https://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/api.php?action=feedcontributions&user=Mlopezca&feedformat=atomPlanck Legacy Archive Wiki - User contributions [en-gb]2023-09-28T18:55:27ZUser contributionsMediaWiki 1.31.6https://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=Sroll2&diff=14636Sroll22023-06-13T11:48:20Z<p>Mlopezca: </p>
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<div>== Sroll2 ==<br />
<br />
'''Disclaimer''': the following data sets have been delivered and ingested in the PLA as agreed between ESA and the Sroll2 project reprocessing Planck data. Please note that these products have not been produced by the Planck Collaboration and we do not provide any kind of support for the content of these products. For questions about these products please contact the Sroll2 project directly Jean-Marc Delouis (jean.marc.delouis at ifremer.fr).<br />
<br />
=== Overview and background ===<br />
<br />
Sroll2 is an improved mapmaking approach with respect to the one used for the Planck High Frequency Instrument 2018 Legacy release. The algorithm SRoll2 better corrects the known instrumental effects that still affected mostly the polarized large-angular-scale data by distorting the signal, and/or leaving residuals observable in null tests. The main systematic effect is the nonlinear response of the onboard analog-to-digital convertors that was cleaned in the Planck HFI Legacy release as an empirical time-varying linear detector chain response which is the first-order effect. The SRoll2 method fits the model parameters for higher-order effects and corrects the full distortion of the signal. The model parameters are fitted using the redundancies in the data by iteratively comparing the data and a model. The polarization efficiency uncertainties and associated errors have also been corrected based on the redundancies in the data and their residual levels characterized with simulations. <br />
<br />
SRoll2: an improved mapmaking approach to reduce large-scale systematic effects in the Planck High Frequency Instrument legacy maps (Delouis et al., A&A 609, A38, 2019), [https://www.aanda.org/articles/aa/full_html/2019/09/aa34882-18/aa34882-18.html A&A] <br />
<br />
=== Data Description ===<br />
<br />
Data set description<br />
<br />
The SRoll 2.0 data set is made of 28 FITS files each containing the I, Q and U Stokes parameters of a single frequency, multi-bolometer, full-sky observation in KCMB, as well as its hit count and covariance matrix elements (II, IQ, IU, QQ, QU, UU, in KCMB2). These maps are generated using only the 8 polarised HFI bolometers ("PSB") of each polarised HFI frequency (100 GHz, 143 GHz, 217 GHz and 353 GHz) to obtain the best possible polarised maps. The maps are stored in HEALPix format at Nside=2,048 (50,331,648 pixels per map). They are named and formatted in the same way as the Planck HFI 2018 products (see the Planck Legacy Archive (PLA)):<br />
<br />
* SRoll20 is the data product name and version,<br />
* SkyMap is the signal type, here all sky components,<br />
* the detector set, made of the detectors frequency (100, 143, 217, 353), followed by the detectors used in the map (psb for all 8 bolometers, ds1 for the first 4 bolometers, ds2 for the last 4 bolometers)<br />
* the ring set, either full for all the rings of the mission (240-26050), or halfmission-1 (rings 240-13144), halfmission-2 (rings 13145-26050), or even or odd numbered rings (full-even or full-odd, respectively).<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits]<br />
<br />
=== Simulations Description ===<br />
<br />
The SRoll 2.0 simulations are produced in the same way as Planck HFI 2018 Legacy simulations, described in the Planck Explanatory Supplement. The common features and differences with Planck HFI 2018 simulations are listed here: the simulated sky is the same as Planck 2018 fiducial realisation, the HFI instrument and TOI processing simulation program (stim) is the same one, used with the same parameters and random seeds, the simulated detectors are all (and only) the polarised bolometers, as for the SRoll 2.0 data release (100psb, 143psb, 217psb and 353psb), the global solution and mapmaking algorithm is SRoll2, while the simulations and data processing are done at HEALPix nside=2048, the simulated maps delivered here are smoothed using a cosine pixel window function and downgraded to nside=32, the SRoll 2.0 simulations consists of 500 realisations for 100psb, 143psb and 353psb detsets, and 300 realisations for 217psb.<br />
<br />
In the Sroll2 repository the simulations are packaged in three 1.4GB tar files, each file containing all the simulations for a given detector set, respectively all (8) PSB per frequency, detset1 (4 PSB) and detset2 (the other 4 PSB).<br />
<br />
In the PLA they are provided as individual files.<br />
<br />
Source:<br />
http://sroll20.ias.u-psud.fr/sroll20_data.html<br />
http://sroll20.ias.u-psud.fr/sroll20_sim.html</div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=Main_Page&diff=14635Main Page2023-03-20T19:02:36Z<p>Mlopezca: </p>
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<div>{{DISPLAYTITLE: 2018 Planck Explanatory Supplement}}<br />
<!---'''<span style="font-size:180%"> <span style="color:Blue"> This is the 2018 Explanatory Supplement page for the Planck Legacy Archive </span><br />
* Instructions for new users: [[Help:READ ME FIRST|Read me first]]<br />
* See [http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Help:Contents User's Guide] for a detailed User Guide of the MediaWiki software;<br />
* See [[Help:Contents|Explanatory Supplement Help page]] for Planck-specific guidelines.---><br />
<br />
The Explanatory Supplement is a reference text accompanying the public data products which result from the European Space Agency’s Planck mission, and includes descriptions of all the products available via the Planck Legacy Archive. The Explanatory Supplement has been produced by the [[Planck Collaboration]].<br />
<br />
There are have been four major data releases of Planck products: <br />
*PR1 in 2013 (all files are identified by the label *.R1.??) ;<br />
*PR2 in 2015 (all files are identified by the label *.R2.??) ;<br />
*PR3 in 2018 (all files are identified by the label *.R3.??) ;<br />
*PR4 (NPIPE) in 2020 (all files are identified by the label *.R4.??) .<br />
<br />
In addition, the so-called "Planck Legacy Release" is a combination of PR1+PR2+PR3 products tha thave been tagged as "Legacy" and are shown by default the PLA.<br />
<br />
This Explanatory Supplement accompanies the Planck 2018 release, however, the descriptions of the 2013, 2015 and 2020 products can be found at the end of each section under the heading '''Other Releases''' and appear under different background colors (white for 2018, salmon for 2015 and green for 2013).<br />
<br />
Also note that not all the products issued in 2015 have been updated in the 2018 or 2020 release, this is one of the reasons for tagging a "Legacy" release. <br />
<br />
The Index of the Explanatory Supplement is listed below; the Index and individual section headings can also be accessed directly via the menu bar at the left of this page.<br />
<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Introduction_WiP|Introduction]]<br />
##[[The Planck mission_WiP|The Planck mission]] <br />
##[[The satellite_WiP|The spacecraft]]<br />
##[[Ground Segment and Operations|Ground segment and Early operations]]<br />
##[[Survey_scanning_and_performance|Survey scanning and Routine operations]]<br />
##[[Questions and Answers|Questions and answers]]<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[The Instruments|The instruments]]<br />
##[[HFI design, qualification, and performance|HFI design, qualification, and performance]]<br />
###[[HFI_cryogenics | Cryogenics]]<br />
###[[HFI_cold_optics_%26_spectral_response | HFI cold optics and spectral response]]<br />
###[[HFI_detection_chain | Detection chain]]<br />
###[[HFI_operations | Operations]]<br />
###[[HFI_performance_summary | Performance summary]]<br />
###[[HFI_instrument_annexes | Annexes]]<br />
##[[LFI overview|LFI design, qualification, and performance]]<span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFIDescription| Instrument description]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFITests| Ground tests]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFICalibration| In-flight calibration]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFIPerformance| Performance summary]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFISystematics| Systematic effects]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#SCS| Sorption cooler]]<br />
###[[LFIAppendix| Annexes]]<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Data processing]]<br />
##[[The HFI DPC| HFI data processing]]<br />
###[[Pre-processing | Pre-processing]]<br />
###[[TOI processing|TOI processing]]<br />
###[[Beams | Beams]]<br />
###[[Spectral response | Spectral response]]<br />
###[[HFI-systematics | Systematic effects]]<br />
###[[Map-making | Mapmaking]]<br />
###[[HFI-Validation | Internal overall validation]]<br />
###[[Summary_of_HFI_data_characteristics | Summary of HFI data characteristics]]<br />
###[[HFI_sims | HFI simulations]]<br />
##[[The LFI DPC| LFI data processing]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[Pre-processing_LFI| Pre-processing]]<br />
###[[TOI processing_LFI| TOI processing]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[Beams_LFI | Beams]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[Galactic stray light removal]]<br />
###[[Map-making_LFI | Mapmaking]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[LFI systematic effect uncertainties | Systematic effects uncertainties]]<br />
###[[LFI-Validation | Internal overall validation]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
<!--- ###[[L3_LFI | Power spectra]] ---><br />
###[[Summary_LFI | Summary of LFI data characteristics ]]<br />
##[[HFI/LFI joint data processing]]<br />
###[[Detector pointing| Detector pointing]]<br />
<!--- ###[[NoiseCovarMatrices | Noise covariance matrices and low-resolution maps ]] ---><br />
###[[Compact Source catalogues | Compact source catalogues]]<br />
###[[Astrophysical component separation]]<br />
###[[C2 | CMB power spectra and Planck likelihood code]]<br />
###[[NPIPE_Introduction | NPIPE data processing pipeline ]]<br />
####[[ NPIPE_preprocessing | NPIPE pre-processing ]]<br />
####[[ NPIPE_reprocessing | NPIPE re-processing ]]<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Planck Legacy Archive: mission products]]<br />
##[[Timelines_and_rings | Timelines and Rings]]<br />
###[[Timelines | Timelines]]<br />
###[[Healpix_Rings| HEALPix rings]]<br />
<!--- ###[[Healpix_Rings_LFI| LFI HEALPix rings]]---><br />
<!--- ###[[Healpix_Rings_HFI| HFI HEALPix rings]]---><br />
##[[Maps|Maps]] <br />
###[[Frequency maps | Frequency maps in Temperature and Polarization]]<br />
###[[CMB maps | CMB maps]]<br />
###[[Foreground maps | Foreground maps]]<br />
####[[Foreground_maps#2018_Astrophysical_Components | Overview]]<br />
####[[Foreground_maps#Commander-derived_astrophysical_foreground_maps | Commander-derived astrophysical foreground maps]]<br />
####[[Foreground_maps#SMICA-derived_astrophysical_foreground_maps | SMICA-derived astrophysical foreground maps]]<br />
####[[Foreground_maps#GNILC_thermal_dust_maps | GNILC thermal dust maps]]<br />
###[[Correction maps | Correction maps]]<br />
###[[Masks | Masks]]<br />
###[[Simulation data | Simulation data]]<br />
###[[External maps | External maps]]<br />
####[[External_maps#WMAP| WMAP]]<br />
####[[External_maps#Haslam| Haslam]]<br />
####[[External_maps#IRIS| IRIS]]<br />
####[[External_maps#WISE| WISE]]<br />
####[[External_maps#IRAM| IRAM - Crab nebula]]<br />
####[[External_maps#QUIJOTE_.2F_RADIOFOREGROUNDS| QUIJOTE-RADIOFOREGROUNDS]] <br />
###[[DatesObs|Dates of observations]] <br />
##[[Catalogues | Catalogues]] <br />
###[[Catalogues#Catalogue of Compact Sources|PCCS]]<br />
###[[Catalogues#SZ Catalogue | PSZ]]<br />
###[[Catalogues#Catalogue_of_Planck_Galactic_Cold_Clumps | PGCC]]<br />
###[[Catalogues#.282015.29_Planck_List_of_high-redshift_source_candidates | PHZ]]<br />
##[[Cosmology | Cosmology]]<br />
###[[CMB spectrum & Likelihood Code | CMB spectrum and likelihood code]] <!--- <span style="color:red">Likelihood code description should be added here (and parentheses removed from title)</span>---><br />
###[[Cosmological Parameters | Cosmological parameters and MC chains]]<br />
###[[Lensing | Lensing]]<br />
## [[Beams_section|Beams]]<br />
###[[Scanning Beams | Scanning beams]]<br />
###[[Optical Beams | Optical beams]]<br />
###[[Effective Beams | Effective beams]]<br />
###[[Beam Window Functions | Beam window functions]]<br />
##[[The RIMO|Instrument model]]<br />
##[[Planets related data | Planet-related data]] <br />
##[[Software utilities | Software utilities]]<br />
<!---###[[Planck Sky Model | Planck Sky Model simulation tool]]---><br />
<!---###[[Mapmaking | Mapmaking from timelines and ring tools]] ---><br />
<!---###[[Febecop tools | FEBeCoP effective beam extraction and convolution tools]] ---><br />
###[[Unit conversion and Color correction | Unit conversion and colour correction]] <br />
###[[SMICA propagation code | SMICA propagation code ]] <br />
<!--- ##[[NoiseCovariance | Noise covariance matrices and low-resolution maps ]]<span style="color:red">(Keskitalo)</span ---><br />
<!---##[[Scientific data used to generate Planck products | Scientific data used to generate Planck products]] <span style="color:red">Not ready for release</span>---><br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Planck Legacy Archive: Community Provided Products]]<br />
##[[BeyondPLANCK | BeyondPLANCK]]<br />
##[[Sroll2 | Sroll2]]<br />
#[[Planck Added Value Tools | Planck value-added tools]] <br />
#[[Operational data]]<br />
<!---##[[Thermal|Thermal and cooler system]]---><br />
##[[Survey history | Survey history data]]<br />
##[[Satellite history | Satellite history data]]<br />
##[[Planck operational state history]]<br />
<!---##[[FOG|Fibre-optic gyro]]---><br />
##[[SREM|Space radiation environment monitor]]<br />
#[[Appendix]]<br />
##[[Glossary]]<br />
##[[List of acronyms]]<br />
[[Category:PSOBook]]</div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=CMB_maps&diff=14634CMB maps2023-03-20T18:58:39Z<p>Mlopezca: </p>
<hr />
<div>{{DISPLAYTITLE:2018 CMB maps}}<br />
<br />
== Overview ==<br />
This section describes the CMB maps produced from the Planck data. These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of each product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITS file containing the data and associated information.<br />
All the details can be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l04}} and, for earlier releases, in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}}.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
==2018 CMB maps==<br />
CMB maps have been produced using four different methods: COMMANDER, NILC, SEVEM, and SMICA, as described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation | CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l04}} and references therein.<br />
<br />
For each method we provide the following:<br />
* Full-mission CMB intensity map, with corresponding confidence mask and effective beam transfer function.<br />
* Full-mission CMB polarisation map, with corresponding confidence mask and effective beam transfer function. <br />
* In-painted CMB intensity and polarisation maps, intended for PR purposes.<br />
In addition, and for characterisation purposes, we include four other sets of maps from two data splits: odd/even ring and first/second half-mission. Half-difference maps can be used to provide an approximate noise estimates for the full mission, but they should be used with caution. Each split has caveats in this regard: there are noise correlations between the odd/even split maps, and unobserved pixels in both splits. Masks flagging unobserved pixels are provided for each split, and we strongly encourage use of these when analysing split maps. <br />
<br />
In addition, for SMICA, we also provide a CMB map from which Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources have been projected out, while SEVEM provides cleaned single-frequency maps at 70, 100, 143 and 217 GHz for both intensity and polarization.<br />
<br />
All CMB products are provided at an approximate angular resolution of 5 arcmin FWHM, and HEALPix resolution <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048. Explicit effective beam profiles are provided for each foreground reduced CMB map.<br />
<br />
For a complete description of the above data structures, see [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
The gallery below shows the inpainted full-mission CMB maps (T, Q and U) from each pipeline. The temperature maps are shown at 5 arcmin FWHM resolution, while the polarization maps are shown at 80 arcmin FWHM resolution, in order to suppress instrumental noise. <br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=300px heights=180> <br />
File:cmb_inpaint_T_commander_v1.png | '''Commander temperature'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_Q_commander_v1.png | '''Commander Stokes Q'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_U_commander_v1.png | '''Commander Stokes U'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_T_nilc_v1.png | '''NILC temperature'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_Q_nilc_v1.png | '''NILC Stokes Q'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_U_nilc_v1.png | '''NILC Stokes U'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_T_sevem_v2.png | '''SEVEM temperature'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_Q_sevem_v2.png | '''SEVEM Stokes Q'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_U_sevem_v2.png | '''SEVEM Stokes U'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_T_smica_v1.png | '''SMICA temperature'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_Q_smica_v1.png | '''SMICA Stokes Q'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_U_smica_v1.png | '''SMICA Stokes U'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
===Product description ===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: COMMANDER is a Planck software code implementing Bayesian parametric component separation. Each astrophysical signal component is modelled in terms of a small number of free parameters per pixel, typically in terms of an amplitude at a given reference frequency and a small set of spectral parameters, and these are fitted to the data with an MCMC Gibbs sampling algorithm. A new feature in the Planck 2018 analysis is support for multi-resolution analysis, allowing reconstruction of both CMB and foreground maps at full angular resolution. Only CMB products are provided from Commander in the Planck 2018 release (see {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l04}} for details), while for polarization both CMB and foreground products are provided. For temperature, a dedicated low-resolution CMB map is also provided as part of the Planck likelihood package.<br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The Commander sky maps have different angular resolutions depending on data products:<br />
