Catalogues

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The Catalogue of Compact Sources

Product description

Sky distribution of the PCCS sources at three different channels: 30GHz (pink circles), 143GHz (magenta circles) and 857GHz (green circles). The dimension of the circles is related to the brightness of the sources and the beam size of each channel.

The PCCS is a set of nine single-frequencies lists of sources extracted from the Planck nominal mission data. By definition its reliability is > 80% and a special effort was made to use simple selection procedures in order to facilitate statistical analyses. With a common detection method for all the channels and the additional three photometries, spectral analysis can also be done safely. The deeper completeness levels and, as a consequence, the higher number of sources compared with its predecessor the ERCSCEarly Release Compact Source Catalog, will allow the extension of previous studies to more sources and to fainter flux densities. The PCCS is the natural evolution of the ERCSCEarly Release Compact Source Catalog, but both lack polarization and multi-frequency information. Future releases will take advantage of the full mission data and they will contain information on properties of sources not available in this release, such as polarization, multi-frequency and variability.


Table 1: PCCS characteristics
Channel 30 44 70 100 143 217 353 545 857
Frequency [GHz] 28.4 44.1 70.4 100.0 143.0 217.0 353.0 545.0 857.0
Beam FWHMFull-Width-at-Half-Maximum1 [arcmin] 32.38 27.10 13.30 9.88 7.18 4.87 4.65 4.72 4.39
SNR threshold 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.92/6.03 4.7/7.0 4.9/7.0
# of detections 1256 731 939 3850 5675 16070 17689 26472 35719
# of detections for |b| > 30º) 572 258 332 845 1051 1901 2035 4164 7851
Flux density uncertainty [mJy] 109 198 149 61 38 35 74 132 189
Min flux density4 [mJy] 461 825 566 266 169 149 298 479 671
90% completeness [mJ] 575 1047 776 300 190 180 330 570 680
Position uncertainty5 [arcmin] 1.8 2.1 1.4 1.0 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.5 0.4
Notes
  1. The Planck beams are described in Planck-2013-IV[1] and Planck-2013-VII[2]. This table shows the values which were adopted for the PCCS (derived from the effective beams).
  2. In the extragalactic zone (48% of the sky; see Fig. 2 in Planck-2013-XXVIII[3]).
  3. In the Galactic zone (52% of the sky; see Fig. 2 in Planck-2013-XXVIII[3]).
  4. Minimum flux density of the catalogue at |b| > 30º after excluding the 10% faintest sources.
  5. Positional uncertainty derived by comparison with PACO sample ([4][5][6]) up to 353 GHz and with Herschel samples (HRS, KINGFISH, HeViCS, H-ATLAS) in the other channels.

Before using the PCCS, please read the Cautionary Notes in the PCCS general description section. For full details, see paper Planck-2013-XXVIII[3].

Production process

For a description of the production and validation processes of the PCCS see the corresponding section.

Inputs

The data obtained from the Planck nominal mission between (2009 August 12 and 2010 November 27) have been processed into full-sky maps by the HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument and LFI(Planck) Low Frequency Instrument Data Processing Centres (DPCs). A description of the processing can be found in Planck-2013-II[7] and Planck-2013-VI[8]. The data consist of two complete sky surveys and 60% of the third survey. This implies that the flux densities of sources obtained from the nominal mission maps are the average of at least two observations. The nine Planck frequency channel maps are used as input to the source detection pipelines. The relevant properties of the frequency maps and main parameters used to generate the catalogues are summarized in Table 1.

