the level of improvements in the processing. Because of this, they are produced in Temperature only, and have not had the post-processing applied.<br />
<br />
=== Single survey, full channel maps (30 HFI, 24 LFI)===<br />
<br />
Single survey maps are built using all valid detectors of a frequency channel; they cover separately the different sky surveys. The surveys are defined as the times over which the satellite spin axis rotates but 180 degrees, which, due to the position of the detectors in the focal plane does not cover the full sky, but a fraction between ~80 and 90% depending on detector position. During adjacent surveys the sky is scanned in opposite directions. More precisely it is the ecliptic equator that is scanned in opposite directions. While these are useful to investigate variable sources, they are also used to study the systematics of the time-response of the detectors as they scan bright sources, like the Galactic Plane, in different directions during different survey. Note that the HFI and LFI missions cover 5 and 9 surveys, respectively, and in both cases the last survey in incomplete.<br />
<br />
=== Year maps, full channel maps (12 HFI, 24 LFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are built using the data of surveys 1+2, surveys 3+4, and so forth. They are used to study long-term systematic effects.<br />
<br />
===Half-mission maps, full channel maps (12 HFI, 6 LFI)===<br />
<br />
For HFI, the half mission is defined after eliminating those rings discarded for all bolometers. There are 347 such rings, may of which are during the 5th survey when the ''End-of-Life'' tests were performed. The remaining 26419 rings are divided in half (up to the odd ring) to define the two halves of the mission. This exercise is done for the full mission only.<br />
<br />
===Full mission, single detector maps (18 HFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are built only for the HFI SWBs (non polarized) and contain only temperature data, of course. They are not built for the polarisation sensitive detectors because they are not fixed on the sky as the polarisation component depends on the position angle at the time of observation. Instead, we provide maps built by ''quads'' of polarisation-sensitive detectors (see next section), which have different polarisation angles and that can be used to built I, Q, and U maps<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=600px<br />
|+ '''HFI Temperature sensitive bolometers'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!Frequency || Detector names<br />
|-<br />
|143 GHz || 143-5, 6, 7<br />
|-<br />
|217 GHz || 217-1, 2, 3, 4<br />
|-<br />
|353 GHz || 353-1, 2, 7, 8<br />
|-<br />
|545 GHz || 545-1, 2, 4<br />
|-<br />
|857 GHz || 857-1, 2 , 3, 4<br />
|}<br />
<br />
The 143-8 and 353-3 bolometer data are affected by strong RTS (random telegraphic signal) noise. They have not been used in the data processing, and are not delivered. For a figure showing the focal plane layout, see [[Detector_pointing#Introduction_and_Summary | this Introduction]] of the Detector Pointing chapter.<br />
<br />
===Full mission, detector set or detector pairs maps (8 HFI, 8 LFI)===<br />
<br />
The objective here is to build independent temperature (I) and polarisation (Q and U) maps with the two pairs of polarisation sensitive detectors of each channel where they are available, i.e. in the 30-353 GHz channels. The table below indicates which detectors were used to built each detector set (detset).<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=600px<br />
|+ '''Definition of HFI Detector Sets'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!Frequency || DetSet1 || DetSet2 <br />
|-<br />
|100 GHz || 100-1a/b & 100-4a/b || 100-2a/b & 100-3a/b<br />
|-<br />
|143 GHz || 143-1a/b 1 & 43-3a/b || 143-2a/b & 143-4a/b<br />
|-<br />
|217 GHz || 217-5a/b & 217-7a/b || 217-6a/b & 217-8a/b<br />
|-<br />
|353 GHz || 353-3a/b & 353-5a/b || 353-4a/b & 353-6a/b<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Half-ring maps (64 HFI, ??? LFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are similar to the ones above, but are built using only the first or the second half of each ring (or pointing period). The HFI provides half-ring maps for the full mission only, and for the full channel, the detsets, and the single bolometers. The LFI .....<br />
<br />
<br />
===Masks===<br />
<br />
Masks are provided of the Galactic Plane and of the point sources. For the Galactic Plane, eight masks are given covering different fractions of the sky, and for the points sources two masks are given, at the 5 and 10 sigma level, for each Planck HFI frequency channel. These are generic masks, specific masks applicable to other products are delivered with the products themselves.<br />
<br />
=== The Zodiacal light correction maps ===<br />
<br />
The Zodiacal light signal depends on the location of the observer relative to the Zodiacal light bands, and thus it is not a fixed pattern on the sky but depends on the period of observation. The maps presented here are the difference between the uncorrected (and not delivered) and the corrected maps. <br />
<br />
<br />
<!---center><br />
<gallery perrow=3 widths=260px heights=170px><br />
File: ZodiRes100.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 100 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes143.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 143 GHz''' <br />
File: ZodiRes217.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 217 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes353.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 353 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes545.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 545 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes857.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 857 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center ---><br />
<br />
=== Caveats and known issues ===<br />
<br />
TBW<br />
<br />
==== Map zero-level ====<br />
<br />
For the 100 to 857 GHz maps, the zero levels are set to their optimal levels for Galactic and CIB studies. A procedure for adjusting them to astrophysical values is given in the HFI Mapmaking and Calibration paper {{PlanckPapers|????}}.<br />
<br />
For the 30, 44 and 70 GHz, maps are corrected for zero level monopole by applying an offset correction, see LFI Calibration paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p02b}} section 3.4 "Setting the zero levels in the maps". Note that the offset applied is indicated in the header as a comment keyword.<br />
<br />
==Inputs==<br />
=== HFI inputs ===<br />
<br />
* The cleaned TOIs of signal of each detector, together with their flags, produced by the [[TOI processing|TOI processing]] pipeline<br />
* The TOIs of pointing (quaternions), described in [[Detector_pointing|Detector pointing]]<br />
* Bolometer-level characterization data, from the DPC's internal IMO (not distributed)<br />
* Planck orbit data used to compute and remove the earth dipole<br />
* WMAP solar dipole information used to calibrate the CMB channels<br />
* Planet models used to calibrate the Galactic channels.<br />
<br />
=== LFI inputs ===<br />
<br />
The Madam map-maker takes as an input:<br />
<br />
* The calibrated timelines (for details see [[TOI processing LFI|TOI Processing]])<br />
* The detector pointings (for details see [[Detector_pointing|Detector pointing]])<br />
* The noise information in the form of three-parameter (white noise level (<math>\sigma</math>), slope, and knee frequency ($f_\mathrm{knee}$)) noise model (for details see [[The RIMO|RIMO]])<br />
<br />
==Related products==<br />
=== Masks ===<br />
<br />
This section presents the masks of the point sources and of the Galactic plane. These are ''general purpose'' masks. Other masks specific to certain products are packaged with the products.<br />
<br />
====Point source masks====<br />
<br />
For HFI, two sets of masks are provided: <br />
* Intensity masks, which removes sources detected with SNR > 5. <br />
* Polarisation masks, which remove sources which have polarisation detection significance of 99.97 % or greater at the position of a source detected in intensity. They were derived from the polarisation maps with dust ground bandpass mismatch leakage correction applied. The cut around each source has a radius of 3σ (width) of the beam ~ 1.27 FWHM.<br />
<br />
Both sets are found in the file ''HFI_Mask_PointSrc_2048_R2.00.fits'' in which the first extension contains the Intensity masks, and the second contains the Polarisation masks.<br />
<br />
====Galactic Plane masks====<br />
<br />
Eight masks are provided giving 20, 40, 60, 70, 80, 90, 97, and 99% sky coverage derived from the 353 GHz map, after CMB subtraction. They are independent of frequency channel. Three versions of these are given: not apodized, and apodized by 2 and 5 deg. The filenames are ''HFI_Mask_GalPlane-apoN_2048_R2.00.fits'', where N = 0, 2, 5.<br />
<br />
The masks are shows below. The 8 GalPlane masks are combined (added together) and shown in a single figure for each of the three apodization. While the result is quite clear for the case of no apodization, it is less so for the apodized case. The point source masks are shown separately for the Intensity case.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery perrow=3 widths=260px heights=160px ><br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo0.png | '''Galactic Plane masks, no apod'''<br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo2.png | '''Galactic Plane masks, apod 2 deg'''<br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo5.png | '''Galactic Plane masks, apod 5 deg'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_100.png | '''PointSource mask 100 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_143.png | '''PointSource mask 143 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_217.png | '''PointSource mask 217 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_353.png | '''PointSource mask 343 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_545.png | '''PointSource mask 545 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_857.png | '''PointSource mask 857 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
== File names ==<br />
The FITS filenames are of the form ''{H|L}FI_SkyMap_fff{-tag}_Nside_R2.nn_{coverage}-{type}.fits'', where ''fff'' are three digits to indicate the Planck frequency band, ''tag'' indicates the single detector or the detset, ''Nside'' is the Healpix Nside of the map, ''coverage'' indicates which part of the mission is covered (full, half mission, survey, year, ...) , and the optional ''type'' indicates the subset of input data used. The table below lists the products by type, with the appropriate unix wildcards that form the full filename.<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align"left" border="1" cellpadding="15" cellspacing="20" width=880px<br />
|+ '''FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Coverage || filename || half-ring filename <br />
|-<br />
| Full chan, full mission ||HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_full.fits ||HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, nominal mission ||HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_nominal.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, single survey || HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_survey-?.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, single year || HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_year-?.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, half mission || HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_halfmission*-?.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Det-set, full mission || HFI_SkyMap_???-ds?_2048_R2.??_full.fits || HFI_SkyMap_???-ds?_2048_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits<br />
|-<br />
|Single SWB, full mission || HFI_SkyMap_???-?_2048_R2.??_full.fits || HFI_SkyMap_???-?_2048_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits<br />
|}<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for the frequency maps with no additional information, we also provide a file combining the 9 frequency maps as separate columns in a single extension. The 9 columns in this file contain the intensity maps ONLY and no other information (hit maps and variance maps) is provided.<br />
<br />
<!---<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align:center" border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" width=500px<br />
|+ '''FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Full channel maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''30GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''44GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Full channel, Zodi-corrected maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}} <br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Combined frequency maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''All''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=file|name=COM_MapSet_I-allFreqs_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=COM_MapSet_I-allFreqs_R1.10_nominal.fits}} <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align:center" border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" width=850px<br />
|+ '''FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Survey 1 maps || Survey 2 maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''30GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''44GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Survey 1 Zodi-corrected maps || Survey 2 Zodi-corrected maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Half-ring 1 maps ||Half-ring 2 maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''30GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''44GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|}<br />
---><br />
<br />
== FITS file structure ==<br />
<br />
The FITS files for the sky maps contain a minimal primary header with no data, and a ''BINTABLE'' extension (EXTENSION 1, EXTNAME = ''FREQ-MAP'') containing the data. The structure is shows schematically in the figure below. The ''FREQ-MAP'' extension contains a 3- or a 10-column table that contain the signal, hit-count and variance maps, all in Healpix format. The 3-column case is for intensity only maps, the 10-column case is for polarisation. The number of rows is the number of map pixels, which is Npix = 12 Nside<sup>2</sup> for Healpix maps, where Nside = 2048 for most the maps presented in this chapter.<br />
<br />
[[File:FITS_FreqMap.png | 550px | center | thumb | '''FITS file structure''']]<br />
<br />
Keywords indicate the coordinate system (GALACTIC), the Healpix ordering scheme (NESTED), the units (K_cmb or MJy/sr) of each column, and of course the frequency channel (FREQ). The COMMENT fields give a one-line summary of the product, and some other information useful for traceability within the DPCs. The original filename is also given in the ''FILENAME'' keyword. The ''BAD_DATA'' keyword gives the value used by Healpix to indicate pixels for which no signal is present (these will also have a hit-count value of 0). The main parameters are summarised below:<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Sky map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb or MJy/sr || The Stokes I map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb or MJy/sr || The Stokes Q map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|U_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb or MJy/sr || The Stokes U map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|HITS || Int*4 || none || The hit-count map<br />
|-<br />
|II_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The II variance map<br />
|-<br />
|IQ_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The IQvariance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|IU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The IQ variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QQ_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The QQ variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The QU variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|UU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The UU variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix Nside <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12 Nside<sup>2</sup> – 1 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ || string || nnn || The frequency channel <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
The same structure applies to all ''SkyMap'' products, independent of whether they are full channel, survey of half-ring. The distinction between the types of maps is present in the FITS filename (and in the traceability comment fields).<br />
<br />
==Polarization convention used in the Planck project==<br />
<br />
The Planck collaboration used the COSMO convention for the polarization angle (as usually used in space based CMB missions), whereas other astronomical fields usually use the IAU convention. In the following document we report the difference between these two conventions, and the consequence if it is NOT taken into account correctly in the analysis.<br />
<br />
[[File:conventions.png|thumb|center|400px|'''Figure 1. COSMO convention (left) and IAU convention (right). The versor <math>\hat{z}</math> points outwards the pointing direction in COSMO, and inwards in IAU. The bottom panel refers to the plane tangent to the sphere.''']]<br />
<br />
Changing the orientation convention is equivalent to a transformation <math>\psi'=\pi-\psi</math> of the polarization angle (Figure 1). The consequence of this transformation is the inversion of the Stokes parameter <math>U</math>.<br />
The components of the polarization tensor in the helicity basis <math>\epsilon^{\pm}=1/\sqrt{2}(\hat{x}\pm i\hat{y})</math> are:<br />
<br />
<math><br />
(Q+iU)(\hat{n}) = \sum _{\ell m}a_{2,lm}{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
\\(Q-iU)(\hat{n}) = \sum _{\ell m}a_{-2,lm}{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
</math><br />
<br />
where <math>{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})</math> are the spin weighted spherical harmonic functions.<br />
The <math>E</math> and <math>B</math> modes can be defined as:<br />
<math><br />
E(\hat{n}) = \sum_{\ell m}a_{E,\ell m}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
\\B(\hat{n}) = \sum_{\ell m}a_{B,\ell m}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
</math><br />
<br />
where the coefficients <math>a_{E,\ell m}</math> and <math>a_{B,\ell m}</math> are derived from linear combinations of the <math>a_{2,\ell m}</math> , <math>a_{-2,\ell m}</math> defined implicitly in the first equation (<math>Q\pm iU</math>).<br />
<br />
[[File:test_gradient.jpg|thumb|center|400px|]]<br />
[[File:test_curl.jpg|thumb|center|400px|'''Figure 2. Error on Planck-LFI 70 GHz <math>EE</math> (top) and <math>BB</math> (bottom) spectra, in case of wrong choice of the coordinate system convention (IAU instead of COSMO).''']]<br />
<br />
The effect of the sign inversion of <math>U</math> on the polarization spectra is a non trivial mixing of <math>E</math> and <math>B</math> modes. <br />
<br />
An example of the typical error on <math>EE</math> and <math>BB</math> auto-spectra in case of a wrong choice of the polarization basis is shown in Figure 2.<br />
<br />
BE CAREFUL about the polarization convention you are using. If the IAU convention is used in computing the power spectra, the sign of the <math>U</math> component of the Planck maps must be inverted before computing <math>E</math> and <math>B</math> modes.<br />
<br />
=== Note on the convention used by the Planck Catalog of Compact Sources (PCCS) ===<br />
For continuity with other compact sources catolgues, the Catalogue of Compact Sources provided by Planck follows the IAU convention, and the polarization angles are defined on an interval of [-90,90] degrees. To switch to the COSMO convention, the polarization angles listed in the catalogue have to be shifted by 90 degrees and multiplied by -1.<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|002]]</div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=Sky_temperature_maps&diff=10632Sky temperature maps2015-01-29T15:34:33Z<p>Amoneti: /* Full mission, single detector maps (18 HFI) */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{DISPLAYTITLE:Sky temperature and polarization maps}}<br />
==General description==<br />
<br />
Sky maps give the best estimate of the intensity and polarization (Stokes Q and U components), if available, of the signal from the sky after removal, as far as possible, of known systematic effects (mostly instrumental, but including also the solar and earth-motion dipole, and the Zodiacal light). Sky maps are provided for the full Planck mission using all valid detectors in each frequency channel, and also for various subsets by splitting the mission in various time ranges or in subsets of the detectors in a given channel. These products are useful for the study of source variability, but they are especially interesting for characterisation purposes (see also the [[HFI-Validation | data validation]] section). The details of the start and end of the time ranges are given in the table below ( [[HFIpreprocessingstatics | this table is out of date - remove it??? where else is it referenced???]]. <br />
<br />
To help in further processing, there are also masks of the Galactic Plane and of point sources, each provided for several different depths.<br />
<br />
All sky maps are in Healpix format, with Nside of 2048, in Galactic coordinates, and Nested ordering. The signal is given in units of K<sub>cmb</sub> for 30-353 GHz, and of MJy/sr (for a constant <math>\nu F_\nu</math> energy distribution ) for 545 and 857 GHz. For each frequency channel, the intensity and polarization maps are packaged into a ''BINTABLE'' extension of a FITS file together with a hit-count map (or hit map, for short, giving the number of observation samples that are cumulated in a pixel, all detectors combined) and with the variance and covariance maps. Additional information is given in the FITS file header. The structure of the FITS file is given in the [[#Format | FITS file structure]] section below. <br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Ranges for mission and surveys'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Range || ODs || rings || pointing-IDs || Comment<br />
|-<br />
|nominal mission || 91 - 563 || 240 - 14723 || 00004200 - 03180200 ||<br />
|-<br />
|full mission || 91 - 974 || 240 - 27005 || 00004200 - 05322620 || for HFI<br />
|-<br />
|full mission || 91 - 993 || 240 - 27641 || 00004200 - 06344800 || for LFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 1 || 91 - 270 || 240 - 5720 || 00004200 - 01059820 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 2 || 270 - 456 || 5721 - 11194 || 01059830 - 02114520 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 3 || 456 - 636 || 11195 - 16691 || 02114530 - 03193660 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 4 || 636 - 807 || 16692 - 21720 || 03193670 - 04243900 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 5 || 807 - 974 || 21721 - 27005 || 05267180 - 05322590 || end of mission for HFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 5 || 807 - 993 || 21721 - 27641 || 05267180 - 06344800 || end of survey for LFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 6 || 993 - 1177 || 27642 - tbd || 06344810 - 06398120 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|Survey 7 || 1177 - 1358 || tbd - tbd || 06398130 - 06456410 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|Survey 8 || 1358 - 1543 || tbd - tbd || 06456420 - 06511160 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|Survey 9 || 1543 - 1604 || tbd - tbd || 06511170 - 06533320 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|HFI mission-half-1 || 91 - 531 || 240 - 13471 || 00004200 - 03155580 ||<br />
|-<br />
|HFI mission-half-2 || 531 - 974 || 13472 - 27005 || 03155590 - 05322590 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 1 || 91 - 456 || 240 - 11194 || 00004200 - 02114520 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 2 || 456 - 807 || 11195 - 21720 || 02114530 - 04243900 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 3 || 807 - 1177 || 21721 - tbd || 05267180 - 06398120 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 4 || 1177 - 1543 || tbd - tbd || 06398130 - 06511160 ||<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
==Production process==<br />
<br />
Sky maps are produced by combining appropriately the data of all working detectors in a frequency channel over some period of the mission. They give the best estimate of the signal from the sky (unpolarised) after removal, as far as possible, of known systematic effects and of the dipole signals induced by the motion of the solar system in the CMB and of the Planck satellite in the solar system. In particular, they include the Zodiacal light emission (Zodi for short) and also the scattering from the far-side lobes of the beams (FSL). More on this below.<br />
<br />
=== HFI processing ===<br />
<br />
The mapmaking and calibration process is described in detail in the [[Map-making_LFI | Map-making]] section and in the [[A08 paper| mapmaking]] paper, where detailed references are found. In brief it consists of:<br />
<br />
; binning the TOI data onto ''rings'' : Healpix rings (HPRs) are used here, each ring containing the combined data of one pointing period. <br />
; flux calibration : at 100-353 GHz, the flux calibration factors are determined by correlating the signal with the orbital dipole, which is determined very accurately from the Planck satellite orbital parameters provided by Flight Dynamics. This provides a single gain factor per bolometer. At 545 and 857 GHz the gain is determined from the observation of Uranus and Neptune (but not Jupiter which is too bright) and comparison to recent models made explicitly for this mission. A single gain is applied to all rings at these frequencies.<br />
; destriping : in order to remove low-frequency noise, an offset per ring is determined by minimizing the differences between HPRs at their crossings, and removed.<br />
; Zodiacal light correction : a Zodiacal light model is used to build HPRs of the the Zodi emission, which is subtracted from the calibrated HPRs.<br />
; projection onto the map : the offset-corrected, flux-calibrated, and Zodi-cleaned HPRs are projected onto Healpix maps, with the data of each bolometer weighted by a factor of 1/NET of that bolometer.<br />
<br />
These steps are followed by some post-processing which is designed to prepare the maps for the component separation work. This post processing consists of: <br />
<br />
; Dust bandpass leakage correction : the Q and U maps are corrected for the dust leakage due to the different bandpasses that is determined using the ''ground'' method as described [[MISSING REF| here]]<br />
; Far Side Lobe calibration correction : the 100-217 maps are multiplied by factors of 1.00087, 1.00046, and 1.00043, respectively, to compensate for the non-removal of the far-side lobes, and similarly the corresponding covariance maps have also been corrected by multiplication by the square of the factor.<br />
; Fill missing pixels : missing pixels are filled in with a value that is the mean of valid pixels within a given radius. A radius of 1 deg is used for the full channel maps, and 1.5 deg is used for the detset maps. This step is not applied to the single survey maps since they have large swaths of the sky that are not covered.<br />
<br />
These maps provide the main mission products. Together with signal maps, hit count, variance, and variance maps are also produced. The hit maps give the (integer) number of valid TOI-level samples that contribute to the signal of each pixel. All valid samples are counted in the same way, i.e., there is no weighting factor applied. The variance maps project the white noise estimate, provided by the NETs, in the sky domain.<br />
<br />
Note that the nominal mission maps have not had the post-processing applied, which makes them more easily comparable to the PR1 products.<br />
<br />
=== LFI processing ===<br />
LFI maps were constructed with the Madam map-making code, version 3.7.4. The code is based on generalized destriping technique, where the correlated noise component is modeled as a sequence of constant offset, called baselines. A noise filter was used to constrain the baseline solution allowing the use of 1 second baselines.<br />
<br />
Radiometers were combined according to the horn-uniform weighting scheme to minimize systematics. The used weights are listed in [[Map-making LFI#Map-making|Map-making]]. The flagged samples were excluded from the analysis by setting their weights to <math>C_{w}^{-1}</math> = 0. The galaxy region was masked out in the destriping phase, to reduce error arising from strong signal gradients. The polarization component was included in the analysis... <br />
<br />
A detailed description of the map-making procedure is given in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p02}} and in section [[Map-making LFI#Map-making|Map-making]].<br />
<br />
==Types of maps ==<br />
<br />
=== Full mission, full channel maps (6 HFI, 3 LFI)===<br />
<br />
Full channel maps are built using all the valid detectors of a frequency channel and cover the either the full or the nominal mission. For HFI, the 143-8 and 545-3 bolometers are rejected entirely as they are seriously affected by RTS noise. For this release, HFI provides the Q and U components for the 353 GHz channel only. LFI provides the I, Q and U maps for all the channels. The I maps are displayed in the figures below. The color range is set using a histogram equalisation scheme (from HEALPIX) that is useful for these non-Gaussian data fields. The Q and U maps are not shown as they look like noise to the naked eye.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=260px heights=160px> <br />
File: SkyMap30e.png| '''Full mission, 30 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap44e.png | '''Full mission, 44 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap70e.png | '''Full mission, 70 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap100e.png | '''Full mission, 100 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap143e.png | '''Full mission, 143 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap217e.png | '''Full mission, 217 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap353e.png | '''Full mission, 353 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap545e.png | '''Full mission, 545 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap857e.png | '''Full mission, 857 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
=== Nominal mission, full channel maps (6 HFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are similar to the ones above, but cover the nominal mission only. They are meant primarily to be compared to the PR1 products in order to see the level of improvements in the processing. Because of this, they are produced in Temperature only, and have not had the post-processing applied.<br />
<br />
=== Single survey, full channel maps (30 HFI, 24 LFI)===<br />
<br />
Single survey maps are built using all valid detectors of a frequency channel; they cover separately the different sky surveys. The surveys are defined as the times over which the satellite spin axis rotates but 180 degrees, which, due to the position of the detectors in the focal plane does not cover the full sky, but a fraction between ~80 and 90% depending on detector position. During adjacent surveys the sky is scanned in opposite directions. More precisely it is the ecliptic equator that is scanned in opposite directions. While these are useful to investigate variable sources, they are also used to study the systematics of the time-response of the detectors as they scan bright sources, like the Galactic Plane, in different directions during different survey. Note that the HFI and LFI missions cover 5 and 9 surveys, respectively, and in both cases the last survey in incomplete.<br />
<br />
=== Year maps, full channel maps (12 HFI, 24 LFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are built using the data of surveys 1+2, surveys 3+4, and so forth. They are used to study long-term systematic effects.<br />
<br />
===Half-mission maps, full channel maps (12 HFI, 6 LFI)===<br />
<br />
For HFI, the half mission is defined after eliminating those rings discarded for all bolometers. There are 347 such rings, may of which are during the 5th survey when the ''End-of-Life'' tests were performed. The remaining 26419 rings are divided in half (up to the odd ring) to define the two halves of the mission. This exercise is done for the full mission only.<br />
<br />
===Full mission, single detector maps (18 HFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are built only for the HFI SWBs (non polarized) and contain only temperature data, of course. They are not built for the polarisation sensitive detectors because they are not fixed on the sky as the polarisation component depends on the position angle at the time of observation. Instead, we provide maps built by ''quads'' of polarisation-sensitive detectors (see next section), which have different polarisation angles and that can be used to built I, Q, and U maps<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=600px<br />
|+ '''HFI Temperature sensitive bolometers'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!Frequency || Detector names<br />
|-<br />
|143 GHz || 143-5, 6, 7<br />
|-<br />
|217 GHz || 217-1, 2, 3, 4<br />
|-<br />
|353 GHz || 353-1, 2, 7, 8<br />
|-<br />
|545 GHz || 545-1, 2, 4<br />
|-<br />
|857 GHz || 857-1, 2 , 3, 4<br />
|}<br />
<br />
The 143-8 and 353-3 bolometer data are affected by strong RTS (random telegraphic signal) noise. They have not been used in the data processing, and are not delivered. For a figure showing the focal plane layout, see [[Detector_pointing#Introduction_and_Summary | this Introduction]] of the Detector Pointing chapter.<br />
<br />
===Full mission, detector set or detector pairs maps (8 HFI, 8 LFI)===<br />
<br />
The objective here is to build independent temperature (I) and polarisation (Q and U) maps with the two pairs of polarisation sensitive detectors of each channel where they are available, i.e. in the 30-353 GHz channels. The table below indicates which detectors were used to built each detector set (detset).<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=600px<br />
|+ '''Definition of HFI Detector Sets'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!Frequency || DetSet1 || DetSet2 <br />
|-<br />
|100 GHz || 100-1a/b & 100-4a/b || 100-2a/b & 100-3a/b<br />
|-<br />
|143 GHz || 143-1a/b 1 & 43-3a/b || 143-2a/b & 143-4a/b<br />
|-<br />
|217 GHz || 217-5a/b & 217-7a/b || 217-6a/b & 217-8a/b<br />
|-<br />
|353 GHz || 353-3a/b & 353-5a/b || 353-4a/b & 353-6a/b<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Half-ring maps (64 HFI, ??? LFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are similar to the ones above, but are built using only the first or the second half of each ring (or pointing period). The HFI provides half-ring maps for the full mission only, and for the full channel, the detsets, and the single bolometers. The LFI .....<br />
<br />
<br />
===Masks===<br />
<br />
Masks are provided of the Galactic Plane and of the point sources. For the Galactic Plane, eight masks are given covering different fractions of the sky, and for the points sources two masks are given, at the 5 and 10 sigma level, for each Planck HFI frequency channel. These are generic masks, specific masks applicable to other products are delivered with the products themselves.<br />
<br />
The table below gives the ranges in terms of ESA pointing-ID, HFI ring number, and OD. The OD ranges are indicative only: they indicate that the given ring occurs during that OD.<br />
<br />
=== The Zodiacal light correction maps ===<br />
<br />
The Zodiacal light signal depends on the location of the observer relative to the Zodiacal light bands, and thus it is not a fixed pattern on the sky but depends on the period of observation. The maps presented here are the difference between the uncorrected (and not delivered) and the corrected maps. <br />
<br />
<br />
<!---center><br />
<gallery perrow=3 widths=260px heights=170px><br />
File: ZodiRes100.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 100 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes143.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 143 GHz''' <br />
File: ZodiRes217.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 217 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes353.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 353 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes545.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 545 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes857.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 857 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center ---><br />
<br />
=== Caveats and known issues ===<br />
<br />
TBW<br />
<br />
==== Map zero-level ====<br />
<br />
For the 100 to 857 GHz maps, the zero levels are set to their optimal levels for Galactic and CIB studies. A procedure for adjusting them to astrophysical values is given in the HFI Mapmaking and Calibration paper {{PlanckPapers|????}}.<br />
<br />
For the 30, 44 and 70 GHz, maps are corrected for zero level monopole by applying an offset correction, see LFI Calibration paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p02b}} section 3.4 "Setting the zero levels in the maps". Note that the offset applied is indicated in the header as a comment keyword.<br />
<br />
==Inputs==<br />
=== HFI inputs ===<br />
<br />
* The cleaned TOIs of signal of each detector, together with their flags, produced by the [[TOI processing|TOI processing]] pipeline<br />