:* CMB temperature and polarization and thermal dust polarization maps are provided at 5 arcmin FWHM resolution<br />
:* Synchrotron polarization maps are provided at 40 arcmin FWHM resolution<br />
:* The low-resolution CMB likelihood map is provided at an angular resolution of 40 arcmin FWHM.<br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The Commander temperature confidence mask is produced by thresholding the chi-square map characterizing the global fits, combined with direct CO amplitude thresholding to eliminate known leakage effects. In addition, we exclude all pixels brighter than 10mK in the 30GHz map, in order to remove particularly bright radio sources. Finally, we remove by hand the Virgo and Coma clusters, as well as the Crab nebula. A total of 88% of the sky is admitted for analysis.<br />
<br />
: The Commander polarization mask is produced in a similar manner, starting by thresholding the chi-squared map. In addition, we exclude all pixels for which the thermal dust polarization amplitude is brighter than 20µK<sub>RJ</sub> at 353GHz, as well as particularly bright objects in the PCCS2 source catalog. Finally, we remove a small region that is particularly contaminated by cosmic ray glitches. A total of 86% of the sky is admitted for analysis.<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing and data selection<br />
<br />
: The primary Commander 2018 analysis is carried out at full angular resolution, and no smoothing to a common resolution is applied to the maps, in constrast to the procedure employed in previous releases. The temperature analysis employs all nine Planck frequency maps between 30 and 857 GHz, while the polarization analysis employs the seven frequency maps between 30 and 353 GHz. No external data are used in the 2018 Commander analysis.<br />
<br />
; Priors<br />
<br />
: The following priors are enforced in the Commander analysis:<br />
* The 30 GHz zero-level is fixed to zero, while the 44 and 70 GHz zero-levels are fitted freely with uniform priors. HFI zero-levels are fitted with a strong CIB prior.<br />
* Dipoles are fitted only at 70 and 100 GHz; all other are fixed to zero.<br />
* Gaussian priors are enforced on spectral parameters, with values informed by the values derived in the high signal-to-noise areas of the sky<br />
* The Jeffreys ignorance prior is enforced on spectral parameters in addition to the informative Gaussian priors<br />
<br />
; Fitting procedure<br />
<br />
: Given data and priors, Commander either maximizes, or samples from, the Bayesian posterior, P(theta|data). Because this is a highly non-Gaussian and correlated distribution, involving millions of parameters, these operations are performed by means of the Gibbs sampling algorithm, in which joint samples from the full distributions are generated by iteratively sampling from the corresponding conditional posterior distributions, P(theta_i| data, theta_{j/=i}). All parameters are optimized jointly.<br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: Needlet Internal Linear Combination (or NILC in short) is a blind component separation method for the measurement of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from the multi-frequency observations of sky. It is an implementation of an Internal Linear Combination (ILC) of the frequency channels under consideration with minimum error variance on a frame of spherical wavelets called needlets, allowing localized filtering in both pixel space and harmonic space. The method includes multipoles up to 4000. Temperature and, E-mode and B-mode of polarization maps are produced independently. The Q and U maps of CMB polarization have been reconstructed from the corresponding E-mode and B-mode maps.<br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The effective beam is equivalent to a Gaussian circular beam with FWHM=5 arcminutes. <br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: For each needlet scale, we identify the frequency channel that contributes the most to the final reconstruction of CMB for that band. Then we scale the sky maps for 30GHz and 353GHz to that frequency channel to obtain the scaled-sky map and compute the root mean square (RMS) of full mission CMB map. The mask is obtained by setting a cut-off at each needlet scale. The cutoff values are 500 times the RMS value of CMB for temperature and 1500 times the RMS value of CMB for polarization for each scale. The final mask is reconstructed from the union of all the masks obtained at different needlet scales. The confidence masks cover the most contaminated regions of the sky, leaving approximately 78.6 per cent of useful sky for temperature and 82 per cent for polarization.<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky maps are convolved/deconvolved in harmonic space, to a common beam resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of 5 arc-minutes FWHM. A very small preprocessing mask has been used on the temperature sky maps. Prior to implement the pipeline on the sky maps, the masked regions are filled using PSM tools which uses an increasing number of neighboring pixels to fill regions deeper in the hole. At each iteration it uses pixels at up to twice the diameter of the pixel times number of iteration. No preprocessing has been done on polarization sky maps.<br />
<br />
; Linear combination<br />
<br />
: Needlet ILC weights are computed for each of T, E and B, for each scale and for each pixel of the needlet representation at that scale. For each of T, E and B, a full-sky CMB map, at 5 arc-minutes beam resolution, is synthesized from the NILC needlet coefficients.<br />
<br />
; Post-processing<br />
<br />
: E and B maps are re-combined into Q and U products using standard HEALPix tools.<br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
<br />
; Principle<br />
<br />
: SEVEM produces cleaned CMB maps at several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting in real space. The templates used in the SEVEM pipeline are typically constructed by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a cleaned CMB map at that frequency. This is done in real space at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. The <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the cleaned map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. Note that the same expression applies for I, Q and U. Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although foreground residuals are expected to be particularly large in those areas excluded by the minimisation). In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. A subset of the cleaned single frequency maps are then combined to obtain the final CMB map.<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of cleaned maps at different frequencies is of great interest by itself in order to test the robustness of the results, and these intermediate products (cleaned maps at individual frequencies for intensity and polarization) are also provided in the archive. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
;Intensity<br />
<br />
For the CMB intensity case, we have cleaned the 70, 100, 143 and 217 GHz maps using a total of five templates. In particular, three templates constructed as the difference of two consecutive Planck channels smoothed to a common resolution [30GHz &ndash; 44GHz], [44GHz &ndash; 70GHz] and [543GHz &ndash; 535GHz] as well as a fourth template given by the 857 GHz channel are used to clean the 100, 143 and 217 GHz maps. Before constructing the templates, the six frequency channels involved in the templates are inpainted at the corresponding point source positions detected at each frequency using the Mexican Hat Wavelet algorithm (these positions are given in the provided point sources masks). The size of the holes to be inpainted is determined taking into account the beam size of the channel as well as the flux of each source. The inpainting algorithm is based on simple diffuse inpainting, which fills one pixel with the mean value of the neighbouring pixels in an iterative way. To avoid inconsistencies when subtracting two channels, each frequency map is inpainted on the sources detected in that map and on the second map (if any) used to construct the template. Then the maps are smoothed to a common resolution, by convolving the first map with the beam of the second one and viceversa. For the fourth template, we simply filter the inpainted 857 GHz map with the 545 GHz beam. The cleaned 70 GHz map is produced similarly by considering two templates, the [30GHz &ndash; 44GHz] map and a second template obtained as [353GHz &ndash; 143GHz] constructed at the original resolution of the 70 GHz map.<br />
<br />
The coefficients to clean the frequency maps are obtained by minimising the variance outside the analysis mask, that covers the 1 per cent brightest emission of the sky as well as point sources detected at all frequency channels. Once the maps are cleaned, each of them is inpainted on the point sources positions detected at that (raw) channel. Then, the Mexican Hat Wavelet algorithm is run again, now on the cleaned maps. A number of new sources are found and are also inpainted at each channel. The resolution of the cleaned map is the same as that of the original data. Our final CMB map is then constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes and <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048 and the maximum considered multipole is <math>\ell=4000</math>. The monopole and dipole over the full-sky have been subtracted from the final CMB map.<br />
<br />
In addition, the cleaned CMB maps produced at 70, 100, 143 and 217 GHz frequencies are also provided. The resolution of these maps is the same as that of the uncleaned frequency channels and have been constructed at <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=1024 for 70 GHz and <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048 for the rest of the maps. They have been inpainted at the position of the point sources detected in the raw and cleaned maps (these positions are given in the corresponding inpainting masks). The monopole and dipole over the full-sky have also been removed from each of the cleaned maps.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask is produced by studying the differences between several SEVEM CMB reconstructions, which correspond to maps cleaned at different frequencies or using different analysis masks. The obtained mask leaves a useful sky fraction of approximately 84 per cent.<br />
<br />
;Polarization<br />
<br />
To clean the polarization maps, a procedure similar to the one used for intensity data is applied to the Q and U maps independently. Cleaned maps at 70, 100, 143 and 217 GHz are also produced but, given that a smaller number of frequency channels is available for polarization, the templates selected to clean the maps are different. In particular, we clean the 70 GHz map using two templates and the rest of the channels using different combinations of three templates. <br />
<br />
Following the same procedure as for the intensity case, those channels involved in the construction of the templates are inpainted in the position of the sources detected in the raw frequency maps. The sources are selected from a non-blind search, based on the Filtered Fusion technique, using as candidates those sources detected in intensity. These inpainted maps are then used to construct a total of six templates, one of them at two different resolutions. To trace the synchrotron emission, we construct a template as the subtraction of the 30 GHz minus the 44 GHz map, after being convolved with the beam of each other. For the dust emission, the following templates are considered: [217GHz &ndash; 143GHz], [217GHz &ndash; 100GHz] and [143GHz &ndash; 100GHz] at 1 degree resolution, [353GHz &ndash; 217GHz] and [353GHz &ndash; 143GHz] at 10 arcminutes resolution. The last template is also constructed at the resolution of the 70 GHz channel, in order to clean that map. <br />
<br />
Different combinations of these templates (see Table C.3 in {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l04}} for details) are then used to clean the raw 70, 100, 143 and 217 GHz channels (at its native resolution). The corresponding linear coefficients are estimated independently for Q and U by minimising the variance of the cleaned maps outside a mask, that covers the point sources detected in polarization and the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission. Once the maps have been cleaned, inpainting of the point sources detected at the corresponding raw maps is carried out. Then the non-blind search for point sources is run again on the cleaned maps and the new identified sources are also inpainted. The 100, 143 and 217 GHz cleaned maps are then combined in harmonic space, using E and B decomposition, to produce the final CMB maps for the Q and U components at a resolution of 5' (Gaussian beam) for a HEALPix parameter <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048. The maximum considered multipole is <math>\ell=3000</math>. Each map is weighted taking into account its noise and resolution. In addition, the lowest multipoles of the 217 GHz cleaned map are down-weighting, since they are expected to be more contaminated by the presence of residual systematics.<br />
<br />
The cleaned CMB maps at individual frequency channels produced as intermediate steps of SEVEM are also provided for Q and U, at their native resolution. The four pairs of Q/U maps have been inpainted in the positions of the detected point sources (given by the corresponding inpainting masks).<br />
<br />
The confidence mask is constructed as the product of two different masks. One of them is obtained from the 353 GHz data channel and excludes those regions more contaminated by thermal dust. The second mask is constructed by thresholding a map of the ratio between the locally estimated RMS of P in the cleaned CMB map, over the same quantity expected for a map containg CMB plus noise. The combination of these two masks leaves a useful sky fraction of approximately 80 per cent.<br />
<br />
;Resolution<br />
<br />
: The cleaned CMB maps for intensity and polarization are constructed at <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048 and at the standard resolution of 5 arcminutes (Gaussian beam). The maximum considered multipole is <math>\ell=4000</math> for intensity and <math>\ell=3000</math> for polarization.<br />
<br />
; Confidence masks<br />
<br />
: The confidence masks cover the most contaminated regions of the sky, leaving approximately 84 per cent of useful sky for intensity, and 80 per cent for polarization.<br />
<br />
; Point source masks<br />
<br />
: The point source masks contain the holes corresponding to the point sources detected at each raw Planck frequency channel in intensity and polarization. The number of sources detected are given in the upper part of Table C.1 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l04}}. There is one mask for intensity and another one for polarization per frequency channel. When using the Planck channels in the construction of the templates, these have been inpainted in the positions of the point sources given in these masks, to reduce the emission from this contaminant in the templates and its propagation to the final cleaned CMB maps.<br />
<br />
; Inpainting masks<br />
: The inpainting masks include the positions of the point sources that have been inpainted in the cleaned single-frequency maps. They contain point sources detected at the original raw data at those frequencies plus the sources detected in the cleaned frequency maps (see Table C.1 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l04}}). There is a mask for intensity and another one for polarization for each of the cleaned frequency maps (70, 100, 143 and 217 GHz) as well as the corresponding masks for the combined map. The latter are constructed as the product of the individual frequency masks of those cleaned channels that are combined in the final CMB map (i.e., the product of 143 and 217 GHz masks for intensity and of 100, 143 and 217 GHz for polarization). Note that the inpainted positions are not excluded by default by the SEVEM confidence mask, but only if they are considered unreliable with the general procedure used to construct the SEVEM confidence mask.<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Foreground-subtracted maps=====<br />
<br />
In addition to the regular CMB maps, SEVEM provides maps cleaned of the foregrounds for selected frequency channels (categorized as fgsub-sevem in the archive). In particular, for both intensity and polarization there are cleaned CMB maps available at 70, 100, 143 and 217 GHz, provided at the original resolution and <i>N</i><sub>side</sub> of the uncleaned channel (1024 for 70 GHz and 2048 for the rest of the maps).<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces CMB maps by linearly combining Planck input channels with multipole-dependent weights, including multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>. Temperature and polarization maps are produced independently. In temperature, two distinct CMB renderings are produced and then merged (hybridized) together into a single CMB intensity map. In polarization, the E and B modes are processed independently and the results are combined to produce Q and U maps.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA intensity map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes which is truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math>.<br />
: The SMICA Q and U maps are obtained similarly but are produced at <math>N_{side}</math>=1024 with an effective beam of 10 arc-minutes.<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel.<br />
<br />
; Intensity.<br />
<br />
SMICA operation starts with a pre-processing step to deal with regions of very strong emission<br />
(such as the Galactic center) and point sources. <br />
The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHz are then masked<br />
and harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> to form spectral statistics (all auto- and cross- angular spectra). Two different masks are used to compute the spectral statistics. The first one preserves most of the sky while the second preserves CMB-dominated areas. These two sets of spectral statistics are used to determine two sets of harmonic weights which are thus adapted to two different levels of contamination. <br />
Two CMB intensity maps are produced and then merged into a single intensity product.<br />
The merging process is devised so that the information at high Galactic latitude and medium-to-high multipole<br />
is provided by the CMB map computed from high Galatic latitude statistics<br />
(note that this map does not include the LFI channels)<br />
while the remaining information is provided by the other CMB map (which does include all Planck channels).<br />
See {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l04}} for more details.<br />