The input data used to generate this product are the following:

Related products

Other products that are related and share some commonalities with the product being described here are the other catalogues:

  1. ERCSC
  2. SZ catalogue

File names

COM_PCCS_030_R1.30.fits
COM_PCCS_044_R1.30.fits
COM_PCCS_070_R1.30.fits
COM_PCCS_100_R1.20.fits
COM_PCCS_143_R1.20.fits
COM_PCCS_217_R1.20.fits
COM_PCCS_353_R1.20.fits
COM_PCCS_545_R1.20.fits
COM_PCCS_857_R1.20.fits

Meta Data

The PCCS source list in each frequency is structured as a FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification binary table having one row for each detected source. The details of the FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification file structure are below

FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification file structure
Extension 0: Primary header, no data
FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification Keyword Data Type Units Description
INSTRUME String LFI(Planck) Low Frequency Instrument or HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument
VERSION String Version of PCCS
DATE String Date file created:yyyy-mm-dd
ORIGIN String Name of organization responsible for the data (LFI(Planck) Low Frequency Instrument-DPCData Processing CenterHFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument-DPCData Processing Center)
TELESCOP String PLANCK
CREATOR String Pipeline Version
DATE-OBS String days Start-up time of the survey: yyyy-mm-dd
DATE-END String days Ending time of the survey: yyyy-mm-dd
Extension 1: (BINTABLE)
Column Name Data Type Units Description
Identification
NAME String Source name (Note 1)
Source Position
GLON Real*8 degrees Galactic longitude based on extraction algorithm
GLAT Real*8 degrees Galactic latitude based on extraction algorithm
RA Real*8 degrees Right ascension (J2000) transformed from (GLON,GLAT)
DEC Real*8 degrees Declination (J2000) transformed from (GLON,GLAT)
Photometry
DETFLUX Real*4 mJy Flux density of source as determined by detection method
DETFLUX_ERR Real*4 mJy Uncertainty (1 sigma) in derived flux density from detection method
APERFLUX Real*4 mJy Flux density of source as determined from the aperture photometry
APERFLUX_ERR Real*4 mJy Uncertainty (1 sigma) in derived flux density from the aperture photometry
PSFFLUX Real*4 mJy Flux density of source as determined from PSF fitting
PSFFLUX_ERR Real*4 mJy Uncertainty (1 sigma) in derived flux density from PSF fitting
GAUFLUX Real*4 mJy Flux density of source as determined from 2-D Gaussian fitting
GAUFLUX_ERR Real*4 mJy Uncertainty (1 sigma) in derived flux density from 2-D Gaussian fitting
GAU_SEMI1 Real*4 arcmin Gaussian fit along axis 1 (FWHMFull-Width-at-Half-Maximum; see Note 4 for axis definition)
GAU_SEMI1_ERR Real*4 arcmin Uncertainty (1 sigma) in derived Gaussian fit along axis 1
GAU_SEMI2 Real*4 arcmin Gaussian fit along axis 2 (FWHMFull-Width-at-Half-Maximum)
GAU_SEMI2_ERR Real*4 arcmin Uncertainty (1 sigma) in derived Gaussian fit along axis 2
GAU_THETA Real*4 deg Gaussian fit orientation angle (Note 4)
GAU_THETA_ERR Real*4 deg Uncertainty (1 sigma) in derived gaussian fit orientation angle
GAU_FWHMFull-Width-at-Half-Maximum_EFF Real*4 arcmin Gaussian fit effective FWHMFull-Width-at-Half-Maximum
Flags and validation
EXTENDED Integer*2 Extended source flag (Note 2)
CIRRUS_N Integer*2 Number of sources detected at 857 GHz within 1 degree
EXT_VAL Integer*2 External validation flag (Note 3)
ERCSCEarly Release Compact Source Catalog String Name of the ERCSCEarly Release Compact Source Catalog counterpart if any
ONLY 857 GHz Catalogue
APERFLUX_217 Real*4 mJy Estimated flux density at 217 GHz
APERFLUX_ERR_217 Real*4 mJy Uncertainty in source flux density at 217 GHz
APERFLUX_353 Real*4 mJy Estimated flux density at 353 GHz
APERFLUX_ERR_353 Real*4 mJy Uncertainty in source flux density at 353 GHz
APERFLUX_545 Real*4 mJy Estimated flux density at 545 GHz
APERFLUX_ERR_545 Real*4 mJy Uncertainty in source flux density at 545 GHz
Notes
  1. Source names consist of a prefix and a position. The prefix used is PCCS1 fff for the catalogue at fff GHz. The position is in Galactic coordinates and specified as "Glll.ll±bb.bb" where the (l,b) values are truncated to two decimal places. For example, a source detected at (l,b) = (120.237, 4.231) in the 545 GHz Planck map would be labelled PCCS1 545 G120.23±04.23.
  2. The EXTENDED flag has the value of 0 if the source is compact and the value of 1 is it extended. The source size is determined by the geometric mean of the Gaussian fit FWHMs, with the criteria for extension being sqrt(GAU_FWHMMAJ * GAU_FWHMIN) > 1.5 times the beam FWHMFull-Width-at-Half-Maximum.
  3. The EXT_VAL flag takes the value of 0, 1, or 2, based on the following conditions:
    = 2: The source has a clear counterpart in one of the catalogues considered as ancillary data.
    = 1: The source has no clear counterpart in one of the ancillary catalogues but it has been detected by the internal multi-frequency method (LFI(Planck) Low Frequency Instrument channels) or match with neighbouring frequencies, above or below (HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument channels).
    = 0: The source has no clear counterpart in one of the ancillary catalogues and it has not been detected by the internal multi-frequency method or neighbouring frequencies.
  4. The x-axis is defined for each source as parallel to the line of constant colatitude, with the same direction as the longitude. Therefore the position angles are measured anticlockwise from the y-axis.