* The TOIs of pointing (quaternions), described in [[Detector_pointing|Detector pointing]]<br />
* Bolometer-level characterization data, from the DPC's internal IMO (not distributed)<br />
* Planck orbit data used to compute and remove the earth dipole<br />
* WMAP solar dipole information used to calibrate the CMB channels<br />
* Planet models used to calibrate the Galactic channels.<br />
<br />
=== LFI inputs ===<br />
<br />
The Madam map-maker takes as an input:<br />
<br />
* The calibrated timelines (for details see [[TOI processing LFI|TOI Processing]])<br />
* The detector pointings (for details see [[Detector_pointing|Detector pointing]])<br />
* The noise information in the form of three-parameter (white noise level (<math>\sigma</math>), slope, and knee frequency ($f_\mathrm{knee}$)) noise model (for details see [[The RIMO|RIMO]])<br />
<br />
==Related products==<br />
=== Masks ===<br />
<br />
This section presents the masks of the point sources and of the Galactic plane. These are ''general purpose'' masks. Other masks specific to certain products are packaged with the products.<br />
<br />
====Point source masks====<br />
<br />
For HFI, two sets of masks are provided: <br />
* Intensity masks, which removes sources detected with SNR > 5. <br />
* Polarisation masks, which remove sources which have polarisation detection significance of 99.97 % or greater at the position of a source detected in intensity. They were derived from the polarisation maps with dust ground bandpass mismatch leakage correction applied. The cut around each source has a radius of 3σ (width) of the beam ~ 1.27 FWHM.<br />
<br />
Both sets are found in the file ''HFI_Mask_PointSrc_2048_R2.00.fits'' in which the first extension contains the Intensity masks, and the second contains the Polarisation masks.<br />
<br />
====Galactic Plane masks====<br />
<br />
Eight masks are provided giving 20, 40, 60, 70, 80, 90, 97, and 99% sky coverage derived from the 353 GHz map, after CMB subtraction. They are independent of frequency channel. Three versions of these are given: not apodized, and apodized by 2 and 5 deg. The filenames are ''HFI_Mask_GalPlane-apoN_2048_R2.00.fits'', where N = 0, 2, 5.<br />
<br />
The masks are shows below. The 8 GalPlane masks are combined (added together) and shown in a single figure for each of the three apodization. While the result is quite clear for the case of no apodization, it is less so for the apodized case. The point source masks are shown separately for the Intensity case.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery perrow=3 widths=260px heights=160px ><br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo0.png | '''Galactic Plane masks, no apod'''<br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo2.png | '''Galactic Plane masks, apod 2 deg'''<br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo5.png | '''Galactic Plane masks, apod 5 deg'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_100.png | '''PointSource mask 100 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_143.png | '''PointSource mask 143 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_217.png | '''PointSource mask 217 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_353.png | '''PointSource mask 343 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_545.png | '''PointSource mask 545 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_857.png | '''PointSource mask 857 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
== File names ==<br />
The FITS filenames are of the form ''{H|L}FI_SkyMap_fff{-tag}_Nside_R2.nn_{coverage}-{type}.fits'', where ''fff'' are three digits to indicate the Planck frequency band, ''tag'' indicates the single detector or the detset, ''Nside'' is the Healpix Nside of the map, ''coverage'' indicates which part of the mission is covered (full, half mission, survey, year, ...) , and the optional ''type'' indicates the subset of input data used. The table below lists the products by type, with the appropriate unix wildcards that form the full filename.<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align"left" border="1" cellpadding="15" cellspacing="20" width=880px<br />
|+ '''FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Coverage || filename || half-ring filename <br />
|-<br />
| Full chan, full mission ||HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_full.fits ||HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, nominal mission ||HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_nominal.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, single survey || HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_survey-?.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, single year || HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_year-?.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, half mission || HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_halfmission*-?.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Det-set, full mission || HFI_SkyMap_???-ds?_2048_R2.??_full.fits || HFI_SkyMap_???-ds?_2048_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits<br />
|-<br />
|Single SWB, full mission || HFI_SkyMap_???-?_2048_R2.??_full.fits || HFI_SkyMap_???-?_2048_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits<br />
|}<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for the frequency maps with no additional information, we also provide a file combining the 9 frequency maps as separate columns in a single extension. The 9 columns in this file contain the intensity maps ONLY and no other information (hit maps and variance maps) is provided.<br />
<br />
<!---<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align:center" border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" width=500px<br />
|+ '''FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Full channel maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''30GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''44GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Full channel, Zodi-corrected maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}} <br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Combined frequency maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''All''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=file|name=COM_MapSet_I-allFreqs_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=COM_MapSet_I-allFreqs_R1.10_nominal.fits}} <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align:center" border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" width=850px<br />
|+ '''FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Survey 1 maps || Survey 2 maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''30GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''44GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Survey 1 Zodi-corrected maps || Survey 2 Zodi-corrected maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Half-ring 1 maps ||Half-ring 2 maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''30GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''44GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|}<br />
---><br />
<br />
== FITS file structure ==<br />
<br />
The FITS files for the sky maps contain a minimal primary header with no data, and a ''BINTABLE'' extension (EXTENSION 1, EXTNAME = ''FREQ-MAP'') containing the data. The structure is shows schematically in the figure below. The ''FREQ-MAP'' extension contains a 3- or a 10-column table that contain the signal, hit-count and variance maps, all in Healpix format. The 3-column case is for intensity only maps, the 10-column case is for polarisation. The number of rows is the number of map pixels, which is Npix = 12 Nside<sup>2</sup> for Healpix maps, where Nside = 2048 for most the maps presented in this chapter.<br />
<br />
[[File:FITS_FreqMap.png | 550px | center | thumb | '''FITS file structure''']]<br />
<br />
Keywords indicate the coordinate system (GALACTIC), the Healpix ordering scheme (NESTED), the units (K_cmb or MJy/sr) of each column, and of course the frequency channel (FREQ). The COMMENT fields give a one-line summary of the product, and some other information useful for traceability within the DPCs. The original filename is also given in the ''FILENAME'' keyword. The ''BAD_DATA'' keyword gives the value used by Healpix to indicate pixels for which no signal is present (these will also have a hit-count value of 0). The main parameters are summarised below:<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Sky map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb or MJy/sr || The Stokes I map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb or MJy/sr || The Stokes Q map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|U_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb or MJy/sr || The Stokes U map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|HITS || Int*4 || none || The hit-count map<br />
|-<br />
|II_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The II variance map<br />
|-<br />
|IQ_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The IQvariance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|IU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The IQ variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QQ_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The QQ variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The QU variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|UU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The UU variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix Nside <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12 Nside<sup>2</sup> – 1 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ || string || nnn || The frequency channel <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
The same structure applies to all ''SkyMap'' products, independent of whether they are full channel, survey of half-ring. The distinction between the types of maps is present in the FITS filename (and in the traceability comment fields).<br />
<br />
==Polarization convention used in the Planck project==<br />
<br />
The Planck collaboration used the COSMO convention for the polarization angle (as usually used in space based CMB missions), whereas other astronomical fields usually use the IAU convention. In the following document we report the difference between these two conventions, and the consequence if it is NOT taken into account correctly in the analysis.<br />
<br />
[[File:conventions.png|thumb|center|400px|'''Figure 1. COSMO convention (left) and IAU convention (right). The versor <math>\hat{z}</math> points outwards the pointing direction in COSMO, and inwards in IAU. The bottom panel refers to the plane tangent to the sphere.''']]<br />
<br />
Changing the orientation convention is equivalent to a transformation <math>\psi'=\pi-\psi</math> of the polarization angle (Figure 1). The consequence of this transformation is the inversion of the Stokes parameter <math>U</math>.<br />
The components of the polarization tensor in the helicity basis <math>\epsilon^{\pm}=1/\sqrt{2}(\hat{x}\pm i\hat{y})</math> are:<br />
<br />
<math><br />
(Q+iU)(\hat{n}) = \sum _{\ell m}a_{2,lm}{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
\\(Q-iU)(\hat{n}) = \sum _{\ell m}a_{-2,lm}{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
</math><br />
<br />
where <math>{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})</math> are the spin weighted spherical harmonic functions.<br />
The <math>E</math> and <math>B</math> modes can be defined as:<br />
<math><br />
E(\hat{n}) = \sum_{\ell m}a_{E,\ell m}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
\\B(\hat{n}) = \sum_{\ell m}a_{B,\ell m}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
</math><br />
<br />
where the coefficients <math>a_{E,\ell m}</math> and <math>a_{B,\ell m}</math> are derived from linear combinations of the <math>a_{2,\ell m}</math> , <math>a_{-2,\ell m}</math> defined implicitly in the first equation (<math>Q\pm iU</math>).<br />
<br />
[[File:test_gradient.jpg|thumb|center|400px|]]<br />
[[File:test_curl.jpg|thumb|center|400px|'''Figure 2. Error on Planck-LFI 70 GHz <math>EE</math> (top) and <math>BB</math> (bottom) spectra, in case of wrong choice of the coordinate system convention (IAU instead of COSMO).''']]<br />
<br />
The effect of the sign inversion of <math>U</math> on the polarization spectra is a non trivial mixing of <math>E</math> and <math>B</math> modes. <br />
<br />
An example of the typical error on <math>EE</math> and <math>BB</math> auto-spectra in case of a wrong choice of the polarization basis is shown in Figure 2.<br />
<br />
BE CAREFUL about the polarization convention you are using. If the IAU convention is used in computing the power spectra, the sign of the <math>U</math> component of the Planck maps must be inverted before computing <math>E</math> and <math>B</math> modes.<br />
<br />
=== Note on the convention used by the Planck Catalog of Compact Sources (PCCS) ===<br />
For continuity with other compact sources catolgues, the Catalogue of Compact Sources provided by Planck follows the IAU convention, and the polarization angles are defined on an interval of [-90,90] degrees. To switch to the COSMO convention, the polarization angles listed in the catalogue have to be shifted by 90 degrees and multiplied by -1.<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|002]]</div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=Sky_temperature_maps&diff=10631Sky temperature maps2015-01-29T15:33:59Z<p>Amoneti: /* Full mission, detector set or detector pairs maps (8 HFI, 8 LFI) */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{DISPLAYTITLE:Sky temperature and polarization maps}}<br />
==General description==<br />
<br />
Sky maps give the best estimate of the intensity and polarization (Stokes Q and U components), if available, of the signal from the sky after removal, as far as possible, of known systematic effects (mostly instrumental, but including also the solar and earth-motion dipole, and the Zodiacal light). Sky maps are provided for the full Planck mission using all valid detectors in each frequency channel, and also for various subsets by splitting the mission in various time ranges or in subsets of the detectors in a given channel. These products are useful for the study of source variability, but they are especially interesting for characterisation purposes (see also the [[HFI-Validation | data validation]] section). The details of the start and end of the time ranges are given in the table below ( [[HFIpreprocessingstatics | this table is out of date - remove it??? where else is it referenced???]]. <br />
<br />
To help in further processing, there are also masks of the Galactic Plane and of point sources, each provided for several different depths.<br />
<br />
All sky maps are in Healpix format, with Nside of 2048, in Galactic coordinates, and Nested ordering. The signal is given in units of K<sub>cmb</sub> for 30-353 GHz, and of MJy/sr (for a constant <math>\nu F_\nu</math> energy distribution ) for 545 and 857 GHz. For each frequency channel, the intensity and polarization maps are packaged into a ''BINTABLE'' extension of a FITS file together with a hit-count map (or hit map, for short, giving the number of observation samples that are cumulated in a pixel, all detectors combined) and with the variance and covariance maps. Additional information is given in the FITS file header. The structure of the FITS file is given in the [[#Format | FITS file structure]] section below. <br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Ranges for mission and surveys'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Range || ODs || rings || pointing-IDs || Comment<br />
|-<br />
|nominal mission || 91 - 563 || 240 - 14723 || 00004200 - 03180200 ||<br />
|-<br />
|full mission || 91 - 974 || 240 - 27005 || 00004200 - 05322620 || for HFI<br />
|-<br />
|full mission || 91 - 993 || 240 - 27641 || 00004200 - 06344800 || for LFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 1 || 91 - 270 || 240 - 5720 || 00004200 - 01059820 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 2 || 270 - 456 || 5721 - 11194 || 01059830 - 02114520 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 3 || 456 - 636 || 11195 - 16691 || 02114530 - 03193660 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 4 || 636 - 807 || 16692 - 21720 || 03193670 - 04243900 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 5 || 807 - 974 || 21721 - 27005 || 05267180 - 05322590 || end of mission for HFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 5 || 807 - 993 || 21721 - 27641 || 05267180 - 06344800 || end of survey for LFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 6 || 993 - 1177 || 27642 - tbd || 06344810 - 06398120 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|Survey 7 || 1177 - 1358 || tbd - tbd || 06398130 - 06456410 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|Survey 8 || 1358 - 1543 || tbd - tbd || 06456420 - 06511160 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|Survey 9 || 1543 - 1604 || tbd - tbd || 06511170 - 06533320 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|HFI mission-half-1 || 91 - 531 || 240 - 13471 || 00004200 - 03155580 ||<br />
|-<br />
|HFI mission-half-2 || 531 - 974 || 13472 - 27005 || 03155590 - 05322590 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 1 || 91 - 456 || 240 - 11194 || 00004200 - 02114520 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 2 || 456 - 807 || 11195 - 21720 || 02114530 - 04243900 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 3 || 807 - 1177 || 21721 - tbd || 05267180 - 06398120 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 4 || 1177 - 1543 || tbd - tbd || 06398130 - 06511160 ||<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
==Production process==<br />
<br />
Sky maps are produced by combining appropriately the data of all working detectors in a frequency channel over some period of the mission. They give the best estimate of the signal from the sky (unpolarised) after removal, as far as possible, of known systematic effects and of the dipole signals induced by the motion of the solar system in the CMB and of the Planck satellite in the solar system. In particular, they include the Zodiacal light emission (Zodi for short) and also the scattering from the far-side lobes of the beams (FSL). More on this below.<br />
<br />
=== HFI processing ===<br />
<br />
The mapmaking and calibration process is described in detail in the [[Map-making_LFI | Map-making]] section and in the [[A08 paper| mapmaking]] paper, where detailed references are found. In brief it consists of:<br />
<br />
; binning the TOI data onto ''rings'' : Healpix rings (HPRs) are used here, each ring containing the combined data of one pointing period. <br />
; flux calibration : at 100-353 GHz, the flux calibration factors are determined by correlating the signal with the orbital dipole, which is determined very accurately from the Planck satellite orbital parameters provided by Flight Dynamics. This provides a single gain factor per bolometer. At 545 and 857 GHz the gain is determined from the observation of Uranus and Neptune (but not Jupiter which is too bright) and comparison to recent models made explicitly for this mission. A single gain is applied to all rings at these frequencies.<br />
; destriping : in order to remove low-frequency noise, an offset per ring is determined by minimizing the differences between HPRs at their crossings, and removed.<br />
; Zodiacal light correction : a Zodiacal light model is used to build HPRs of the the Zodi emission, which is subtracted from the calibrated HPRs.<br />
; projection onto the map : the offset-corrected, flux-calibrated, and Zodi-cleaned HPRs are projected onto Healpix maps, with the data of each bolometer weighted by a factor of 1/NET of that bolometer.<br />
<br />
These steps are followed by some post-processing which is designed to prepare the maps for the component separation work. This post processing consists of: <br />
<br />
; Dust bandpass leakage correction : the Q and U maps are corrected for the dust leakage due to the different bandpasses that is determined using the ''ground'' method as described [[MISSING REF| here]]<br />
; Far Side Lobe calibration correction : the 100-217 maps are multiplied by factors of 1.00087, 1.00046, and 1.00043, respectively, to compensate for the non-removal of the far-side lobes, and similarly the corresponding covariance maps have also been corrected by multiplication by the square of the factor.<br />
; Fill missing pixels : missing pixels are filled in with a value that is the mean of valid pixels within a given radius. A radius of 1 deg is used for the full channel maps, and 1.5 deg is used for the detset maps. This step is not applied to the single survey maps since they have large swaths of the sky that are not covered.<br />
<br />
These maps provide the main mission products. Together with signal maps, hit count, variance, and variance maps are also produced. The hit maps give the (integer) number of valid TOI-level samples that contribute to the signal of each pixel. All valid samples are counted in the same way, i.e., there is no weighting factor applied. The variance maps project the white noise estimate, provided by the NETs, in the sky domain.<br />
<br />
Note that the nominal mission maps have not had the post-processing applied, which makes them more easily comparable to the PR1 products.<br />
<br />
=== LFI processing ===<br />
LFI maps were constructed with the Madam map-making code, version 3.7.4. The code is based on generalized destriping technique, where the correlated noise component is modeled as a sequence of constant offset, called baselines. A noise filter was used to constrain the baseline solution allowing the use of 1 second baselines.<br />
<br />
Radiometers were combined according to the horn-uniform weighting scheme to minimize systematics. The used weights are listed in [[Map-making LFI#Map-making|Map-making]]. The flagged samples were excluded from the analysis by setting their weights to <math>C_{w}^{-1}</math> = 0. The galaxy region was masked out in the destriping phase, to reduce error arising from strong signal gradients. The polarization component was included in the analysis... <br />
<br />
A detailed description of the map-making procedure is given in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p02}} and in section [[Map-making LFI#Map-making|Map-making]].<br />
<br />
==Types of maps ==<br />
<br />
=== Full mission, full channel maps (6 HFI, 3 LFI)===<br />
<br />
Full channel maps are built using all the valid detectors of a frequency channel and cover the either the full or the nominal mission. For HFI, the 143-8 and 545-3 bolometers are rejected entirely as they are seriously affected by RTS noise. For this release, HFI provides the Q and U components for the 353 GHz channel only. LFI provides the I, Q and U maps for all the channels. The I maps are displayed in the figures below. The color range is set using a histogram equalisation scheme (from HEALPIX) that is useful for these non-Gaussian data fields. The Q and U maps are not shown as they look like noise to the naked eye.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=260px heights=160px> <br />
File: SkyMap30e.png| '''Full mission, 30 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap44e.png | '''Full mission, 44 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap70e.png | '''Full mission, 70 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap100e.png | '''Full mission, 100 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap143e.png | '''Full mission, 143 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap217e.png | '''Full mission, 217 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap353e.png | '''Full mission, 353 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap545e.png | '''Full mission, 545 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap857e.png | '''Full mission, 857 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
=== Nominal mission, full channel maps (6 HFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are similar to the ones above, but cover the nominal mission only. They are meant primarily to be compared to the PR1 products in order to see the level of improvements in the processing. Because of this, they are produced in Temperature only, and have not had the post-processing applied.<br />
<br />
=== Single survey, full channel maps (30 HFI, 24 LFI)===<br />
<br />
Single survey maps are built using all valid detectors of a frequency channel; they cover separately the different sky surveys. The surveys are defined as the times over which the satellite spin axis rotates but 180 degrees, which, due to the position of the detectors in the focal plane does not cover the full sky, but a fraction between ~80 and 90% depending on detector position. During adjacent surveys the sky is scanned in opposite directions. More precisely it is the ecliptic equator that is scanned in opposite directions. While these are useful to investigate variable sources, they are also used to study the systematics of the time-response of the detectors as they scan bright sources, like the Galactic Plane, in different directions during different survey. Note that the HFI and LFI missions cover 5 and 9 surveys, respectively, and in both cases the last survey in incomplete.<br />
<br />
=== Year maps, full channel maps (12 HFI, 24 LFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are built using the data of surveys 1+2, surveys 3+4, and so forth. They are used to study long-term systematic effects.<br />
<br />
===Half-mission maps, full channel maps (12 HFI, 6 LFI)===<br />
<br />
For HFI, the half mission is defined after eliminating those rings discarded for all bolometers. There are 347 such rings, may of which are during the 5th survey when the ''End-of-Life'' tests were performed. The remaining 26419 rings are divided in half (up to the odd ring) to define the two halves of the mission. This exercise is done for the full mission only.<br />
<br />
===Full mission, single detector maps (18 HFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are built only for the HFI SWBs (non polarized) and contain only temperature data, of course. They are not built for the polarisation sensitive detectors because they are not fixed on the sky as the polarisation component depends on the position angle at the time of observation. Instead, we provide maps built by ''quads'' of polarisation-sensitive detectors (see next section), which have different polarisation angles and that can be used to built I, Q, and U maps<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=600px<br />
|+ '''HFI Temperature sensitive bolometers'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!Frequency || Detector names<br />
|-<br />
|143 GHz || 143-5, 6, 7<br />
|-<br />
|217 GHz || 217-1, 2, 3, 4<br />
|-<br />
|353 GHz || 353-1, 2, 7, 8<br />
|-<br />
|545 GHz || 545-1, 2, 4<br />
|-<br />
|857 GHz || 857-1,2 , 3, 4<br />
|}<br />
<br />
The 143-8 and 353-3 bolometer data are affected by strong RTS (random telegraphic signal) noise. They have not been used in the data processing, and are not delivered. For a figure showing the focal plane layout, see [[Detector_pointing#Introduction_and_Summary | this Introduction]] of the Detector Pointing chapter.<br />
<br />
<br />
===Full mission, detector set or detector pairs maps (8 HFI, 8 LFI)===<br />
<br />
The objective here is to build independent temperature (I) and polarisation (Q and U) maps with the two pairs of polarisation sensitive detectors of each channel where they are available, i.e. in the 30-353 GHz channels. The table below indicates which detectors were used to built each detector set (detset).<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=600px<br />
|+ '''Definition of HFI Detector Sets'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!Frequency || DetSet1 || DetSet2 <br />
|-<br />
|100 GHz || 100-1a/b & 100-4a/b || 100-2a/b & 100-3a/b<br />
|-<br />
|143 GHz || 143-1a/b 1 & 43-3a/b || 143-2a/b & 143-4a/b<br />
|-<br />
|217 GHz || 217-5a/b & 217-7a/b || 217-6a/b & 217-8a/b<br />
|-<br />
|353 GHz || 353-3a/b & 353-5a/b || 353-4a/b & 353-6a/b<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Half-ring maps (64 HFI, ??? LFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are similar to the ones above, but are built using only the first or the second half of each ring (or pointing period). The HFI provides half-ring maps for the full mission only, and for the full channel, the detsets, and the single bolometers. The LFI .....<br />
<br />
<br />
===Masks===<br />
<br />
Masks are provided of the Galactic Plane and of the point sources. For the Galactic Plane, eight masks are given covering different fractions of the sky, and for the points sources two masks are given, at the 5 and 10 sigma level, for each Planck HFI frequency channel. These are generic masks, specific masks applicable to other products are delivered with the products themselves.<br />
<br />
The table below gives the ranges in terms of ESA pointing-ID, HFI ring number, and OD. The OD ranges are indicative only: they indicate that the given ring occurs during that OD.<br />
<br />
=== The Zodiacal light correction maps ===<br />
<br />
The Zodiacal light signal depends on the location of the observer relative to the Zodiacal light bands, and thus it is not a fixed pattern on the sky but depends on the period of observation. The maps presented here are the difference between the uncorrected (and not delivered) and the corrected maps. <br />
<br />
<br />
<!---center><br />
<gallery perrow=3 widths=260px heights=170px><br />
File: ZodiRes100.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 100 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes143.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 143 GHz''' <br />
File: ZodiRes217.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 217 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes353.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 353 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes545.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 545 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes857.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 857 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center ---><br />
<br />
=== Caveats and known issues ===<br />
<br />
TBW<br />
<br />
==== Map zero-level ====<br />
<br />
For the 100 to 857 GHz maps, the zero levels are set to their optimal levels for Galactic and CIB studies. A procedure for adjusting them to astrophysical values is given in the HFI Mapmaking and Calibration paper {{PlanckPapers|????}}.<br />
<br />
For the 30, 44 and 70 GHz, maps are corrected for zero level monopole by applying an offset correction, see LFI Calibration paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p02b}} section 3.4 "Setting the zero levels in the maps". Note that the offset applied is indicated in the header as a comment keyword.<br />
<br />
==Inputs==<br />
=== HFI inputs ===<br />
<br />
* The cleaned TOIs of signal of each detector, together with their flags, produced by the [[TOI processing|TOI processing]] pipeline<br />
* The TOIs of pointing (quaternions), described in [[Detector_pointing|Detector pointing]]<br />
* Bolometer-level characterization data, from the DPC's internal IMO (not distributed)<br />
* Planck orbit data used to compute and remove the earth dipole<br />
* WMAP solar dipole information used to calibrate the CMB channels<br />
* Planet models used to calibrate the Galactic channels.<br />
<br />
=== LFI inputs ===<br />
<br />
The Madam map-maker takes as an input:<br />
<br />
* The calibrated timelines (for details see [[TOI processing LFI|TOI Processing]])<br />
* The detector pointings (for details see [[Detector_pointing|Detector pointing]])<br />
* The noise information in the form of three-parameter (white noise level (<math>\sigma</math>), slope, and knee frequency ($f_\mathrm{knee}$)) noise model (for details see [[The RIMO|RIMO]])<br />
<br />
==Related products==<br />
=== Masks ===<br />
<br />
This section presents the masks of the point sources and of the Galactic plane. These are ''general purpose'' masks. Other masks specific to certain products are packaged with the products.<br />
<br />
====Point source masks====<br />
<br />
For HFI, two sets of masks are provided: <br />
* Intensity masks, which removes sources detected with SNR > 5. <br />
* Polarisation masks, which remove sources which have polarisation detection significance of 99.97 % or greater at the position of a source detected in intensity. They were derived from the polarisation maps with dust ground bandpass mismatch leakage correction applied. The cut around each source has a radius of 3σ (width) of the beam ~ 1.27 FWHM.<br />
<br />
Both sets are found in the file ''HFI_Mask_PointSrc_2048_R2.00.fits'' in which the first extension contains the Intensity masks, and the second contains the Polarisation masks.<br />
<br />
====Galactic Plane masks====<br />
<br />
Eight masks are provided giving 20, 40, 60, 70, 80, 90, 97, and 99% sky coverage derived from the 353 GHz map, after CMB subtraction. They are independent of frequency channel. Three versions of these are given: not apodized, and apodized by 2 and 5 deg. The filenames are ''HFI_Mask_GalPlane-apoN_2048_R2.00.fits'', where N = 0, 2, 5.<br />
<br />
The masks are shows below. The 8 GalPlane masks are combined (added together) and shown in a single figure for each of the three apodization. While the result is quite clear for the case of no apodization, it is less so for the apodized case. The point source masks are shown separately for the Intensity case.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery perrow=3 widths=260px heights=160px ><br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo0.png | '''Galactic Plane masks, no apod'''<br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo2.png | '''Galactic Plane masks, apod 2 deg'''<br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo5.png | '''Galactic Plane masks, apod 5 deg'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_100.png | '''PointSource mask 100 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_143.png | '''PointSource mask 143 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_217.png | '''PointSource mask 217 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_353.png | '''PointSource mask 343 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_545.png | '''PointSource mask 545 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_857.png | '''PointSource mask 857 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
== File names ==<br />
The FITS filenames are of the form ''{H|L}FI_SkyMap_fff{-tag}_Nside_R2.nn_{coverage}-{type}.fits'', where ''fff'' are three digits to indicate the Planck frequency band, ''tag'' indicates the single detector or the detset, ''Nside'' is the Healpix Nside of the map, ''coverage'' indicates which part of the mission is covered (full, half mission, survey, year, ...) , and the optional ''type'' indicates the subset of input data used. The table below lists the products by type, with the appropriate unix wildcards that form the full filename.<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align"left" border="1" cellpadding="15" cellspacing="20" width=880px<br />
|+ '''FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Coverage || filename || half-ring filename <br />
|-<br />
| Full chan, full mission ||HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_full.fits ||HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, nominal mission ||HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_nominal.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, single survey || HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_survey-?.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, single year || HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_year-?.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, half mission || HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_halfmission*-?.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Det-set, full mission || HFI_SkyMap_???-ds?_2048_R2.??_full.fits || HFI_SkyMap_???-ds?_2048_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits<br />
|-<br />
|Single SWB, full mission || HFI_SkyMap_???-?_2048_R2.??_full.fits || HFI_SkyMap_???-?_2048_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits<br />
|}<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for the frequency maps with no additional information, we also provide a file combining the 9 frequency maps as separate columns in a single extension. The 9 columns in this file contain the intensity maps ONLY and no other information (hit maps and variance maps) is provided.<br />
<br />
<!---<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align:center" border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" width=500px<br />
|+ '''FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Full channel maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''30GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''44GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Full channel, Zodi-corrected maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}} <br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Combined frequency maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''All''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=file|name=COM_MapSet_I-allFreqs_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=COM_MapSet_I-allFreqs_R1.10_nominal.fits}} <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align:center" border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" width=850px<br />