<br />
; Polarisation.<br />
<br />
The SMICA pipeline for polarization uses all the 7 polarized Planck channels.<br />
The E and B modes of the frequency maps are processed independently by SMICA<br />
to produce E and B modes of the CMB map from which Q and U maps are derived.<br />
The foreground model fitted by SMICA is 6-dimensional which is the maximal dimension<br />
supported by SMICA when operating in blind mode, that is, assuming nothing about the<br />
foregrounds except that they can be represented by a superposition of 6 components<br />
with unconstrained emission laws, unconstrained angular spectra and unconstrained angular correlation.<br />
See {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l04}} for more details.<br />
<br />
Note: in general, any I, Q and U CMB map can be transformed into a T, E and B CMB map using the HEALpix routines "anafast" and "synfast"(See the links below for the details). The "anafast" routine generates harmonic coefficients of T, E and B maps from the full sky I, Q and U maps. Finally, the full sky T, E and B maps in real space are generated using "synfast" routine separately from the corresponding harmonic coefficients obtained using "anafast". Further details about the spherical harmonic transform from HEALPix can be found in https://healpix.jpl.nasa.gov/html/intro.htm, https://healpix.jpl.nasa.gov/html/idlnode25.htm, and https://healpix.jpl.nasa.gov/html/idlnode27.htm". In the particular case of NILC, that works in needlet space, the IQU maps are converted into TEB maps using anafast and synfast, while in the case of SMICA, that works in harmonic space, the IQU maps are converted into TEB harmonic coefficents (alms) using anafast only.<br />
<br />
====Common Masks====<br />
<br />
Common masks have been defined for analysis of the CMB temperature and polarization maps. In previous releases, these were constructed simply as the union of the individual pipeline confidence masks. In the 2018 release, a more direct approach has been adopted, by thresholding the standard deviation map evaluated between each of the four cleaned CMB maps. This standard deviation mask is then augmented with the Commander and SEVEM confidence masks, as well as with the SEVEM and SMICA in-painting masks.<br />
<br />
In addition, we provide masks for unobserved pixels for the half-mission and odd-even data splits, as well as an in-painting mask. The latter is not intended for scientific analysis, but for producing visually acceptable CMB representation for PR purposes.<br />
<br />
In total, we provide the following masks:<br />
<br />
* COM_Mask_CMB-common-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits -- Temperature confidence mask with f<sub>sky</sub> = 77.9%. This is the preferred mask for temperature science analysis.<br />
* COM_Mask_CMB-common-Mask-Pol_2048_R3.00.fits -- Polarization confidence mask with f<sub>sky</sub> = 78.1%. This is the preferred mask for polarization science analysis.<br />
* COM_Mask_CMB-HM-Misspix-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits -- Temperature half-mission missing pixels mask with f<sub>sky</sub> = 96.0%. This should be applied in analyses of the half-mission split temperature maps.<br />
* COM_Mask_CMB-HM-Misspix-Mask-Pol_2048_R3.00.fits -- Polarization half-mission missing pixels mask with f<sub>sky</sub> = 96.1%. This should be applied in analyses of the half-mission split polarization maps.<br />
* COM_Mask_CMB-HM-Misspix-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits -- Temperature half-mission missing pixels mask with f<sub>sky</sub> = 98.1%. This should be applied in analyses of the half-mission split temperature maps.<br />
* COM_Mask_CMB-HM-Misspix-Mask-Pol_2048_R3.00.fits -- Polarization half-mission missing pixels mask with f<sub>sky</sub> = 98.1%. This should be applied in analyses of the half-mission split polarization maps.<br />
* COM_Mask_CMB-Inpainting-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits -- Temperature CMB in-painting mask with f<sub>sky</sub> = 97.9%.<br />
<br />
====CMB-subtracted frequency maps ("Foreground maps")====<br />
<br />
These are the full-sky, full-mission frequency maps in intensity and polarization from which the CMB has been subtracted. The maps contain foregrounds and noise. They are provided for each frequency channel and for each component separation method. They are grouped into 8 files, two for each method of which there is one for each instrument. The maps are are at N<sub>side</sub> = 1024 for the three LFI channels and at N<sub>side</sub> = 2048 for the six HFI channels. The filenames are:<br />
<br />
* ''LFI_Foregrounds-{method}_1024_Rn.nn.fits'' (145 MB each)<br />
* ''HFI_Foregrounds-{method}_2048_Rn.nn.fits'' (1.2 GB each)<br />
<br />
To remove the CMB, the respective CMB map was first deconvolved with the 5 arcmin beam, then convolved with the beam of the frequency channel, and finally subtracted from the frequency map. This was done using the <math>B_\rm{l}</math> in harmonic space, assuming a symmetric beam.<br />
<br />
The CMB-subtracted maps have complicated noise properties. The CMB maps contain a noise contribution from each of the frequency maps, depending on the weights with which they were combined. Therefore subtracting the CMB map from a frequency channel contributes additional noise from the other frequency channels. This caveat is particularly important for polarization, for which the noise in the cleaned CMB maps is large. After subtraction this noise term is perfectly correlated between frequency channels, with a perfect blackbody spectrum with T=2.7255K. Caution is therefore warranted when using these maps for scientific analysis.<br />
<br />
The frequency maps from which the CMB have been subtracted are:<br />
<br />
* ''LFI_SkyMap_0nn_1024_R3.00_full.fits''<br />
* ''HFI_SkyMap_nnn_2048_R3.00_full.fits''<br />
<br />
Note that the zodiacal light correction described [https://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php/Map-making#Zodiacal_light_correction here] was applied to the HFI temperature maps before the CMB subtraction.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====Masks====<br />
Summary table with the various masks that have been either been used or produced by the component separation methods to pre- or post-process the CMB maps.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left"<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Common mask filename || Field || Description || <br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-common-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits}} || TMASK || Common temperature confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-common-Mask-Pol_2048_R3.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common-Mask-Pol_2048_R3.00.fits}} || PMASK || Common polarization confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-HM-Misspix-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-HM-Misspix-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits}} || TMASK || Missing pixels temperature mask for the half-mission data split.<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-HM-Misspix-Mask-Pol_2048_R3.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-HM-Misspix-Mask-Pol_2048_R3.00.fits}} || PMASK || Missing pixels polarization mask for the half-mission data split.<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-OE-Misspix-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-OE-Misspix-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits}} || TMASK || Missing pixels temperature mask for the odd-even data split.<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-OE-Misspix-Mask-Pol_2048_R3.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-OE-Misspix-Mask-Pol_2048_R3.00.fits}} || PMASK || Missing pixels polarization mask for the odd-even data split.<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-Inpainting-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-Inpainting-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits}} || TMASK || Temperature inpainting mask.<br />
|- bgcolor="800000"<br />
|<br />
! ||<br />
|<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Pipeline specific mask filename || Field || Description<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-commander_2048_R3.00_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-commander_2048_R3.00_full.fits}} || TMASK || Commander temperature confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
| || PMASK || Commander polarization confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-nilc_2048_R3.00_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-nilc_2048_R3.00_full.fits}} || TMASK || NILC temperature confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
| || PMASK || NILC polarization confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-sevem_2048_R3.00_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-sevem_2048_R3.00_full.fits}} || TMASK || SEVEM temperature confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
| || PMASK || SEVEM polarization confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
| || TMASKINP || SEVEM polarization (pre-processing) in-painting mask.<br />
|-<br />
| || PMASKINP || SEVEM polarization (pre-processing) in-painting mask.<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-smica_2048_R3.00_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-smica_2048_R3.00_full.fits}} || TMASK || SMICA temperature confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
| || PMASK || SMICA polarization confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
| || TMASKINP || SMICA polarization (pre-processing) in-painting mask.<br />
|-<br />
| || PMASKINP || SMICA polarization (pre-processing) in-painting mask.<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. All pipelines use all maps between 30 and 857 GHz in temperature, and all maps between 30 and 353 GHz in polarization.<br />
<br />
===CMB file names===<br />
<br />
The CMB products are provided as a set of five files per pipeline, one file covering some part of the entire mission (full mission; first half-mission; second half-mission; odd rings; and even rings), with a filename structure on the form<br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}-2048-R3.00_{full,hm1,hm2,oe1,oe2}.fits''<br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-SEVEM-2048-R3.01_{full,hm1,hm2,oe1,oe2}.fits''. <br />
<br />
<span style="color:#FF0000>UPDATE 17 January 2019</span>: version R3.00 of the SEVEM CMB map has been replaced with version R3.01 because in version R3.00 the temperatue and polarization effective beams were missing. <br />
<br />
The first extension contains the full-sky CMB maps in the fields called I_STOKES, Q_STOKES, U_STOKES. The full-mission files additionally contains an ASCII table with the effective beam transfer function in the second extension. The structure of each file is given as follows:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB R3.00 map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb || I map <br />
|- <br />
|Q_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb || Q map <br />
|-<br />
|U_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb || U map <br />
|-<br />
|TMASK || Int || none || Temperature confidence mask (full-mission only) <br />
|-<br />
|PMASK || Int || none || Polarisation confidence mask (full-mission only) <br />
|-<br />
|I_STOKES_INP || Real*4 || K_cmb || I inpainted map <br />
|- <br />
|Q_STOKES_INP || Real*4 || K_cmb || Q inpainted map <br />
|-<br />
|U_STOKES_INP || Real*4 || K_cmb || U inpainted map <br />
|-<br />
|TMASKINP || Int || none || Temperature confidence mask (full-mission SEVEM, SMICA only) <br />
|-<br />
|PMASKINP || Int || none || Polarisation confidence mask (full-mission SEVEM, SMICA only) <br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (COMMANDER/NILC/SEVEM/SMICA)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Optional Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_TF'' (BINTABLE). ONLY FULL-MISSION DATA FILES<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|INT_BEAM || Real*4 || none || Effective beam transfer function. <br />
|-<br />
|POL_BEAM || Real*4 || none || Effective beam transfer function.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX_I || Int || value || Last multipole for Int beam TF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX_P || Int || value || Last multipole for Pol beam TF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method <br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
All maps are provided in thermodynamic units (K<sub>cmb</cmb>), with Nside=2048 and a nominal angular resolution of 5' FWHM.<br />
<br />
===CMB simulations===<br />
<br />
End-to-end simulations corresponding to each of the CMB data products are provided in terms of 999 CMB realization and 300 noise realizations individually propagated through each pipeline. These files are called <br />
*''dx12_v3_{method}_{cmb,noise,noise_hm1,noise_hm2,noise_oe1,noise_oe2}_mc_?????_raw.fits''<br />
*''dx12_v3_sevem_{freq}_{cmb,noise,noise_hm1,noise_hm2,noise_oe1,noise_oe2}_mc_?????_raw.fits'' for SEVEM cleaned cmb maps at single frequencies.<br />
*''dx12_v3_smica_nosz_{cmb,noise,noise_hm1,noise_hm2,noise_oe1,noise_oe2}_mc_?????_raw.fits'' for SMICA SZ-free cmb maps.<br />
<br />
Note that only 999 CMB realizations are available, as one realization was corrupted during processing.<br />
<br />
== Other Releases: (2020-NPIPE), (2015) and (2013) CMB Maps ==<br />
<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="background-color: #9ef542;width:80%"><br />
'''2020 - NPIPE'''<br />
<div class="mw-collapsible-content"><br />
The NPIPE flight data maps include several subsets and differ from earlier Planck releases.<br />
<br />
'''CMB maps'''<br />
<br />
The full-frequency and A/B maps were component separated using Commander and SEVEM. At the moment only the "full" versions are provided.<br />
<br />
The Commander temperature map is now provided at <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=4096, making it incompatible with the <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048 polarization maps. To fit temperature and polarization into the same FITS file, two separate header data units (HDUs) are employed. HDU 1 contains the single temperature map and HDU 2 contains the <i>Q</i> and <i>U</i> polarization maps.<br />
<br />
SEVEM products include the jointly-fitted CMB map and foreground-subtracted frequency maps at 70-217GHz. Unlike Commander, SEVEM temperature maps do not contain the CMB dipole.<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align"left" border="1" cellpadding="15" cellspacing="20" width=880px<br />
|+ '''CMB map FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Component-separation code, coverage || Filename <br />
|-<br />
| SEVEM CMB map || COM_CMB_IQU-sevem_2048_R4.??.fits<br />
|-<br />
| SEVEM foreground-subtracted frequency map || COM_CMB_IQU-fff-fgsub-sevem_2048_R4.??.fits<br />
|-<br />
<br />
|}<br />
<br />
'''FITS file structure'''<br />
<br />
The FITS files for the sky maps contain a minimal primary header with no data, and a ''BINTABLE'' extension (EXTENSION 1, EXTNAME = ''FREQ-MAP'') containing the data. The structure is shown schematically in the figure below. The ''FREQ-MAP'' extension contains a 3- or 10-column table that includes the signal, hit-count, and variance maps, all in HEALPix format. The 3-column case is for intensity-only maps, while the 10-column case is for polarization. The number of rows is the number of map pixels, which is <i>N</i><sub>pix</sub> = 12 <i>N</i><sub>side</sub><sup>2</sup> for HEALPix maps, where <i>N</i><sub>side</sub> = 1024 or 2048 for most of the maps presented in this section.<br />
<br />
[[File:FITS_FreqMap.png | 550px | center | thumb | '''FITS file structure.''']]<br />
<br />
Note that file sizes are approximately 0.6 GB for <i>I</i>-only maps and 1.9 GB for <i>IQU</i> maps at <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048, but about 0.14 GB for <i>I</i>-only maps and 0.45 GB for <i>IQU</i> maps at <i>N</i><sub>pix</sub>=1024 .<br />
<br />
Keywords indicate the coordinate system ("GALACTIC"), the HEALPix ordering scheme ("NESTED"), the units (K<sub>CMB</sub> of each column, and of course the frequency channel ("FREQ"). Where polarization <i>Q</i> and <i>U</i> maps are provided, the "COSMO" polarization convention (used in HEALPix) is adopted, and it is specified in the "POLCCONV" keyword. The original filename is also given in the "FILENAME" keyword. The "BAD_DATA" keyword gives the value used by HEALPix to indicate pixels for which no signal is present (these will also have a hit-count value of 0). The main parameters are summarized in the table below.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Sky map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column name || Data type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_STOKES || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub> || Stokes <i>I</i> map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STOKES || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub> || Stokes <i>Q</i> map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|U_STOKES || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub> || Stokes <i>U</i> map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|HITS || Int*4 || none || The hit-count map<br />
|-<br />
|II_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> || <i>II</i> variance map<br />
|-<br />
|IQ_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> || <i>IQ</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|IU_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> || <i>IQ</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QQ_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> || <i>QQ</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QU_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> || <i>QU</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|UU_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> || <i>UU</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || HEALPix <i>N</i><sub>side</sub> <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12 <i>N</i><sub>side</sub><sup>2</sup> – 1 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ || String || nnn || Frequency channel <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
The same structure applies to all "SkyMap" products, independent of whether they are full channel, survey of half-ring. The distinction between the types of map is present in the FITS filename (and in the traceability comment fields).<br />
<br />
</div><br />
</div><br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="background-color: #FFDAB9;width:80%"><br />
'''2015 Release of CMB maps'''<br />
<div class="mw-collapsible-content"><br />
<br />
'''CMB maps'''<br />
<br />
CMB maps have been produced using four different methods: COMMANDER, NILC, SEVEM, and SMICA, as described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation | CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and references therein.<br />