The SZSunyaev-Zel'dovich catalogues

The Planck SZSunyaev-Zel'dovich catalogue is constructed as described in SZ catalogue and in section 2 of Planck-2013-XXIX[9].

Three pipelines are used to detect SZSunyaev-Zel'dovich clusters: two independent implementations of the Matched Multi-Filter (MMF1 and MMF3), and PowellSnakes (PwS). The main catalogue is constructed as the union of the catalogues from the three detection methods. The individual catalogues are provided for the expert user in order to assess the consistency of the pipelines. The completeness and reliability of the catalogues have been assessed through internal and external validation as described in sections 3-6 of Planck-2013-XXIX[9].

The union catalogue contains the coordinates and the signal-to-noise ratio of the detections and a summary of the external validation information, including external identification of a cluster and its redshift if it is available.

The individual catalogues contain the coordinates and the signal-to-noise ratio of the detections, and information on the size and flux of the detections. The entries are cross-referenced to the detections in the union catalogue.

The size of a detection is given in terms of the scale size, $\theta_\mathrm{s}$, and the flux is given in terms of the total integrated Comptonization parameter, $Y = Y_{5r_{500}}$. The parameters of the GNFW profile assumed by the detection pipelines is written in the headers in the catalogues. For the sake of convenience, the conversion factor from $Y$ to $Y_{500}$ is also written in the header.

The full information on the degeneracy between $\theta_\mathrm{s}$ and $Y$ is included in the individual catalogues in the form of the two-dimensional probability distribution for each detection. It is computed on a well-sampled grid to produce a two-dimensional image for each detection. The degeneracy information is provided in this form so it can be combined with a model or external data to produce tighter constraints on the parameters.


Union Catalogue

The union catalogue is contained in COM_PCCS_SZ-union_R1.12.fits.