|+ '''FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Survey 1 maps || Survey 2 maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''30GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''44GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Survey 1 Zodi-corrected maps || Survey 2 Zodi-corrected maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Half-ring 1 maps ||Half-ring 2 maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''30GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''44GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|}<br />
---><br />
<br />
== FITS file structure ==<br />
<br />
The FITS files for the sky maps contain a minimal primary header with no data, and a ''BINTABLE'' extension (EXTENSION 1, EXTNAME = ''FREQ-MAP'') containing the data. The structure is shows schematically in the figure below. The ''FREQ-MAP'' extension contains a 3- or a 10-column table that contain the signal, hit-count and variance maps, all in Healpix format. The 3-column case is for intensity only maps, the 10-column case is for polarisation. The number of rows is the number of map pixels, which is Npix = 12 Nside<sup>2</sup> for Healpix maps, where Nside = 2048 for most the maps presented in this chapter.<br />
<br />
[[File:FITS_FreqMap.png | 550px | center | thumb | '''FITS file structure''']]<br />
<br />
Keywords indicate the coordinate system (GALACTIC), the Healpix ordering scheme (NESTED), the units (K_cmb or MJy/sr) of each column, and of course the frequency channel (FREQ). The COMMENT fields give a one-line summary of the product, and some other information useful for traceability within the DPCs. The original filename is also given in the ''FILENAME'' keyword. The ''BAD_DATA'' keyword gives the value used by Healpix to indicate pixels for which no signal is present (these will also have a hit-count value of 0). The main parameters are summarised below:<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Sky map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb or MJy/sr || The Stokes I map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb or MJy/sr || The Stokes Q map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|U_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb or MJy/sr || The Stokes U map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|HITS || Int*4 || none || The hit-count map<br />
|-<br />
|II_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The II variance map<br />
|-<br />
|IQ_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The IQvariance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|IU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The IQ variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QQ_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The QQ variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The QU variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|UU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The UU variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix Nside <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12 Nside<sup>2</sup> – 1 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ || string || nnn || The frequency channel <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
The same structure applies to all ''SkyMap'' products, independent of whether they are full channel, survey of half-ring. The distinction between the types of maps is present in the FITS filename (and in the traceability comment fields).<br />
<br />
==Polarization convention used in the Planck project==<br />
<br />
The Planck collaboration used the COSMO convention for the polarization angle (as usually used in space based CMB missions), whereas other astronomical fields usually use the IAU convention. In the following document we report the difference between these two conventions, and the consequence if it is NOT taken into account correctly in the analysis.<br />
<br />
[[File:conventions.png|thumb|center|400px|'''Figure 1. COSMO convention (left) and IAU convention (right). The versor <math>\hat{z}</math> points outwards the pointing direction in COSMO, and inwards in IAU. The bottom panel refers to the plane tangent to the sphere.''']]<br />
<br />
Changing the orientation convention is equivalent to a transformation <math>\psi'=\pi-\psi</math> of the polarization angle (Figure 1). The consequence of this transformation is the inversion of the Stokes parameter <math>U</math>.<br />
The components of the polarization tensor in the helicity basis <math>\epsilon^{\pm}=1/\sqrt{2}(\hat{x}\pm i\hat{y})</math> are:<br />
<br />
<math><br />
(Q+iU)(\hat{n}) = \sum _{\ell m}a_{2,lm}{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
\\(Q-iU)(\hat{n}) = \sum _{\ell m}a_{-2,lm}{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
</math><br />
<br />
where <math>{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})</math> are the spin weighted spherical harmonic functions.<br />
The <math>E</math> and <math>B</math> modes can be defined as:<br />
<math><br />
E(\hat{n}) = \sum_{\ell m}a_{E,\ell m}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
\\B(\hat{n}) = \sum_{\ell m}a_{B,\ell m}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
</math><br />
<br />
where the coefficients <math>a_{E,\ell m}</math> and <math>a_{B,\ell m}</math> are derived from linear combinations of the <math>a_{2,\ell m}</math> , <math>a_{-2,\ell m}</math> defined implicitly in the first equation (<math>Q\pm iU</math>).<br />
<br />
[[File:test_gradient.jpg|thumb|center|400px|]]<br />
[[File:test_curl.jpg|thumb|center|400px|'''Figure 2. Error on Planck-LFI 70 GHz <math>EE</math> (top) and <math>BB</math> (bottom) spectra, in case of wrong choice of the coordinate system convention (IAU instead of COSMO).''']]<br />
<br />
The effect of the sign inversion of <math>U</math> on the polarization spectra is a non trivial mixing of <math>E</math> and <math>B</math> modes. <br />
<br />
An example of the typical error on <math>EE</math> and <math>BB</math> auto-spectra in case of a wrong choice of the polarization basis is shown in Figure 2.<br />
<br />
BE CAREFUL about the polarization convention you are using. If the IAU convention is used in computing the power spectra, the sign of the <math>U</math> component of the Planck maps must be inverted before computing <math>E</math> and <math>B</math> modes.<br />
<br />
=== Note on the convention used by the Planck Catalog of Compact Sources (PCCS) ===<br />
For continuity with other compact sources catolgues, the Catalogue of Compact Sources provided by Planck follows the IAU convention, and the polarization angles are defined on an interval of [-90,90] degrees. To switch to the COSMO convention, the polarization angles listed in the catalogue have to be shifted by 90 degrees and multiplied by -1.<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|002]]</div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=Sky_temperature_maps&diff=10630Sky temperature maps2015-01-29T15:33:33Z<p>Amoneti: /* Full mission, detector set or detector pairs maps (8 HFI, 8 LFI) */ cleaning</p>
<hr />
<div>{{DISPLAYTITLE:Sky temperature and polarization maps}}<br />
==General description==<br />
<br />
Sky maps give the best estimate of the intensity and polarization (Stokes Q and U components), if available, of the signal from the sky after removal, as far as possible, of known systematic effects (mostly instrumental, but including also the solar and earth-motion dipole, and the Zodiacal light). Sky maps are provided for the full Planck mission using all valid detectors in each frequency channel, and also for various subsets by splitting the mission in various time ranges or in subsets of the detectors in a given channel. These products are useful for the study of source variability, but they are especially interesting for characterisation purposes (see also the [[HFI-Validation | data validation]] section). The details of the start and end of the time ranges are given in the table below ( [[HFIpreprocessingstatics | this table is out of date - remove it??? where else is it referenced???]]. <br />
<br />
To help in further processing, there are also masks of the Galactic Plane and of point sources, each provided for several different depths.<br />
<br />
All sky maps are in Healpix format, with Nside of 2048, in Galactic coordinates, and Nested ordering. The signal is given in units of K<sub>cmb</sub> for 30-353 GHz, and of MJy/sr (for a constant <math>\nu F_\nu</math> energy distribution ) for 545 and 857 GHz. For each frequency channel, the intensity and polarization maps are packaged into a ''BINTABLE'' extension of a FITS file together with a hit-count map (or hit map, for short, giving the number of observation samples that are cumulated in a pixel, all detectors combined) and with the variance and covariance maps. Additional information is given in the FITS file header. The structure of the FITS file is given in the [[#Format | FITS file structure]] section below. <br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Ranges for mission and surveys'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Range || ODs || rings || pointing-IDs || Comment<br />
|-<br />
|nominal mission || 91 - 563 || 240 - 14723 || 00004200 - 03180200 ||<br />
|-<br />
|full mission || 91 - 974 || 240 - 27005 || 00004200 - 05322620 || for HFI<br />
|-<br />
|full mission || 91 - 993 || 240 - 27641 || 00004200 - 06344800 || for LFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 1 || 91 - 270 || 240 - 5720 || 00004200 - 01059820 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 2 || 270 - 456 || 5721 - 11194 || 01059830 - 02114520 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 3 || 456 - 636 || 11195 - 16691 || 02114530 - 03193660 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 4 || 636 - 807 || 16692 - 21720 || 03193670 - 04243900 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 5 || 807 - 974 || 21721 - 27005 || 05267180 - 05322590 || end of mission for HFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 5 || 807 - 993 || 21721 - 27641 || 05267180 - 06344800 || end of survey for LFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 6 || 993 - 1177 || 27642 - tbd || 06344810 - 06398120 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|Survey 7 || 1177 - 1358 || tbd - tbd || 06398130 - 06456410 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|Survey 8 || 1358 - 1543 || tbd - tbd || 06456420 - 06511160 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|Survey 9 || 1543 - 1604 || tbd - tbd || 06511170 - 06533320 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|HFI mission-half-1 || 91 - 531 || 240 - 13471 || 00004200 - 03155580 ||<br />
|-<br />
|HFI mission-half-2 || 531 - 974 || 13472 - 27005 || 03155590 - 05322590 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 1 || 91 - 456 || 240 - 11194 || 00004200 - 02114520 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 2 || 456 - 807 || 11195 - 21720 || 02114530 - 04243900 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 3 || 807 - 1177 || 21721 - tbd || 05267180 - 06398120 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 4 || 1177 - 1543 || tbd - tbd || 06398130 - 06511160 ||<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
==Production process==<br />
<br />
Sky maps are produced by combining appropriately the data of all working detectors in a frequency channel over some period of the mission. They give the best estimate of the signal from the sky (unpolarised) after removal, as far as possible, of known systematic effects and of the dipole signals induced by the motion of the solar system in the CMB and of the Planck satellite in the solar system. In particular, they include the Zodiacal light emission (Zodi for short) and also the scattering from the far-side lobes of the beams (FSL). More on this below.<br />
<br />
=== HFI processing ===<br />
<br />
The mapmaking and calibration process is described in detail in the [[Map-making_LFI | Map-making]] section and in the [[A08 paper| mapmaking]] paper, where detailed references are found. In brief it consists of:<br />
<br />
; binning the TOI data onto ''rings'' : Healpix rings (HPRs) are used here, each ring containing the combined data of one pointing period. <br />
; flux calibration : at 100-353 GHz, the flux calibration factors are determined by correlating the signal with the orbital dipole, which is determined very accurately from the Planck satellite orbital parameters provided by Flight Dynamics. This provides a single gain factor per bolometer. At 545 and 857 GHz the gain is determined from the observation of Uranus and Neptune (but not Jupiter which is too bright) and comparison to recent models made explicitly for this mission. A single gain is applied to all rings at these frequencies.<br />
; destriping : in order to remove low-frequency noise, an offset per ring is determined by minimizing the differences between HPRs at their crossings, and removed.<br />
; Zodiacal light correction : a Zodiacal light model is used to build HPRs of the the Zodi emission, which is subtracted from the calibrated HPRs.<br />
; projection onto the map : the offset-corrected, flux-calibrated, and Zodi-cleaned HPRs are projected onto Healpix maps, with the data of each bolometer weighted by a factor of 1/NET of that bolometer.<br />
<br />
These steps are followed by some post-processing which is designed to prepare the maps for the component separation work. This post processing consists of: <br />
<br />
; Dust bandpass leakage correction : the Q and U maps are corrected for the dust leakage due to the different bandpasses that is determined using the ''ground'' method as described [[MISSING REF| here]]<br />
; Far Side Lobe calibration correction : the 100-217 maps are multiplied by factors of 1.00087, 1.00046, and 1.00043, respectively, to compensate for the non-removal of the far-side lobes, and similarly the corresponding covariance maps have also been corrected by multiplication by the square of the factor.<br />
; Fill missing pixels : missing pixels are filled in with a value that is the mean of valid pixels within a given radius. A radius of 1 deg is used for the full channel maps, and 1.5 deg is used for the detset maps. This step is not applied to the single survey maps since they have large swaths of the sky that are not covered.<br />
<br />
These maps provide the main mission products. Together with signal maps, hit count, variance, and variance maps are also produced. The hit maps give the (integer) number of valid TOI-level samples that contribute to the signal of each pixel. All valid samples are counted in the same way, i.e., there is no weighting factor applied. The variance maps project the white noise estimate, provided by the NETs, in the sky domain.<br />
<br />
Note that the nominal mission maps have not had the post-processing applied, which makes them more easily comparable to the PR1 products.<br />
<br />
=== LFI processing ===<br />
LFI maps were constructed with the Madam map-making code, version 3.7.4. The code is based on generalized destriping technique, where the correlated noise component is modeled as a sequence of constant offset, called baselines. A noise filter was used to constrain the baseline solution allowing the use of 1 second baselines.<br />
<br />
Radiometers were combined according to the horn-uniform weighting scheme to minimize systematics. The used weights are listed in [[Map-making LFI#Map-making|Map-making]]. The flagged samples were excluded from the analysis by setting their weights to <math>C_{w}^{-1}</math> = 0. The galaxy region was masked out in the destriping phase, to reduce error arising from strong signal gradients. The polarization component was included in the analysis... <br />
<br />
A detailed description of the map-making procedure is given in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p02}} and in section [[Map-making LFI#Map-making|Map-making]].<br />
<br />
==Types of maps ==<br />
<br />
=== Full mission, full channel maps (6 HFI, 3 LFI)===<br />
<br />
Full channel maps are built using all the valid detectors of a frequency channel and cover the either the full or the nominal mission. For HFI, the 143-8 and 545-3 bolometers are rejected entirely as they are seriously affected by RTS noise. For this release, HFI provides the Q and U components for the 353 GHz channel only. LFI provides the I, Q and U maps for all the channels. The I maps are displayed in the figures below. The color range is set using a histogram equalisation scheme (from HEALPIX) that is useful for these non-Gaussian data fields. The Q and U maps are not shown as they look like noise to the naked eye.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=260px heights=160px> <br />
File: SkyMap30e.png| '''Full mission, 30 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap44e.png | '''Full mission, 44 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap70e.png | '''Full mission, 70 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap100e.png | '''Full mission, 100 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap143e.png | '''Full mission, 143 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap217e.png | '''Full mission, 217 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap353e.png | '''Full mission, 353 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap545e.png | '''Full mission, 545 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap857e.png | '''Full mission, 857 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
=== Nominal mission, full channel maps (6 HFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are similar to the ones above, but cover the nominal mission only. They are meant primarily to be compared to the PR1 products in order to see the level of improvements in the processing. Because of this, they are produced in Temperature only, and have not had the post-processing applied.<br />
<br />
=== Single survey, full channel maps (30 HFI, 24 LFI)===<br />
<br />
Single survey maps are built using all valid detectors of a frequency channel; they cover separately the different sky surveys. The surveys are defined as the times over which the satellite spin axis rotates but 180 degrees, which, due to the position of the detectors in the focal plane does not cover the full sky, but a fraction between ~80 and 90% depending on detector position. During adjacent surveys the sky is scanned in opposite directions. More precisely it is the ecliptic equator that is scanned in opposite directions. While these are useful to investigate variable sources, they are also used to study the systematics of the time-response of the detectors as they scan bright sources, like the Galactic Plane, in different directions during different survey. Note that the HFI and LFI missions cover 5 and 9 surveys, respectively, and in both cases the last survey in incomplete.<br />
<br />
=== Year maps, full channel maps (12 HFI, 24 LFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are built using the data of surveys 1+2, surveys 3+4, and so forth. They are used to study long-term systematic effects.<br />
<br />
===Half-mission maps, full channel maps (12 HFI, 6 LFI)===<br />
<br />
For HFI, the half mission is defined after eliminating those rings discarded for all bolometers. There are 347 such rings, may of which are during the 5th survey when the ''End-of-Life'' tests were performed. The remaining 26419 rings are divided in half (up to the odd ring) to define the two halves of the mission. This exercise is done for the full mission only.<br />
<br />
===Full mission, single detector maps (18 HFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are built only for the HFI SWBs (non polarized) and contain only temperature data, of course. They are not built for the polarisation sensitive detectors because they are not fixed on the sky as the polarisation component depends on the position angle at the time of observation. Instead, we provide maps built by ''quads'' of polarisation-sensitive detectors (see next section), which have different polarisation angles and that can be used to built I, Q, and U maps<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=600px<br />
|+ '''HFI Temperature sensitive bolometers'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!Frequency || Detector names<br />
|-<br />
|143 GHz || 143-5, 6, 7<br />
|-<br />
|217 GHz || 217-1, 2, 3, 4<br />
|-<br />
|353 GHz || 353-1, 2, 7, 8<br />
|-<br />
|545 GHz || 545-1, 2, 4<br />
|-<br />
|857 GHz || 857-1,2 , 3, 4<br />
|}<br />
<br />
The 143-8 and 353-3 bolometer data are affected by strong RTS (random telegraphic signal) noise. They have not been used in the data processing, and are not delivered. For a figure showing the focal plane layout, see [[Detector_pointing#Introduction_and_Summary | this Introduction]] of the Detector Pointing chapter.<br />
<br />
<br />
===Full mission, detector set or detector pairs maps (8 HFI, 8 LFI)===<br />
<br />
The objective here is to build independent temperature (I) and polarisation (Q and U) maps with the two pairs of polarisation sensitive detectors of each channel where they are available, i.e. in the 30-353 GHz channels. The table below indicates which detectors were used to built each detector set (detset).<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=600px<br />
|+ '''Definition of HFI Detector Sets'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!Frequency || DetSet1 || DetSet2 <br />
|-<br />
|100 GHz || 100-1a/b & 100-4a/b || 100-2a/b & 100-3a/b<br />
|-<br />
|143 GHz || 143-1a/b 1 & 43-3a/b || 143-2a/b & 143-4a/b<br />
|-<br />
|217 GHz || 217-5a/b & 217-7a/b || 217-6a/b & 217-8a/b<br />
|-<br />
|353 GHz || 353-3a/b & 353-5a/b || 353-4a/b & 353-6a/b<br />
<br />
===Half-ring maps (64 HFI, ??? LFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are similar to the ones above, but are built using only the first or the second half of each ring (or pointing period). The HFI provides half-ring maps for the full mission only, and for the full channel, the detsets, and the single bolometers. The LFI .....<br />
<br />
<br />
===Masks===<br />
<br />
Masks are provided of the Galactic Plane and of the point sources. For the Galactic Plane, eight masks are given covering different fractions of the sky, and for the points sources two masks are given, at the 5 and 10 sigma level, for each Planck HFI frequency channel. These are generic masks, specific masks applicable to other products are delivered with the products themselves.<br />
<br />
The table below gives the ranges in terms of ESA pointing-ID, HFI ring number, and OD. The OD ranges are indicative only: they indicate that the given ring occurs during that OD.<br />
<br />
=== The Zodiacal light correction maps ===<br />
<br />
The Zodiacal light signal depends on the location of the observer relative to the Zodiacal light bands, and thus it is not a fixed pattern on the sky but depends on the period of observation. The maps presented here are the difference between the uncorrected (and not delivered) and the corrected maps. <br />
<br />
<br />
<!---center><br />
<gallery perrow=3 widths=260px heights=170px><br />
File: ZodiRes100.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 100 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes143.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 143 GHz''' <br />
File: ZodiRes217.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 217 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes353.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 353 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes545.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 545 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes857.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 857 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center ---><br />
<br />
=== Caveats and known issues ===<br />
<br />
TBW<br />
<br />
==== Map zero-level ====<br />
<br />
For the 100 to 857 GHz maps, the zero levels are set to their optimal levels for Galactic and CIB studies. A procedure for adjusting them to astrophysical values is given in the HFI Mapmaking and Calibration paper {{PlanckPapers|????}}.<br />
<br />
For the 30, 44 and 70 GHz, maps are corrected for zero level monopole by applying an offset correction, see LFI Calibration paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p02b}} section 3.4 "Setting the zero levels in the maps". Note that the offset applied is indicated in the header as a comment keyword.<br />
<br />
==Inputs==<br />
=== HFI inputs ===<br />
<br />
* The cleaned TOIs of signal of each detector, together with their flags, produced by the [[TOI processing|TOI processing]] pipeline<br />
* The TOIs of pointing (quaternions), described in [[Detector_pointing|Detector pointing]]<br />
* Bolometer-level characterization data, from the DPC's internal IMO (not distributed)<br />
* Planck orbit data used to compute and remove the earth dipole<br />
* WMAP solar dipole information used to calibrate the CMB channels<br />
* Planet models used to calibrate the Galactic channels.<br />
<br />
=== LFI inputs ===<br />
<br />
The Madam map-maker takes as an input:<br />
<br />
* The calibrated timelines (for details see [[TOI processing LFI|TOI Processing]])<br />
* The detector pointings (for details see [[Detector_pointing|Detector pointing]])<br />
* The noise information in the form of three-parameter (white noise level (<math>\sigma</math>), slope, and knee frequency ($f_\mathrm{knee}$)) noise model (for details see [[The RIMO|RIMO]])<br />
<br />
==Related products==<br />
=== Masks ===<br />
<br />
This section presents the masks of the point sources and of the Galactic plane. These are ''general purpose'' masks. Other masks specific to certain products are packaged with the products.<br />
<br />
====Point source masks====<br />
<br />
For HFI, two sets of masks are provided: <br />
* Intensity masks, which removes sources detected with SNR > 5. <br />
* Polarisation masks, which remove sources which have polarisation detection significance of 99.97 % or greater at the position of a source detected in intensity. They were derived from the polarisation maps with dust ground bandpass mismatch leakage correction applied. The cut around each source has a radius of 3σ (width) of the beam ~ 1.27 FWHM.<br />
<br />
Both sets are found in the file ''HFI_Mask_PointSrc_2048_R2.00.fits'' in which the first extension contains the Intensity masks, and the second contains the Polarisation masks.<br />
<br />
====Galactic Plane masks====<br />
<br />
Eight masks are provided giving 20, 40, 60, 70, 80, 90, 97, and 99% sky coverage derived from the 353 GHz map, after CMB subtraction. They are independent of frequency channel. Three versions of these are given: not apodized, and apodized by 2 and 5 deg. The filenames are ''HFI_Mask_GalPlane-apoN_2048_R2.00.fits'', where N = 0, 2, 5.<br />
<br />
The masks are shows below. The 8 GalPlane masks are combined (added together) and shown in a single figure for each of the three apodization. While the result is quite clear for the case of no apodization, it is less so for the apodized case. The point source masks are shown separately for the Intensity case.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery perrow=3 widths=260px heights=160px ><br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo0.png | '''Galactic Plane masks, no apod'''<br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo2.png | '''Galactic Plane masks, apod 2 deg'''<br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo5.png | '''Galactic Plane masks, apod 5 deg'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_100.png | '''PointSource mask 100 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_143.png | '''PointSource mask 143 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_217.png | '''PointSource mask 217 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_353.png | '''PointSource mask 343 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_545.png | '''PointSource mask 545 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_857.png | '''PointSource mask 857 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
== File names ==<br />
The FITS filenames are of the form ''{H|L}FI_SkyMap_fff{-tag}_Nside_R2.nn_{coverage}-{type}.fits'', where ''fff'' are three digits to indicate the Planck frequency band, ''tag'' indicates the single detector or the detset, ''Nside'' is the Healpix Nside of the map, ''coverage'' indicates which part of the mission is covered (full, half mission, survey, year, ...) , and the optional ''type'' indicates the subset of input data used. The table below lists the products by type, with the appropriate unix wildcards that form the full filename.<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align"left" border="1" cellpadding="15" cellspacing="20" width=880px<br />
|+ '''FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Coverage || filename || half-ring filename <br />
|-<br />
| Full chan, full mission ||HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_full.fits ||HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, nominal mission ||HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_nominal.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, single survey || HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_survey-?.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, single year || HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_year-?.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, half mission || HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_halfmission*-?.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Det-set, full mission || HFI_SkyMap_???-ds?_2048_R2.??_full.fits || HFI_SkyMap_???-ds?_2048_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits<br />
|-<br />
|Single SWB, full mission || HFI_SkyMap_???-?_2048_R2.??_full.fits || HFI_SkyMap_???-?_2048_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits<br />
|}<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for the frequency maps with no additional information, we also provide a file combining the 9 frequency maps as separate columns in a single extension. The 9 columns in this file contain the intensity maps ONLY and no other information (hit maps and variance maps) is provided.<br />
<br />
<!---<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align:center" border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" width=500px<br />
|+ '''FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Full channel maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''30GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''44GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Full channel, Zodi-corrected maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}} <br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Combined frequency maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''All''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=file|name=COM_MapSet_I-allFreqs_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=COM_MapSet_I-allFreqs_R1.10_nominal.fits}} <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align:center" border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" width=850px<br />
|+ '''FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Survey 1 maps || Survey 2 maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''30GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''44GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Survey 1 Zodi-corrected maps || Survey 2 Zodi-corrected maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Half-ring 1 maps ||Half-ring 2 maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''30GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''44GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|}<br />
---><br />
<br />
== FITS file structure ==<br />
<br />
The FITS files for the sky maps contain a minimal primary header with no data, and a ''BINTABLE'' extension (EXTENSION 1, EXTNAME = ''FREQ-MAP'') containing the data. The structure is shows schematically in the figure below. The ''FREQ-MAP'' extension contains a 3- or a 10-column table that contain the signal, hit-count and variance maps, all in Healpix format. The 3-column case is for intensity only maps, the 10-column case is for polarisation. The number of rows is the number of map pixels, which is Npix = 12 Nside<sup>2</sup> for Healpix maps, where Nside = 2048 for most the maps presented in this chapter.<br />
<br />
[[File:FITS_FreqMap.png | 550px | center | thumb | '''FITS file structure''']]<br />
<br />
Keywords indicate the coordinate system (GALACTIC), the Healpix ordering scheme (NESTED), the units (K_cmb or MJy/sr) of each column, and of course the frequency channel (FREQ). The COMMENT fields give a one-line summary of the product, and some other information useful for traceability within the DPCs. The original filename is also given in the ''FILENAME'' keyword. The ''BAD_DATA'' keyword gives the value used by Healpix to indicate pixels for which no signal is present (these will also have a hit-count value of 0). The main parameters are summarised below:<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Sky map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb or MJy/sr || The Stokes I map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb or MJy/sr || The Stokes Q map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|U_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb or MJy/sr || The Stokes U map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|HITS || Int*4 || none || The hit-count map<br />
|-<br />
|II_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The II variance map<br />
|-<br />
|IQ_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The IQvariance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|IU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The IQ variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QQ_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The QQ variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The QU variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|UU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The UU variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix Nside <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12 Nside<sup>2</sup> – 1 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ || string || nnn || The frequency channel <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
The same structure applies to all ''SkyMap'' products, independent of whether they are full channel, survey of half-ring. The distinction between the types of maps is present in the FITS filename (and in the traceability comment fields).<br />
<br />
==Polarization convention used in the Planck project==<br />
<br />
The Planck collaboration used the COSMO convention for the polarization angle (as usually used in space based CMB missions), whereas other astronomical fields usually use the IAU convention. In the following document we report the difference between these two conventions, and the consequence if it is NOT taken into account correctly in the analysis.<br />
<br />
[[File:conventions.png|thumb|center|400px|'''Figure 1. COSMO convention (left) and IAU convention (right). The versor <math>\hat{z}</math> points outwards the pointing direction in COSMO, and inwards in IAU. The bottom panel refers to the plane tangent to the sphere.''']]<br />
<br />
Changing the orientation convention is equivalent to a transformation <math>\psi'=\pi-\psi</math> of the polarization angle (Figure 1). The consequence of this transformation is the inversion of the Stokes parameter <math>U</math>.<br />
The components of the polarization tensor in the helicity basis <math>\epsilon^{\pm}=1/\sqrt{2}(\hat{x}\pm i\hat{y})</math> are:<br />
<br />
<math><br />
(Q+iU)(\hat{n}) = \sum _{\ell m}a_{2,lm}{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
\\(Q-iU)(\hat{n}) = \sum _{\ell m}a_{-2,lm}{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
</math><br />
<br />
where <math>{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})</math> are the spin weighted spherical harmonic functions.<br />
The <math>E</math> and <math>B</math> modes can be defined as:<br />
<math><br />
E(\hat{n}) = \sum_{\ell m}a_{E,\ell m}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
\\B(\hat{n}) = \sum_{\ell m}a_{B,\ell m}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
</math><br />
<br />
where the coefficients <math>a_{E,\ell m}</math> and <math>a_{B,\ell m}</math> are derived from linear combinations of the <math>a_{2,\ell m}</math> , <math>a_{-2,\ell m}</math> defined implicitly in the first equation (<math>Q\pm iU</math>).<br />
<br />
[[File:test_gradient.jpg|thumb|center|400px|]]<br />
[[File:test_curl.jpg|thumb|center|400px|'''Figure 2. Error on Planck-LFI 70 GHz <math>EE</math> (top) and <math>BB</math> (bottom) spectra, in case of wrong choice of the coordinate system convention (IAU instead of COSMO).''']]<br />
<br />
The effect of the sign inversion of <math>U</math> on the polarization spectra is a non trivial mixing of <math>E</math> and <math>B</math> modes. <br />
<br />
An example of the typical error on <math>EE</math> and <math>BB</math> auto-spectra in case of a wrong choice of the polarization basis is shown in Figure 2.<br />
<br />
BE CAREFUL about the polarization convention you are using. If the IAU convention is used in computing the power spectra, the sign of the <math>U</math> component of the Planck maps must be inverted before computing <math>E</math> and <math>B</math> modes.<br />
<br />
=== Note on the convention used by the Planck Catalog of Compact Sources (PCCS) ===<br />
For continuity with other compact sources catolgues, the Catalogue of Compact Sources provided by Planck follows the IAU convention, and the polarization angles are defined on an interval of [-90,90] degrees. To switch to the COSMO convention, the polarization angles listed in the catalogue have to be shifted by 90 degrees and multiplied by -1.<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|002]]</div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=Sky_temperature_maps&diff=10629Sky temperature maps2015-01-29T15:32:37Z<p>Amoneti: /* Types of maps */ reorder single detector and detset sections, and improve</p>