<br />
'''As discussed extensively in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a01}}, {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a07}}, {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a09}}, and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}}, the residual systematics in the Planck 2015 polarization maps have been dramatically reduced compared to 2013, by as much as two orders of magnitude on large angular scales. Nevertheless, on angular scales greater than 10 degrees, correponding to l < 20, systematics are still non-negligible compared to the expected cosmological signal.'''<br />
<br />
'''It was not possible, for this data release, to fully characterize the large-scale residuals from the data or from simulations. Therefore all results published by the Planck Collaboration in 2015 which are based on CMB polarization have used maps which have been high-pass filtered to remove the large angular scales. We warn all users of the CMB polarization maps that they cannot yet be used for cosmological studies at large angular scales.'''<br />
<br />
'''For convenience, we provide as default polarized CMB maps from which all angular scales at l < 30 have been filtered out. '''<br />
<br />
For each method we provide the following:<br />
* Full-mission CMB intensity map, confidence mask and beam transfer function.<br />
* Full-mission CMB polarisation map, <br />
* A confidence mask.<br />
* A beam transfer function.<br />
In addition, and for characterisation purposes, we include six other sets of maps from three data splits: first/second half-ring, odd/even years and first/second half-mission. For the year-1,2 and half-mission-1,2 data splits we provide half-sum and half-difference maps which are produced by running the corresponding sums and differences inputs through the pipelines. The half-difference maps can be used to provide an approximate noise estimates for the full mission, but they should be used with caution. Each split has caveats in this regard: there are noise correlations between the half-ring maps, and missing pixels in the other splits. The Intensity maps are provided at Nside = 2048, at 5 arcmin resolution, while the Polarisation ones are provided at Nside = 1024, at 10 arcmin resolution. All maps are in units of K<sub>cmb</sub>.<br />
<br />
In addition, for each method we provide three sets of files, each categorized by the "R2.0X" label as follows:<br />
<br />
; ''R2.02''<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre-wrap; <br />
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This set of intensity and polarisation maps are provided at a resolution of Nside=1024. The Stokes Q and U maps are high-pass filtered to contain only modes above l > 30, as explained above and as used for analysis by the Planck Collaboration; THESE ARE THE POLARISATION MAPS WHICH SHOULD BE USED FOR COSMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS. Each type of map is packaged into a separate fits file (as for "R2.01"), resulting in file sizes which are easier to download (as opposed to the "R2.00" files), and more convenient to use with commonly used analysis software.<br />
</pre><br />
<br />
; ''R2.01''<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre-wrap; <br />
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This is the most complete set of 2015 CMB maps, containing Intensity products at a resolution of Nside=2048, and both Intensity and Polarisation at resolution of Nside=1024. For polarisation (Q and U), they contain all angular resolution modes. WE CAUTION USERS ONCE AGAIN THAT THE STOKES Q AND U MAPS ARE NOT CONSIDERED USEABLE FOR COSMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS AT l < 30. The structure of these files is the same as for "R2.02".<br />
</pre><br />
<br />
; ''R2.00''<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre-wrap; <br />
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white-space: -o-pre-wrap; <br />
word-wrap: break-word;"><br />
This set of files is equivalent to the "R2.01" set, but are packaged into only two large files. Warning: downloading these files could be very lengthy...<br />
</pre><br />
<br />
For a complete description of the above data structures, see [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
<br />
The gallery below shows the Intensity, noise from half-mission, half-difference, and confidence mask for the four pipelines, in the order COMMANDER, NILC, SEVEM and SMICA, from top to bottom. The Intensity maps' scale is [–500.+500] μK, and the noise spans [–25,+25] μK. We do not show the Q and U maps since they have no significant visible structure to contemplate.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=300px heights=180> <br />
File:CMB_commander_tsig.png | '''commander temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tnoi.png | '''commander noise'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tmask.png | '''commander mask'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tsig.png | '''nilc temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tnoi.png | '''nilc noise'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tmask.png | '''nilc mask'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tsig.png | '''sevem temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tnoi.png | '''sevem noise'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tmask.png | '''sevem mask'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tsig.png | '''smica temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tnoi.png | '''smica noise'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tmask.png | '''smica mask'''</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
'''Product description '''<br />
<br />
'''COMMANDER'''<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: COMMANDER is a Planck software code implementing pixel based Bayesian parametric component separation. Each astrophysical signal component is modelled in terms of a small number of free parameters per pixel, typically in terms of an amplitude at a given reference frequency and a small set of spectral parameters, and these are fitted to the data with an MCMC Gibbs sampling algorithm. Instrumental parameters, including calibration, bandpass corrections, monopole and dipoles, are fitted jointly with the astrophysical components. A new feature in the Planck 2015 analysis is that the astrophysical model is derived from a combination of Planck, WMAP and a 408 MHz (Haslam et al. 1982) survey, providing sufficient frequency support to resolve the low-frequency components into synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust. For full details, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The Commander sky maps have different angular resolutions depending on data products:<br />
* The components of the full astrophysical sky model derived from the complete data combination (Planck, WMAP, 408 MHz) have a 1 degree FWHM resolution, and are pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=256. The corresponding CMB map defines the input map for the low-l Planck 2015 temperature likelihood. <br />
* The Commander CMB temperature map derived from Planck-only observations has an angular resolution of ~5 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=2048. This map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-857 GHz data), 7.5 arcmin (using 143-857 GHz data), and 5 arcmin (using 217-857 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
* The Commander CMB polarization map has an angular resolution of 10 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=1024. As for the temperature case, this map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-353 GHz data) and 10 arcmin (using 100-353 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The Commander confidence masks are produced by thresholding the chi-square map characterizing the global fits, combined with direct CO amplitude thresholding to eliminate known leakage effects. In addition, we exclude the 9-year WMAP point source mask in the temperature mask. For full details, see Sections 5 and 6 in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}. A total of 81% of the sky is admitted for high-resolution temperature analysis, and 83% for polarization analysis. For low-resolution temperature analysis, for which the additional WMAP and 408 MHz observations improve foreground constraints, a total of 93% of the sky is admitted. <br />
<br />
'''NILC'''<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: The Needlet-ILC (hereafter NILC) CMB map is constructed both in total intensity as well as polarization: Q and U Stokes parameters. For total intensity, all Planck frequency channels are included. For polarization, all polarization sensitive frequency channels are included, from 30 to 353 GHz. The solution, for T, Q and U is obtained by applying the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) technique in needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range. <br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The spectral analysis, and estimation of the NILC coefficients, is performed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math>. The effective beam is equivalent to a Gaussian circular beam with FWHM=5 arcminutes. <br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The same procedure is followed by SMICA and NILC for producing confidence masks, though with different parametrizations. A low resolution smoothed version of the NILC map, noise subtracted, is thresholded to 73.5 squared micro-K for T, and 6.75 squared micro-K for Q and U.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''SEVEM'''<br />
; Principle<br />
<br />
: SEVEM produces clean CMB maps at several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting in real space. The templates are typically constructed from the lowest and highest Planck frequencies and then subtracted from the CMB-dominated channels, with coefficients that are chosen to minimize the variance of the clean map outside a considered mask. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. Two single frequency clean maps are then combined to obtain the final CMB map.<br />
<br />
;Resolution<br />
<br />
: For intensity the clean CMB map is constructed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math> at Nside=2048 and at the standard resolution of 5 arcminutes (Gaussian beam).<br />
: For polarization the clean CMB map is produced at Nside=1024 with a resolution of 10 arcminutes (Gaussian beam) and a maximum <math>\ell=3071</math>.<br />
<br />
; Confidence masks<br />
<br />
: The confidence masks cover the most contaminated regions of the sky, leaving approximately 85 per cent of useful sky for intensity, and 80 per cent for polarization.<br />
<br />
'''Foregrounds-subtracted maps'''<br />
<br />
In addition to the regular CMB maps, SEVEM provides maps cleaned of the foregrounds for selected frequency channels (categorized as fgsub-sevem in the archive). In particular, for intensity there are clean CMB maps available at 100, 143 and 217 GHz, provided at the original resolution of the uncleaned channel and at Nside=2048. For polarization, there are Q/U clean CMB maps for the 70, 100 and 143 GHz (at Nside=1024). The 70 GHz clean map is provided at its original resolution, whereas the 100 and 143 GHz maps have a resolution given by a Gaussian beam with fwhm=10 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
'''SMICA'''<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces CMB maps by linearly combining all Planck input channels with multipole-dependent weights. It includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>. Temperature and polarization maps are produced independently.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA intensity map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes which is truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math> and is '''not''' deconvolved from the pixel window function. Thus the delivered beam window function is the product of a Gaussian beam at 5 arcminutes and the pixel window function for <math>N_{side}</math>=2048.<br />
: The SMICA Q and U maps are obtained similarly but are produced at <math>N_{side}</math>=1024 with an effective beam of 10 arc-minutes (to be multiplied by the pixel window function, as for the intensity map).<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. See section below detailing the production process.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''Common Masks'''<br />
<br />
A number of common masks have been defined for analysis of the CMB temperature and polarization maps. They are based on the confidence masks provided by the component separation methods. One mask for temperature and one mask for polarization have been chosen as the preferred masks based on subsequent analyses.<br />
<br />
The common masks for the CMB temperature maps are:<br />
<br />
* UT78: union of the Commander, SEVEM, and SMICA temperature confidence masks (the NILC mask was not included since it masks much less of the sky). It has f<sub>sky</sub> = 77.6%. This is the preferred mask for temperature.<br />
<br />
* UTA76: in addition to the UT78 mask, it masks pixels where standard deviation between the four CMB maps is greater than 10 &mu;K. It has f<sub>sky</sub> = 76.1%.<br />
<br />
The common masks for the CMB polarization maps are:<br />
<br />
* UP78: the union of the Commander, SEVEM and SMICA polarization confidence masks (the NILC mask was not included since it masks much less of the sky). It has f<sub>sky</sub> = 77.6%.<br />
<br />
* UPA77: In addition to the UP78 mask, it masks pixels where the standard deviation between the four CMB maps, averaged in Q and U, is greater than 4 &mu;K. It has f<sub>sky</sub> = 76.7%.<br />
<br />
* UPB77: in addition to the UP78 mask, it masks polarized point sources detected in the frequency channel maps. It has f<sub>sky</sub> = 77.4%. This is the preferred mask for polarization.<br />
<br />
Additional pre-processing masks used mainly for inpainting of the frequency and/or cmb maps is show below in [https://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=CMB_maps#Masks Masks]<br />
<br />
'''CMB-subtracted frequency maps ("Foreground maps")'''<br />
<br />
These are the full-sky, full-mission frequency maps in intensity from which the CMB has been subtracted. The maps contain foregrounds and noise. They are provided for each frequency channel and for each component separation method. They are grouped into 8 files, two for each method of which there is one for each instrument. The maps are are at N<sub>side</sub> = 1024 for the three LFI channels and at N<sub>side</sub> = 2048 for the six HFI channels. The filenames are:<br />
<br />
* ''LFI_Foregrounds-{method}_1024_Rn.nn.fits'' (145 MB each)<br />
* ''HFI_Foregrounds-{method}_2048_Rn.nn.fits'' (1.2 GB each)<br />
<br />
To remove the CMB, the respective CMB map was first deconvolved with the 5 arcmin beam, then convolved with the beam of the frequency channel, and finally subtracted from the frequency map. This was done using the <math>B_\rm{l}</math> in harmonic space, assuming a symmetric beam.<br />
<br />
The CMB-subtracted maps have complicated noise properties. The CMB maps contain a noise contribution from each of the frequency maps, depending on the weights with which they were combined. Therefore subtracting the CMB map from a frequency channel contributes additional noise from the other frequency channels.<br />
<br />
'''Quadrupole Residual Maps'''<br />
<br />
The second-order (kinematic) quadrupole is a frequency-dependent effect. During the production of the frequency maps the frequency-independent part was subtracted, which leaves a frequency-dependent residual quadrupole. The residuals in the component-separated CMB temperature maps have been estimated by simulating the effect in the frequency maps and propagating it through the component separation pipelines. The residuals have an amplitude of around 2 &mu;K peak-to-peak. The maps of the estimated residuals can be used to remove the effect by subtracting them from the CMB maps.<br />
<br />
'''Production process'''<br />
<br />
'''COMMANDER'''<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky maps are first convolved to a common resolution that is larger than the largest beam of any frequency channel. For the combined Planck, WMAP and 408 MHz temperature analysis, the common resolution is 1 degree FWHM; for the Planck-only, all-frequency analysis it is 40 arcmin FWHM; and for the intermediate-resolution analysis it is 7.5 arcmin; while for the full-resolution analysis, we assume all frequencies between 217 and 857 GHz have a common resolution, and no additional convolution is performed. For polarization, only two smoothing scales are employed, 40 and 10 arcmin, respectively. The instrumental noise rms maps are convolved correspondingly, properly accouting for their matrix-like nature. <br />
<br />
; Priors<br />
<br />
: The following priors are enforced in the Commander analysis:<br />
* All foreground amplitudes are enforced to be positive definite in the low-resolution analysis, while no amplitude priors are enforced in the high-resolution analyses<br />
* Monopoles and dipoles are fixed to nominal values for a small set of reference frequencies<br />
* Gaussian priors are enforced on spectral parameters, with values informed by the values derived in the high signal-to-noise areas of the sky<br />
* The Jeffreys ignorance prior is enforced on spectral parameters in addition to the informative Gaussian priors<br />
<br />
; Fitting procedure<br />
<br />
: Given data and priors, Commander either maximizes, or samples from, the Bayesian posterior, P(theta|data). Because this is a highly non-Gaussian and correlated distribution, involving millions of parameters, these operations are performed by means of the Gibbs sampling algorithm, in which joint samples from the full distributions are generated by iteratively sampling from the corresponding conditional posterior distributions, P(theta_i| data, theta_{j/=i}). For the low-resolution analysis, all parameters are optimized jointly, while in the high-resolution analyses, which employs fewer frequency channels, low signal-to-noise parameters are fixed to those derived at low resolution. Examples of such parameters include monopoles and dipoles, calibration and bandpass parameters, thermal dust temperature etc.<br />
<br />
'''NILC'''<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky frequency maps are deconvolved using the DPC beam transfer function provided, and re-convolved with a 5 arcminutes FWHM circular Gaussian beam. In polarization, prior to the smoothing process, all sky E and B maps are derived from Q and U using standard HEALPix tools from each individual frequency channels <br />
<br />
; Linear combination<br />
<br />
: Pre-processed input frequency maps are decomposed in needlet coefficients, specified in the Appendix B of the Planck A11 paper, with shape given by Table B.1. Minimum variance coefficients are then obtained, using all channels for T, from 30 to 353 for E and B. <br />
<br />