Extension 0: Primary header, no data
FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification Keyword Data Type Units Description
INSTRUME String Instrument.
VERSION String Version of catalogue.
DATE String Date file created: yyyy-mm-dd.
ORIGIN String Name of organization responsible for the data.
TELESCOP String PLANCK.
CREATOR String Pipeline version.
DATE-OBS String Start time of the survey: yyyy-mm-dd.
DATE-END String End time of the survey: yyyy-mm-dd.
PROCVER String Data version.
PP_ALPHA Real*4 GNFW pressure profile $\alpha$ parameter.
PP_BETA Real*4 GNFW pressure profile $\beta$ parameter.
PP_GAMMA Real*4 GNFW pressure profile $\gamma$ parameter.
PP_C500 Real*4 GNFW pressure profile $c_{500}$ parameter.
PP_Y2YFH Real*4 Conversion factor from $Y$ to $Y_{500}$.
Extension 1: data extension (BINTABLE)
Column Name Data Type Units Description
INDEX Int*4 Index. Used to cross-reference with individual catalogues.
NAME String Source name, (Note 1)
GLON Real*8 degrees Galactic longitude.
GLAT Real*8 degrees Galactic latitude.
RA Real*8 degrees Right ascension (J2000) transformed from (GLON,GLAT).
DEC Real*8 degrees Declination (J2000) transformed from (GLON,GLAT).
POS_ERR Real*4 arcmin Position uncertainty (approximate 68% confidence interval). See Caveats below.
SNR Real*4 Signal-to-noise ratio of the detection.
PIPELINE Int*4 Souce pipeline: 1= MMF1; 2 = MMF3; 3 = PwS.
PIPE_DET Int*4 Pipelines which detect this object (note 2).
PCCS Bool Indicates whether detection matches any PCCS source.
VALIDATION Int*4 External validation status (Note 3)
ID_EXT String External identifier of cluster.
REDSHIFT Real*4 Redshift of cluster.
COSMO Bool Detection is in the cosmology sample.
COMMENT Bool Detection has a comment in the associated text file (Note 4).
Notes
  1. format is PSZ1 Glll.ll+mn;bb.b where (l,b) are the Galactic and truncated to 2 decimal places.
  2. The three least significant decimal digits are used to represent detection or non-detection by the pipelines. Order of the digits: hundreds = MMF1; tens = MMF3; units = PwS. If it is detected then the corresponding digit is set to 1, otherwise it is set to 0.
  3. values are: 1 = candidate of class 1; 2 = candidate of class 2; 3 = candidate of class 3; 10 = Planck cluster confirmed by follow-up; 20 = known cluster.
  4. The comments on the detections in the catalogue are contained in a text file called COM_PCCS_SZ-union_comments_R1.11.txt, which contains one line for each detection in the union catalogue with COMMENT = T. The line starts with the INDEX and NAME of the detection to facilitate cross-referencing. The remainder of the line is the comment on that detection.

Individual Catalogues

The individual pipeline catalogues are contained in the FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification files

Their structure is as follows:


FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification file structure
Ext. 0: Primary header, no data
FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification Keyword Data Type Units Description
INSTRUME String Instrument.
VERSION String Version of catalogue.
DATE String Date file created: yyyy-mm-dd.
ORIGIN String Name of organization responsible for the data.
TELESCOP String PLANCK.
CREATOR String Pipeline version.
DATE-OBS String Start time of the survey: yyyy-mm-dd.
DATE-END String End time of the survey: yyyy-mm-dd.
PROCVER String Data version.
PP_ALPHA Real*4 GNFW pressure profile $\alpha$ parameter.
PP_BETA Real*4 GNFW pressure profile $\beta$ parameter.
PP_GAMMA Real*4 GNFW pressure profile $\gamma$ parameter.
PP_C500 Real*4 GNFW pressure profile $c_{500}$ parameter.
PP_Y2YFH Real*4 Conversion factor from $Y$ to $Y_{500}$.
Ext. 1: EXTNANE = PSZ_INDIVIDUAL (BINTABLE)
Column Name Data Type Units Description
INDEX Int*4 Index from union catalogue.
NAME String Source name - see Note1
GLON Real*8 degrees Galactic longitude.
GLAT Real*8 degrees Galactic latitude.
RA Real*8 degrees Right ascension (J2000) transformed from (GLON,GLAT).
DEC Real*8 degrees Declination (J2000) transformed from (GLON,GLAT).
POS_ERR Real*4 arcmin Position uncertainty (approximate 68% confidence interval). See Caveats below.
SNR Real*4 Signal-to-noise ratio of the detection.
SNR_COMPAT Real*4 SNR of the detection in compatibility mode (Note 2)
TS_MIN Real*4 Minimum value of $\theta_\mathrm{s}$ in grid in second extension HDU (see below).
TS_MAX Real*4 Maximum value of $\theta_\mathrm{s}$ in grid in second extension HDU (see below).
Y_MIN Real*4 Minimum value of $Y$ in grid in second extension HDU (see below).
Y_MAX Real*4 Maximum value of $Y$ in grid in second extension HDU (see below).
Keyword Data Type Value Description
PIPELINE String Name of detection pipeline.
Ext. 2: EXTNAME = PSZ_PROBABILITY (IMAGE) - Note 3
Keyword Data Type Value Description
NAXIS1 Integer 256 Dim 1
NAXIS2 Integer 256 Dim 2
NAXIS3 Integer Nsources Dim 3 = Number of sources
Keyword Data Type Value Description
PIPELINE String Name of detection pipeline.
Notes
  1. Format PSZ1 Glll.ll±bb.bb where (l, b) are the Galactic coordinates truncated to 2 decimal places.
  2. For PwS, this is the S/N evaluated in a manner compatible with the MMF pipelines. For MMF1 and MMF3, it is identical to SNR.
  3. Ext. 2 contains a three-dimensional image with the two-dimensional probability distribution in $\theta_\mathrm{s}$ and $Y$ for each detection. The probability distributions are evaluated on a 256 × 256 linear grid between the limits specified in Ext. 1. The limits are determined independently for each detection. The dimension of the 3D image is 256 × 256 × n, where n is the number of detections. The first dimension is $\theta_\mathrm{s}$ and the second dimension is $Y$.