<hr />
<div>{{DISPLAYTITLE:Sky temperature and polarization maps}}<br />
==General description==<br />
<br />
Sky maps give the best estimate of the intensity and polarization (Stokes Q and U components), if available, of the signal from the sky after removal, as far as possible, of known systematic effects (mostly instrumental, but including also the solar and earth-motion dipole, and the Zodiacal light). Sky maps are provided for the full Planck mission using all valid detectors in each frequency channel, and also for various subsets by splitting the mission in various time ranges or in subsets of the detectors in a given channel. These products are useful for the study of source variability, but they are especially interesting for characterisation purposes (see also the [[HFI-Validation | data validation]] section). The details of the start and end of the time ranges are given in the table below ( [[HFIpreprocessingstatics | this table is out of date - remove it??? where else is it referenced???]]. <br />
<br />
To help in further processing, there are also masks of the Galactic Plane and of point sources, each provided for several different depths.<br />
<br />
All sky maps are in Healpix format, with Nside of 2048, in Galactic coordinates, and Nested ordering. The signal is given in units of K<sub>cmb</sub> for 30-353 GHz, and of MJy/sr (for a constant <math>\nu F_\nu</math> energy distribution ) for 545 and 857 GHz. For each frequency channel, the intensity and polarization maps are packaged into a ''BINTABLE'' extension of a FITS file together with a hit-count map (or hit map, for short, giving the number of observation samples that are cumulated in a pixel, all detectors combined) and with the variance and covariance maps. Additional information is given in the FITS file header. The structure of the FITS file is given in the [[#Format | FITS file structure]] section below. <br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Ranges for mission and surveys'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Range || ODs || rings || pointing-IDs || Comment<br />
|-<br />
|nominal mission || 91 - 563 || 240 - 14723 || 00004200 - 03180200 ||<br />
|-<br />
|full mission || 91 - 974 || 240 - 27005 || 00004200 - 05322620 || for HFI<br />
|-<br />
|full mission || 91 - 993 || 240 - 27641 || 00004200 - 06344800 || for LFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 1 || 91 - 270 || 240 - 5720 || 00004200 - 01059820 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 2 || 270 - 456 || 5721 - 11194 || 01059830 - 02114520 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 3 || 456 - 636 || 11195 - 16691 || 02114530 - 03193660 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 4 || 636 - 807 || 16692 - 21720 || 03193670 - 04243900 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 5 || 807 - 974 || 21721 - 27005 || 05267180 - 05322590 || end of mission for HFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 5 || 807 - 993 || 21721 - 27641 || 05267180 - 06344800 || end of survey for LFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 6 || 993 - 1177 || 27642 - tbd || 06344810 - 06398120 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|Survey 7 || 1177 - 1358 || tbd - tbd || 06398130 - 06456410 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|Survey 8 || 1358 - 1543 || tbd - tbd || 06456420 - 06511160 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|Survey 9 || 1543 - 1604 || tbd - tbd || 06511170 - 06533320 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|HFI mission-half-1 || 91 - 531 || 240 - 13471 || 00004200 - 03155580 ||<br />
|-<br />
|HFI mission-half-2 || 531 - 974 || 13472 - 27005 || 03155590 - 05322590 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 1 || 91 - 456 || 240 - 11194 || 00004200 - 02114520 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 2 || 456 - 807 || 11195 - 21720 || 02114530 - 04243900 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 3 || 807 - 1177 || 21721 - tbd || 05267180 - 06398120 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 4 || 1177 - 1543 || tbd - tbd || 06398130 - 06511160 ||<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
==Production process==<br />
<br />
Sky maps are produced by combining appropriately the data of all working detectors in a frequency channel over some period of the mission. They give the best estimate of the signal from the sky (unpolarised) after removal, as far as possible, of known systematic effects and of the dipole signals induced by the motion of the solar system in the CMB and of the Planck satellite in the solar system. In particular, they include the Zodiacal light emission (Zodi for short) and also the scattering from the far-side lobes of the beams (FSL). More on this below.<br />
<br />
=== HFI processing ===<br />
<br />
The mapmaking and calibration process is described in detail in the [[Map-making_LFI | Map-making]] section and in the [[A08 paper| mapmaking]] paper, where detailed references are found. In brief it consists of:<br />
<br />
; binning the TOI data onto ''rings'' : Healpix rings (HPRs) are used here, each ring containing the combined data of one pointing period. <br />
; flux calibration : at 100-353 GHz, the flux calibration factors are determined by correlating the signal with the orbital dipole, which is determined very accurately from the Planck satellite orbital parameters provided by Flight Dynamics. This provides a single gain factor per bolometer. At 545 and 857 GHz the gain is determined from the observation of Uranus and Neptune (but not Jupiter which is too bright) and comparison to recent models made explicitly for this mission. A single gain is applied to all rings at these frequencies.<br />
; destriping : in order to remove low-frequency noise, an offset per ring is determined by minimizing the differences between HPRs at their crossings, and removed.<br />
; Zodiacal light correction : a Zodiacal light model is used to build HPRs of the the Zodi emission, which is subtracted from the calibrated HPRs.<br />
; projection onto the map : the offset-corrected, flux-calibrated, and Zodi-cleaned HPRs are projected onto Healpix maps, with the data of each bolometer weighted by a factor of 1/NET of that bolometer.<br />
<br />
These steps are followed by some post-processing which is designed to prepare the maps for the component separation work. This post processing consists of: <br />
<br />
; Dust bandpass leakage correction : the Q and U maps are corrected for the dust leakage due to the different bandpasses that is determined using the ''ground'' method as described [[MISSING REF| here]]<br />
; Far Side Lobe calibration correction : the 100-217 maps are multiplied by factors of 1.00087, 1.00046, and 1.00043, respectively, to compensate for the non-removal of the far-side lobes, and similarly the corresponding covariance maps have also been corrected by multiplication by the square of the factor.<br />
; Fill missing pixels : missing pixels are filled in with a value that is the mean of valid pixels within a given radius. A radius of 1 deg is used for the full channel maps, and 1.5 deg is used for the detset maps. This step is not applied to the single survey maps since they have large swaths of the sky that are not covered.<br />
<br />
These maps provide the main mission products. Together with signal maps, hit count, variance, and variance maps are also produced. The hit maps give the (integer) number of valid TOI-level samples that contribute to the signal of each pixel. All valid samples are counted in the same way, i.e., there is no weighting factor applied. The variance maps project the white noise estimate, provided by the NETs, in the sky domain.<br />
<br />
Note that the nominal mission maps have not had the post-processing applied, which makes them more easily comparable to the PR1 products.<br />
<br />
=== LFI processing ===<br />
LFI maps were constructed with the Madam map-making code, version 3.7.4. The code is based on generalized destriping technique, where the correlated noise component is modeled as a sequence of constant offset, called baselines. A noise filter was used to constrain the baseline solution allowing the use of 1 second baselines.<br />
<br />
Radiometers were combined according to the horn-uniform weighting scheme to minimize systematics. The used weights are listed in [[Map-making LFI#Map-making|Map-making]]. The flagged samples were excluded from the analysis by setting their weights to <math>C_{w}^{-1}</math> = 0. The galaxy region was masked out in the destriping phase, to reduce error arising from strong signal gradients. The polarization component was included in the analysis... <br />
<br />
A detailed description of the map-making procedure is given in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p02}} and in section [[Map-making LFI#Map-making|Map-making]].<br />
<br />
==Types of maps ==<br />
<br />
=== Full mission, full channel maps (6 HFI, 3 LFI)===<br />
<br />
Full channel maps are built using all the valid detectors of a frequency channel and cover the either the full or the nominal mission. For HFI, the 143-8 and 545-3 bolometers are rejected entirely as they are seriously affected by RTS noise. For this release, HFI provides the Q and U components for the 353 GHz channel only. LFI provides the I, Q and U maps for all the channels. The I maps are displayed in the figures below. The color range is set using a histogram equalisation scheme (from HEALPIX) that is useful for these non-Gaussian data fields. The Q and U maps are not shown as they look like noise to the naked eye.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=260px heights=160px> <br />
File: SkyMap30e.png| '''Full mission, 30 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap44e.png | '''Full mission, 44 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap70e.png | '''Full mission, 70 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap100e.png | '''Full mission, 100 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap143e.png | '''Full mission, 143 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap217e.png | '''Full mission, 217 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap353e.png | '''Full mission, 353 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap545e.png | '''Full mission, 545 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap857e.png | '''Full mission, 857 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
=== Nominal mission, full channel maps (6 HFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are similar to the ones above, but cover the nominal mission only. They are meant primarily to be compared to the PR1 products in order to see the level of improvements in the processing. Because of this, they are produced in Temperature only, and have not had the post-processing applied.<br />
<br />
=== Single survey, full channel maps (30 HFI, 24 LFI)===<br />
<br />
Single survey maps are built using all valid detectors of a frequency channel; they cover separately the different sky surveys. The surveys are defined as the times over which the satellite spin axis rotates but 180 degrees, which, due to the position of the detectors in the focal plane does not cover the full sky, but a fraction between ~80 and 90% depending on detector position. During adjacent surveys the sky is scanned in opposite directions. More precisely it is the ecliptic equator that is scanned in opposite directions. While these are useful to investigate variable sources, they are also used to study the systematics of the time-response of the detectors as they scan bright sources, like the Galactic Plane, in different directions during different survey. Note that the HFI and LFI missions cover 5 and 9 surveys, respectively, and in both cases the last survey in incomplete.<br />
<br />
=== Year maps, full channel maps (12 HFI, 24 LFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are built using the data of surveys 1+2, surveys 3+4, and so forth. They are used to study long-term systematic effects.<br />
<br />
===Half-mission maps, full channel maps (12 HFI, 6 LFI)===<br />
<br />
For HFI, the half mission is defined after eliminating those rings discarded for all bolometers. There are 347 such rings, may of which are during the 5th survey when the ''End-of-Life'' tests were performed. The remaining 26419 rings are divided in half (up to the odd ring) to define the two halves of the mission. This exercise is done for the full mission only.<br />
<br />
===Full mission, single detector maps (18 HFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are built only for the HFI SWBs (non polarized) and contain only temperature data, of course. They are not built for the polarisation sensitive detectors because they are not fixed on the sky as the polarisation component depends on the position angle at the time of observation. Instead, we provide maps built by ''quads'' of polarisation-sensitive detectors (see next section), which have different polarisation angles and that can be used to built I, Q, and U maps<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=600px<br />
|+ '''HFI Temperature sensitive bolometers'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!Frequency || Detector names<br />
|-<br />
|143 GHz || 143-5, 6, 7<br />
|-<br />
|217 GHz || 217-1, 2, 3, 4<br />
|-<br />
|353 GHz || 353-1, 2, 7, 8<br />
|-<br />
|545 GHz || 545-1, 2, 4<br />
|-<br />
|857 GHz || 857-1,2 , 3, 4<br />
|}<br />
<br />
The 143-8 and 353-3 bolometer data are affected by strong RTS (random telegraphic signal) noise. They have not been used in the data processing, and are not delivered. For a figure showing the focal plane layout, see [[Detector_pointing#Introduction_and_Summary | this Introduction]] of the Detector Pointing chapter.<br />
<br />
<br />
===Full mission, detector set or detector pairs maps (8 HFI, 8 LFI)===<br />
<br />
The objective here is to build independent temperature (I) and polarisation (Q and U) maps with the two pairs of polarisation sensitive detectors of each channel where they are available, i.e. in the 30-353 GHz channels. The table below indicates which detectors were used to built each detector set (detset).<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=600px<br />
|+ '''Definition of HFI Detector Sets'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!Frequency || DetSet1 || DetSet2 <br />
|-<br />
|100 GHz || 100-1a/b & 100-4a/b || 100-2a/b & 100-3a/b<br />
|-<br />
|143 GHz || 143-1a/b 1 & 43-3a/b || 143-2a/b & 143-4a/b<br />
|-<br />
|217 GHz || 217-5a/b & 217-7a/b || 217-6a/b & 217-8a/b<br />
|-<br />
|353 GHz || 353-3a/b & 353-5a/b || 353-4a/b & 353-6a/b<br />
<!---|-<br />
|545 GHz || 545-1 & 545-2 || 545-4<br />
|-<br />
|857 GHz || 857-1 & 857-2 || 857-3 & 857-4 ---><br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
===Half-ring maps (64 HFI, ??? LFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are similar to the ones above, but are built using only the first or the second half of each ring (or pointing period). The HFI provides half-ring maps for the full mission only, and for the full channel, the detsets, and the single bolometers. The LFI .....<br />
<br />
<br />
===Masks===<br />
<br />
Masks are provided of the Galactic Plane and of the point sources. For the Galactic Plane, eight masks are given covering different fractions of the sky, and for the points sources two masks are given, at the 5 and 10 sigma level, for each Planck HFI frequency channel. These are generic masks, specific masks applicable to other products are delivered with the products themselves.<br />
<br />
The table below gives the ranges in terms of ESA pointing-ID, HFI ring number, and OD. The OD ranges are indicative only: they indicate that the given ring occurs during that OD.<br />
<br />
=== The Zodiacal light correction maps ===<br />
<br />
The Zodiacal light signal depends on the location of the observer relative to the Zodiacal light bands, and thus it is not a fixed pattern on the sky but depends on the period of observation. The maps presented here are the difference between the uncorrected (and not delivered) and the corrected maps. <br />
<br />
<br />
<!---center><br />
<gallery perrow=3 widths=260px heights=170px><br />
File: ZodiRes100.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 100 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes143.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 143 GHz''' <br />
File: ZodiRes217.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 217 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes353.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 353 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes545.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 545 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes857.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 857 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center ---><br />
<br />
=== Caveats and known issues ===<br />
<br />
TBW<br />
<br />
==== Map zero-level ====<br />
<br />
For the 100 to 857 GHz maps, the zero levels are set to their optimal levels for Galactic and CIB studies. A procedure for adjusting them to astrophysical values is given in the HFI Mapmaking and Calibration paper {{PlanckPapers|????}}.<br />
<br />
For the 30, 44 and 70 GHz, maps are corrected for zero level monopole by applying an offset correction, see LFI Calibration paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p02b}} section 3.4 "Setting the zero levels in the maps". Note that the offset applied is indicated in the header as a comment keyword.<br />
<br />
==Inputs==<br />
=== HFI inputs ===<br />
<br />
* The cleaned TOIs of signal of each detector, together with their flags, produced by the [[TOI processing|TOI processing]] pipeline<br />
* The TOIs of pointing (quaternions), described in [[Detector_pointing|Detector pointing]]<br />
* Bolometer-level characterization data, from the DPC's internal IMO (not distributed)<br />
* Planck orbit data used to compute and remove the earth dipole<br />
* WMAP solar dipole information used to calibrate the CMB channels<br />
* Planet models used to calibrate the Galactic channels.<br />
<br />
=== LFI inputs ===<br />
<br />
The Madam map-maker takes as an input:<br />
<br />
* The calibrated timelines (for details see [[TOI processing LFI|TOI Processing]])<br />
* The detector pointings (for details see [[Detector_pointing|Detector pointing]])<br />
* The noise information in the form of three-parameter (white noise level (<math>\sigma</math>), slope, and knee frequency ($f_\mathrm{knee}$)) noise model (for details see [[The RIMO|RIMO]])<br />
<br />
==Related products==<br />
=== Masks ===<br />
<br />
This section presents the masks of the point sources and of the Galactic plane. These are ''general purpose'' masks. Other masks specific to certain products are packaged with the products.<br />
<br />
====Point source masks====<br />
<br />
For HFI, two sets of masks are provided: <br />
* Intensity masks, which removes sources detected with SNR > 5. <br />
* Polarisation masks, which remove sources which have polarisation detection significance of 99.97 % or greater at the position of a source detected in intensity. They were derived from the polarisation maps with dust ground bandpass mismatch leakage correction applied. The cut around each source has a radius of 3σ (width) of the beam ~ 1.27 FWHM.<br />
<br />
Both sets are found in the file ''HFI_Mask_PointSrc_2048_R2.00.fits'' in which the first extension contains the Intensity masks, and the second contains the Polarisation masks.<br />
<br />
====Galactic Plane masks====<br />
<br />
Eight masks are provided giving 20, 40, 60, 70, 80, 90, 97, and 99% sky coverage derived from the 353 GHz map, after CMB subtraction. They are independent of frequency channel. Three versions of these are given: not apodized, and apodized by 2 and 5 deg. The filenames are ''HFI_Mask_GalPlane-apoN_2048_R2.00.fits'', where N = 0, 2, 5.<br />
<br />
The masks are shows below. The 8 GalPlane masks are combined (added together) and shown in a single figure for each of the three apodization. While the result is quite clear for the case of no apodization, it is less so for the apodized case. The point source masks are shown separately for the Intensity case.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery perrow=3 widths=260px heights=160px ><br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo0.png | '''Galactic Plane masks, no apod'''<br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo2.png | '''Galactic Plane masks, apod 2 deg'''<br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo5.png | '''Galactic Plane masks, apod 5 deg'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_100.png | '''PointSource mask 100 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_143.png | '''PointSource mask 143 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_217.png | '''PointSource mask 217 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_353.png | '''PointSource mask 343 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_545.png | '''PointSource mask 545 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_857.png | '''PointSource mask 857 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
== File names ==<br />
The FITS filenames are of the form ''{H|L}FI_SkyMap_fff{-tag}_Nside_R2.nn_{coverage}-{type}.fits'', where ''fff'' are three digits to indicate the Planck frequency band, ''tag'' indicates the single detector or the detset, ''Nside'' is the Healpix Nside of the map, ''coverage'' indicates which part of the mission is covered (full, half mission, survey, year, ...) , and the optional ''type'' indicates the subset of input data used. The table below lists the products by type, with the appropriate unix wildcards that form the full filename.<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align"left" border="1" cellpadding="15" cellspacing="20" width=880px<br />
|+ '''FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Coverage || filename || half-ring filename <br />
|-<br />
| Full chan, full mission ||HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_full.fits ||HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, nominal mission ||HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_nominal.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, single survey || HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_survey-?.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, single year || HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_year-?.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, half mission || HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_halfmission*-?.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Det-set, full mission || HFI_SkyMap_???-ds?_2048_R2.??_full.fits || HFI_SkyMap_???-ds?_2048_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits<br />
|-<br />
|Single SWB, full mission || HFI_SkyMap_???-?_2048_R2.??_full.fits || HFI_SkyMap_???-?_2048_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits<br />
|}<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for the frequency maps with no additional information, we also provide a file combining the 9 frequency maps as separate columns in a single extension. The 9 columns in this file contain the intensity maps ONLY and no other information (hit maps and variance maps) is provided.<br />
<br />
<!---<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align:center" border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" width=500px<br />
|+ '''FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Full channel maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''30GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''44GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Full channel, Zodi-corrected maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}} <br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Combined frequency maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''All''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=file|name=COM_MapSet_I-allFreqs_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=COM_MapSet_I-allFreqs_R1.10_nominal.fits}} <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align:center" border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" width=850px<br />
|+ '''FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Survey 1 maps || Survey 2 maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''30GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''44GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Survey 1 Zodi-corrected maps || Survey 2 Zodi-corrected maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Half-ring 1 maps ||Half-ring 2 maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''30GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''44GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|}<br />
---><br />
<br />
== FITS file structure ==<br />
<br />
The FITS files for the sky maps contain a minimal primary header with no data, and a ''BINTABLE'' extension (EXTENSION 1, EXTNAME = ''FREQ-MAP'') containing the data. The structure is shows schematically in the figure below. The ''FREQ-MAP'' extension contains a 3- or a 10-column table that contain the signal, hit-count and variance maps, all in Healpix format. The 3-column case is for intensity only maps, the 10-column case is for polarisation. The number of rows is the number of map pixels, which is Npix = 12 Nside<sup>2</sup> for Healpix maps, where Nside = 2048 for most the maps presented in this chapter.<br />
<br />
[[File:FITS_FreqMap.png | 550px | center | thumb | '''FITS file structure''']]<br />
<br />
Keywords indicate the coordinate system (GALACTIC), the Healpix ordering scheme (NESTED), the units (K_cmb or MJy/sr) of each column, and of course the frequency channel (FREQ). The COMMENT fields give a one-line summary of the product, and some other information useful for traceability within the DPCs. The original filename is also given in the ''FILENAME'' keyword. The ''BAD_DATA'' keyword gives the value used by Healpix to indicate pixels for which no signal is present (these will also have a hit-count value of 0). The main parameters are summarised below:<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Sky map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb or MJy/sr || The Stokes I map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb or MJy/sr || The Stokes Q map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|U_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb or MJy/sr || The Stokes U map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|HITS || Int*4 || none || The hit-count map<br />
|-<br />
|II_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The II variance map<br />
|-<br />
|IQ_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The IQvariance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|IU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The IQ variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QQ_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The QQ variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The QU variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|UU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The UU variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix Nside <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12 Nside<sup>2</sup> – 1 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ || string || nnn || The frequency channel <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
The same structure applies to all ''SkyMap'' products, independent of whether they are full channel, survey of half-ring. The distinction between the types of maps is present in the FITS filename (and in the traceability comment fields).<br />
<br />
==Polarization convention used in the Planck project==<br />
<br />
The Planck collaboration used the COSMO convention for the polarization angle (as usually used in space based CMB missions), whereas other astronomical fields usually use the IAU convention. In the following document we report the difference between these two conventions, and the consequence if it is NOT taken into account correctly in the analysis.<br />
<br />
[[File:conventions.png|thumb|center|400px|'''Figure 1. COSMO convention (left) and IAU convention (right). The versor <math>\hat{z}</math> points outwards the pointing direction in COSMO, and inwards in IAU. The bottom panel refers to the plane tangent to the sphere.''']]<br />
<br />
Changing the orientation convention is equivalent to a transformation <math>\psi'=\pi-\psi</math> of the polarization angle (Figure 1). The consequence of this transformation is the inversion of the Stokes parameter <math>U</math>.<br />
The components of the polarization tensor in the helicity basis <math>\epsilon^{\pm}=1/\sqrt{2}(\hat{x}\pm i\hat{y})</math> are:<br />
<br />
<math><br />
(Q+iU)(\hat{n}) = \sum _{\ell m}a_{2,lm}{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
\\(Q-iU)(\hat{n}) = \sum _{\ell m}a_{-2,lm}{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
</math><br />
<br />
where <math>{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})</math> are the spin weighted spherical harmonic functions.<br />
The <math>E</math> and <math>B</math> modes can be defined as:<br />
<math><br />
E(\hat{n}) = \sum_{\ell m}a_{E,\ell m}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
\\B(\hat{n}) = \sum_{\ell m}a_{B,\ell m}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
</math><br />
<br />
where the coefficients <math>a_{E,\ell m}</math> and <math>a_{B,\ell m}</math> are derived from linear combinations of the <math>a_{2,\ell m}</math> , <math>a_{-2,\ell m}</math> defined implicitly in the first equation (<math>Q\pm iU</math>).<br />
<br />
[[File:test_gradient.jpg|thumb|center|400px|]]<br />
[[File:test_curl.jpg|thumb|center|400px|'''Figure 2. Error on Planck-LFI 70 GHz <math>EE</math> (top) and <math>BB</math> (bottom) spectra, in case of wrong choice of the coordinate system convention (IAU instead of COSMO).''']]<br />
<br />
The effect of the sign inversion of <math>U</math> on the polarization spectra is a non trivial mixing of <math>E</math> and <math>B</math> modes. <br />
<br />
An example of the typical error on <math>EE</math> and <math>BB</math> auto-spectra in case of a wrong choice of the polarization basis is shown in Figure 2.<br />
<br />
BE CAREFUL about the polarization convention you are using. If the IAU convention is used in computing the power spectra, the sign of the <math>U</math> component of the Planck maps must be inverted before computing <math>E</math> and <math>B</math> modes.<br />
<br />
=== Note on the convention used by the Planck Catalog of Compact Sources (PCCS) ===<br />
For continuity with other compact sources catolgues, the Catalogue of Compact Sources provided by Planck follows the IAU convention, and the polarization angles are defined on an interval of [-90,90] degrees. To switch to the COSMO convention, the polarization angles listed in the catalogue have to be shifted by 90 degrees and multiplied by -1.<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|002]]</div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=Mission_products&diff=10628Mission products2015-01-29T15:02:17Z<p>Amoneti: update for 2015</p>
<hr />
<div><br />
The products of the Planck mission that are made public at this time and described in this document consist of:<br />
* '''signal and pointing timelines''', accompanied by the relevant flags, that can be used to build maps differently;<br />
* different types of '''sky maps''', i.e., maps of the signal received from the sky, accompanied by; <br />
* various '''catalogues''': of point sources, one per frequency band, and of the SZ clusters (of which there are several compiled with different extraction methods);<br />
* a set of '''astrophysical component maps''', which attempt to separate the different astrophysical components, namely the CMB and several foregrounds;<br />
* a '''CMB power spectrum''', the best the DPCs could produce at this time.<br />
and more<br />
<br />
To support the interpretation of these data, these products are accompanied by:<br />
* instrument-level data (beam properties, noise levels, bandpass profiles, and more) compiled into the '''Reduced Instrument Model''', or '''RIMO''', of which there is one per instrument.<br />
* the '''effective beams'''<br />
<br />
Two software packages are also included as Mission Products:<br />
<br />
* the '''Likelihood code package''', which is itself split into a software package and a data package,<br />
* the '''Unit Conversion and Color Correction (UcCC)''' package, which is used together with the bandpass profiles in the RIMO.<br />
<br />
The data products are packaged into FITS files that contain a main product (e.g., a signal map) and one or more other products to characterize it (e.g., a variance map, a hit-count map, a beam window function). Depending on the details of the products, the data are written into a single ''BINTABLE'' or a few extensions, or an ''IMAGE'' extension. The RIMO is also packaged into a FITS file, but given the nature of its different elements it was necessary to use several hundred ''BINTABLE'' extensions. <br />
<br />
The software is delivered as a tarball of code, and if necessary a second tarball of associated data is also delivered. The details depend on the code and are described elsewhere in this document.<br />
<br />
This chapter is divided by type of product. Each section contains a brief description of how each type of product is obtained, while the details of the processing are given in the [[The HFI DPC| HFI Data Processing]] and [[The LFI DPC|LFI Data Processing]] chapters, and any known problems with the product. The structure of the FITS files are given and explained, as are the main header keywords.<br />
<br />
A very brief description of how to start using the PLA can be found in the [[Appendix#The PLA quick start guide | PLA appendix]]. The PLA software provides a more extensive user guide.<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|000]]</div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=CMB_and_astrophysical_component_maps&diff=10620CMB and astrophysical component maps2015-01-29T14:26:05Z<p>Amoneti: /* File names and structure */</p>
<hr />
<div>== Overview ==<br />
This section describes the maps of astrophysical components produced from the Planck data. These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps described above using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of the product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITS file containing the data and associated information.<br />
All the details can be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}.<br />
<br />
==CMB maps==<br />
CMB maps have been produced by the SMICA SEVEM, NILC and COMMANDER pipelines, which are described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation | CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Section 3 and Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}} and references therein.. For each pipeline we provide:<br />
* Full-mission CMB intensity map, confidence mask and beam transfer function.<br />
* Full-mission high-pass filtered CMB polarisation map, <br />
* A confidence mask.<br />
* A beam transfer function.<br />
In addition, and for characterisation purposes, there are six other sets of maps from three data splits: first/second half-ring, odd/even years and first/second half-mission. And for each of these data splits we provide half-sum and half-difference maps. The half-difference maps can be used to provide an approximate noise estimate for the full mission, but they should be used with caution. Each split has caveats in this regard: there are noise correlations between the half-ring maps, and missing pixels in the other splits. The Intensity maps are provided at Nside = 2048, at 5 arcmin resolution, while the Polarisation ones are provided at Nside = 1024 at 10 arcmin resolution. All maps are in units of K<sub>cmb</sub>.<br />
<br />
These maps can be found in the files ''COM_CMB_IQU-{pipeline}-field-{Int/Pol}_Nside_R2.00.fits''. The ''Int'' files have two extensions, for the Intensity maps and the beam transfer function, the ''Pol'' files have three extensions, for Q and U maps, and for the beam transfer function.<br />
For a complete description of the data structure, see the [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
The gallery below shows the Intensity, noise from half-mission, half-difference, and confidence mask for the four pipelines, in the order SMICA, SEVEM, NILC and COMMANDER, from top to bottom. The Intensity maps scale is [–500.+500] μK, and the noise are between [–25,+25] μK. We do not show the Q and U maps since they have no significant visible structure to contemplate.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=300px heights=180> <br />
File:CMB_smica_tsig.png<br />
File:CMB_smica_tnoi.png<br />
File:CMB_smica_tmask.png<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tsig.png<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tnoi.png<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tmask.png<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tsig.png<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tnoi.png<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tmask.png<br />
File:CMB_commander_tsig.png<br />
File:CMB_commander_tnoi.png<br />
File:CMB_commander_tmask.png<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
===Product description ===<br />