; Post-processing<br />
<br />
: E and B maps are re-combined into Q and U products using standard HEALPix tools. <br />
<br />
'''SEVEM'''<br />
<br />
The templates used in the SEVEM pipeline are typically constructed by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMB map at that frequency. This is done in real space at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. The <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. Note that the same expression applies for I, Q and U. Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of clean maps at different frequencies is of great interest in order to test the robustness of the results, and these intermediate products (clean maps at individual frequencies for intensity and polarization) are also provided in the archive. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned independently and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
;Intensity<br />
<br />
For the CMB intensity map, we have cleaned the 100 GHz, 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps using a total of four templates. Three of them are constructed as the difference of two consecutive Planck channels smoothed to a common resolution (30-44, 44-70 and 545-353) while the 857 GHz channel is chosen as the fourth template. First of all, the six frequency channels which are going to be part of the templates are inpainted at the point source positions detected using the Mexican Hat Wavelet algorithm. The size of the holes to be inpainted is determined taking into account the beam size of the channel as well as the flux of each source. The inpainting algorithm is based on simple diffuse inpainting, which fills one pixel with the mean value of the neighbouring pixels in an iterative way. To avoid inconsistencies when subtracting two channels, each frequency map is inpainted on the sources detected in that map and on the second map (if any) used to construct the template. Then the maps are smoothed to a common resolution (the first channel in the subtraction is smoothed with the beam of the second map and viceversa). For the 857 GHz template, we simply filter the inpainted map with the 545 GHz beam.<br />
<br />
The coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance outside the analysis mask, that covers the 1 per cent brightest emission of the sky as well as point sources detected at all frequency channels. Once the maps are cleaned, each of them is inpainted on the point sources positions detected at that (raw) channel. Then, the MHW algorithm is run again, now on the clean maps. A relatively small number of new sources are found and are also inpainted at each channel. The resolution of the clean map is the same as that of the original data. Our final CMB map is then constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
In addition, the clean CMB maps produced at 100, 143 and 217 GHz frequencies are also provided. The resolution of these maps is the same as that of the uncleaned frequency channels and have been constructed at Nside=2048. They have been inpainted at the position of the detected point sources. Note that these three clean maps should be close to independent, although some level of correlation will be present since the same templates have been used to clean the maps.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask is produced by studying the differences between several SEVEM CMB reconstructions, which correspond to maps cleaned at different frequencies or using different analysis masks. The obtained mask leaves a useful sky fraction of approximately 85 per cent.<br />
<br />
;Polarization<br />
<br />
To clean the polarization maps, a procedure similar to the one used for intensity data is applied to the Q and U maps independently. However, given that a narrower frequency coverage is available for polarization, the selected templates and maps to be cleaned are different. In particular, we clean the 70, 100 and 143 GHz using three templates for each channel. The first step of the pipeline is to inpaint the positions of the point sources using the MHW, in those channels which are going to be used in the construction of templates, following the same procedure as for the intensity case. The inpainting is performed in the frequency maps at their native resolution. These inpainted maps are then used to construct a total of four templates. To trace the synchrotron emission, we construct a template as the subtraction of the 30 GHz minus the 44 GHz <br />
map, after being convolved with the beam of each other. For the dust emission, the following templates are considered: 353-217 GHz (smoothed at 10' resolution), 217-143 GHz (used <br />
to clean 70 and 100 GHz) and 217-100 GHz (to clean 143 GHz). These two last templates are constructed at 1 degree resolution since an additional smoothing becomes necessary in<br />
order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the template. Conversely to the <br />
intensity case and due to the lower availability of frequency channels, it becomes necessary to use the maps to be cleaned as part of one of the templates. In this way, the 100 GHz <br />
map is used to clean the 143 GHz frequency channel and viceversa, making the clean maps less independent between them than in the intensity case.<br />
<br />
These templates are then used to clean the non-inpainted 70 (at its native resolution), 100 (at 10' resolution) and 143 GHz maps (also at 10'). The corresponding linear coefficients are estimated independently for Q and U by minimising the variance of the clean maps outside a mask, that covers point sources and the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission. Once the maps have been cleaned, inpainting of the point sources detected at the corresponding raw maps is carried out. The size of the holes to be inpainted takes<br />
into account the additional smoothing of the 100 and 143 GHz maps. The 100 and 143 GHz clean maps are then combined in harmonic space, using E and B decomposition, to produce the final CMB maps for the Q and U components at a resolution of 10' (Gaussian beam) for a HEALPix parameter Nside=1024. Each map is weighted taking into account its <br />
corresponding noise level at each multipole. Finally, before applying the post-processing HPF to the clean polarization data, the region with the brightest Galactic residuals is inpainted (5 per cent of the sky) to avoid the introduction of ringing around the Galactic centre in the filtering process.<br />
<br />
The clean CMB maps at individual frequency channels produced as intermediate steps of SEVEM are also provided for Q and U, constructed at Nside=1024. The clean 70 GHz map is provided at its native resolution, while the clean maps at 100 and 143 GHz frequencies have a resolution of 10 arcminutes (Gaussian beam). The three maps have been inpainted in the positions of the detected point sources. Note that, due to the availability of a smaller number of templates for polarization than for intensity, these maps are less independent than for the temperature case, since, for instance, the 100 GHz map is used to clean the 143 GHz one and viceversa.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask includes all the pixels above a given threshold in a smoothed version of the clean CMB map, the regions more contaminated by the CO emission and those pixels more affected by the high-pass filtering, leaving a useful sky fraction of approximately 80 per cent.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''SMICA'''<br />
<br />
A) Production of the intensity map.<br />
<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: Before computing spherical harmonic coefficients, all input maps undergo a pre-processing step to deal with regions of very strong emission (such as the Galactic center) and point sources. The point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue are fitted in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole is filled in by a simple diffusive process to ensure a smooth transition and mitigate spectral leakage. The diffusive inpainting process is also applied to some regions of very strong emissions. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, here all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and filled-in similarly.<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHz are harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> and co-added with multipole-dependent weights as shown in the figure.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: A confidence mask is determined (see the Planck paper) and all regions which have been masked in the pre-processing step are added to it.<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filter_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input intensity maps (after they are re-beamed to 5 arc-minutes and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), as a function of multipole.''']]--><br />
<br />
B) Production of the Q and U polarisation maps.<br />
<br />
The SMICA pipeline for polarization uses all the 7 polarized Planck channels. The production of the Q and U maps is similar to the production of the intensity map. However, there is no input point source pre-processing of the input maps. The regions of very strong emission are masked out using an apodized mask before computing the E and B modes of the input maps and combining them to produce the E and B modes of the CMB map. Those modes are then used to synthesize the U and Q CMB maps. The E and B parts of the input frequency maps being processed jointly, there are, at each multipole, 2*7=14 coefficients (weights) defined to produce the E modes of the CMB map and as many to produce the B part. The weights are displayed in the figure below. The Q and U maps were originally produced at Nside=2048 with a 5-arc-minute resolution, but were downgraded to Nside=1024 with a 10 arc-minute resolution for this release.<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filterEB_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input E and B modes (after they are re-beamed to 5 arcmin and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), in order to produce the E and B modes of the CMB map. A given frequency channel is encoded in a given color. Solid lines are for E modes and dashed lines are for B modes. The thick lines are for the EE or BB weights; the thin lines are for the EB or BE weights. See the paper for more details.''']]--><br />
<br />
'''Masks'''<br />
<br />
Summary table with the different masks that have been used by the component separation methods to pre-process and to process the frequency maps and the CMB maps.<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Commander 2015 (PR2) || Used for diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps || Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description<br />
|-<br />
|T_MASK || NO || NO || T_MASK (the equivalent to PR1 VALMASK) is the confidence mask in temperature that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-commander-field-Int_2048_R2.01_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-commander-field-Int_2048_R2.01_full.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|P_MASK || NO || NO || P_MASK is the confidence mask in polarization that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-commander_1024_R2.02_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-commander_1024_R2.02_full.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|INP_MASK_T || NO || YES || Three masks have been used for inpaiting of CMB maps for specific <math>\ell</math> ranges: three different angular resolution maps (40 arcmin, 7.5 arcmin and full resolution), are produced using different data combinations and foreground models. Each of these are inpainted with their own masks with a constrained Gaussian realization before coadding the three maps in harmonic space.<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_commander_dx11d2_temp_n0256_lmax200_0256_R2.03.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_commander_dx11d2_temp_n0256_lmax200_0256_R2.03.fits}}<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_commander_dx11d2_temp_lmax1000_2048_R2.03.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_commander_dx11d2_temp_lmax1000_2048_R2.03.fits}}<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_commander_dx11d2_temp_fullres_2048_R2.03.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_commander_dx11d2_temp_fullres_2048_R2.03.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
|INP_MASK_P || NO || YES || Mask used for inpainting of the CMB map in polarization.<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_commander_dx11d2_pol_fullres_1024_R2.02.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_commander_dx11d2_pol_fullres_1024_R2.02.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="800000"<br />
|<br />
! ||<br />
|<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! SEVEM 2015 (PR2) || Used for Diffuse Inpainting of foregorund subtracted CMB maps (fgsub-sevem) || Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description<br />
|-<br />
|T_MASK || NO || NO || T_MASK (the equivalent to PR1 VALMASK) is the confidence mask in temperature that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-sevem-field-Int_2048_R2.01_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-sevem-field-Int_2048_R2.01_full.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|P_MASK || NO || NO || P_MASK is the confidence mask in polarization that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-sevem_1024_R2.02_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-sevem_1024_R2.02_full.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|INP_MASK_T || YES || NO || Point source mask for temperature. This mask is the combination of the 143 and 217 T point source masks used for the inpainting of the foreground subtracted CMB maps at those two frequencies. These two maps have been combined to produce the final CMB map. <br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_extended143x217_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_extended143x217_2048_R2.00.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
|INP_MASK_P || YES || NO || Point source mask for polarization. This mask is the combination of the 100 and 143 point source masks used for the inpainting of the foreground subtracted CMB maps at those two frequencies. These two maps have been combined to produce the final CMB map.<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_extended100x143_fw10_1024_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_extended100x143_fw10_1024_R2.00.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
|INP_MASK_T for the cleaned 100, 143 and 217 GHz CMB || YES || NO || Three temperature point source masks used for the inpainting of the foreground subtracted CMB maps at the considered frequencies: <br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_ps100_extended_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_ps100_extended_2048_R2.00.fits}} (clean 100 GHz)<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_ps143_extended_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_ps143_extended_2048_R2.00.fits}} (clean 143 GHz)<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_ps217_extended_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_ps217_extended_2048_R2.00.fits}} (clean 217 GHz)<br />
|-<br />
|INP_MASK_P for the cleaned 70, 100 and 143 GHz CMB|| YES || NO || Three polarization point source masks used for the inpainting of the foreground subtracted CMB maps at the considered frequencies:<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_dx11d_70_pol_varhole_full_99p90_1024_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_dx11d_70_pol_varhole_full_99p90_1024_R2.00.fits}} (clean 70 GHz);<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_dx11d_100_pol_99.97pc_radius_3sigma_10arcmin_1024_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_dx11d_100_pol_99.97pc_radius_3sigma_10arcmin_1024_R2.00.fits}} (clean 100 GHz)<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_dx11d_143_pol_99.97pc_radius_3sigma_10arcmin_1024_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_dx11d_143_pol_99.97pc_radius_3sigma_10arcmin_1024_R2.00.fits}} (clean 143 GHz)<br />
|- bgcolor="800000"<br />
|<br />
! ||<br />
|<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! NILC 2015 (PR2) || Used for diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps || Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description<br />
|-<br />
|T_MASK || NO || NO || T_MASK (the equivalent to PR1 VALMASK) is the confidence mask in temperature that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-nilc-field-Int_2048_R2.01_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-nilc-field-Int_2048_R2.01_full.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|P_MASK || NO || NO || P_MASK is the confidence mask in polarization that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-nilc_1024_R2.02_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-nilc_1024_R2.02_full.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|INP_MASK || YES || NO || The pre-processing involves inpainting of the holes in INP_MASK in the frequency maps prior to applying NILC on them. The first mask (nside 2048) has been used for the pre-processing of sky maps for HFI channels and second one for LFI channels (nside 1024). They can downloaded here:<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_nilc_dx11_preproc_1024_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_nilc_dx11_preproc_1024_R2.00.fits}}<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_nilc_dx11_preproc_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_nilc_dx11_preproc_2048_R2.00.fits}} <br />
|- bgcolor="800000"<br />
|<br />
! ||<br />
|<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! SMICA 2015 (PR2) || Used for diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps || Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description<br />
|-<br />
|T_MASK || NO || YES || T_MASK (the equivalent to PR1 VALMASK) is the confidence mask in temperature that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-smica-field-Int_2048_R2.01_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-smica-field-Int_2048_R2.01_full.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|P_MASK || NO || YES || P_MASK is the confidence mask in polarization that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-smica_1024_R2.02_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-smica_1024_R2.02_full.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|I_MASK || YES || NO || I_MASK, as in PR1, defines the regions over which CMB is not built. It is a combination of point source masks, Galactic plane mask and other bright regions like LMC, SMC, etc. It can downloaded here: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_smica_harmonic_mask_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_smica_harmonic_mask_2048_R2.00.fits}}<br />
|- <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