Mask

The mask used to construct the catalogue is contained in a file

COM_PCCS_SZ-unionMask_2048_R1.11.fits.

It is in GALACTIC coordinates, NESTED ordering, NSIDE=2048.

Additional information

A set of comments on the union catalogue is available in

COM_DocPCCS_SZ-union-comments_R1.11.txt

Additional information on the SZSunyaev-Zel'dovich detections was retrieved from external sources and written into the FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification file

COM_PCCS_SZ-validation_R1.12.fits

(for more details see Planck-2013-XXIX[9]). This file contains a single BINTABLE extension. The table contains 1 line per source, and the columns and their meaning are given below.

FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification file structure
Ext. 0: (BINTABLE)
Column Name Data Type Units Description
INDEX Int*4 Index from union catalogue.
NAME String Source name in union catalogue
REDSHIFT Real*4 Redshift
REDSHIFT_SOURCE Int*4 Source for redshift - see Note 4.
ALT_NAME String Alternative names.
RA_MCXC Real*4 degrees Right Ascension of the MCXC identifier.
DEC_MCXC Real*4 degrees Declination of the MCXC identifier.
YZ_500 Real*4 10-4 arcmin2 Compton parameter in R500 from SZSunyaev-Zel'dovich-proxy.
ERRP_YZ_500 Real*4 10-4 arcmin2 Error sup. in YZ_500
ERRM_YZ_500 Real*4 10-4 arcmin2 Error inf. in YZ_500
M_YZ_500 Real*4 1014 Msol Derived mass estimate (M_YZ_500) from SZSunyaev-Zel'dovich proxy.
ERRP_M_YZ_500 Real*4 1014 Msol Error sup. on M_YZ_500.
ERRM_M_YZ_500 Real*4 1014 Msol Error sup. on M_YZ_500.
S_X Real*4 erg/s/cm2 Unabsorbed X-ray flux - see Note 1.
ERR_S_X Real*4 erg/s/cm2 Error on unabsorbed X-ray flux.
Y_PSX_500 Real*4 10-4 arcmin2 SZSunyaev-Zel'dovich signal for PSZ clusters identified with MCXC clusters- see Note 2.
SN_PSX Real*4 Signal to noise for PSZ clusters identified with MCXC clusters - see Note 3.
Notes
  1. Unabsorbed X-ray flux measured in an aperture of 5 arcmin in the band [0.1-2.4] keV. The aperture is centered on the Planck position, except for candidates associated with a BSC source for which we adopt the X-ray position. For sources with [math](S/N)_{RASS} \lt 1\sigma[/math], we only quote an upper limit.
  2. SZSunyaev-Zel'dovich signal re-extracted fixing the size to the X-ray size provided in the MCXC catalogue at the X-ray position, for PSZ clusters identified with MCXC clusters.
  3. Computed in the Planck data at the X-ray position fixing the size to the X-ray size provided in the MCXC catalogue, for PSZ clusters identified with MCXC clusters.
  4. Source for redshifts:
    -1 : No redshift available
     1 : MCXC updated compilation[10]
     2 : Databases NED and SIMBAD-CDS
     3 : SDSS cluster catalogue[11]
     4 : SDSS cluster catalogue[12]
     5 : SPT[13][14][15][16][17][18][19]
     6 : ACT[20][21][22][23]
     7 : Search in SDSS galaxy catalogue from Planck Collab.
    20 : XMM-Newton confirmation from Planck Collab. 
    50 : ENO-imaging confirmation from Planck Collab.
    60 : WFI-imaging confirmation from Planck Collab.
    65 : NTT-spectroscopic confirmation from Planck Collab.
   500 : RTT-spectroscopic confirmation from Planck Collab.
   600 : NOT-spectroscopic confirmation from Planck Collab.
   650 : GEMINI-spectroscopic confirmation from Planck Collab.
   700 : ENO-spectroscopic confirmation from Planck Collab.