====SMICA====<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces a CMB map by linearly combining all Planck input channels (from 30 to 857 GHz) with weights which vary with the multipole. It includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math> '''and deconvolved from the pixel window'''. It means that, ideally, one would have <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) * B_\ell(5')^2</math>, where <math>C_\ell(map)</math> is the angular spectrum of the map, where <math>C_\ell(sky)</math> is the angular spectrum of the CMB and <math>B_\ell(5')</math> is a 5-arcminute Gaussian beam function. Note however that, by convention, the effective beam window function <math>B_\ell(fits)</math> provided in the FITS file does include a pixel window function. Therefore, it is equal to <math>B_\ell(fits) = B_\ell(5') / p_\ell(2048)</math> where <math>p_\ell(2048)</math> denotes the pixel window function for an Nside=2048 pixelization.<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. <br />
; Masks and inpainting<br />
: The raw SMICA CMB map has valid pixels except at the location of masked areas: point sources, Galactic plane, some other bright regions. Those invalid pixels are indicated with the mask named 'I_MASK'. The raw SMICA map has been inpainted, producing the map named "INP_CMB". Inpainting consists in replacing some pixels (as indicated by the mask named INP_MASK) by the values of a constrained Gaussian realization which is computed to ensure good statistical properties of the whole map (technically, the inpainted pixels are a sample realisation drawn under the posterior distribution given the un-masked pixels.<br />
<br />
====NILC (done by CB, checks with producers in progress)====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: The Needlet-ILC (hereafter NILC) CMB map is constructed both in total intensity as well as polarization, Q and U Stokes parameters. For total intensity, all Planck frequency channels are included. For polarization, all polarization sensitive frequency channels are included, from 30 to 353 GHz. The solution, for T, Q and U is obtained by applying the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) technique in needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range. <br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The spectral analysis, and estimation of the NILC coefficients, is performed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math>. The effective beam is equivalent of a Gaussian circular beam with FWHM=5 arcminutes. <br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The same procedure is followed by SMICA and NILC for producing confidence masks, though with different parametrizations. A low resolution smoothed version of the NILC map, noise subtracted, is thresholded to 73.5 squared micro-K for T, and 6,75 squared micro-K for Q and U.<br />
<br />
{{PlanckPapers|planck2014-p11}}<br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
:The aim of SEVEM is to produce clean CMB maps at one or several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting. The templates are internal, i.e., they are constructed from Planck data, avoiding the need for external data sets, which usually complicates the analyses and may introduce inconsistencies. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. <br />
<br />
;Resolution<br />
<br />
:For intensity the clean CMB map is at nside=2048 with 5' resolution and up to lmax=4000; note that SEVEM also produces additional clean single frequency maps at 100, 143 and 217 GHz at their native resolution.<br />
:For polarization the clean CMB map is at nside=1024 with a resolution of 10' and lmax=3071; the additional clean maps are at 70 GHz (native resolution) and at 100 and 143 GHz (with 10' resolution).<br />
<br />
;Confidence masks<br />
<br />
:The confidence masks cover the most contaminated regions of the sky, leaving approximately 85 per cent of useful sky for intensity and 80 per cent for polarization.<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER-Ruler====<br />
COMMANDER-Ruler is the Planck software implementing a pixel based parametric component separation. Amplitude of CMB and the main diffuse foregrounds along with the relevant spectral parameters for those (see below in the Astrophysical Foreground Section for the latter) are parametrized and fitted in single MCMC chains conducted at N<sub>side</sub>=256 using COMMANDER, implementing a Gibbs Sampling. The CMB amplitude which <br />
is obtained in these runs corresponds to the delivered low resolution CMB component from COMMANDER-Ruler which has a FWHM of 40 arcminutes. The sampling of the foreground parameters is applied to the data at full resolution for obtaining the high resolution CMB component from Ruler which is available on the PLA. In the Planck Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}additional material is discussed, specifically concerning the sky region where the solutions are reliable, in terms of chi2 maps. The products mainly consist of: <br />
<br />
* Maps of the Amplitudes of the CMB at low resolution, N<sub>side</sub>=256, along with the standard deviations of the outputs, beam profiles derived from the production process. <br />
* Maps of the CMB amplitude, along with the standard deviations, at high resolution, N<sub>side=2048, beam profiles derived from the production process. <br />
* Mask obtained on the basis of the precision in the fitting procedure; the thresholding is evaluated through the COMMANDER-Ruler likelihood analysis and excludes 13% of the sky, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}.<br />
<br />
===Production process===<br />
====SMICA====<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: All input maps undergo a pre-processing step to deal with point sources. The point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue are fitted in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole is filled in by a simple diffusive process to ensure a smooth transition and mitigate spectral leakage. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, here all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and filled-in similarly.<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHzare harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> and co-added with multipole-dependent weights as shown in the figure.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: The areas masked in the pre-processing step are replaced by a constrained Gaussian realization.<br />
<br />
Note: The visible power deficit in the raw CMB map around the galactic plane is due to the smooth fill-in of the masked areas in the input maps (the result of the pre-processing). It is not to be confused with the post-processing step of inpainting of the CMB map with a constrained Gaussian realization.<br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:smica.jpg|thumb|center|500px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input maps (after they are re-beamed to 5 arcmin and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), as a function of multipole.''']]<br />
<br />
====NILC (done by CB, check by producers in progress)====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky frequency maps are deconvolved using the DPC beam transfer function provided, and re-convolved with a 5 arcminutes FWHM circular Gaussian beam. In polarization, prior to the smoothing process, all sky E and B maps are derived from Q and U using standard HEALPix tools from each individual frequency channels <br />
<br />
; Linear combination<br />
<br />
: Pre-processed input frequency maps are decomposed in needlet coefficients, specified in the Appendix B of the Planck A11 paper, with shape given by Table B.1. Minimum variance coefficients are then obtained, using all channels for T, from 30 to 353 for E and B. <br />
<br />
; Post-processing<br />
<br />
: E and B maps are re-combined into Q and U products using standard HEALPix tools. <br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
The templates are internal, i.e., they are constructed from Planck data, avoiding the need for external data sets, which usually complicates the analyses and may introduce inconsistencies. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust.<br />
<br />
Usually we construct our templates by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMB map at that frequency. This is done in real space at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. The <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. Note that the same expression applies for I, Q and U. Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).<br />
<br />
It should be stressed that the method is very fast and permits the generation of thousands of simulations to characterize the statistical properties of the outputs, a critical need for many cosmological applications. The final CMB map retains the angular resolution of the original frequency map.<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of clean maps at different frequencies is of great interest in order to test the robustness of the results. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned independently and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
;Intensity<br />
<br />
For the CMB intensity map, we have cleaned the 100 GHz, 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps using three templates constructed as the difference of the following Planck channels (smoothed to a common resolution): (30-44), (44-70), (545-353) and 857 as the fourth template. First of all, the six frequency channels which are going to be used to construct templates are inpainted at the point source positions detected using the Mexican Hat Wavelet algorithm (Planck Collaboration A35 2014). The size of the holes to be inpainted is determined taking into account the beam size of the channel as well as the flux of each source. The inpainting algorithm is based on simple diffuse inpainting, which fills one pixel with the mean value of the neighbouring pixels in an iterative way. To avoid inconsistencies when subtracting two channels, each frequency map is inpainted on the sources detected in that map and on the second map (if any) used to construct the template. Then the maps are smoothed to a common resolution (the first channel in the subtraction is smoothed with the beam of the second map and viceversa). For the 857 GHz template, we simply filter this map with the beam from 545 GHz (this is for comparison with the previous pipeline, where the 857 GHz was smoothed at this resolution when using it to construct the 857–545 template). <br />
<br />
The coefficients are obtained outside the analysis mask, that covers the 1 per cent brightest emission of the sky as well as point sources detected at all frequency channels. Once the maps are cleaned, each of them is inpainted on the point sources positions detected at that (raw) channel. Then, the MHW algorithm is run again, now on the clean maps. A relatively small number of new sources are found and are also inpainted at each channel. The resolution of the clean map is the same as that of the raw map. Our final CMB map has then been constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask is produced by looking at differences between three different SEVEM CMB reconstructions, leaving a suitable sky fraction of approximately 85 per cent.<br />
<br />
;Polarization<br />
<br />
To clean the polarization maps, a procedure similar to the one used for intensity data is applied to the Q and U maps independently. In particular, we clean the 70, 100 and 143 GHz using four templates: 30-44 (after being convolved with the beam of each other), 353-217 (smoothed at 10' resolution) and 217-143 and 217-100 (both at 1 degree resolution). Conversely to the intensity case and due to the lower availability of frequency channels, it becomes necessary to use the maps to be cleaned as part of one of the templates: the 100 GHz map is used in the 217-100 template to clean the 143 GHz one and the 143 GHz map is used in the 217-143 template to clean the 100 GHz one, making the clean maps less independent between them than in the intensity case.<br />
<br />
The linear coefficients are estimated independently for Q and U outside a mask, that covers point sources and the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission. Once the maps have been cleaned, inpainting of the point sources detected at each map is carried out. The size of the holes to be inpainted takes into account the additional smoothing of the 100 and 143 GHz maps. The 100 and 143 GHz clean maps are then combined in harmonic space, using E and B decomposition, to produce the final CMB maps for the Q and U components at a resolution of 10′ (Gaussian beam) for a HEALPix parameter nside = 1024. Each map is weighted taking into account its corresponding noise level at each multipole. Finally, before applying the post-processing HPF to the clean polarization data, the region with the brightest Galactic residuals is inpainted (5 per cent of the sky).<br />
<br />
The confidence mask includes all the pixels above a given threshold, the CO emission and those pixels more affected by the high-pass filtering, leaving a useful sky fraction os approximately 80 per cent.<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER-Ruler====<br />
The production process consist in low and high resolution runs according to the description above. <br />
; Low Resolution Runs: Same as the Astrophysics Foregrounds Section below; The CMB amplitude is fitted along with the other foreground parameters and constitutes the CMB Low Resolution Rendering which is in the PLA. <br />
; Ruler Runs: the sampling at high resolution is used to infer the probability distribution of spectral parameters which is exploited at full resolution in order to obtain the High Resolution CMB Rendering which is in the PLA. <br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. SMICA and SEVEM use all the maps between 30 and 857 GHz; NILC uses the ones between 44 and 857 GHz. Commander-Ruler uses frequency channel maps from 30 to 353 GHz. <br />
<br />
===File names and structure===<br />
The FITS files corresponding to the three CMB products are the following:<br />
<br />
''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}-field-{Int,Pol}_Nside_R2.nn.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''method'' is mica, nilc, sevem, or commander, and Int and Pol indicate whether the file contains the temperature (Int) or the polarisation (Pol) maps. For this release the temperature maps are provided at Nside = 2048, and the polarisation maps at Nside = 1024. <br />
<br />
The files contain <br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data;<br />
* one or two ''BINTABLE'' data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 14 columns in which the first 13 columns is a CMB maps produced from the full or a subset of the data, as described in the table below, and the last column in a confidence mask. There is a single extension for ''Int'' files, and two, for Q and U, for ''Pol'' files. <br />
* a ''BINTABLE'' extension containing the beam window function.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I or Q or U || Real*4 || uK_cmb || I or Q or U map <br />
|- <br />
|HM1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HM2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 2 <br />
|-<br />
|YR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 1 <br />
|-<br />
|YR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HMHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HMHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|YRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|YRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|HRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half diff <br />
|-<br />
|MASK || BYTE || || Confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (smica/nilc/sevem/commander)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Notes:<br />
# The beam window function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>.<br />
<br />
<!--- mi sembra che questa non serva più <br />
The low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler CMB product is organized in the following way:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK_cmb || CMB temperature map obtained as average over 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Corresponding Standard deviation amongst the 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Confidence mask<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. EXTNAME = ''CMB-Sample'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM01 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM02 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM03 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM04 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM05 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM06 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM07 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM08 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM09 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM10 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
<!---- anche queste non servono più <br />
<br />
The FITS files containing the ''union'' (or common) maks is:<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-union_2048_R1.10.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common}}<br />
which contains a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with a single column (named ''U73'') for the mask, which is boolean (FITS ''TFORM = B''), in GALACTIC coordinates, NESTED ordering, and Nside=2048.<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for a small file containing the SMICA cmb map with no additional information (noise or masks) we provide such a file here<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
This file contains a single extension with a single column containing the SMICA cmb temperature map.<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
== Astrophysical foregrounds from parametric component separation ==<br />
We describe diffuse foreground products for the Planck 2013 release. See Planck Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}} for a detailed description and astrophysical discussion of those.<br />
<br />
===Product description===<br />
; Low frequency foreground component<br />
: The products below contain the result of the fitting for one foreground component at low frequencies in Planck bands,along with its spectral behavior parametrized by a power law spectral index. Amplitude and spectral indeces are evaluated at N$_\rm{side}$ 256 (see below in the production process), along with standard deviation from sampling and instrumental noise on both. An amplitude solution at N$_\rm{side}$=2048 is also given, along with standard deviation from sampling and instrumental noise as well as solutions on halfrings. The beam profile associated to this component is also provided as a secondary Extension in the N$_\rm{side}$ 2048 product.<br />
<br />
; Thermal dust<br />
: The products below contain the result of the fitting for one foreground component at high frequencies in Planck bands, along with its spectral behavior parametrized by temperature and emissivity. Amplitude, temperature and emissivity are evaluated at N$_\rm{side}$ 256 (see below in the production process), along with standard deviation from sampling and instrumental noise on all of them. An amplitude solution at N$_\rm{side}$=2048 is also given, along with standard deviation from sampling and instrumental noise as well as solutions on halfrings. The beam profile associated to this component is provided. <br />
<br />
; Sky mask<br />
: The delivered mask is defined as the sky region where the fitting procedure was conducted and the solutions presented here were obtained. It is made by masking a region where the Galactic emission is too intense to perform the fitting, plus the masking of brightest point sources.<br />
<br />
===Production process===<br />
CODE: COMMANDER-RULER. The code exploits a parametrization of CMB and main diffuse foreground observables. The naive resolution of input <br />
frequency channels is reduced to N$_\rm{side}$=256 first. Parameters related to the foreground scaling with frequency are estimated at that resolution <br />
by using Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis using Gibbs sampling. The foreground parameters make the foreground mixing matrix which is <br />
applied to the data at full resolution in order to obtain the provided products at N$_\rm{side}$=2048. In the Planck Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}} additional material is discussed, specifically concerning the sky region where the solutions are reliable, in terms of chi2 maps.<br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
Nominal frequency maps at 30, 44, 70, 100, 143, 217, 353 GHz ({{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=30|period=Nominal|link=LFI 30 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=44|period=Nominal|link=LFI 44 GHz frequency maps}} and {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=70|period=Nominal|link=LFI 70 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=100|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 100 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=143|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 143 GHz frequency maps}},{{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=217|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 217 GHz frequency maps}} and {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=353|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 353 GHz frequency maps}}) and their II column corresponding to the noise covariance matrix. <br />
Halfrings at the same frequencies. Beam window functions as reported in the [[The RIMO#Beam Window Functions|LFI and HFI RIMO]].<br />
<br />
===Related products===<br />
None. <br />
<br />
===File names===<br />
* Low frequency component at N$_\rm{side}$ 256: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits}}<br />
* Low frequency component at N$_\rm{side}$ 2048: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits}}<br />
* Thermal dust at N$_\rm{side}$ 256: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits}}<br />
* Thermal dust at N$_\rm{side}$ 2048: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits}}<br />
* Mask: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Mask-rulerminimal_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Mask-rulerminimal_2048_R1.00.fits}}<br />
<br />
===Meta Data===<br />
====Low frequency foreground component====<br />
=====Low frequency component at N<sub>side</sub> = 256=====<br />
File name: COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits<br />
: '''Name HDU -- COMP-MAP'''<br />
<br />
The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK<sub>CMB</sub>|| Intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || uK<sub>CMB</sub> || standard deviation of intensity <br />
|-<br />
|Beta || Real*4 || || effective spectral index <br />
|-<br />
|B_stdev || Real*4 || || standard deviation on the effective spectral index <br />
|}<br />
<br />
; Notes:<br />
: Comment: The Intensity is normalized at 30 GHz<br />
: Comment: The intensity was estimated during mixing matrix estimation<br />
<br />
=====Low frequency component at N<sub>side</sub> = 2048=====<br />
: File name: COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits<br />
<br />
<br />
: '''Name HDU -- COMP-MAP'''<br />
<br />
The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*8 || uK<sub>CMB</sub>|| Intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*8 || uK<sub>CMB</sub> || standard deviation of intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_hr1 || Real*8 || uK<sub>CMB</sub> || Intensity on half ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|I_hr2 || Real*8 || uK<sub>CMB</sub> || Intensity on half ring 2 <br />
|}<br />
<br />
; Notes:<br />
: Comment: The intensity was computed after mixing matrix application<br />
<br />
<br />
: '''Name HDU -- BeamWF'''<br />
<br />
The Fits second extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BeamWF || Real*4 || || beam profile <br />
|}<br />
<br />
; Notes:<br />
: Comment: Beam window function used in the Component separation process<br />
<br />
====Thermal dust====<br />
=====Thermal dust component at N<sub>side</sub>=256=====<br />
: File name: COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits<br />
<br />
: '''Name HDU -- COMP-MAP'''<br />
<br />
The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || MJy/sr || Intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || MJy/sr || standard deviation of intensity <br />
|-<br />
|Em || Real*4 || || emissivity <br />
|-<br />
|Em_stdev || Real*4 || || standard deviation on emissivity <br />
|-<br />
|T || Real*4 || uK<sub>CMB</sub> || temperature <br />
|-<br />
|T_stdev || Real*4 || uK<sub>CMB</sub> || standard deviation on temerature <br />
|}<br />
<br />
; Notes:<br />
: Comment: The intensity is normalized at 353 GHz<br />
<br />
=====Thermal dust component at N<sub>side</sub>=2048=====<br />
File name: COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits<br />
<br />
<br />
: '''Name HDU -- COMP-MAP'''<br />
<br />
The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*8 || MJy/sr || Intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*8 || MJy/sr || standard deviation of intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_hr1 || Real*8 || MJy/sr || Intensity on half ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|I_hr2 || Real*8 || MJy/sr || Intensity on half ring 2 <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
: '''Name HDU -- BeamWF'''<br />
<br />
The Fits second extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BeamWF || Real*4 || || beam profile <br />
|}<br />
<br />
; Notes:<br />
: Comment: Beam window function used in the Component separation process<br />
<br />
====Sky mask====<br />
File name: COM_CompMap_Mask-rulerminimal_2048.fits<br />
<br />
; '''Name HDU -- COMP-MASK'''<br />
<br />
The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Mask || Real*4 || || Mask <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|007]]</div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=DatesObs&diff=10589DatesObs2015-01-29T09:22:24Z<p>Amoneti: /* File Format */</p>
<hr />
<div>== Overview ==<br />
<br />
The DatesObs files are not official Planck products but have been made available for the convenience of the community. They contain timing information split by survey, gridded by HEALPIX pixel, and sampled by UTC day. They are intended for investigation of inter-survey source variability, comparison with external observations, and understanding of the survey strategy. <br />
<br />
== File Format ==<br />
<br />
There are 56 files; 6 HFI bands x 5 surveys & 3 LFI bands x 8 surveys. They are named:<br />
<br />
''HFI_DatesObs_fff_Nside_R2.nn_survey_k.fits.gz''<br />
<br />
where ''fff'' is the usual 3-digit description of the channel frequency.<br />
<br />
The files themselves are in FITS format, and gzipped, with data in the first extension<br />
* RING-ordered HEALPIX<br />
* NSIDE 1024 for LFI, and 2048 for HFI<br />
<br />
They contain two fields:<br />
<br />
* DATESOBS - string - comma-separated list of UTC days in YYMMDD format on which the pixel was observed<br />
* NUMOBS - integer - the number of UTC days on which the pixel was observed<br />
<br />
Unobserved pixels have been left blank.<br />
<br />
== Generation ==<br />
<br />
The DATESOBS files were generated by projecting the line-of-sight of each detector onto the sky on a ring-by-ring basis. Inputs were the satellite spin-axis and the opening angle of each detector. Position is thus accurate to nearest pixel center and timing to the start of each ring - rings over midnight are only counted for the day in which they begin.<br />
<br />
Note no beam information was used, just closest line-of-sight. The list of dates within a beam width is thus the union of the date information for all pixels within the appropriate area.<br />
<br />
Pixels were counted observed if hit by a single detector within each instrument band; there was no consideration of intra-band coverage. <br />
<br />
Detectors not used in production of the frequency maps were excluded.<br />
<br />
Finally the data have been masked by the per-survey SkyMap hit-maps in order to remove areas which were flagged during the processing (mainly planet crossings). No ring cuts were applied so some anomalous rings are included.<br />
<br />
== Healpix IDL read_fits_map ==<br />
<br />
Note the datesobs files cannot be read by Healpix's IDL read_fits_map routine as it is not expecting string content. There is no problem with the standard AstroLib mrdfits.<br />
<br />
[[file:numobs.png|thumb|600px|center|Full-sky map of the number of observations in the first survey.]]<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|013]]</div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=CMB_and_astrophysical_component_maps&diff=10572CMB and astrophysical component maps2015-01-28T15:59:45Z<p>Amoneti: Removed dust and CO maps, and more details</p>
<hr />
<div>== Overview ==<br />
This section describes the maps of astrophysical components produced from the Planck data. These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps described above using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of the product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITS file containing the data and associated information.<br />
All the details can be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}.<br />
<br />
==CMB maps==<br />
CMB maps have been produced by the SMICA SEVEM, NILC and COMMANDER pipelines, which are described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation | CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Section 3 and Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}} and references therein.. For each pipeline we provide:<br />
* Full-mission CMB intensity map, confidence mask and beam transfer function.<br />
* Full-mission high-pass filtered CMB polarisation map, <br />
* A confidence mask.<br />
* A beam transfer function.<br />
In addition, and for characterisation purposes, there are six other sets of maps from three data splits: first/second half-ring, odd/even years and first/second half-mission. And for each of these data splits we provide half-sum and half-difference maps. The half-difference maps can be used to provide an approximate noise estimate for the full mission, but they should be used with caution. Each split has caveats in this regard: there are noise correlations between the half-ring maps, and missing pixels in the other splits. The Intensity maps are provided at Nside = 2048, at 5 arcmin resolution, while the Polarisation ones are provided at Nside = 1024 at 10 arcmin resolution. All maps are in units of K<sub>cmb</sub>.<br />
<br />
These maps can be found in the files ''COM_CMB_IQU-{pipeline}-field-{Int/Pol}_Nside_R2.00.fits''. The ''Int'' files have two extensions, for the Intensity maps and the beam transfer function, the ''Pol'' files have three extensions, for Q and U maps, and for the beam transfer function.<br />
For a complete description of the data structure, see the [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
The gallery below shows the Intensity, noise from half-mission, half-difference, and confidence mask for the four pipelines, in the order SMICA, SEVEM, NILC and COMMANDER, from top to bottom. The Intensity maps scale is [–500.+500] μK, and the noise are between [–25,+25] μK. We do not show the Q and U maps since they have no significant visible structure to contemplate.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=300px heights=180> <br />
File:CMB_smica_tsig.png<br />
File:CMB_smica_tnoi.png<br />
File:CMB_smica_tmask.png<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tsig.png<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tnoi.png<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tmask.png<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tsig.png<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tnoi.png<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tmask.png<br />
File:CMB_commander_tsig.png<br />
File:CMB_commander_tnoi.png<br />
File:CMB_commander_tmask.png<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
===Product description ===<br />
====SMICA====<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces a CMB map by linearly combining all Planck input channels (from 30 to 857 GHz) with weights which vary with the multipole. It includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math> '''and deconvolved from the pixel window'''. It means that, ideally, one would have <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) * B_\ell(5')^2</math>, where <math>C_\ell(map)</math> is the angular spectrum of the map, where <math>C_\ell(sky)</math> is the angular spectrum of the CMB and <math>B_\ell(5')</math> is a 5-arcminute Gaussian beam function. Note however that, by convention, the effective beam window function <math>B_\ell(fits)</math> provided in the FITS file does include a pixel window function. Therefore, it is equal to <math>B_\ell(fits) = B_\ell(5') / p_\ell(2048)</math> where <math>p_\ell(2048)</math> denotes the pixel window function for an Nside=2048 pixelization.<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. <br />
; Masks and inpainting<br />
: The raw SMICA CMB map has valid pixels except at the location of masked areas: point sources, Galactic plane, some other bright regions. Those invalid pixels are indicated with the mask named 'I_MASK'. The raw SMICA map has been inpainted, producing the map named "INP_CMB". Inpainting consists in replacing some pixels (as indicated by the mask named INP_MASK) by the values of a constrained Gaussian realization which is computed to ensure good statistical properties of the whole map (technically, the inpainted pixels are a sample realisation drawn under the posterior distribution given the un-masked pixels.<br />
<br />
====NILC (done by CB, checks with producers in progress)====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: The Needlet-ILC (hereafter NILC) CMB map is constructed both in total intensity as well as polarization, Q and U Stokes parameters. For total intensity, all Planck frequency channels are included. For polarization, all polarization sensitive frequency channels are included, from 30 to 353 GHz. The solution, for T, Q and U is obtained by applying the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) technique in needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range. <br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The spectral analysis, and estimation of the NILC coefficients, is performed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math>. The effective beam is equivalent of a Gaussian circular beam with FWHM=5 arcminutes. <br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The same procedure is followed by SMICA and NILC for producing confidence masks, though with different parametrizations. A low resolution smoothed version of the NILC map, noise subtracted, is thresholded to 73.5 squared micro-K for T, and 6,75 squared micro-K for Q and U.<br />
<br />
{{PlanckPapers|planck2014-p11}}<br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
The aim of SEVEM is to produce clean CMB maps at one or several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting. The templates are internal, i.e., they are constructed from Planck data, avoiding the need for external data sets, which usually complicates the analyses and may introduce inconsistencies. The method has been successfully applied to Planck simulations{{BibCite|leach2008}} and to WMAP polarisation data{{BibCite|fernandezcobos2012}}. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. Note that unlike the other products, SEVEM does not provide the mask of regions not used in the productions of the CMB ma (''I_MASK'') nor an inpainted version of the map and its associated mask. On the other hand, it provides ''channel maps'' and 100, 143, and 217 GHz which are used as the building blocks of the final map.<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER-Ruler====<br />
COMMANDER-Ruler is the Planck software implementing a pixel based parametric component separation. Amplitude of CMB and the main diffuse foregrounds along with the relevant spectral parameters for those (see below in the Astrophysical Foreground Section for the latter) are parametrized and fitted in single MCMC chains conducted at N<sub>side</sub>=256 using COMMANDER, implementing a Gibbs Sampling. The CMB amplitude which <br />
is obtained in these runs corresponds to the delivered low resolution CMB component from COMMANDER-Ruler which has a FWHM of 40 arcminutes. The sampling of the foreground parameters is applied to the data at full resolution for obtaining the high resolution CMB component from Ruler which is available on the PLA. In the Planck Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}additional material is discussed, specifically concerning the sky region where the solutions are reliable, in terms of chi2 maps. The products mainly consist of: <br />
<br />
* Maps of the Amplitudes of the CMB at low resolution, N<sub>side</sub>=256, along with the standard deviations of the outputs, beam profiles derived from the production process. <br />
* Maps of the CMB amplitude, along with the standard deviations, at high resolution, N<sub>side=2048, beam profiles derived from the production process. <br />
* Mask obtained on the basis of the precision in the fitting procedure; the thresholding is evaluated through the COMMANDER-Ruler likelihood analysis and excludes 13% of the sky, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}.<br />
<br />
===Production process===<br />
====SMICA====<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: All input maps undergo a pre-processing step to deal with point sources. The point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue are fitted in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole is filled in by a simple diffusive process to ensure a smooth transition and mitigate spectral leakage. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, here all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and filled-in similarly.<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHzare harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> and co-added with multipole-dependent weights as shown in the figure.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: The areas masked in the pre-processing step are replaced by a constrained Gaussian realization.<br />