'''Inputs'''<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. SMICA and SEVEM use all the maps between 30 and 857 GHz; NILC uses the ones between 44 and 857 GHz. Commander-Ruler uses frequency channel maps from 30 to 353 GHz. <br />
<br />
'''File names and structure'''<br />
<br />
Three sets of files FITS files containing the CMB products are available. In the first set all maps (i.e., covering different parts of the mission) and all characterisation products for a given method and a given Stokes parameter are grouped into a single extension, and there are two files per ''method'' (smica, nilc, sevem, and commander), one for the high resolution data (I only, Nside=2048) and one for low resolution data (Q and U only, Nside=1024). Each file also contains the associated confidence mask(s) and beam transfer function. '''These are the R2.00 files''' which have names like<br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}-field-{Int,Pol}_Nside_R2.00.fits''<br />
There are 7 coverage periods:''full'', ''halfyear-1,2'', ''halfmission-1,2'', or ''ringhalf-1,2'', and 4 characterisation products: ''half-sum'' and half-difference'' for the year and the half-mission periods.<br />
<br />
In the second second set the different coverages are split into different files which in most cases have a single extension with I only (Nside=1024) and I, Q, and U (Nside=1024). This second set was built in order to allow users to use standard codes like ''spice'' or ''anafast'' on them, directly. So this set contains the I maps at Nside=1024, which are not contained in the R2.00; on the other hand this set does not contain the half-sum and half-difference maps. '''These are the 2.01 files''' which have names like <br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}{-field-Int|Pol}_Nside_R2.01_{coverage}.fits'' for the regular CMB maps, and <br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-{fff}-{fgsub-sevem}{-field-Int|Pol}_Nside_R2.01_{coverage}.fits'' for the sevem frequency-dependent, foregrounds-subtracted maps,<br />
where ''field-Int|Pol'' is used to indicate that only Int or only Pol data are contained (at present only ''field-Int'' is used for the high-res data), and is not included in the low-res data which contains all three Stokes parameters, and ''coverage'' is one of ''full'', ''halfyear-1,2'', ''halfmission-1,2'', or ''ringhalf-1,2''. Also, the coverage=''full'' files contain also the confidence mask(s) and beam transfer function(s) which are valid for all products of the same method (one for Int and one for Pol when both are available). <br />
<br />
The third set has the same structure as the Nside=1024 products of R2.01, but '''the Q and U maps have been high-pass filtered to remove modes at l < 30 for the reasons indicated earlier. These are the default products for use in polarisation studies. They are the R2.02 files''' which have names like:<br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}_1024_R2.02_{coverage}.fits'' <br />
<br />
'''Version 2.00 files'''<br />
<br />
These have names like <br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}-field-{Int,Pol}_Nside_R2.00.fits'', <br />
as indicated above. They contain:<br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data;<br />
* one or two ''BINTABLE'' data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 14 columns in which the first 13 columns is a CMB maps produced from the full or a subset of the data, as described in the table below, and the last column in a confidence mask. There is a single extension for ''Int'' files, and two, for Q and U, for ''Pol'' files. <br />
* a ''BINTABLE'' extension containing the beam transfer function (mistakenly called window function in the files).<br />
<br />
If Nside=1024 the files contain I, Q and U maps, whereas if Nside=2048 only the I map is given.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB R2.00 map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I or Q or U || Real*4 || uK_cmb || I or Q or U map <br />
|- <br />
|HM1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HM2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 2 <br />
|-<br />
|YR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 1 <br />
|-<br />
|YR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HMHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HMHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|YRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|YRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|HRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half diff <br />
|-<br />
|MASK || BYTE || || Confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (smica/nilc/sevem/commander)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE) . See Note 1<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAMWF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam transfer function, including the pixel window function. See Note 2.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam TF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Last multipole of beam TF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Notes:<br />
# Actually this is a beam ''transfer'' function, so BEAM_TF would have been more appropriate.<br />
# The beam transfer function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>. The beam ''Window'' function is given by <math>W_\ell = B_\ell^2</math><br />
<br />
<br />
'''Version 2.01 files'''<br />
<br />
These files have names like:<br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}{-field-Int|Pol}_Nside_R2.01_{coverage}.fits'' for the regular CMB maps, and <br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-{fff}-{fgsub-sevem}{-field-Int|Pol}_Nside_R2.01_{coverage}.fits'' for the sevem frequency-dependent, foregrounds-subtracted maps,<br />
as indicated above. They contain:<br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data, but with a NUMEXT keyword giving the number of extensions contained.<br />
* one or two ''BINTABLE'' data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 1-5 columns depending on the file, as described above: the minimum begin I only, the maximum begin I, Q, U, and confidence masks for I and P. <br />
* a ''BINTABLE'' extension containing the beam transfer function(s): one for I, and a second one that applies to both Q and U, if Nslde=1024.<br />
<br />
If Nside=1024 the files contain I, Q and U maps, whereas if Nside=2048 only the I map is given. The basic structure, including information on the most important keywords, is given in the table below. For full details, see the FITS header.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB R2.01 map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_Stokes || Real*4 || uK_cmb || I map (Nside=1024,2048) <br />
|- <br />
|Q_Stokes || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Q map (Nside=1024) <br />
|-<br />
|U_Stokes || Real*4 || uK_cmb || U map (Nside=2048) <br />
|-<br />
|TMASK || Int || none || optional Temperature confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
|PMASK || Int || none || optional Polarisation confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Optional Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_TF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|INT_BEAM || Real*4 || none || Effective beam transfer function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|POL_BEAM || Real*4 || none || Effective beam transfer function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX_I || Int || value || Last multipole for Int beam TF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX_P || Int || value || Last multipole for Pol beam TF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method <br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
Notes:<br />
# The beam transfer function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>. The beam ''Window'' function is given by <math>W_\ell = B_\ell^2</math><br />
<br />
'''Version 2.02 files'''<br />
<br />
'''For polarisation work, this is the default set of files to be used for cosmological analysis. Their content is identical to the "R2.01" files, except that angular scales above l < 30 have been filtered out of the Q and U maps. '''<br />
<br />
These files have names like:<br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}_1024_R2.02_{coverage}.fits'' <br />
as indicated above. They contain:<br />
The files contain <br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data, but with a NUMEXT keyword giving the number of extensions contained.<br />
* one or two ''BINTABLE'' data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 1-5 columns depending on the file, as described above: the minimum begin I only, the maximum begin I, Q, U, and confidence masks for I and P. <br />
* a ''BINTABLE'' extension containing 2 beam transfer functions: one for I and one that applies to both Q and U.<br />
<br />
If Nside=1024 the files contain I, Q and U maps, whereas if Nside=2048 only the I map is given. The basic structure, including information on the most important keywords, is given in the table below. For full details, see the FITS header.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB R2.02 map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_Stokes || Real*4 || uK_cmb || I map (Nside=1024) <br />
|- <br />
|Q_Stokes || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Q map (Nside=1024) <br />
|-<br />
|U_Stokes || Real*4 || uK_cmb || U map (Nside=2048) <br />
|-<br />
|TMASK || Int || none || optional Temperature confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
|PMASK || Int || none || optional Polarisation confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Optional Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_TF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|INT_BEAM || Real*4 || none || Effective beam transfer function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|POL_BEAM || Real*4 || none || Effective beam transfer function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX_I || Int || value || Last multipole for Int beam TF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX_P || Int || value || Last multipole for Pol beam TF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method <br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
Notes:<br />
# The beam transfer function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>. The beam ''Window'' function is given by <math>W_\ell = B_\ell^2</math><br />
<br />
'''Common masks'''<br />
<br />
The common masks are stored into two different files for Temperature and Polarisation respectively:<br />
* ''COM_CMB_IQU-common-field-MaskInt_2048_R2.nn.fits'' with the UT78 and UTA76 masks<br />
* ''COM_CMB_IQU-common-field-MaskPol_1024_R2.nn.fits'' with the UP78, UPA77, and UPB77 masks<br />
Both files contain also a map of the missing pixels for the half mission and year coverage periods. The 2 (for Temp) or 3 (for Pol) masks and the missing pixels maps are stored in 4 or 5 column a ''BINTABLE'' extension 1 of each file, named ''MASK-INT'' and ''MASK-POL'', respectively. See the FITS file headers for details.<br />
<br />
'''Quadrupole residual maps'''<br />
<br />
The quadrupole residual maps are stored in files called:<br />
* ''COM_CMB_IQU-kq-resid-{method}-field-Int_2048_R2.02.fits''<br />
<br />
They contain:<br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data, but with a NUMEXT keyword giving the number of extensions contained.<br />
* a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with a single column of Npix lines containing the HEALPIX map indicated<br />
<br />
The basic structure of the data extension is shown below. For full details see the extension header. <br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Kinetic quadrupole residual map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|INTENSITY || Real*4 || K_cmb || the residual map <br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || KQ-RESID || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
</div><br />
</div><br />
<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="background-color: #EEE8AA;width:80%"><br />
'''2013 Release of CMB maps'''<br />
<div class="mw-collapsible-content"><br />
<br />
'''CMB Maps'''<br />
<br />
CMB maps have been produced by the SMICA, NILC, SEVEM and COMMANDER-Ruler pipelines. Of these, the SMICA product is considered the preferred one overall and is labelled ''Main product'' in the Planck Legacy Archive, while the other two are labeled as ''Additional product''.<br />
<br />
SMICA and NILC also produce ''inpainted'' maps, in which the Galactic Plane, some bright regions and masked point sources are replaced with a constrained CMB realization such that the whole map has the same statistical distribution as the observed CMB. <br />
<br />
The results of SMICA, NILC and SEVEM pipeline are distributed as a FITS file containing 4 extensions:<br />
# CMB maps and ancillary products (3 or 6 maps)<br />
# CMB-cleaned foreground maps from LFI (3 maps)<br />
# CMB-cleaned foreground maps from HFI (6 maps)<br />
# Effective beam of the CMB maps (1 vector)<br />
<br />
The results of COMMANDER-Ruler are distributed as two FITS files (the high and low resolution) containing the following extensions: <br />
High resolution N$_\rm{side}$=2048 (note that we don't provide the CMB-cleaned foregrounds maps for LFI and HFI because the Ruler resolution (~7.4') is lower than the HFI highest channel and and downgrading it will introduce noise correlation). <br />
# CMB maps and ancillary products (4 maps)<br />
# Effective beam of the CMB maps (1 vector)<br />
<br />
Low resolution N$_\rm{side}$=256<br />
# CMB maps and ancillary products (3 maps)<br />
# 10 example CMB maps used in the montecarlo realization (10 maps)<br />
# Effective beam of the CMB maps (1 vector)<br />
<br />
For a complete description of the data structure, see the [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center" style="background:#efefef;"<br />
|+ style="background:#eeeeee;" | '''The maps (CMB, noise, masks) contained in the first extension'''<br />
|-<br />
!width=40px | Col name<br />
!width=200px| SMICA<br />
!width=200px| NILC<br />
!width=200px| SEVEM <br />
!width=200px| COMMANDER-Ruler H<br />
!width=200px| COMMANDER-Ruler L <br />
!width=300px| Description / notes<br />
|-<br />
| align="left" | 1: I<br />
| [[File: CMB-smica.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMB-nilc.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMB-sevem.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMB-CR_h.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMB-CR_l.png|200px]]<br />
| Raw CMB anisotropy map. These are the maps used in the component separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}.<br />
|-<br />
| 2: NOISE<br />
| [[File: CMBnoise-smica.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMBnoise-nilc.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMBnoise-sevem.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMBnoise-CR_h.png|200px]]<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| Noise map. Obtained by propagating the half-ring noise through the CMB cleaning pipelines.<br />
|-<br />
| 3: VALMASK<br />
| [[File: valmask-smica.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: valmask-nilc.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: valmask-sevem.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: valmask-cr_h.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: valmask-cr_l.png|200px]]<br />
| Confidence map. Pixels with an expected low level of foreground contamination. These maps are only indicative and obtained by different ad hoc methods. They cannot be used to rank the CMB maps.<br />
|-<br />
| 4: I_MASK<br />
| [[File: cmbmask-smica.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: cmbmask-nilc.png|200px]]<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| Some areas are masked for the production of the raw CMB maps (for NILC: point sources from 44 GHz to 857 GHz; for SMICA: point sources from 30 GHz to 857 GHz, Galatic region and additional bright regions).<br />
|-<br />
| 5: INP_CMB<br />
| [[File: CMBinp-smica.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMBinp-nilc.png|200px]]<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| Inpainted CMB map. The raw CMB maps with some regions (as indicated by INP_MASK) replaced by a constrained Gaussian realization. The inpainted SMICA map was used for PR.<br />
|-<br />
| 6: INP_MASK<br />
| [[File: inpmask-smica.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: inpmask-nilc.png|200px]]<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| Mask of the inpainted regions. For SMICA, this is identical to I_MASK. For NILC, it is not.<br />
|}<br />
<br />
The component separation pipelines are described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation|CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Section 3 and Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}} and references therein.<br />
<br />
The union (or common) mask is defined as the union of the confidence masks from the four component separation pipelines, the three listed above and Commander-Ruler. It leaves 73% of the sky available, and so it is denoted as U73.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''Product description '''<br />
<br />
'''SMICA'''<br />
<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces a CMB map by linearly combining all Planck input channels (from 30 to 857 GHz) with weights which vary with the multipole. It includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math> '''and deconvolved from the pixel window'''. It means that, ideally, one would have <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) * B_\ell(5')^2</math>, where <math>C_\ell(map)</math> is the angular spectrum of the map, where <math>C_\ell(sky)</math> is the angular spectrum of the CMB and <math>B_\ell(5')</math> is a 5-arcminute Gaussian beam function. Note however that, by convention, the effective beam window function <math>B_\ell(fits)</math> provided in the FITS file does include a pixel window function. Therefore, it is equal to <math>B_\ell(fits) = B_\ell(5') / p_\ell(2048)</math> where <math>p_\ell(2048)</math> denotes the pixel window function for an Nside=2048 pixelization.<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. <br />
; Masks and inpainting<br />
: The raw SMICA CMB map has valid pixels except at the location of masked areas: point sources, Galactic plane, some other bright regions. Those invalid pixels are indicated with the mask named 'I_MASK'. The raw SMICA map has been inpainted, producing the map named "INP_CMB". Inpainting consists in replacing some pixels (as indicated by the mask named INP_MASK) by the values of a constrained Gaussian realization which is computed to ensure good statistical properties of the whole map (technically, the inpainted pixels are a sample realisation drawn under the posterior distribution given the un-masked pixels.<br />
<br />
'''NILC'''<br />
<br />
; Principle<br />