Caveats

The following issue was found in Feb. 2014 in R1.11 of the MMF3 catalogue: the POS_ERR field values are overestimated by a factor 3.125 on average. This issue has been resolved in R1.12. A corrected version of the union catalogue has also been produced (also R1.12)

The approximate 68% (1-sigma) confidence interval in the POS_ERR field is computed as half of the 95% (2-sigma) confidence interval. Previously this was erroneously described as a 95% confidence interval.

The ERCSCEarly Release Compact Source Catalog

The Plank Early Release Compact Source Catalogue was the first Planck product to be publicly released in Jan 2011. It was produced with a very rapid turnaround to facilitate follow-up observations with existing cryogenic observatories such as Herschel. It contained a list of all high reliability sources, both Galactic and extragalactic, that were derived from the first all sky coverage by Planck. i.e., using observations obtained from 12 August 2009 to 6 June 2010. Thus the full sky was covered once, and ~60% of the sky was covered twice. The goals were to achieve a photometric accuracy of 30% and a positional accuracy 1/5 of the beam FWHMFull-Width-at-Half-Maximum in the RMS sense.

The ERCSCEarly Release Compact Source Catalog consisted of nine source lists, one at each of the nine Planck frequency channels. The number of sources in the lists range from 705 at 30 GHz to 8988 at 857 GHz. No attempt was made to cross-match the sources from the different frequencies due to the wide range of spatial resolutions (33 arcmin at 30 GHz to 4.3 arcmin at 857 GHz) spanned by Planck. Furthermore, a list of Cold Cores of interstellar molecular clouds within the Galaxy and a list of galaxy clusters detected through the Sunyaev- Zel’dovich effect (SZSunyaev-Zel'dovich), were also provided. These consisted of candidate sources that were detected using multifrequency algorithms that use the distinct spectral signature of such sources. The Cold Cores catalogue contained 915 sources while the SZSunyaev-Zel'dovich cluster catalogue consisted of 189 sources