<br />
Note: The visible power deficit in the raw CMB map around the galactic plane is due to the smooth fill-in of the masked areas in the input maps (the result of the pre-processing). It is not to be confused with the post-processing step of inpainting of the CMB map with a constrained Gaussian realization.<br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:smica.jpg|thumb|center|500px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input maps (after they are re-beamed to 5 arcmin and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), as a function of multipole.''']]<br />
<br />
====NILC (done by CB, check by producers in progress)====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky frequency maps are deconvolved using the DPC beam transfer function provided, and re-convolved with a 5 arcminutes FWHM circular Gaussian beam. In polarization, prior to the smoothing process, all sky E and B maps are derived from Q and U using standard HEALPix tools from each individual frequency channels <br />
<br />
; Linear combination<br />
<br />
: Pre-processed input frequency maps are decomposed in needlet coefficients, specified in the Appendix B of the Planck A11 paper, with shape given by Table B.1. Minimum variance coefficients are then obtained, using all channels for T, from 30 to 353 for E and B. <br />
<br />
; Post-processing<br />
<br />
: E and B maps are re-combined into Q and U products using standard HEALPix tools. <br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
The templates are internal, i.e., they are constructed from Planck data, avoiding the need for external data sets, which usually complicates the analyses and may introduce inconsistencies. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. The fitting can be done in real or wavelet space (using a fast wavelet adapted to the HEALPix pixelization{{BibCite|casaponsa2011}}) to properly deal with incomplete sky coverage. By expediency, however, we fill in the small number of unobserved pixels at each channel with the mean value of its neighbouring pixels before applying SEVEM.<br />
<br />
We construct our templates by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMB map at that frequency. This is done either in real or in wavelet space (i.e., scale by scale) at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. If the cleaning is performed in real space, the <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. When working in wavelet space, the cleaning is done in the same way at each wavelet scale independently (i.e., the linear coefficients depend on the scale). Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).<br />
<br />
An additional level of flexibility can also be considered: the linear coefficients can be the same for all the sky, or several regions with different sets of coefficients can be considered. The regions are then combined in a smooth way, by weighting the pixels at the boundaries, to avoid discontinuities in the clean maps.<br />
Since the method is linear, we may easily propagate the noise properties to the final CMB map. Moreover, it is very fast and permits the generation of thousands of simulations to character- ize the statistical properties of the outputs, a critical need for many cosmological applications. The final CMB map retains the angular resolution of the original frequency map.<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of clean maps at different frequencies is of great interest in order to test the robustness of the results. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned independently and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
In particular, we have cleaned the 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps using four templates constructed as the difference of the following Planck channels (smoothed to a common resolution): (30-44), (44-70), (545-353) and (857-545). For simplicity, the three maps have been cleaned in real space, since there was not a significant improvement when using wavelets (especially at high latitude). In order to take into account the different spectral behaviour of the foregrounds at low and high galactic latitudes, we have considered two independent regions of the sky, for which we have used a different set of coefficients. The first region corresponds to the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission, whereas the second region is defined by the remaining 97 per cent of the sky. For the first region, the coefficients are actually estimated over the whole sky (we find that this is more optimal than perform the minimisation only on the 3 per cent brightest region, where the CMB emission is very sub-dominant) while for the second region, we exclude the 3 per cent brightest region of the sky, point sources detected at any frequency and those pixels which have not been observed at all channels.<br />
Our final CMB map has then been constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
Moreover, additional CMB clean maps (at frequencies between 44 and 353 GHz) have also been produced using different combinations of templates for some of the analyses carried out in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p09}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p14}}. In particular, clean maps from 44 to 353 GHz have been used for the stacking analysis presented in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p14}}, while frequencies from 70 to 217 GHz were used for consistency tests in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p09}}.<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER-Ruler====<br />
The production process consist in low and high resolution runs according to the description above. <br />
; Low Resolution Runs: Same as the Astrophysics Foregrounds Section below; The CMB amplitude is fitted along with the other foreground parameters and constitutes the CMB Low Resolution Rendering which is in the PLA. <br />
; Ruler Runs: the sampling at high resolution is used to infer the probability distribution of spectral parameters which is exploited at full resolution in order to obtain the High Resolution CMB Rendering which is in the PLA. <br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. SMICA and SEVEM use all the maps between 30 and 857 GHz; NILC uses the ones between 44 and 857 GHz. Commander-Ruler uses frequency channel maps from 30 to 353 GHz. <br />
<br />
===File names and structure===<br />
The FITS files corresponding to the three CMB products are the following:<br />
<br />
''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}-field-{Int,Pol}_Nside_R2.nn.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''method'' is mica, nilc, sevem, or commander, and Int and Pol indicate whether the file contains the temperature (Int) or the polarisation (Pol) maps. For this release the temperature maps are provided at Nside = 2048, and the polarisation maps at Nside = 1024. <br />
<br />
The files contain <br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data;<br />
* one or two ''BINTABLE'' data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 14 columns in which the first 13 columns is a CMB map produced from the full or a subset of the data, as described in the table below, and the last column in a confidence mask. There is a single extension for ''Int'' files, and two, for Q and U, for ''Pol'' files. <br />
* a ''BINTABLE'' extension containing the beam window function.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I or Q or U || Real*4 || uK_cmb || I or U or Q map<br />
|-<br />
|U || Real*4 || uK_cmb || U-polarization <br />
|- <br />
|HM1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HM2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 2 <br />
|-<br />
|YR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 1 <br />
|-<br />
|YR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HMHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HMHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|YRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|YRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|HRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half diff <br />
|-<br />
|MASK || BYTE || || Confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (smica/nilc/sevem/commander)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Notes:<br />
# The beam window function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>.<br />
<br />
<!--- mi sembra che questa non serva più <br />
The low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler CMB product is organized in the following way:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK_cmb || CMB temperature map obtained as average over 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Corresponding Standard deviation amongst the 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Confidence mask<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. EXTNAME = ''CMB-Sample'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM01 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM02 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM03 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM04 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM05 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM06 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM07 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM08 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM09 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM10 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
<!---- anche queste non servono più <br />
<br />
The FITS files containing the ''union'' (or common) maks is:<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-union_2048_R1.10.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common}}<br />
which contains a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with a single column (named ''U73'') for the mask, which is boolean (FITS ''TFORM = B''), in GALACTIC coordinates, NESTED ordering, and Nside=2048.<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for a small file containing the SMICA cmb map with no additional information (noise or masks) we provide such a file here<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
This file contains a single extension with a single column containing the SMICA cmb temperature map.<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
== Astrophysical foregrounds from parametric component separation ==<br />
We describe diffuse foreground products for the Planck 2013 release. See Planck Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}} for a detailed description and astrophysical discussion of those.<br />
<br />
===Product description===<br />
; Low frequency foreground component<br />
: The products below contain the result of the fitting for one foreground component at low frequencies in Planck bands,along with its spectral behavior parametrized by a power law spectral index. Amplitude and spectral indeces are evaluated at N$_\rm{side}$ 256 (see below in the production process), along with standard deviation from sampling and instrumental noise on both. An amplitude solution at N$_\rm{side}$=2048 is also given, along with standard deviation from sampling and instrumental noise as well as solutions on halfrings. The beam profile associated to this component is also provided as a secondary Extension in the N$_\rm{side}$ 2048 product.<br />
<br />
; Thermal dust<br />
: The products below contain the result of the fitting for one foreground component at high frequencies in Planck bands, along with its spectral behavior parametrized by temperature and emissivity. Amplitude, temperature and emissivity are evaluated at N$_\rm{side}$ 256 (see below in the production process), along with standard deviation from sampling and instrumental noise on all of them. An amplitude solution at N$_\rm{side}$=2048 is also given, along with standard deviation from sampling and instrumental noise as well as solutions on halfrings. The beam profile associated to this component is provided. <br />
<br />
; Sky mask<br />
: The delivered mask is defined as the sky region where the fitting procedure was conducted and the solutions presented here were obtained. It is made by masking a region where the Galactic emission is too intense to perform the fitting, plus the masking of brightest point sources.<br />
<br />
===Production process===<br />
CODE: COMMANDER-RULER. The code exploits a parametrization of CMB and main diffuse foreground observables. The naive resolution of input <br />
frequency channels is reduced to N$_\rm{side}$=256 first. Parameters related to the foreground scaling with frequency are estimated at that resolution <br />
by using Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis using Gibbs sampling. The foreground parameters make the foreground mixing matrix which is <br />
applied to the data at full resolution in order to obtain the provided products at N$_\rm{side}$=2048. In the Planck Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}} additional material is discussed, specifically concerning the sky region where the solutions are reliable, in terms of chi2 maps.<br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
Nominal frequency maps at 30, 44, 70, 100, 143, 217, 353 GHz ({{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=30|period=Nominal|link=LFI 30 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=44|period=Nominal|link=LFI 44 GHz frequency maps}} and {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=70|period=Nominal|link=LFI 70 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=100|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 100 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=143|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 143 GHz frequency maps}},{{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=217|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 217 GHz frequency maps}} and {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=353|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 353 GHz frequency maps}}) and their II column corresponding to the noise covariance matrix. <br />
Halfrings at the same frequencies. Beam window functions as reported in the [[The RIMO#Beam Window Functions|LFI and HFI RIMO]].<br />
<br />
===Related products===<br />
None. <br />
<br />
===File names===<br />
* Low frequency component at N$_\rm{side}$ 256: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits}}<br />
* Low frequency component at N$_\rm{side}$ 2048: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits}}<br />
* Thermal dust at N$_\rm{side}$ 256: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits}}<br />
* Thermal dust at N$_\rm{side}$ 2048: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits}}<br />
* Mask: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Mask-rulerminimal_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Mask-rulerminimal_2048_R1.00.fits}}<br />
<br />
===Meta Data===<br />
====Low frequency foreground component====<br />
=====Low frequency component at N<sub>side</sub> = 256=====<br />
File name: COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits<br />
: '''Name HDU -- COMP-MAP'''<br />
<br />
The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK<sub>CMB</sub>|| Intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || uK<sub>CMB</sub> || standard deviation of intensity <br />
|-<br />
|Beta || Real*4 || || effective spectral index <br />
|-<br />
|B_stdev || Real*4 || || standard deviation on the effective spectral index <br />
|}<br />
<br />
; Notes:<br />
: Comment: The Intensity is normalized at 30 GHz<br />
: Comment: The intensity was estimated during mixing matrix estimation<br />
<br />
=====Low frequency component at N<sub>side</sub> = 2048=====<br />
: File name: COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits<br />
<br />
<br />
: '''Name HDU -- COMP-MAP'''<br />
<br />
The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*8 || uK<sub>CMB</sub>|| Intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*8 || uK<sub>CMB</sub> || standard deviation of intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_hr1 || Real*8 || uK<sub>CMB</sub> || Intensity on half ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|I_hr2 || Real*8 || uK<sub>CMB</sub> || Intensity on half ring 2 <br />
|}<br />
<br />
; Notes:<br />
: Comment: The intensity was computed after mixing matrix application<br />
<br />
<br />
: '''Name HDU -- BeamWF'''<br />
<br />
The Fits second extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BeamWF || Real*4 || || beam profile <br />
|}<br />
<br />
; Notes:<br />
: Comment: Beam window function used in the Component separation process<br />
<br />
====Thermal dust====<br />
=====Thermal dust component at N<sub>side</sub>=256=====<br />
: File name: COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits<br />
<br />
: '''Name HDU -- COMP-MAP'''<br />
<br />
The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || MJy/sr || Intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || MJy/sr || standard deviation of intensity <br />
|-<br />
|Em || Real*4 || || emissivity <br />
|-<br />
|Em_stdev || Real*4 || || standard deviation on emissivity <br />
|-<br />
|T || Real*4 || uK<sub>CMB</sub> || temperature <br />
|-<br />
|T_stdev || Real*4 || uK<sub>CMB</sub> || standard deviation on temerature <br />
|}<br />
<br />
; Notes:<br />
: Comment: The intensity is normalized at 353 GHz<br />
<br />
=====Thermal dust component at N<sub>side</sub>=2048=====<br />
File name: COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits<br />
<br />
<br />
: '''Name HDU -- COMP-MAP'''<br />
<br />
The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*8 || MJy/sr || Intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*8 || MJy/sr || standard deviation of intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_hr1 || Real*8 || MJy/sr || Intensity on half ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|I_hr2 || Real*8 || MJy/sr || Intensity on half ring 2 <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
: '''Name HDU -- BeamWF'''<br />
<br />
The Fits second extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BeamWF || Real*4 || || beam profile <br />
|}<br />
<br />
; Notes:<br />
: Comment: Beam window function used in the Component separation process<br />
<br />
====Sky mask====<br />
File name: COM_CompMap_Mask-rulerminimal_2048.fits<br />
<br />
; '''Name HDU -- COMP-MASK'''<br />
<br />
The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Mask || Real*4 || || Mask <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|007]]</div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=CMB_and_astrophysical_component_maps&diff=10568CMB and astrophysical component maps2015-01-28T15:57:19Z<p>Amoneti: /* File names and structure */</p>
<hr />
<div>== Overview ==<br />
This section describes the maps of astrophysical components produced from the Planck data. These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps described above using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of the product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITS file containing the data and associated information.<br />
All the details can be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}.<br />
<br />
==CMB maps==<br />
CMB maps have been produced by the SMICA SEVEM, NILC and COMMANDER pipelines, which are described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation | CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Section 3 and Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}} and references therein.. For each pipeline we provide:<br />
* Full-mission CMB intensity map, confidence mask and beam transfer function.<br />
* Full-mission high-pass filtered CMB polarisation map, <br />
* A confidence mask.<br />
* A beam transfer function.<br />
In addition, and for characterisation purposes, there are six other sets of maps from three data splits: first/second half-ring, odd/even years and first/second half-mission. And for each of these data splits we provide half-sum and half-difference maps. The half-difference maps can be used to provide an approximate noise estimate for the full mission, but they should be used with caution. Each split has caveats in this regard: there are noise correlations between the half-ring maps, and missing pixels in the other splits. The Intensity maps are provided at Nside = 2048, at 5 arcmin resolution, while the Polarisation ones are provided at Nside = 1024 at 10 arcmin resolution. All maps are in units of K<sub>cmb</sub>.<br />
<br />
These maps can be found in the files ''COM_CMB_IQU-{pipeline}-field-{Int/Pol}_Nside_R2.00.fits''. The ''Int'' files have two extensions, for the Intensity maps and the beam transfer function, the ''Pol'' files have three extensions, for Q and U maps, and for the beam transfer function.<br />
For a complete description of the data structure, see the [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
The gallery below shows the Intensity, noise from half-mission, half-difference, and confidence mask for the four pipelines, in the order SMICA, SEVEM, NILC and COMMANDER, from top to bottom. The Intensity maps scale is [–500.+500] μK, and the noise are between [–25,+25] μK. We do not show the Q and U maps since they have no significant visible structure to contemplate.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=300px heights=180> <br />
File:CMB_smica_tsig.png<br />
File:CMB_smica_tnoi.png<br />
File:CMB_smica_tmask.png<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tsig.png<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tnoi.png<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tmask.png<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tsig.png<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tnoi.png<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tmask.png<br />
File:CMB_commander_tsig.png<br />
File:CMB_commander_tnoi.png<br />
File:CMB_commander_tmask.png<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
===Product description ===<br />
====SMICA====<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces a CMB map by linearly combining all Planck input channels (from 30 to 857 GHz) with weights which vary with the multipole. It includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math> '''and deconvolved from the pixel window'''. It means that, ideally, one would have <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) * B_\ell(5')^2</math>, where <math>C_\ell(map)</math> is the angular spectrum of the map, where <math>C_\ell(sky)</math> is the angular spectrum of the CMB and <math>B_\ell(5')</math> is a 5-arcminute Gaussian beam function. Note however that, by convention, the effective beam window function <math>B_\ell(fits)</math> provided in the FITS file does include a pixel window function. Therefore, it is equal to <math>B_\ell(fits) = B_\ell(5') / p_\ell(2048)</math> where <math>p_\ell(2048)</math> denotes the pixel window function for an Nside=2048 pixelization.<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. <br />
; Masks and inpainting<br />
: The raw SMICA CMB map has valid pixels except at the location of masked areas: point sources, Galactic plane, some other bright regions. Those invalid pixels are indicated with the mask named 'I_MASK'. The raw SMICA map has been inpainted, producing the map named "INP_CMB". Inpainting consists in replacing some pixels (as indicated by the mask named INP_MASK) by the values of a constrained Gaussian realization which is computed to ensure good statistical properties of the whole map (technically, the inpainted pixels are a sample realisation drawn under the posterior distribution given the un-masked pixels.<br />
<br />
====NILC (done by CB, checks with producers in progress)====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: The Needlet-ILC (hereafter NILC) CMB map is constructed both in total intensity as well as polarization, Q and U Stokes parameters. For total intensity, all Planck frequency channels are included. For polarization, all polarization sensitive frequency channels are included, from 30 to 353 GHz. The solution, for T, Q and U is obtained by applying the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) technique in needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range. <br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The spectral analysis, and estimation of the NILC coefficients, is performed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math>. The effective beam is equivalent of a Gaussian circular beam with FWHM=5 arcminutes. <br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The same procedure is followed by SMICA and NILC for producing confidence masks, though with different parametrizations. A low resolution smoothed version of the NILC map, noise subtracted, is thresholded to 73.5 squared micro-K for T, and 6,75 squared micro-K for Q and U.<br />
<br />
{{PlanckPapers|planck2014-p11}}<br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
The aim of SEVEM is to produce clean CMB maps at one or several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting. The templates are internal, i.e., they are constructed from Planck data, avoiding the need for external data sets, which usually complicates the analyses and may introduce inconsistencies. The method has been successfully applied to Planck simulations{{BibCite|leach2008}} and to WMAP polarisation data{{BibCite|fernandezcobos2012}}. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. Note that unlike the other products, SEVEM does not provide the mask of regions not used in the productions of the CMB ma (''I_MASK'') nor an inpainted version of the map and its associated mask. On the other hand, it provides ''channel maps'' and 100, 143, and 217 GHz which are used as the building blocks of the final map.<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER-Ruler====<br />
COMMANDER-Ruler is the Planck software implementing a pixel based parametric component separation. Amplitude of CMB and the main diffuse foregrounds along with the relevant spectral parameters for those (see below in the Astrophysical Foreground Section for the latter) are parametrized and fitted in single MCMC chains conducted at N<sub>side</sub>=256 using COMMANDER, implementing a Gibbs Sampling. The CMB amplitude which <br />
is obtained in these runs corresponds to the delivered low resolution CMB component from COMMANDER-Ruler which has a FWHM of 40 arcminutes. The sampling of the foreground parameters is applied to the data at full resolution for obtaining the high resolution CMB component from Ruler which is available on the PLA. In the Planck Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}additional material is discussed, specifically concerning the sky region where the solutions are reliable, in terms of chi2 maps. The products mainly consist of: <br />
<br />
* Maps of the Amplitudes of the CMB at low resolution, N<sub>side</sub>=256, along with the standard deviations of the outputs, beam profiles derived from the production process. <br />
* Maps of the CMB amplitude, along with the standard deviations, at high resolution, N<sub>side=2048, beam profiles derived from the production process. <br />
* Mask obtained on the basis of the precision in the fitting procedure; the thresholding is evaluated through the COMMANDER-Ruler likelihood analysis and excludes 13% of the sky, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}.<br />
<br />
===Production process===<br />
====SMICA====<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: All input maps undergo a pre-processing step to deal with point sources. The point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue are fitted in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole is filled in by a simple diffusive process to ensure a smooth transition and mitigate spectral leakage. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, here all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and filled-in similarly.<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHzare harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> and co-added with multipole-dependent weights as shown in the figure.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: The areas masked in the pre-processing step are replaced by a constrained Gaussian realization.<br />
<br />
Note: The visible power deficit in the raw CMB map around the galactic plane is due to the smooth fill-in of the masked areas in the input maps (the result of the pre-processing). It is not to be confused with the post-processing step of inpainting of the CMB map with a constrained Gaussian realization.<br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:smica.jpg|thumb|center|500px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input maps (after they are re-beamed to 5 arcmin and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), as a function of multipole.''']]<br />
<br />
====NILC (done by CB, check by producers in progress)====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky frequency maps are deconvolved using the DPC beam transfer function provided, and re-convolved with a 5 arcminutes FWHM circular Gaussian beam. In polarization, prior to the smoothing process, all sky E and B maps are derived from Q and U using standard HEALPix tools from each individual frequency channels <br />
<br />
; Linear combination<br />
<br />
: Pre-processed input frequency maps are decomposed in needlet coefficients, specified in the Appendix B of the Planck A11 paper, with shape given by Table B.1. Minimum variance coefficients are then obtained, using all channels for T, from 30 to 353 for E and B. <br />
<br />
; Post-processing<br />
<br />
: E and B maps are re-combined into Q and U products using standard HEALPix tools. <br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
The templates are internal, i.e., they are constructed from Planck data, avoiding the need for external data sets, which usually complicates the analyses and may introduce inconsistencies. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. The fitting can be done in real or wavelet space (using a fast wavelet adapted to the HEALPix pixelization{{BibCite|casaponsa2011}}) to properly deal with incomplete sky coverage. By expediency, however, we fill in the small number of unobserved pixels at each channel with the mean value of its neighbouring pixels before applying SEVEM.<br />
<br />
We construct our templates by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMB map at that frequency. This is done either in real or in wavelet space (i.e., scale by scale) at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. If the cleaning is performed in real space, the <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. When working in wavelet space, the cleaning is done in the same way at each wavelet scale independently (i.e., the linear coefficients depend on the scale). Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).<br />
<br />
An additional level of flexibility can also be considered: the linear coefficients can be the same for all the sky, or several regions with different sets of coefficients can be considered. The regions are then combined in a smooth way, by weighting the pixels at the boundaries, to avoid discontinuities in the clean maps.<br />
Since the method is linear, we may easily propagate the noise properties to the final CMB map. Moreover, it is very fast and permits the generation of thousands of simulations to character- ize the statistical properties of the outputs, a critical need for many cosmological applications. The final CMB map retains the angular resolution of the original frequency map.<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of clean maps at different frequencies is of great interest in order to test the robustness of the results. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned independently and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
In particular, we have cleaned the 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps using four templates constructed as the difference of the following Planck channels (smoothed to a common resolution): (30-44), (44-70), (545-353) and (857-545). For simplicity, the three maps have been cleaned in real space, since there was not a significant improvement when using wavelets (especially at high latitude). In order to take into account the different spectral behaviour of the foregrounds at low and high galactic latitudes, we have considered two independent regions of the sky, for which we have used a different set of coefficients. The first region corresponds to the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission, whereas the second region is defined by the remaining 97 per cent of the sky. For the first region, the coefficients are actually estimated over the whole sky (we find that this is more optimal than perform the minimisation only on the 3 per cent brightest region, where the CMB emission is very sub-dominant) while for the second region, we exclude the 3 per cent brightest region of the sky, point sources detected at any frequency and those pixels which have not been observed at all channels.<br />
Our final CMB map has then been constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
Moreover, additional CMB clean maps (at frequencies between 44 and 353 GHz) have also been produced using different combinations of templates for some of the analyses carried out in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p09}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p14}}. In particular, clean maps from 44 to 353 GHz have been used for the stacking analysis presented in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p14}}, while frequencies from 70 to 217 GHz were used for consistency tests in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p09}}.<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER-Ruler====<br />
The production process consist in low and high resolution runs according to the description above. <br />
; Low Resolution Runs: Same as the Astrophysics Foregrounds Section below; The CMB amplitude is fitted along with the other foreground parameters and constitutes the CMB Low Resolution Rendering which is in the PLA. <br />
; Ruler Runs: the sampling at high resolution is used to infer the probability distribution of spectral parameters which is exploited at full resolution in order to obtain the High Resolution CMB Rendering which is in the PLA. <br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. SMICA and SEVEM use all the maps between 30 and 857 GHz; NILC uses the ones between 44 and 857 GHz. Commander-Ruler uses frequency channel maps from 30 to 353 GHz. <br />
<br />
===File names and structure===<br />
The FITS files corresponding to the three CMB products are the following:<br />
<br />
''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}-field-{Int,Pol}_Nside_R2.nn.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''method'' is mica, nilc, sevem, or commander, and Int and Pol indicate whether the file contains the temperature (Int) or the polarisation (Pol) maps. For this release the temperature maps are provided at Nside = 2048, and the polarisation maps at Nside = 1024. <br />
<br />
The files contain <br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data;<br />
* one or two ''BINTABLE'' data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 14 columns in which the first 13 columns is a CMB map produced from the full or a subset of the data, as described in the table below, and the last column in a confidence mask. There is a single extension for ''Int'' files, and two, for Q and U, for ''Pol'' files. <br />
* a ''BINTABLE'' extension containing the beam window function.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I or Q or U || Real*4 || uK_cmb || I or U or Q map<br />
|-<br />
|U || Real*4 || uK_cmb || U-polarization <br />
|- <br />
|HM1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HM2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 2 <br />
|-<br />
|YR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 1 <br />
|-<br />
|YR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HMHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HMHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|YRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|YRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|HRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half diff <br />
|-<br />
|MASK || BYTE || || Confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (smica/nilc/sevem/commander)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Notes:<br />
# The beam window function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>.<br />
<br />
<!--- mi sembra che questa non serva più <br />
The low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler CMB product is organized in the following way:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK_cmb || CMB temperature map obtained as average over 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Corresponding Standard deviation amongst the 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Confidence mask<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. EXTNAME = ''CMB-Sample'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM01 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM02 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM03 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM04 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM05 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM06 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM07 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM08 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM09 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM10 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