: The Needlet-ILC (hereafter NILC) CMB map is constructed from all Planck channels from 44 to 857 GHz and includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 3200</math>. It is obtained by applying the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) technique in needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: As in the SMICA product except that there is no abrupt truncation at <math>\ell_{max}= 3200</math> but a smooth transition to <math>0</math> over the range <math>2700\leq\ell\leq 3200</math>.<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. The threshold is somewhat arbitrary.<br />
; Masks and inpainting<br />
: The raw NILC map has valid pixels except at the location of masked point sources. This is indicated with the mask named 'I_MASK'. The raw NILC map has been inpainted, producing the map named "INP_CMB". The inpainting consists in replacing some pixels (as indicated by the mask named INP_MASK) by the values of a constrained Gaussian realization which is computed to ensure good statistical properties of the whole map (technically, the inpainted pixels are a sample realisation drawn under the posterior distribution given the un-masked pixels.<br />
<br />
'''SEVEM'''<br />
<br />
The aim of SEVEM is to produce clean CMB maps at one or several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting. The templates are internal, i.e., they are constructed from Planck data, avoiding the need for external data sets, which usually complicates the analyses and may introduce inconsistencies. The method has been successfully applied to Planck simulations{{BibCite|leach2008}} and to WMAP polarisation data{{BibCite|fernandezcobos2012}}. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. Note that unlike the other products, SEVEM does not provide the mask of regions not used in the productions of the CMB ma (''I_MASK'') nor an inpainted version of the map and its associated mask. On the other hand, it provides ''channel maps'' and 100, 143, and 217 GHz which are used as the building blocks of the final map.<br />
<br />
'''COMMANDER-Ruler'''<br />
<br />
COMMANDER-Ruler is the Planck software implementing a pixel based parametric component separation. Amplitude of CMB and the main diffuse foregrounds along with the relevant spectral parameters for those (see below in the Astrophysical Foreground Section for the latter) are parametrized and fitted in single MCMC chains conducted at $N_\rm{side}$=256 using COMMANDER, implementing a Gibbs Sampling. The CMB amplitude which <br />
is obtained in these runs corresponds to the delivered low resolution CMB component from COMMANDER-Ruler which has a FWHM of 40 arcminutes. The sampling of the foreground parameters is applied to the data at full resolution for obtaining the high resolution CMB component from Ruler which is available on the PLA. In the {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06|1|Planck Component Separation paper}} additional material is discussed, specifically concerning the sky region where the solutions are reliable, in terms of chi2 maps. The products mainly consist of: <br />
<br />
* Maps of the Amplitudes of the CMB at low resolution, $N_\rm{side}$=256, along with the standard deviations of the outputs, beam profiles derived from the production process. <br />
* Maps of the CMB amplitude, along with the standard deviations, at high resolution, $N_\rm{side}$=2048, beam profiles derived from the production process. <br />
* Mask obtained on the basis of the precision in the fitting procedure; the thresholding is evaluated through the COMMANDER-Ruler likelihood analysis and excludes 13% of the sky, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}.<br />
<br />
'''Production process'''<br />
<br />
'''SMICA'''<br />
<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: All input maps undergo a pre-processing step to deal with point sources. The point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue are fitted in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole is filled in by a simple diffusive process to ensure a smooth transition and mitigate spectral leakage. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, here all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and filled-in similarly.<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHzare harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> and co-added with multipole-dependent weights as shown in the figure.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: The areas masked in the pre-processing step are replaced by a constrained Gaussian realization.<br />
<br />
Note: The visible power deficit in the raw CMB map around the galactic plane is due to the smooth fill-in of the masked areas in the input maps (the result of the pre-processing). It is not to be confused with the post-processing step of inpainting of the CMB map with a constrained Gaussian realization.<br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:smica.jpg|thumb|center|500px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input maps (after they are re-beamed to 5 arcmin and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), as a function of multipole.''']]<br />
<br />
'''NILC'''<br />
<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: Same pre-processing as SMICA (except the 30 GHz channel is not used).<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 44 to 857 GHz are linearly combined with weights which depend on location on the sky and on the multipole range up to <math>\ell = 3200</math>. This is achieved using a needlet (redundant spherical wavelet) decomposition. For more details, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: The areas masked in the pre-processing plus other bright regions step are replaced by a constrained Gaussian realization as in the SMICA post-processing step.<br />
<br />
'''SEVEM'''<br />
<br />
The templates are internal, i.e., they are constructed from Planck data, avoiding the need for external data sets, which usually complicates the analyses and may introduce inconsistencies. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. The fitting can be done in real or wavelet space (using a fast wavelet adapted to the HEALPix pixelization{{BibCite|casaponsa2011}}) to properly deal with incomplete sky coverage. By expediency, however, we fill in the small number of unobserved pixels at each channel with the mean value of its neighbouring pixels before applying SEVEM.<br />
<br />
We construct our templates by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMB map at that frequency. This is done either in real or in wavelet space (i.e., scale by scale) at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. If the cleaning is performed in real space, the <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. When working in wavelet space, the cleaning is done in the same way at each wavelet scale independently (i.e., the linear coefficients depend on the scale). Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).<br />
<br />
An additional level of flexibility can also be considered: the linear coefficients can be the same for all the sky, or several regions with different sets of coefficients can be considered. The regions are then combined in a smooth way, by weighting the pixels at the boundaries, to avoid discontinuities in the clean maps.<br />
Since the method is linear, we may easily propagate the noise properties to the final CMB map. Moreover, it is very fast and permits the generation of thousands of simulations to character- ize the statistical properties of the outputs, a critical need for many cosmological applications. The final CMB map retains the angular resolution of the original frequency map.<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of clean maps at different frequencies is of great interest in order to test the robustness of the results. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned independently and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
In particular, we have cleaned the 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps using four templates constructed as the difference of the following Planck channels (smoothed to a common resolution): (30-44), (44-70), (545-353) and (857-545). For simplicity, the three maps have been cleaned in real space, since there was not a significant improvement when using wavelets (especially at high latitude). In order to take into account the different spectral behaviour of the foregrounds at low and high galactic latitudes, we have considered two independent regions of the sky, for which we have used a different set of coefficients. The first region corresponds to the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission, whereas the second region is defined by the remaining 97 per cent of the sky. For the first region, the coefficients are actually estimated over the whole sky (we find that this is more optimal than perform the minimisation only on the 3 per cent brightest region, where the CMB emission is very sub-dominant) while for the second region, we exclude the 3 per cent brightest region of the sky, point sources detected at any frequency and those pixels which have not been observed at all channels.<br />
Our final CMB map has then been constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
Moreover, additional CMB clean maps (at frequencies between 44 and 353 GHz) have also been produced using different combinations of templates for some of the analyses carried out in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p09}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p14}}. In particular, clean maps from 44 to 353 GHz have been used for the stacking analysis presented in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p14}}, while frequencies from 70 to 217 GHz were used for consistency tests in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p09}}.<br />
<br />
'''COMMANDER-Ruler'''<br />
<br />
The production process consist in low and high resolution runs according to the description above. <br />
; Low Resolution Runs: Same as the Astrophysics Foregrounds Section below; The CMB amplitude is fitted along with the other foreground parameters and constitutes the CMB Low Resolution Rendering which is in the PLA. <br />
; Ruler Runs: the sampling at high resolution is used to infer the probability distribution of spectral parameters which is exploited at full resolution in order to obtain the High Resolution CMB Rendering which is in the PLA. <br />
<br />
''' Masks '''<br />
<br />
Summary table with the different masks that have been used by the component separation methods to pre-process and to process the frequency maps and the CMB maps.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Commander 2013 (PR1) || Used for diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps || Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK || NO || NO || VALMASK is the confidence mask that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside <br />
<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits}} and {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits}} for low resolution analyses.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="800000"<br />
|<br />
! ||<br />
|<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! SEVEM 2013 (PR1) || Used diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps || Used for Constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK || NO || NO || VALMASK is the confidence mask that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside <br />
<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-sevem_2048_R1.12.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-sevem_2048_R1.12.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="800000"<br />
|<br />
! ||<br />
|<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! NILC 2013 (PR1) || Used for diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps || Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK || NO || NO || VALMASK is the confidence mask that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|I_MASK || NO || NO || I_MASK defines the regions over which CMB is not built. It is a combination of point source masks, Galactic plane mask and other bright regions like LMC, SMC, etc. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits}}.<br />
|- <br />
|INP_MASK || NO || YES || It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="800000"<br />
|<br />
! ||<br />
|<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! SMICA 2013 (PR1) || Used for diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps || Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK || NO || NO || VALMASK is the confidence mask that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside <br />
<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|I_MASK || YES || YES || I_MASK defines the regions over which CMB is not built. It is a combination of point source masks, Galactic plane mask and other bright regions like LMC, SMC, etc. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits}}.<br />
|- <br />
|INP_MASK || YES || YES || INP_MASK for SMICA 2013 release is identical to I_MASK above. <br />
|-<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
'''Inputs'''<br />
<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. SMICA and SEVEM use all the maps between 30 and 857 GHz; NILC uses the ones between 44 and 857 GHz. Commander-Ruler uses frequency channel maps from 30 to 353 GHz. <br />
<br />
'''File names and structure'''<br />
<br />
The FITS files corresponding to the three CMB products are the following:<br />
<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-sevem_2048_R1.12.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-sevem_2048_R1.12.fits}}<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits}}<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits}}<br />
<br />
<br />
The files contain a minimal primary extension with no data and four ''BINTABLE'' data extensions. Each column of the ''BINTABLE'' is a (Healpix) map; the column names and the most important keywords of each extension are described in the table below; for the remaining keywords, please see the FITS files directly. <br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK_cmb || CMB temperature map<br />
|-<br />
|NOISE || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Estimated noise map (note 1)<br />
|-<br />
|I_STDEV|| Real*4 || uK_cmb || Standard deviation, ONLY on COMMANDER-Ruler products<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Confidence mask (note 2)<br />
|-<br />
|I_MASK|| Byte || none || Mask of regions over which CMB map is not built (Optional - see note 3)<br />
|-<br />
|INP_CMB || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Inpainted CMB temperature map (Optional - see note 3)<br />
|-<br />
|INP_MASK || Byte || none || mask of inpainted pixels (Optional - see note 3)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. EXTNAME = ''FGDS-LFI'' (BINTABLE) - Note 4<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LFI_030 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 30 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|LFI_044 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 44 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|LFI_070 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 70 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 3. EXTNAME = ''FGDS-HFI'' (BINTABLE) - Note 4<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|HFI_100 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 100 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|HFI_143 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 143 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|HFI_217 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 217 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|HFI_353 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 353 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|HFI_545 || Real*4 || MJy/sr || 545 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|HFI_857 || Real*4 || MJy/sr || 857 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function. See Note 5.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Notes:<br />
# The half-ring half-difference (HRHD) map is made by passing the half-ring frequency maps independently through the component separation pipeline, then computing half their difference. It approximates a noise realisation, and gives an indication of the uncertainties due to instrumental noise in the corresponding CMB map. <br />
# The confidence mask indicates where the CMB map is considered valid. <br />
# This column is not present in the SEVEM and COMMANDER-Ruler product file. For SEVEM these three columns give the CMB channel maps at 100, 143, and 217 GHz (columns ''C100'', ''C143'', and ''C217'', in units of K_cmb.<br />
# The subtraction of the CMB from the sky maps in order to produce the foregrounds map is done after convolving the CMB map to the resolution of the given frequency. Those columns are not present in the COMMANDER-Ruler product file.<br />
# The beam window function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>.<br />
<br />
The low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler CMB product is organized in the following way:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK_cmb || CMB temperature map obtained as average over 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Corresponding Standard deviation amongst the 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Confidence mask<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. EXTNAME = ''CMB-Sample'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM01 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM02 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM03 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM04 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM05 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM06 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM07 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM08 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM09 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM10 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
The FITS files containing the ''union'' (or common) maks is:<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-union_2048_R1.10.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common}}<br />
which contains a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with a single column (named ''U73'') for the mask, which is boolean (FITS ''TFORM = B''), in GALACTIC coordinates, NESTED ordering, and Nside=2048.<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for a small file containing the SMICA cmb map with no additional information (noise or masks) we provide such a file here<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
This file contains a single extension with a single column containing the SMICA cmb temperature map.<br />
<br />
'''Cautionary notes'''<br />
<br />