In order to generate the ERCSCEarly Release Compact Source Catalog, four source detection algorithms were run as part of the ERCSCEarly Release Compact Source Catalog pipeline. A Monte-Carlo algorithm based on the injection and extraction of artificial sources into the Planck maps was implemented to select reliable sources among all extracted candidates such that the cumulative reliability of the catalogue is >90%. Reliability is defined as the fraction of sources in the catalog which have measured flux densities which are within 30% of their true flux density. There is no requirement on completeness for the ERCSCEarly Release Compact Source Catalog. As a result of the Monte-Carlo assessment of reliability of sources from the different techniques, an implementation of the PowellSnakes source extraction technique was used at the five frequencies between 30 and 143 GHz while the SExtractor technique was used between 217 and 857 GHz. The 10σ photometric flux density limit of the catalogue at $|b| > 30$ deg is 0.49, 1.0, 0.67, 0.5, 0.33, 0.28, 0.25, 0.47 and 0.82 Jy at each of the nine frequencies between 30 and 857GHz. Sources which are up to a factor of ~2 fainter than this limit, and which are present in "clean" regions of the Galaxy where the sky background due to emission from the interstellar medium is low, are included in the ERCSCEarly Release Compact Source Catalog if they meet the high reliability criterion. The sensitivity of the ERCSCEarly Release Compact Source Catalog is shown in the figure below. The ERCSCEarly Release Compact Source Catalog sources have known associations to stars with dust shells, stellar cores, radio galaxies, blazars, infrared luminous galaxies and Galactic interstellar medium features. A significant fraction of unclassified sources are also present in the catalogs.

The multifrequency information from Planck allows some basic classification of the sources to be undertaken. In the Galactic plane, at frequencies below 100 GHz, the majority of the sources are dominated by synchrotron or free-free emission. At the higher frequencies, the sources are almost exclusively dominated by thermal dust emission. At high Galactic latitudes however, the synchrotron sources dominate the source counts to 217 GHz with dusty sources being the primary source population at 353 GHz and higher. Recent attempts to classify a subset of the Planck 857 GHz sources at high latitudes based on cross-correlations with sources in other catalogs such as WISE and SDSS, found that almost half of them are associated with stars and low-redshift galaxies while a significant fraction (44%) might be interstellar medium features[24].

Full details on the construction, contents and usage of the ERCSCEarly Release Compact Source Catalog, ECC and ESZ catalogues can be found in Planck-Early-VII[25], Planck-Early-VIII[26], Planck-Early-XXIII[27].


Flux density limits


The figure shows the ERCSCEarly Release Compact Source Catalog flux density limits, quanitfied as the faintest ERCSCEarly Release Compact Source Catalog source at |b|<10 deg (dashed black line) and at |b|>30 deg (solid black line), compared to those of other wide area surveys (Planck-Early-VII[25]). Also shown are spectra of known sources of foreground emission as red lines. The ERCSCEarly Release Compact Source Catalog sensitivity is worse in the Galactic plane due to the strong contribution of ISM emission, especially at submillimeter wavelengths. At face value, the WMAP and Planck flux density limits appear to be comparable at the lowest frequencies, but the Planck ERCSCEarly Release Compact Source Catalog is much more complete as discussed in Planck-Early-VII[25].

References


  1. Planck 2013 results: LFI Beams, Planck Collaboration 2013 IV, A&A, in press, (2014).
  2. Planck 2013 results: HFI time response and beams, Planck Collaboration 2013 VII, A&A, in press, (2014).
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Planck 2013 results: The Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources, Planck Collaboration XXVIII, A&A, in press, (2014).
  4. The Planck-ATCA Co-eval Observations project: the brightsample, M. Massardi, A. Bonaldi, L. Bonavera, M. López-Caniego, G. de Zotti, R. D. Ekers, MNRAS, 415, 1597-1610, (2011).
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  7. Planck 2013 results: The Low Frequency Instrument data processing, Planck Collaboration 2013 II, A&A, in press, (2014).
  8. Planck 2013 results: High Frequency Instrument Data Processing, Planck Collaboration 2013 VI, A&A, in press, (2014).
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Planck 2013 results: The Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources, Planck Collaboration XXIX, A&A, in press, (2014).
  10. The MCXC: a meta-catalogue of x-ray detected clusters of galaxies, R. Piffaretti, M. Arnaud, G. W. Pratt, E. Pointecouteau, J.-B. Melin, A&A, 534, A109, (2011).
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