<!---- anche queste non servono più <br />
<br />
The FITS files containing the ''union'' (or common) maks is:<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-union_2048_R1.10.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common}}<br />
which contains a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with a single column (named ''U73'') for the mask, which is boolean (FITS ''TFORM = B''), in GALACTIC coordinates, NESTED ordering, and Nside=2048.<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for a small file containing the SMICA cmb map with no additional information (noise or masks) we provide such a file here<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
This file contains a single extension with a single column containing the SMICA cmb temperature map.<br />
<br />
---><br />
<br />
===Cautionary notes===<br />
# The half-ring CMB maps are produced by the pipelines with parameters/weights fixed to the values obtained from the full maps. Therefore the CMB HRHD maps do not capture all of the uncertainties due to foreground modelling on large angular scales.<br />
# The HRHD maps for the HFI frequency channels underestimate the noise power spectrum at high l by typically a few percent. This is caused by correlations induced in the pre-processing to remove cosmic ray hits. The CMB is mostly constrained by the HFI channels at high l, and so the CMB HRHD maps will inherit this deficiency in power.<br />
# The beam transfer functions do not account for uncertainties in the beams of the frequency channel maps.<br />
<br />
== Astrophysical foregrounds from parametric component separation ==<br />
We describe diffuse foreground products for the Planck 2013 release. See Planck Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}} for a detailed description and astrophysical discussion of those.<br />
<br />
===Product description===<br />
; Low frequency foreground component<br />
: The products below contain the result of the fitting for one foreground component at low frequencies in Planck bands,along with its spectral behavior parametrized by a power law spectral index. Amplitude and spectral indeces are evaluated at N$_\rm{side}$ 256 (see below in the production process), along with standard deviation from sampling and instrumental noise on both. An amplitude solution at N$_\rm{side}$=2048 is also given, along with standard deviation from sampling and instrumental noise as well as solutions on halfrings. The beam profile associated to this component is also provided as a secondary Extension in the N$_\rm{side}$ 2048 product.<br />
<br />
; Thermal dust<br />
: The products below contain the result of the fitting for one foreground component at high frequencies in Planck bands, along with its spectral behavior parametrized by temperature and emissivity. Amplitude, temperature and emissivity are evaluated at N$_\rm{side}$ 256 (see below in the production process), along with standard deviation from sampling and instrumental noise on all of them. An amplitude solution at N$_\rm{side}$=2048 is also given, along with standard deviation from sampling and instrumental noise as well as solutions on halfrings. The beam profile associated to this component is provided. <br />
<br />
; Sky mask<br />
: The delivered mask is defined as the sky region where the fitting procedure was conducted and the solutions presented here were obtained. It is made by masking a region where the Galactic emission is too intense to perform the fitting, plus the masking of brightest point sources.<br />
<br />
===Production process===<br />
CODE: COMMANDER-RULER. The code exploits a parametrization of CMB and main diffuse foreground observables. The naive resolution of input <br />
frequency channels is reduced to N$_\rm{side}$=256 first. Parameters related to the foreground scaling with frequency are estimated at that resolution <br />
by using Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis using Gibbs sampling. The foreground parameters make the foreground mixing matrix which is <br />
applied to the data at full resolution in order to obtain the provided products at N$_\rm{side}$=2048. In the Planck Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}} additional material is discussed, specifically concerning the sky region where the solutions are reliable, in terms of chi2 maps.<br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
Nominal frequency maps at 30, 44, 70, 100, 143, 217, 353 GHz ({{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=30|period=Nominal|link=LFI 30 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=44|period=Nominal|link=LFI 44 GHz frequency maps}} and {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=70|period=Nominal|link=LFI 70 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=100|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 100 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=143|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 143 GHz frequency maps}},{{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=217|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 217 GHz frequency maps}} and {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=353|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 353 GHz frequency maps}}) and their II column corresponding to the noise covariance matrix. <br />
Halfrings at the same frequencies. Beam window functions as reported in the [[The RIMO#Beam Window Functions|LFI and HFI RIMO]].<br />
<br />
===Related products===<br />
None. <br />
<br />
===File names===<br />
* Low frequency component at N$_\rm{side}$ 256: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits}}<br />
* Low frequency component at N$_\rm{side}$ 2048: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits}}<br />
* Thermal dust at N$_\rm{side}$ 256: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits}}<br />
* Thermal dust at N$_\rm{side}$ 2048: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits}}<br />
* Mask: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Mask-rulerminimal_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Mask-rulerminimal_2048_R1.00.fits}}<br />
<br />
===Meta Data===<br />
====Low frequency foreground component====<br />
=====Low frequency component at N<sub>side</sub> = 256=====<br />
File name: COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits<br />
: '''Name HDU -- COMP-MAP'''<br />
<br />
The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK<sub>CMB</sub>|| Intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || uK<sub>CMB</sub> || standard deviation of intensity <br />
|-<br />
|Beta || Real*4 || || effective spectral index <br />
|-<br />
|B_stdev || Real*4 || || standard deviation on the effective spectral index <br />
|}<br />
<br />
; Notes:<br />
: Comment: The Intensity is normalized at 30 GHz<br />
: Comment: The intensity was estimated during mixing matrix estimation<br />
<br />
=====Low frequency component at N<sub>side</sub> = 2048=====<br />
: File name: COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits<br />
<br />
<br />
: '''Name HDU -- COMP-MAP'''<br />
<br />
The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*8 || uK<sub>CMB</sub>|| Intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*8 || uK<sub>CMB</sub> || standard deviation of intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_hr1 || Real*8 || uK<sub>CMB</sub> || Intensity on half ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|I_hr2 || Real*8 || uK<sub>CMB</sub> || Intensity on half ring 2 <br />
|}<br />
<br />
; Notes:<br />
: Comment: The intensity was computed after mixing matrix application<br />
<br />
<br />
: '''Name HDU -- BeamWF'''<br />
<br />
The Fits second extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BeamWF || Real*4 || || beam profile <br />
|}<br />
<br />
; Notes:<br />
: Comment: Beam window function used in the Component separation process<br />
<br />
====Thermal dust====<br />
=====Thermal dust component at N<sub>side</sub>=256=====<br />
: File name: COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits<br />
<br />
: '''Name HDU -- COMP-MAP'''<br />
<br />
The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || MJy/sr || Intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || MJy/sr || standard deviation of intensity <br />
|-<br />
|Em || Real*4 || || emissivity <br />
|-<br />
|Em_stdev || Real*4 || || standard deviation on emissivity <br />
|-<br />
|T || Real*4 || uK<sub>CMB</sub> || temperature <br />
|-<br />
|T_stdev || Real*4 || uK<sub>CMB</sub> || standard deviation on temerature <br />
|}<br />
<br />
; Notes:<br />
: Comment: The intensity is normalized at 353 GHz<br />
<br />
=====Thermal dust component at N<sub>side</sub>=2048=====<br />
File name: COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits<br />
<br />
<br />
: '''Name HDU -- COMP-MAP'''<br />
<br />
The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*8 || MJy/sr || Intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*8 || MJy/sr || standard deviation of intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_hr1 || Real*8 || MJy/sr || Intensity on half ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|I_hr2 || Real*8 || MJy/sr || Intensity on half ring 2 <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
: '''Name HDU -- BeamWF'''<br />
<br />
The Fits second extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BeamWF || Real*4 || || beam profile <br />
|}<br />
<br />
; Notes:<br />
: Comment: Beam window function used in the Component separation process<br />
<br />
====Sky mask====<br />
File name: COM_CompMap_Mask-rulerminimal_2048.fits<br />
<br />
; '''Name HDU -- COMP-MASK'''<br />
<br />
The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Mask || Real*4 || || Mask <br />
|}<br />
<br />
== Thermal dust emission ==<br />
Thermal emission from interstellar dust is captured by Planck-HFI over the whole sky, at all frequencies from 100 to 857 GHz. This emission is well modelled by a modified black body in the far-infrared to millimeter range. It is produced by the biggest interstellar dust grain that are in thermal equilibrium with the radiation field from stars. The grains emission properties in the sub-millimeter are therefore directly linked to their absorption properties in the UV-visible range. By modelling the thermal dust emission in the sub-millimeter, a map of dust reddening in the visible can then be constructed. The details of the model can be found here {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06b}}.<br />
<br />
=== Model of all-sky thermal dust emission ===<br />
The model of the thermal dust emission is based on a modified black body (MBB) fit to the data <math>I_\nu</math><br />
<br />
: <math>I_\nu = A\, B_\nu(T)\, \nu^\beta</math><br />
<br />
where <math>B_\nu(T)</math> is the Planck function for dust equilibirum temperature <math>T</math>, <math>A</math> is the amplitude of the MBB and <math>\beta</math> the dust spectral index. The dust optical depth at frequency <math>\nu</math> is<br />
<br />
: <math>\tau_\nu = I_\nu / B_\nu(T) = A\, \nu^\beta</math><br />
<br />
The dust parameters provided are <math>T</math>, <math>\beta</math> and <math>\tau_{353}</math>. They were obtained by fitting the Planck data at 353, 545 and 857 GHz (from which the Planck zodiacal light model was removed) together with the IRAS 100 micron data. The latter is a combination of the 100 micron maps from IRIS (Miville-Deschenes & Lagache, 2005) and from Schlegel et al. (1998), SFD1998. The IRIS (SFD1998) map is used at scales smaller (larger) than 30 arcmin; this combination allows to take advantage of the higher angular resolution and better control of gain variations of the IRIS map and of the better removal of the zodiacal light emission of the SFD1998 map.<br />
<br />
All maps (in Healpix Nside=2048 were smoothed to a common resolution of 5 arcmin. The CMB anisotropies, clearly visible at 353 GHz, were removed from all the HFI maps using the SMICA map. An offset was removed from each map to set a Galactic zero level, using a correlation with the LAB 21 cm data in diffuse areas of the sky (<math>N_{HI} < 2\times10^{20} cm^{-2}</math>). Because the dust emission is so well correlated between frequencies in the Rayleigh-Jeans part of the dust spectrum, the zero level of the 545 and 353 GHz were improved by correlating with the 857 GHz over a larger mask (<math>N_{HI} < 3\times10^{20} cm^{-2}</math>). Faint residual dipole structures, identified in the 353 and 545 GHz maps, were removed prior to the fit.<br />
<br />
The MBB fit was performed using a <math>\chi^2</math> minimization method, assuming errors for each data point that include instrumental noise, calibration uncertainties (on both the dust emission and the CMB anisotropies) and uncertainties on the zero levels. Because of the known degeneracy between <math>T</math> and <math>\beta</math> in the presence of noise, we performed tge fit in two steps. First we produced a model of dust emission using data smoothed to 30 arcmin; at such resolution no systematic bias of the parameters is observed. In a second step the map of the spectral index <math>\beta</math> at 30 arcmin was used to fit the data for <math>T</math> and <math>\tau_{353}</math> at 5 arcmin. <br />
<br />
=== The <math>E(B-V)</math> map for extra-galactic studies===<br />
For the production of the <math>E(B-V)</math> map, we used a MBB fit to Planck and IRAS data from which point sources were removed to avoid contamination by galaxies. In the hypothesis of constant dust emission cross-section, the optical depth map <math>\tau_{353}</math> is proportional to dust column density and therefore often used to estimate E(B-V). The analysis of Planck data revealed that the ratio <math>\tau_{353}/N_{HI}</math> and <math>\tau_{353}/E(B-V)</math> are not constant, even in the diffuse ISM, but that they depend on <math>T</math> revealing possible spatial variations of the dust emission cross-section. It appears that the dust radiance, <math>R</math>, i.e. the dust emission integrated in frequency, is a better tracer of column density in the diffuse ISM, implying small spatial variations of the radiation field strength at high Galactic latitude. <br />
Given those results, we also deliver the map of <math>R</math> as a dust product and we propose to use it as an estimator of Galactic dust reddening for extra-galactic studies: <math>E(B-V) = q\, R</math>.<br />
<br />
To estimate the calibration factor q, we followed a method similar to{{BibCite|mortsell2013}} based on SDSS reddening measurements of quasars in the u, g, r, i and z bands{{BibCite|schneider2007}}. We used a sample of 53 399 quasars, selecting objects at redshifts for which Ly<math>\alpha</math> does not enter the SDSS filters. The interstellar HI column densities covered on the lines of sight of this sample ranges from <math>0.5</math> to <math>10\times10^{20}\,cm^{-2}</math>. Therefore this sample allows us to estimate q in the diffuse ISM where this map of E(B-V) is intended to be used.<br />
<br />
=== Dust optical depth products ===<br />
The dust model maps are found in the file {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_CompMap_ThermalDustModel_2048_R1.20.fits|link=HFI_CompMap_ThermalDustModel_2048_R1.20.fits}} (see the note [[#noteOnDust|below]] for an important clarification regarding the thermal dust model); its characteristics are:<br />
* Dust optical depth at 353 GHz: Nside=2048, fwhm=5', no units<br />
* Dust temperature: Nside 2048, fwhm=5', units=Kelvin<br />
* Dust spectral index: Nside=2048, fwhm=30', no units<br />
* Dust radiance: Nside=2048, fwhm=5', units=Wm<sup>-2</sup>sr<sup>-1</sup><br />
* E(B-V) for extragalactic studies: Nside=2048, fwhm=5', units=magnitude, obtained with data from which point sources were removed.<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Dust opacity file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'COMP-MAP' <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
| TAU353 || Real*4 || none || The optical depth at 353GHz<br />
|-<br />
| ERR_TAU || Real*4 || none || Error on the optical depth<br />
|-<br />
| EBV || Real*4 || mag || E(B-V) for extra-galactic studies<br />
|-<br />
| RADIANCE || Real*4 || Wm<sup>-2</sup>sr<sup>-1</sup> || Integrated emission<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature<br />
|-<br />
|ERR_TEMP || Real*4 || K || Error on the temperature<br />
|-<br />
| BETA || Real*4 || none || Dust spectral index<br />
|-<br />
| ERR_BETA || Real*4 || none || Error on Beta<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
| AST-COMP || String || DUST|| Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
| PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
| COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
| ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
| NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
| FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
| LASTPIX || Int*4 || 50331647 || Last pixel number, for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<div id="noteOnDust"></div><span style="font-size:120%"> <span style="color:Red"><b>IMPORTANT NOTE:</b></span></span> The dust model has recently (4 December 2013) been updated and the new model is the one being distributed by default. A detailed description of the model can be found here {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06b}}. Users interested in the old dust model map should contact the [http://www.sciops.esa.int/helpdesk_pia PLA help desk].<br />
<br />
== CO emission maps ==<br />
CO rotational transition line emission is present in all HFI bands but for the 143 GHz channel. It is especially significant in the 100, 217 and 353 GHz channels (due to the 115 (1-0), 230 (2-1) and 345 GHz (3-2) CO transitions). This emission comes essentially from the Galactic interstellar medium and is mainly located at low and intermediate Galactic latitudes. Three approaches (summarised below) have been used to extract CO velocity-integrated emission maps from HFI maps and to make three types of CO products. A full description of how these products were producedis given in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p03a}}.<br />
<br />
* Type 1 product: it is based on a single channel approach using the fact that each CO line has a slightly different transmission in each bolometer at a given frequency channel. These transmissions can be evaluated from bandpass measurements that were performed on the ground or empirically determined from the sky using existing ground-based CO surveys. From these, the J=1-0, J=2-1 and J=3-2 CO lines can be extracted independently. As this approach is based on individual bolometer maps of a single channel, the resulting Signal-to-Noise ratio (SNR) is relatively low. The benefit, however, is that these maps do not suffer from contamination from other HFI channels (as is the case for the other approaches) and are more reliable, especially in the Galactic Plane.<br />
* Type 2 product: this product is obtained using a multi frequency approach. Three frequency channel maps are combined to extract the J=1-0 (using the 100, 143 and 353 GHz channels) and J=2-1 (using the 143, 217 and 353 GHz channels) CO maps. Because frequency channels are combined, the spectral behaviour of other foregrounds influences the result. The two type 2 CO maps produced in this way have a higher SNR than the type 1 maps at the cost of a larger possible residual contamination from other diffuse foregrounds.<br />
* Type 3 product: using prior information on CO line ratios and a multi-frequency component separation method, we construct a combined CO emission map with the largest possible SNR. This type 3 product can be used as a sensitive finder chart for low-intensity diffuse CO emission over the whole sky.<br />
<br />
The released Type 1 CO maps have been produced using the MILCA-b algorithm, Type 2 maps using a specific implementation of the Commander algorithm, and the Type 3 map using the full Commander-Ruler component separation pipeline (see [[CMB_and _astrophysical_component_maps#Maps_of_astrophysical_foregrounds | above]]).<br />
<br />
Characteristics of the released maps are the following. We provide Healpix maps with Nside=2048. For one transition, the CO velocity-integrated line signal map is given in K_RJ.km/s units. A conversion factor from this unit to the native unit of HFI maps (K_CMB) is provided in the header of the data files and in the RIMO. Four maps are given per transition and per type:<br />
* The signal map<br />
* The standard deviation map (same unit as the signal), <br />
* A null test noise map (same unit as the signal) with similar statistical properties. It is made out of half the difference of half-ring maps.<br />
* A mask map (0B or 1B) giving the regions (1B) where the CO measurement is not reliable because of some severe identified foreground contamination.<br />
<br />
All products of a given type belong to a single file.<br />
Type 1 products have the native HFI resolution i.e. approximately 10, 5 and 5 arcminutes for the CO 1-0, 2-1, 3-2 transitions respectively.<br />
Type 2 products have a 15 arcminute resolution<br />
The Type 3 product has a 5.5 arcminute resolution.<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Type-1 CO map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'COMP-MAP' <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I10 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || The CO(1-0) intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|E10 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || Uncertainty in the CO(1-0) intensity<br />
|-<br />
|N10 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || Map built from the half-ring difference maps<br />
|-<br />
|M10 || Byte || none || Region over which the CO(1-0) intensity is considered reliable<br />
|-<br />
|I21 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || The CO(2-1) intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|E21 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || Uncertainty in the CO(2-1) intensity<br />
|-<br />
|N21 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || Map built from the half-ring difference maps<br />
|-<br />
|M21 || Byte || none || Region over which the CO(2-1) intensity is considered reliable<br />
|-<br />
|I32 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || The CO(3-2) intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|E32 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || Uncertainty in the CO(3-2) intensity<br />
|-<br />
|N32 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || Map built from the half-ring difference maps<br />
|-<br />
|M32 || Byte || none || Region over which the CO(3-2) intensity is considered reliable<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || string || CO-TYPE2 || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 50331647 || Last pixel number, for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|CNV 1-0 || Real*4 || value || Factor to convert CO(1-0) intensity to Kcmb (units Kcmb/(Krj*km/s)) <br />
|-<br />
|CNV 2-1 || Real*4 || value || Factor to convert CO(2-1) intensityto Kcmb (units Kcmb/(Krj*km/s)) <br />
|-<br />
|CNV 3-2 || Real*4 || value || Factor to convert CO(3-2) intensityto Kcmb (units Kcmb/(Krj*km/s)) <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Type-2 CO map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'COMP-MAP' <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I10 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || The CO(1-0) intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|E10 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || Uncertainty in the CO(1-0) intensity<br />
|-<br />
|N10 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || Map built from the half-ring difference maps<br />
|-<br />
|M10 || Byte || none || Region over which the CO(1-0) intensity is considered reliable<br />
|-<br />
|-<br />
|I21 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || The CO(2-1) intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|E21 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || Uncertainty in the CO(2-1) intensity<br />
|-<br />
|N21 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || Map built from the half-ring difference maps<br />
|-<br />
|M21 || Byte || none || Region over which the CO(2-1) intensity is considered reliable<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CO-TYPE2 || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 50331647 || Last pixel number, for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|CNV 1-0 || Real*4 || value || Factor to convert CO(1-0) intensity to Kcmb (units Kcmb/(Krj*km/s)) <br />
|-<br />
|CNV 2-1 || Real*4 || value || Factor to convert CO(2-1) intensityto Kcmb (units Kcmb/(Krj*km/s)) <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Type-3 CO map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'COMP-MAP' <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|INTEN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || The CO intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|ERR || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || Uncertainty in the intensity<br />
|-<br />
|NUL || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || Map built from the half-ring difference maps<br />
|-<br />
|MASK || Byte || none || Region over which the intensity is considered reliable<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CO-TYPE1 || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 50331647 || Last pixel number, for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|CNV || Real*4 || value || Factor to convert to Kcmb (units Kcmb/(Krj*km/s)) <br />
|}<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|007]]</div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=CMB_and_astrophysical_component_maps&diff=10566CMB and astrophysical component maps2015-01-28T15:15:10Z<p>Amoneti: /* File names and structure */</p>
<hr />
<div>== Overview ==<br />
This section describes the maps of astrophysical components produced from the Planck data. These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps described above using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of the product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITS file containing the data and associated information.<br />
All the details can be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}.<br />
<br />
==CMB maps==<br />
CMB maps have been produced by the SMICA SEVEM, NILC and COMMANDER pipelines, which are described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation | CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Section 3 and Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}} and references therein.. For each pipeline we provide:<br />
* Full-mission CMB intensity map, confidence mask and beam transfer function.<br />
* Full-mission high-pass filtered CMB polarisation map, <br />
* A confidence mask.<br />
* A beam transfer function.<br />
In addition, and for characterisation purposes, there are six other sets of maps from three data splits: first/second half-ring, odd/even years and first/second half-mission. And for each of these data splits we provide half-sum and half-difference maps. The half-difference maps can be used to provide an approximate noise estimate for the full mission, but they should be used with caution. Each split has caveats in this regard: there are noise correlations between the half-ring maps, and missing pixels in the other splits. The Intensity maps are provided at Nside = 2048, at 5 arcmin resolution, while the Polarisation ones are provided at Nside = 1024 at 10 arcmin resolution. All maps are in units of K<sub>cmb</sub>.<br />
<br />
These maps can be found in the files ''COM_CMB_IQU-{pipeline}-field-{Int/Pol}_Nside_R2.00.fits''. The ''Int'' files have two extensions, for the Intensity maps and the beam transfer function, the ''Pol'' files have three extensions, for Q and U maps, and for the beam transfer function.<br />
For a complete description of the data structure, see the [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
The gallery below shows the Intensity, noise from half-mission, half-difference, and confidence mask for the four pipelines, in the order SMICA, SEVEM, NILC and COMMANDER, from top to bottom. The Intensity maps scale is [–500.+500] μK, and the noise are between [–25,+25] μK. We do not show the Q and U maps since they have no significant visible structure to contemplate.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=300px heights=180> <br />
File:CMB_smica_tsig.png<br />
File:CMB_smica_tnoi.png<br />
File:CMB_smica_tmask.png<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tsig.png<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tnoi.png<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tmask.png<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tsig.png<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tnoi.png<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tmask.png<br />
File:CMB_commander_tsig.png<br />
File:CMB_commander_tnoi.png<br />
File:CMB_commander_tmask.png<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
===Product description ===<br />
====SMICA====<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces a CMB map by linearly combining all Planck input channels (from 30 to 857 GHz) with weights which vary with the multipole. It includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math> '''and deconvolved from the pixel window'''. It means that, ideally, one would have <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) * B_\ell(5')^2</math>, where <math>C_\ell(map)</math> is the angular spectrum of the map, where <math>C_\ell(sky)</math> is the angular spectrum of the CMB and <math>B_\ell(5')</math> is a 5-arcminute Gaussian beam function. Note however that, by convention, the effective beam window function <math>B_\ell(fits)</math> provided in the FITS file does include a pixel window function. Therefore, it is equal to <math>B_\ell(fits) = B_\ell(5') / p_\ell(2048)</math> where <math>p_\ell(2048)</math> denotes the pixel window function for an Nside=2048 pixelization.<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. <br />
; Masks and inpainting<br />
: The raw SMICA CMB map has valid pixels except at the location of masked areas: point sources, Galactic plane, some other bright regions. Those invalid pixels are indicated with the mask named 'I_MASK'. The raw SMICA map has been inpainted, producing the map named "INP_CMB". Inpainting consists in replacing some pixels (as indicated by the mask named INP_MASK) by the values of a constrained Gaussian realization which is computed to ensure good statistical properties of the whole map (technically, the inpainted pixels are a sample realisation drawn under the posterior distribution given the un-masked pixels.<br />
<br />
====NILC (done by CB, checks with producers in progress)====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: The Needlet-ILC (hereafter NILC) CMB map is constructed both in total intensity as well as polarization, Q and U Stokes parameters. For total intensity, all Planck frequency channels are included. For polarization, all polarization sensitive frequency channels are included, from 30 to 353 GHz. The solution, for T, Q and U is obtained by applying the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) technique in needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range. <br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The spectral analysis, and estimation of the NILC coefficients, is performed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math>. The effective beam is equivalent of a Gaussian circular beam with FWHM=5 arcminutes. <br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The same procedure is followed by SMICA and NILC for producing confidence masks, though with different parametrizations. A low resolution smoothed version of the NILC map, noise subtracted, is thresholded to 73.5 squared micro-K for T, and 6,75 squared micro-K for Q and U.<br />
<br />
{{PlanckPapers|planck2014-p11}}<br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
The aim of SEVEM is to produce clean CMB maps at one or several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting. The templates are internal, i.e., they are constructed from Planck data, avoiding the need for external data sets, which usually complicates the analyses and may introduce inconsistencies. The method has been successfully applied to Planck simulations{{BibCite|leach2008}} and to WMAP polarisation data{{BibCite|fernandezcobos2012}}. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. Note that unlike the other products, SEVEM does not provide the mask of regions not used in the productions of the CMB ma (''I_MASK'') nor an inpainted version of the map and its associated mask. On the other hand, it provides ''channel maps'' and 100, 143, and 217 GHz which are used as the building blocks of the final map.<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER-Ruler====<br />
COMMANDER-Ruler is the Planck software implementing a pixel based parametric component separation. Amplitude of CMB and the main diffuse foregrounds along with the relevant spectral parameters for those (see below in the Astrophysical Foreground Section for the latter) are parametrized and fitted in single MCMC chains conducted at N<sub>side</sub>=256 using COMMANDER, implementing a Gibbs Sampling. The CMB amplitude which <br />
is obtained in these runs corresponds to the delivered low resolution CMB component from COMMANDER-Ruler which has a FWHM of 40 arcminutes. The sampling of the foreground parameters is applied to the data at full resolution for obtaining the high resolution CMB component from Ruler which is available on the PLA. In the Planck Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}additional material is discussed, specifically concerning the sky region where the solutions are reliable, in terms of chi2 maps. The products mainly consist of: <br />
<br />
* Maps of the Amplitudes of the CMB at low resolution, N<sub>side</sub>=256, along with the standard deviations of the outputs, beam profiles derived from the production process. <br />
* Maps of the CMB amplitude, along with the standard deviations, at high resolution, N<sub>side=2048, beam profiles derived from the production process. <br />
* Mask obtained on the basis of the precision in the fitting procedure; the thresholding is evaluated through the COMMANDER-Ruler likelihood analysis and excludes 13% of the sky, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}.<br />
<br />
===Production process===<br />
====SMICA====<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: All input maps undergo a pre-processing step to deal with point sources. The point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue are fitted in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole is filled in by a simple diffusive process to ensure a smooth transition and mitigate spectral leakage. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, here all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and filled-in similarly.<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHzare harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> and co-added with multipole-dependent weights as shown in the figure.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: The areas masked in the pre-processing step are replaced by a constrained Gaussian realization.<br />
<br />
Note: The visible power deficit in the raw CMB map around the galactic plane is due to the smooth fill-in of the masked areas in the input maps (the result of the pre-processing). It is not to be confused with the post-processing step of inpainting of the CMB map with a constrained Gaussian realization.<br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:smica.jpg|thumb|center|500px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input maps (after they are re-beamed to 5 arcmin and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), as a function of multipole.''']]<br />
<br />
====NILC (done by CB, check by producers in progress)====<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky frequency maps are deconvolved using the DPC beam transfer function provided, and re-convolved with a 5 arcminutes FWHM circular Gaussian beam. In polarization, prior to the smoothing process, all sky E and B maps are derived from Q and U using standard HEALPix tools from each individual frequency channels <br />
<br />
; Linear combination<br />
<br />
: Pre-processed input frequency maps are decomposed in needlet coefficients, specified in the Appendix B of the Planck A11 paper, with shape given by Table B.1. Minimum variance coefficients are then obtained, using all channels for T, from 30 to 353 for E and B. <br />
<br />
; Post-processing<br />
<br />
: E and B maps are re-combined into Q and U products using standard HEALPix tools. <br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
The templates are internal, i.e., they are constructed from Planck data, avoiding the need for external data sets, which usually complicates the analyses and may introduce inconsistencies. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. The fitting can be done in real or wavelet space (using a fast wavelet adapted to the HEALPix pixelization{{BibCite|casaponsa2011}}) to properly deal with incomplete sky coverage. By expediency, however, we fill in the small number of unobserved pixels at each channel with the mean value of its neighbouring pixels before applying SEVEM.<br />
<br />
We construct our templates by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMB map at that frequency. This is done either in real or in wavelet space (i.e., scale by scale) at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. If the cleaning is performed in real space, the <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. When working in wavelet space, the cleaning is done in the same way at each wavelet scale independently (i.e., the linear coefficients depend on the scale). Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).<br />
<br />
An additional level of flexibility can also be considered: the linear coefficients can be the same for all the sky, or several regions with different sets of coefficients can be considered. The regions are then combined in a smooth way, by weighting the pixels at the boundaries, to avoid discontinuities in the clean maps.<br />
Since the method is linear, we may easily propagate the noise properties to the final CMB map. Moreover, it is very fast and permits the generation of thousands of simulations to character- ize the statistical properties of the outputs, a critical need for many cosmological applications. The final CMB map retains the angular resolution of the original frequency map.<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of clean maps at different frequencies is of great interest in order to test the robustness of the results. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned independently and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
In particular, we have cleaned the 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps using four templates constructed as the difference of the following Planck channels (smoothed to a common resolution): (30-44), (44-70), (545-353) and (857-545). For simplicity, the three maps have been cleaned in real space, since there was not a significant improvement when using wavelets (especially at high latitude). In order to take into account the different spectral behaviour of the foregrounds at low and high galactic latitudes, we have considered two independent regions of the sky, for which we have used a different set of coefficients. The first region corresponds to the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission, whereas the second region is defined by the remaining 97 per cent of the sky. For the first region, the coefficients are actually estimated over the whole sky (we find that this is more optimal than perform the minimisation only on the 3 per cent brightest region, where the CMB emission is very sub-dominant) while for the second region, we exclude the 3 per cent brightest region of the sky, point sources detected at any frequency and those pixels which have not been observed at all channels.<br />
Our final CMB map has then been constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
Moreover, additional CMB clean maps (at frequencies between 44 and 353 GHz) have also been produced using different combinations of templates for some of the analyses carried out in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p09}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p14}}. In particular, clean maps from 44 to 353 GHz have been used for the stacking analysis presented in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p14}}, while frequencies from 70 to 217 GHz were used for consistency tests in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p09}}.<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER-Ruler====<br />
The production process consist in low and high resolution runs according to the description above. <br />
; Low Resolution Runs: Same as the Astrophysics Foregrounds Section below; The CMB amplitude is fitted along with the other foreground parameters and constitutes the CMB Low Resolution Rendering which is in the PLA. <br />
; Ruler Runs: the sampling at high resolution is used to infer the probability distribution of spectral parameters which is exploited at full resolution in order to obtain the High Resolution CMB Rendering which is in the PLA. <br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. SMICA and SEVEM use all the maps between 30 and 857 GHz; NILC uses the ones between 44 and 857 GHz. Commander-Ruler uses frequency channel maps from 30 to 353 GHz. <br />
<br />
===File names and structure===<br />
The FITS files corresponding to the three CMB products are the following:<br />
<br />
''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}-field-{Int,Pol}_Nside_R2.nn.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''method'' is mica, nilc, sevem, or commander, and Int and Pol indicate whether the file contains the temperature (Int) or the polarisation (Pol) maps. For this release the temperature maps are provided at Nside = 2048, and the polarisation maps at Nside = 1024. <br />
<br />
The files contain <br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data;<br />
* one or two ''BINTABLE'' data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 14 columns in which the first 13 columns is a CMB map produced from the full or a subset of the data, as described in the table below, and the last column in a confidence mask. There is a single one for ''Int'' files, and two, for Q and U, for ''Pol'' files<br />
* a ''BINTABLE'' extension containing the beam window function.<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK_cmb || CMB temperature map<br />
|-<br />
|NOISE || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Estimated noise map (note 1)<br />
|-<br />
|I_STDEV|| Real*4 || uK_cmb || Standard deviation, ONLY on COMMANDER-Ruler products<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Confidence mask (note 2)<br />
|-<br />
|I_MASK|| Byte || none || Mask of regions over which CMB map is not built (Optional - see note 3)<br />
|-<br />
|INP_CMB || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Inpainted CMB temperature map (Optional - see note 3)<br />
|-<br />
|INP_MASK || Byte || none || mask of inpainted pixels (Optional - see note 3)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. EXTNAME = ''FGDS-LFI'' (BINTABLE) - Note 4<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LFI_030 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 30 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|LFI_044 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 44 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|LFI_070 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 70 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 3. EXTNAME = ''FGDS-HFI'' (BINTABLE) - Note 4<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|HFI_100 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 100 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|HFI_143 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 143 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|HFI_217 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 217 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|HFI_353 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 353 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|HFI_545 || Real*4 || MJy/sr || 545 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|HFI_857 || Real*4 || MJy/sr || 857 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function. See Note 5.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Notes:<br />
# The half-ring half-difference (HRHD) map is made by passing the half-ring frequency maps independently through the component separation pipeline, then computing half their difference. It approximates a noise realisation, and gives an indication of the uncertainties due to instrumental noise in the corresponding CMB map. <br />
# The confidence mask indicates where the CMB map is considered valid. <br />
# This column is not present in the SEVEM and COMMANDER-Ruler product file. For SEVEM these three columns give the CMB channel maps at 100, 143, and 217 GHz (columns ''C100'', ''C143'', and ''C217'', in units of K_cmb.<br />
# The subtraction of the CMB from the sky maps in order to produce the foregrounds map is done after convolving the CMB map to the resolution of the given frequency. Those columns are not present in the COMMANDER-Ruler product file.<br />
# The beam window function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>.<br />
<br />
The low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler CMB product is organized in the following way:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK_cmb || CMB temperature map obtained as average over 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Corresponding Standard deviation amongst the 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Confidence mask<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. EXTNAME = ''CMB-Sample'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM01 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM02 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM03 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM04 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM05 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM06 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM07 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM08 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM09 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM10 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
The FITS files containing the ''union'' (or common) maks is:<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-union_2048_R1.10.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common}}<br />
which contains a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with a single column (named ''U73'') for the mask, which is boolean (FITS ''TFORM = B''), in GALACTIC coordinates, NESTED ordering, and Nside=2048.<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for a small file containing the SMICA cmb map with no additional information (noise or masks) we provide such a file here<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
This file contains a single extension with a single column containing the SMICA cmb temperature map.<br />
<br />
===Cautionary notes===<br />
# The half-ring CMB maps are produced by the pipelines with parameters/weights fixed to the values obtained from the full maps. Therefore the CMB HRHD maps do not capture all of the uncertainties due to foreground modelling on large angular scales.<br />
# The HRHD maps for the HFI frequency channels underestimate the noise power spectrum at high l by typically a few percent. This is caused by correlations induced in the pre-processing to remove cosmic ray hits. The CMB is mostly constrained by the HFI channels at high l, and so the CMB HRHD maps will inherit this deficiency in power.<br />
# The beam transfer functions do not account for uncertainties in the beams of the frequency channel maps.<br />
<br />
== Astrophysical foregrounds from parametric component separation ==<br />
We describe diffuse foreground products for the Planck 2013 release. See Planck Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}} for a detailed description and astrophysical discussion of those.<br />
<br />
===Product description===<br />
; Low frequency foreground component<br />
: The products below contain the result of the fitting for one foreground component at low frequencies in Planck bands,along with its spectral behavior parametrized by a power law spectral index. Amplitude and spectral indeces are evaluated at N$_\rm{side}$ 256 (see below in the production process), along with standard deviation from sampling and instrumental noise on both. An amplitude solution at N$_\rm{side}$=2048 is also given, along with standard deviation from sampling and instrumental noise as well as solutions on halfrings. The beam profile associated to this component is also provided as a secondary Extension in the N$_\rm{side}$ 2048 product.<br />
<br />
; Thermal dust<br />
: The products below contain the result of the fitting for one foreground component at high frequencies in Planck bands, along with its spectral behavior parametrized by temperature and emissivity. Amplitude, temperature and emissivity are evaluated at N$_\rm{side}$ 256 (see below in the production process), along with standard deviation from sampling and instrumental noise on all of them. An amplitude solution at N$_\rm{side}$=2048 is also given, along with standard deviation from sampling and instrumental noise as well as solutions on halfrings. The beam profile associated to this component is provided. <br />
<br />
; Sky mask<br />
: The delivered mask is defined as the sky region where the fitting procedure was conducted and the solutions presented here were obtained. It is made by masking a region where the Galactic emission is too intense to perform the fitting, plus the masking of brightest point sources.<br />
<br />
===Production process===<br />
CODE: COMMANDER-RULER. The code exploits a parametrization of CMB and main diffuse foreground observables. The naive resolution of input <br />
frequency channels is reduced to N$_\rm{side}$=256 first. Parameters related to the foreground scaling with frequency are estimated at that resolution <br />
by using Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis using Gibbs sampling. The foreground parameters make the foreground mixing matrix which is <br />
applied to the data at full resolution in order to obtain the provided products at N$_\rm{side}$=2048. In the Planck Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}} additional material is discussed, specifically concerning the sky region where the solutions are reliable, in terms of chi2 maps.<br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
Nominal frequency maps at 30, 44, 70, 100, 143, 217, 353 GHz ({{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=30|period=Nominal|link=LFI 30 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=44|period=Nominal|link=LFI 44 GHz frequency maps}} and {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=70|period=Nominal|link=LFI 70 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=100|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 100 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=143|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 143 GHz frequency maps}},{{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=217|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 217 GHz frequency maps}} and {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=353|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 353 GHz frequency maps}}) and their II column corresponding to the noise covariance matrix. <br />
Halfrings at the same frequencies. Beam window functions as reported in the [[The RIMO#Beam Window Functions|LFI and HFI RIMO]].<br />
<br />
===Related products===<br />
None. <br />
<br />
===File names===<br />
* Low frequency component at N$_\rm{side}$ 256: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits}}<br />
* Low frequency component at N$_\rm{side}$ 2048: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits}}<br />
* Thermal dust at N$_\rm{side}$ 256: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits}}<br />
* Thermal dust at N$_\rm{side}$ 2048: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits}}<br />
* Mask: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Mask-rulerminimal_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Mask-rulerminimal_2048_R1.00.fits}}<br />
<br />
===Meta Data===<br />
====Low frequency foreground component====<br />
=====Low frequency component at N<sub>side</sub> = 256=====<br />
File name: COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits<br />
: '''Name HDU -- COMP-MAP'''<br />
<br />
The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK<sub>CMB</sub>|| Intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || uK<sub>CMB</sub> || standard deviation of intensity <br />
|-<br />
|Beta || Real*4 || || effective spectral index <br />
|-<br />
|B_stdev || Real*4 || || standard deviation on the effective spectral index <br />
|}<br />
<br />
; Notes:<br />
: Comment: The Intensity is normalized at 30 GHz<br />
: Comment: The intensity was estimated during mixing matrix estimation<br />
<br />
=====Low frequency component at N<sub>side</sub> = 2048=====<br />
: File name: COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits<br />
<br />
<br />
: '''Name HDU -- COMP-MAP'''<br />
<br />
The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*8 || uK<sub>CMB</sub>|| Intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*8 || uK<sub>CMB</sub> || standard deviation of intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_hr1 || Real*8 || uK<sub>CMB</sub> || Intensity on half ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|I_hr2 || Real*8 || uK<sub>CMB</sub> || Intensity on half ring 2 <br />
|}<br />
<br />
; Notes:<br />
: Comment: The intensity was computed after mixing matrix application<br />
<br />
<br />
: '''Name HDU -- BeamWF'''<br />
<br />
The Fits second extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BeamWF || Real*4 || || beam profile <br />
|}<br />
<br />
; Notes:<br />
: Comment: Beam window function used in the Component separation process<br />
<br />
====Thermal dust====<br />
=====Thermal dust component at N<sub>side</sub>=256=====<br />
: File name: COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits<br />
<br />
: '''Name HDU -- COMP-MAP'''<br />
<br />
The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || MJy/sr || Intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || MJy/sr || standard deviation of intensity <br />
|-<br />
|Em || Real*4 || || emissivity <br />
|-<br />
|Em_stdev || Real*4 || || standard deviation on emissivity <br />
|-<br />
|T || Real*4 || uK<sub>CMB</sub> || temperature <br />
|-<br />
|T_stdev || Real*4 || uK<sub>CMB</sub> || standard deviation on temerature <br />
|}<br />
<br />
; Notes:<br />
: Comment: The intensity is normalized at 353 GHz<br />
<br />
=====Thermal dust component at N<sub>side</sub>=2048=====<br />
File name: COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits<br />
<br />
<br />
: '''Name HDU -- COMP-MAP'''<br />
<br />
The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*8 || MJy/sr || Intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*8 || MJy/sr || standard deviation of intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_hr1 || Real*8 || MJy/sr || Intensity on half ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|I_hr2 || Real*8 || MJy/sr || Intensity on half ring 2 <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
: '''Name HDU -- BeamWF'''<br />
<br />
The Fits second extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BeamWF || Real*4 || || beam profile <br />
|}<br />
<br />
; Notes:<br />
: Comment: Beam window function used in the Component separation process<br />
<br />
====Sky mask====<br />
File name: COM_CompMap_Mask-rulerminimal_2048.fits<br />
<br />
; '''Name HDU -- COMP-MASK'''<br />
<br />
The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Mask || Real*4 || || Mask <br />
|}<br />
<br />
== Thermal dust emission ==<br />
Thermal emission from interstellar dust is captured by Planck-HFI over the whole sky, at all frequencies from 100 to 857 GHz. This emission is well modelled by a modified black body in the far-infrared to millimeter range. It is produced by the biggest interstellar dust grain that are in thermal equilibrium with the radiation field from stars. The grains emission properties in the sub-millimeter are therefore directly linked to their absorption properties in the UV-visible range. By modelling the thermal dust emission in the sub-millimeter, a map of dust reddening in the visible can then be constructed. The details of the model can be found here {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06b}}.<br />
<br />
=== Model of all-sky thermal dust emission ===<br />
The model of the thermal dust emission is based on a modified black body (MBB) fit to the data <math>I_\nu</math><br />
<br />
: <math>I_\nu = A\, B_\nu(T)\, \nu^\beta</math><br />
<br />
where <math>B_\nu(T)</math> is the Planck function for dust equilibirum temperature <math>T</math>, <math>A</math> is the amplitude of the MBB and <math>\beta</math> the dust spectral index. The dust optical depth at frequency <math>\nu</math> is<br />
<br />
: <math>\tau_\nu = I_\nu / B_\nu(T) = A\, \nu^\beta</math><br />
<br />
The dust parameters provided are <math>T</math>, <math>\beta</math> and <math>\tau_{353}</math>. They were obtained by fitting the Planck data at 353, 545 and 857 GHz (from which the Planck zodiacal light model was removed) together with the IRAS 100 micron data. The latter is a combination of the 100 micron maps from IRIS (Miville-Deschenes & Lagache, 2005) and from Schlegel et al. (1998), SFD1998. The IRIS (SFD1998) map is used at scales smaller (larger) than 30 arcmin; this combination allows to take advantage of the higher angular resolution and better control of gain variations of the IRIS map and of the better removal of the zodiacal light emission of the SFD1998 map.<br />
<br />
All maps (in Healpix Nside=2048 were smoothed to a common resolution of 5 arcmin. The CMB anisotropies, clearly visible at 353 GHz, were removed from all the HFI maps using the SMICA map. An offset was removed from each map to set a Galactic zero level, using a correlation with the LAB 21 cm data in diffuse areas of the sky (<math>N_{HI} < 2\times10^{20} cm^{-2}</math>). Because the dust emission is so well correlated between frequencies in the Rayleigh-Jeans part of the dust spectrum, the zero level of the 545 and 353 GHz were improved by correlating with the 857 GHz over a larger mask (<math>N_{HI} < 3\times10^{20} cm^{-2}</math>). Faint residual dipole structures, identified in the 353 and 545 GHz maps, were removed prior to the fit.<br />
<br />
The MBB fit was performed using a <math>\chi^2</math> minimization method, assuming errors for each data point that include instrumental noise, calibration uncertainties (on both the dust emission and the CMB anisotropies) and uncertainties on the zero levels. Because of the known degeneracy between <math>T</math> and <math>\beta</math> in the presence of noise, we performed tge fit in two steps. First we produced a model of dust emission using data smoothed to 30 arcmin; at such resolution no systematic bias of the parameters is observed. In a second step the map of the spectral index <math>\beta</math> at 30 arcmin was used to fit the data for <math>T</math> and <math>\tau_{353}</math> at 5 arcmin. <br />
<br />
=== The <math>E(B-V)</math> map for extra-galactic studies===<br />
For the production of the <math>E(B-V)</math> map, we used a MBB fit to Planck and IRAS data from which point sources were removed to avoid contamination by galaxies. In the hypothesis of constant dust emission cross-section, the optical depth map <math>\tau_{353}</math> is proportional to dust column density and therefore often used to estimate E(B-V). The analysis of Planck data revealed that the ratio <math>\tau_{353}/N_{HI}</math> and <math>\tau_{353}/E(B-V)</math> are not constant, even in the diffuse ISM, but that they depend on <math>T</math> revealing possible spatial variations of the dust emission cross-section. It appears that the dust radiance, <math>R</math>, i.e. the dust emission integrated in frequency, is a better tracer of column density in the diffuse ISM, implying small spatial variations of the radiation field strength at high Galactic latitude. <br />
Given those results, we also deliver the map of <math>R</math> as a dust product and we propose to use it as an estimator of Galactic dust reddening for extra-galactic studies: <math>E(B-V) = q\, R</math>.<br />
<br />
To estimate the calibration factor q, we followed a method similar to{{BibCite|mortsell2013}} based on SDSS reddening measurements of quasars in the u, g, r, i and z bands{{BibCite|schneider2007}}. We used a sample of 53 399 quasars, selecting objects at redshifts for which Ly<math>\alpha</math> does not enter the SDSS filters. The interstellar HI column densities covered on the lines of sight of this sample ranges from <math>0.5</math> to <math>10\times10^{20}\,cm^{-2}</math>. Therefore this sample allows us to estimate q in the diffuse ISM where this map of E(B-V) is intended to be used.<br />
<br />
=== Dust optical depth products ===<br />
The dust model maps are found in the file {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_CompMap_ThermalDustModel_2048_R1.20.fits|link=HFI_CompMap_ThermalDustModel_2048_R1.20.fits}} (see the note [[#noteOnDust|below]] for an important clarification regarding the thermal dust model); its characteristics are:<br />
* Dust optical depth at 353 GHz: Nside=2048, fwhm=5', no units<br />
* Dust temperature: Nside 2048, fwhm=5', units=Kelvin<br />
* Dust spectral index: Nside=2048, fwhm=30', no units<br />
* Dust radiance: Nside=2048, fwhm=5', units=Wm<sup>-2</sup>sr<sup>-1</sup><br />
* E(B-V) for extragalactic studies: Nside=2048, fwhm=5', units=magnitude, obtained with data from which point sources were removed.<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Dust opacity file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'COMP-MAP' <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
| TAU353 || Real*4 || none || The optical depth at 353GHz<br />
|-<br />
| ERR_TAU || Real*4 || none || Error on the optical depth<br />
|-<br />
| EBV || Real*4 || mag || E(B-V) for extra-galactic studies<br />
|-<br />
| RADIANCE || Real*4 || Wm<sup>-2</sup>sr<sup>-1</sup> || Integrated emission<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature<br />
|-<br />
|ERR_TEMP || Real*4 || K || Error on the temperature<br />
|-<br />
| BETA || Real*4 || none || Dust spectral index<br />
|-<br />
| ERR_BETA || Real*4 || none || Error on Beta<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
| AST-COMP || String || DUST|| Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
| PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
| COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
| ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
| NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
| FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
| LASTPIX || Int*4 || 50331647 || Last pixel number, for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<div id="noteOnDust"></div><span style="font-size:120%"> <span style="color:Red"><b>IMPORTANT NOTE:</b></span></span> The dust model has recently (4 December 2013) been updated and the new model is the one being distributed by default. A detailed description of the model can be found here {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06b}}. Users interested in the old dust model map should contact the [http://www.sciops.esa.int/helpdesk_pia PLA help desk].<br />
<br />
== CO emission maps ==<br />
CO rotational transition line emission is present in all HFI bands but for the 143 GHz channel. It is especially significant in the 100, 217 and 353 GHz channels (due to the 115 (1-0), 230 (2-1) and 345 GHz (3-2) CO transitions). This emission comes essentially from the Galactic interstellar medium and is mainly located at low and intermediate Galactic latitudes. Three approaches (summarised below) have been used to extract CO velocity-integrated emission maps from HFI maps and to make three types of CO products. A full description of how these products were producedis given in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p03a}}.<br />
<br />
* Type 1 product: it is based on a single channel approach using the fact that each CO line has a slightly different transmission in each bolometer at a given frequency channel. These transmissions can be evaluated from bandpass measurements that were performed on the ground or empirically determined from the sky using existing ground-based CO surveys. From these, the J=1-0, J=2-1 and J=3-2 CO lines can be extracted independently. As this approach is based on individual bolometer maps of a single channel, the resulting Signal-to-Noise ratio (SNR) is relatively low. The benefit, however, is that these maps do not suffer from contamination from other HFI channels (as is the case for the other approaches) and are more reliable, especially in the Galactic Plane.<br />
* Type 2 product: this product is obtained using a multi frequency approach. Three frequency channel maps are combined to extract the J=1-0 (using the 100, 143 and 353 GHz channels) and J=2-1 (using the 143, 217 and 353 GHz channels) CO maps. Because frequency channels are combined, the spectral behaviour of other foregrounds influences the result. The two type 2 CO maps produced in this way have a higher SNR than the type 1 maps at the cost of a larger possible residual contamination from other diffuse foregrounds.<br />
* Type 3 product: using prior information on CO line ratios and a multi-frequency component separation method, we construct a combined CO emission map with the largest possible SNR. This type 3 product can be used as a sensitive finder chart for low-intensity diffuse CO emission over the whole sky.<br />
<br />
The released Type 1 CO maps have been produced using the MILCA-b algorithm, Type 2 maps using a specific implementation of the Commander algorithm, and the Type 3 map using the full Commander-Ruler component separation pipeline (see [[CMB_and _astrophysical_component_maps#Maps_of_astrophysical_foregrounds | above]]).<br />
<br />
Characteristics of the released maps are the following. We provide Healpix maps with Nside=2048. For one transition, the CO velocity-integrated line signal map is given in K_RJ.km/s units. A conversion factor from this unit to the native unit of HFI maps (K_CMB) is provided in the header of the data files and in the RIMO. Four maps are given per transition and per type:<br />
* The signal map<br />
* The standard deviation map (same unit as the signal), <br />
* A null test noise map (same unit as the signal) with similar statistical properties. It is made out of half the difference of half-ring maps.<br />
* A mask map (0B or 1B) giving the regions (1B) where the CO measurement is not reliable because of some severe identified foreground contamination.<br />
<br />
All products of a given type belong to a single file.<br />
Type 1 products have the native HFI resolution i.e. approximately 10, 5 and 5 arcminutes for the CO 1-0, 2-1, 3-2 transitions respectively.<br />
Type 2 products have a 15 arcminute resolution<br />
The Type 3 product has a 5.5 arcminute resolution.<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Type-1 CO map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'COMP-MAP' <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I10 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || The CO(1-0) intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|E10 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || Uncertainty in the CO(1-0) intensity<br />
|-<br />
|N10 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || Map built from the half-ring difference maps<br />
|-<br />
|M10 || Byte || none || Region over which the CO(1-0) intensity is considered reliable<br />
|-<br />
|I21 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || The CO(2-1) intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|E21 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || Uncertainty in the CO(2-1) intensity<br />
|-<br />
|N21 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || Map built from the half-ring difference maps<br />
|-<br />
|M21 || Byte || none || Region over which the CO(2-1) intensity is considered reliable<br />
|-<br />
|I32 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || The CO(3-2) intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|E32 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || Uncertainty in the CO(3-2) intensity<br />
|-<br />
|N32 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || Map built from the half-ring difference maps<br />
|-<br />
|M32 || Byte || none || Region over which the CO(3-2) intensity is considered reliable<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || string || CO-TYPE2 || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 50331647 || Last pixel number, for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|CNV 1-0 || Real*4 || value || Factor to convert CO(1-0) intensity to Kcmb (units Kcmb/(Krj*km/s)) <br />
|-<br />
|CNV 2-1 || Real*4 || value || Factor to convert CO(2-1) intensityto Kcmb (units Kcmb/(Krj*km/s)) <br />
|-<br />
|CNV 3-2 || Real*4 || value || Factor to convert CO(3-2) intensityto Kcmb (units Kcmb/(Krj*km/s)) <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Type-2 CO map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'COMP-MAP' <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I10 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || The CO(1-0) intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|E10 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || Uncertainty in the CO(1-0) intensity<br />
|-<br />
|N10 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || Map built from the half-ring difference maps<br />
|-<br />
|M10 || Byte || none || Region over which the CO(1-0) intensity is considered reliable<br />
|-<br />
|-<br />
|I21 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || The CO(2-1) intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|E21 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || Uncertainty in the CO(2-1) intensity<br />
|-<br />
|N21 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || Map built from the half-ring difference maps<br />
|-<br />
|M21 || Byte || none || Region over which the CO(2-1) intensity is considered reliable<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CO-TYPE2 || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 50331647 || Last pixel number, for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|CNV 1-0 || Real*4 || value || Factor to convert CO(1-0) intensity to Kcmb (units Kcmb/(Krj*km/s)) <br />
|-<br />
|CNV 2-1 || Real*4 || value || Factor to convert CO(2-1) intensityto Kcmb (units Kcmb/(Krj*km/s)) <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Type-3 CO map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'COMP-MAP' <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|INTEN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || The CO intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|ERR || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || Uncertainty in the intensity<br />
|-<br />
|NUL || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || Map built from the half-ring difference maps<br />
|-<br />
|MASK || Byte || none || Region over which the intensity is considered reliable<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CO-TYPE1 || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 50331647 || Last pixel number, for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|CNV || Real*4 || value || Factor to convert to Kcmb (units Kcmb/(Krj*km/s)) <br />
|}<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|007]]</div>Amonetihttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php?title=Compact_Source_catalogues&diff=10563Compact Source catalogues2015-01-28T14:30:54Z<p>Amoneti: removed ERCSC</p>
<hr />
<div>==Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources==<br />
The Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources is a set of single frequency lists of sources, both Galactic and extragalactic, extracted from the Planck maps. <br />
<br />
The first public version of the PCCS was derived from the nominal mission data acquired by Planck between August 13 2009 and November 26 2010, as described in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p05}}. It consisted of nine lists of sources, one per channel between 30 and 857 GHz. The second public version of the catalogue (PCCS2) has been produced using the full mission data obtained between August 13 2009 and August 3 2013, as described in '''2015 Ref''', it consists of eighteen lists of sources, two lists per channel.<br />
<br />
The are three main differences between the PCCS and the PCCS2: <br />
<br />
<ol><br />
<li>The amount of data used to build the PCCS (Nominal Mission with 15.5 months) and PCCS2 (Full Mission with 48 months of data).</li><br />
<li>The inclusion of polarization information between 30 and 353 GHz, the seven Planck channels with polarization capabilities.</li><br />
<li>The division of the PCCS2 into two sets of catalogues, PCCS2 and PCCS2E, depending on our ability to validate their contents.</li><br />
</ol><br />
<br />
Both the 2013 PCCS and the 2014 PCCS2 can be downloaded from the [http://www.sciops.esa.int/index.php?project=planck&page=Planck_Legacy_Archive Planck Legacy Archive].<br />
<br />
=== Detection procedure ===<br />
The Mexican Hat Wavelet 2{{BibCite|nuevo2006}} {{BibCite|lopezcaniego2006}} is the base algorithm used to produce the single channel catalogues of the PCCS and the PCCS2. Although each DPC has is own implementation of this algorithm (IFCAMEX and HFI-MHW), the results are compatible at least at the statistical uncertainty level. Additional algorithms are also implemented, like the multi-frequency Matrix Multi-filters{{BibCite|herranz2009}} (MTXF) and the Bayesian PowellSnakes {{BibCite|carvalho2009}}. Both of them have been used both in PCCS and PCCS2 for the validation of the results obtained by the MHW2 in total intensity. <br />
<br />
In addition, two maximum likelihood methods have been used to do the anlysis in polarization. Both of them can be used to blindly dectect sources in polarization maps. However, the PCCS2 analysis has been performed in a non-blind fashion, looking at the positions of the sources detected in total intensity and providing an estimation of the polarized flux density. As in total intensity, each DPC has its own implementation of this code (IFCAPOL and PwSPOL). The IFCAPOL algorithm is based on the Filter Fusion technique {{BibCite|argueso2009}} and has been applied to WMAP maps {{BibCite|lopezcaniego2009}}. The PwSPOL algortihm is a modified version of PwS, the code used in the Early Release Compact Source catalogue {{PlanckPapers|planck2011-1-10}}. In practice, both of them are filtering methods based on matched filters, that filter the Q and U maps before attempting to estimate the flux density at each them.<br />
<br />
The detection of the compact sources is done locally on small flat patches