# The half-ring CMB maps are produced by the pipelines with parameters/weights fixed to the values obtained from the full maps. Therefore the CMB HRHD maps do not capture all of the uncertainties due to foreground modelling on large angular scales.<br />
# The HRHD maps for the HFI frequency channels underestimate the noise power spectrum at high l by typically a few percent. This is caused by correlations induced in the pre-processing to remove cosmic ray hits. The CMB is mostly constrained by the HFI channels at high l, and so the CMB HRHD maps will inherit this deficiency in power.<br />
# The beam transfer functions do not account for uncertainties in the beams of the frequency channel maps.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
</div><br />
</div><br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
</div><br />
</div><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|007]]</div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=File:Reproc.png&diff=14633File:Reproc.png2023-03-20T18:48:07Z<p>Mlopezca: </p>
<hr />
<div></div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=NPIPE_reprocessing&diff=14632NPIPE reprocessing2023-03-20T18:47:54Z<p>Mlopezca: Created page with "{{DISPLAYTITLE: NPIPE reprocessing}} NPIPE reprocessing is a full-frequency or detector-set-wide processing step. It covers the entire span of the Planck mission. During rep..."</p>
<hr />
<div>{{DISPLAYTITLE: NPIPE reprocessing}}<br />
<br />
NPIPE reprocessing is a full-frequency or detector-set-wide processing step. It covers the entire span of the Planck mission. During reprocessing, NPIPE corrects systematics in the time-ordered data by fitting time-domain systematics templates. The templates being fitted are:<br />
* gain fluctuations;<br />
* bandpass mismatch;<br />
* ADC nonlinearity;<br />
* bolometric transfer-function residuals;<br />
* zodiacal light;<br />
* far sidelobe signal.<br />
In addition, NPIPE breaks certain large-scale degeneracies in the fitting by making an approximation that the sky polarization at 44-143GHz can be modelled as a linear combination of the 30-, 217-, and 353-GHz polarization maps. These polarization templates are unrolled into the time domain in the reprocessing step.<br />
<br />
Below is the schematic of the reprocessing sub pipeline. The diagram is reproduced from A&A 643, A42 (2020).<br />
<br />
[[File:Reproc.png|800px|frameless|left|NPIPE reprocessing sub pipeline]]</div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=Sroll2&diff=14631Sroll22023-02-15T09:37:32Z<p>Mlopezca: </p>
<hr />
<div>== Sroll2 ==<br />
<br />
'''Disclaimer''': the following data sets have been delivered and ingested in the PLA as agreed between ESA and the Sroll2 project reprocessing Planck data. Please note that these products have not been produced by the Planck Collaboration and we do not provide any kind of support for the content of these products. For questions about these products please contact the Sroll2 project directly Jean-Marc Delouis (jean.marc.delouis at ifremer.fr).<br />
<br />
=== Overview and background ===<br />
<br />
Sroll2 is an improved mapmaking approach with respect to the one used for the Planck High Frequency Instrument 2018 Legacy release. The algorithm SRoll2 better corrects the known instrumental effects that still affected mostly the polarized large-angular-scale data by distorting the signal, and/or leaving residuals observable in null tests. The main systematic effect is the nonlinear response of the onboard analog-to-digital convertors that was cleaned in the Planck HFI Legacy release as an empirical time-varying linear detector chain response which is the first-order effect. The SRoll2 method fits the model parameters for higher-order effects and corrects the full distortion of the signal. The model parameters are fitted using the redundancies in the data by iteratively comparing the data and a model. The polarization efficiency uncertainties and associated errors have also been corrected based on the redundancies in the data and their residual levels characterized with simulations. <br />
<br />
SRoll2: an improved mapmaking approach to reduce large-scale systematic effects in the Planck High Frequency Instrument legacy maps (Delouis et al., A&A 609, A38, 2019), [https://www.aanda.org/articles/aa/full_html/2019/09/aa34882-18/aa34882-18.html A&A] <br />
<br />
=== Data Description ===<br />
<br />
Data set description<br />
<br />
The SRoll 2.0 data set is made of 28 FITS files each containing the I, Q and U Stokes parameters of a single frequency, multi-bolometer, full-sky observation in KCMB, as well as its hit count and covariance matrix elements (II, IQ, IU, QQ, QU, UU, in KCMB2). These maps are generated using only the 8 polarised HFI bolometers ("PSB") of each polarised HFI frequency (100 GHz, 143 GHz, 217 GHz and 353 GHz) to obtain the best possible polarised maps. The maps are stored in HEALPix format at Nside=2,048 (50,331,648 pixels per map). They are named and formatted in the same way as the Planck HFI 2018 products (see the Planck Legacy Archive (PLA)):<br />
<br />
* SRoll20 is the data product name and version,<br />
* SkyMap is the signal type, here all sky components,<br />
* the detector set, made of the detectors frequency (100, 143, 217, 353), followed by the detectors used in the map (psb for all 8 bolometers, ds1 for the first 4 bolometers, ds2 for the last 4 bolometers)<br />
* the ring set, either full for all the rings of the mission (240-26050), or halfmission-1 (rings 240-13144), halfmission-2 (rings 13145-26050), or even or odd numbered rings (full-even or full-odd, respectively).<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits]<br />
<br />
Source:<br />
http://sroll20.ias.u-psud.fr/sroll20_data.html<br />
http://sroll20.ias.u-psud.fr/sroll20_sim.html</div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=Sroll2&diff=14630Sroll22023-02-15T09:36:51Z<p>Mlopezca: </p>
<hr />
<div>== Sroll2 ==<br />
<br />
'''Disclaimer''': the following data sets have been delivered and ingested in the PLA as agreed between ESA and the Sroll2 project reprocessing Planck data. Please note that these products have not been produced by the Planck Collaboration and we do not provide any kind of support for the content of these products. For questions about these products please contact the Sroll2 project directly [[jean.marc.delouis@ifremer.fr|CONTACT EMAIL]].<br />
<br />
=== Overview and background ===<br />
<br />
Sroll2 is an improved mapmaking approach with respect to the one used for the Planck High Frequency Instrument 2018 Legacy release. The algorithm SRoll2 better corrects the known instrumental effects that still affected mostly the polarized large-angular-scale data by distorting the signal, and/or leaving residuals observable in null tests. The main systematic effect is the nonlinear response of the onboard analog-to-digital convertors that was cleaned in the Planck HFI Legacy release as an empirical time-varying linear detector chain response which is the first-order effect. The SRoll2 method fits the model parameters for higher-order effects and corrects the full distortion of the signal. The model parameters are fitted using the redundancies in the data by iteratively comparing the data and a model. The polarization efficiency uncertainties and associated errors have also been corrected based on the redundancies in the data and their residual levels characterized with simulations. <br />
<br />
SRoll2: an improved mapmaking approach to reduce large-scale systematic effects in the Planck High Frequency Instrument legacy maps (Delouis et al., A&A 609, A38, 2019), [https://www.aanda.org/articles/aa/full_html/2019/09/aa34882-18/aa34882-18.html A&A] <br />
<br />
=== Data Description ===<br />
<br />
Data set description<br />
<br />
The SRoll 2.0 data set is made of 28 FITS files each containing the I, Q and U Stokes parameters of a single frequency, multi-bolometer, full-sky observation in KCMB, as well as its hit count and covariance matrix elements (II, IQ, IU, QQ, QU, UU, in KCMB2). These maps are generated using only the 8 polarised HFI bolometers ("PSB") of each polarised HFI frequency (100 GHz, 143 GHz, 217 GHz and 353 GHz) to obtain the best possible polarised maps. The maps are stored in HEALPix format at Nside=2,048 (50,331,648 pixels per map). They are named and formatted in the same way as the Planck HFI 2018 products (see the Planck Legacy Archive (PLA)):<br />
<br />
* SRoll20 is the data product name and version,<br />
* SkyMap is the signal type, here all sky components,<br />
* the detector set, made of the detectors frequency (100, 143, 217, 353), followed by the detectors used in the map (psb for all 8 bolometers, ds1 for the first 4 bolometers, ds2 for the last 4 bolometers)<br />
* the ring set, either full for all the rings of the mission (240-26050), or halfmission-1 (rings 240-13144), halfmission-2 (rings 13145-26050), or even or odd numbered rings (full-even or full-odd, respectively).<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits]<br />
<br />
Source:<br />
http://sroll20.ias.u-psud.fr/sroll20_data.html<br />
http://sroll20.ias.u-psud.fr/sroll20_sim.html</div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=BeyondPLANCK&diff=14629BeyondPLANCK2023-02-15T09:35:04Z<p>Mlopezca: /* BeyondPlanck */</p>
<hr />
<div>== BeyondPlanck ==<br />
<br />
'''Disclaimer''': the following data sets have been delivered and ingested in the PLA as agreed between ESA and the BeyondPlanck project reprocessing Planck data. Please note that these products have not been produced by the Planck Collaboration and we do not provide any kind of support for the content of these products. For questions about these products please contact the BeyondPlanck project directly using their [https://beyondplanck.science/contact/ CONTACT FORM]. <br />
<br />
=== Overview and background ===<br />
<br />
As of 2020 and into the foreseeable future, ESA's [https://www.esa.int/Science_Exploration/Space_Science/Planck Planck] satellite measurements represent the state-of-art in terms of full-sky observations of the microwave sky between 30 and 857GHz, and the work by the Planck collaboration in terms of processing and interpreting these observations are summarized in a series of [https://www.cosmos.esa.int/web/planck/publications 150 papers]. Despite these massive efforts, several known outstanding issues regarding the final Planck maps remained unresolved at the end of the funded analysis phase, and several external initiatives were started to address these. One of these was [https://beyondplanck.science/ BeyondPlanck], which aimed to re-process the [https://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php/Main_Page Planck LFI] data within a self-consistent end-to-end Bayesian framework, in which both instrumental and astrophysical parameters are fitted jointly. This work started in 2018, and was successfully concluded in 2022. The final results from this project are described in a [https://beyondplanck.science/products/publications/ series of 17 papers], and the products made available through the [https://pla.esac.esa.int/ Planck Legacy Archive]. A long-term goal is to apply these techniques to a wide range of state-of-the-art experiments, and this work is organized within the [https://cosmoglobe.uio.no Cosmoglobe] project. <br />
<br />
==== Data model ====<br />
The main novel feature of the BeyondPlanck processing is a single joint parametric data model that accounts for both astrophysical and instrumental parameters on the form: <br />
[[Image:BP_model.png|thumb|600px|center|]]<br />
where <br />
* t denotes time sample and j denotes LFI radiometer index <br />
* g denotes the instrumental gain<br />
* P is the pointing matrix<br />
* M denotes the component-frequency mixing matrix, which depends on both astrophysical foreground spectral parameters, beta, and the instrument bandpass<br />
* a^c denotes the spatial amplitude map of component c<br />
* B denotes beam convolution (either with the symmetric main beam response, the asymmetric far-sidelobe beam response, or full 4pi response)<br />
* s^orb denotes the orbital CMB dipole<br />
* s^fsl denotes the sky signal observed through the far sidelobes<br />
* s^1Hz denotes electronic 1Hz spike contamination<br />
* n^corr denotes instrumental correlated noise<br />
* n^w denotes instrumental white noise<br />
Explicitly, the sum over components reads as follows (neglecting for notational simplicity bandpass integration; this is accounted for in the actual processing) <br />
[[Image:BP_astmodel.png|thumb|300px|center|]]<br />
<br />
In addition to these explicit parameters, the model also includes hyper-parameters for some of the stochastic fields, perhaps most notably the CMB power spectrum, C_l, which describes the variance of the CMB field, and the correlated noise power spectral density, N_corr(f), as a function of temporal frequency.<br />
<br />
For further information regarding this data model, see [https://arxiv.org/abs/2011.05609 BeyondPlanck overview paper] and references therein.<br />
<br />
==== Data sets ====<br />
<br />
The above data model is fitted using the following combination of datasets:<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/#timelines Planck LFI time-ordered data] for 30, 44 and 70 GHz<br />
* [https://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/wmap/dr5/m_products.html 9-year WMAP frequency maps] at Ka-band (33 GHz), Q-band (41 GHz), and V-band (61 GHz). The temperature component is sampled at full angular resolution with a white noise model, while polarization is sampled at low resolution with a dense covariance matrix<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/#maps Planck PR4 HFI 353 GHz] in polarization<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/#maps Planck PR4 HFI 857 GHz] in temperature<br />
* [https://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/foreground/fg_2014_haslam_408_info.html Haslam 408 MHz], reprocessed by Remazeilles et al. (2014)<br />
<br />
==== Posterior distribution and Gibbs sampling ====<br />
<br />
Let omega be the set of all free parameters in the above data model. The BeyondPlanck data model is then fitted to the listed data sets by mapping out the full joint posterior distribution by Monte Carlo sampling,<br />
[[Image:BP_posterior.png|thumb|250px|center|]]<br />
where the likelihood is defined by the white noise distribution<br />
[[Image:BP_likelihood.png|thumb|250px|center|]]<br />
The prior, P(omega), is summarized in the [https://arxiv.org/abs/2011.05609 BeyondPlanck overview paper], and consists of a mixture of informative and algorithmic priors.<br />
<br />
In practice, the posterior mapping is performed using [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gibbs_sampling Gibbs sampling] with the following Gibbs chain,[[Image:BP_gibbs.png|thumb|350px|center|]]<br />
<br />
Four independent chains are run for each 1000 iterations, and the first 200 samples are excluded as burn-in, leaving a total of 3200 samples for final analysis. All products listed below are derived from those post-burn-in 3200 samples.<br />
<br />
=== Products ===<br />
<br />
The BeyondPlanck products are available both through the [https://pla.esac.esa.int/ Planck Legacy Archive] and through the [https://cosmoglobe.uio.no/ Cosmoglobe] homepage.<br />
<br />
==== Markov Chain files ====<br />
<br />
The full Markov Chains are provided on an [https://www.hdfgroup.org/solutions/hdf5/ HDF5] format, which have convenient IO wrappers for most commonly used programming languages (Python, C/C++, Fortran etc.). Three types of chain files are provided, corresponding to 1) full chains; 2) resampled CMB temperature chains; and 3) resampled CMB polarization chains. Each chain file stores each complete sample in a separate HDF dataset ("folder") marked "NNNNNN" (e.g., "000010" for sample number 10). The internal structure of each sample folder is summarized below for each chain file type. (Only main variables are listed below.)<br />
<br />
[[Image:BP_traceplot.png|thumb|400px|center|Example traceplots from the BeyondPlanck chain file. For discussion of this plot, see Basyrov et al. (2022).]]<br />
<br />
===== Full chains =====<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
| Description || Markov chains from main run that includes both astrophysical and instrumental parameters.<br />
|-<br />
| Filename || BP_c000{1,2,3,4}_v2.h5<br />
|-<br />
| Number of samples per chain || 1000<br />
|-<br />
| Size per chain file || 1.7 TB<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! HDF path !! Description !! Specification !! Notes<br />
|-<br />
| ame/amp_alm || (Unconvolved) a_lm's of AME component map (T-only) || uK_RJ at 22 GHz || Ordered according to [https://github.com/Libsharp/libsharp libsharp] convention<br />
|-<br />
| ame/nu_p_map || AME nu_peak sky map || GHz in flux density units ||See [https://arxiv.org/abs/2201.08188 Andersen et al. (2022)] for details<br />
|-<br />
| cmb/amp_alm || (Unconvolved) a_lm's of CMB component map (T,Q,U) || uK_cmb || Ordered according to [https://github.com/Libsharp/libsharp libsharp] convention<br />
|-<br />
| cmb/sigma_l || Angular power spectrum of CMB component map, sigma_l || uK_cmb^2 || Ordered as {TT,TE,TB,EE,EB,BB}<br />
|-<br />
| dust/amp_alm || (Unconvolved) a_lm's of dust component map (T,Q,U) || uK_RJ at 857 GHz for T; at 353 GHz for Q,U || Ordered according to [https://github.com/Libsharp/libsharp libsharp] convention<br />
|-<br />
| dust/beta_map || Thermal dust spectral index, beta_d, map (T,Q,U) || Unitless || Spatially constant but variable <br />
|-<br />
| dust/T_map || Thermal dust temperature, T_d, map (T,Q,U) || Kelvin || Fixed to Planck PR4; does not vary with sample<br />
|-<br />
| ff/amp_alm || (Unconvolved) a_lm's of free-free component map (T-only) || uK_RJ at 40 GHz || Ordered according to [https://github.com/Libsharp/libsharp libsharp] convention<br />
|-<br />
| md/{channel label} || 4-element array with {monopole, d_x, d_y, d_z} corrections || Same units as respective frequency channel || Only monopoles and Haslam dipoles are non-zero<br />
|-<br />
| radio/amp || Radio source amplitude per object (T-only) || mJy at 30 GHz || Ordered according to BP/Planck Commander point source catalog<br />
|-<br />
| radio/spec_ind || Radio source spectral index per object (T-only) || Unitless || <br />
|-<br />
| synch/amp_alm || (Unconvolved) a_lm's of synchrotron component map (T,Q,U) || uK_RJ at 408 MHz in T; at 30 GHz in Q,U || Ordered according to [https://github.com/Libsharp/libsharp libsharp] convention<br />
|-<br />
| synch/beta_map || Synchrotron spectral index, beta_s, sky map || Unitless || See [https://arxiv.org/abs/2011.08503 Svalheim et al. (2022)] for details<br />
|-<br />
| tod/{channel label}/1Hz_ampl || 1Hz amplitude per radiometer and PID || Volt || <br />
|-<br />
| tod/{channel label}/1Hz_temp || Binned 1Hz template per radiometer || Unitless || Binned between 0 and 1 sec<br />
|-<br />
| tod/{channel label}/accept || Accept flag per radiometer and PID || Unitless || 0 = rejected, 1 = accepted<br />
|-<br />
| tod/{channel label}/chisq || Reduced normalized chisq per radiometer and scan || sigma || See [https://arxiv.org/abs/2011.06650 Ihle et al. (2022)] for details<br />
|-<br />
| tod/{channel label}/gain || Total gain per radiometer and scan || V/K || See [https://arxiv.org/abs/2011.08082 Gjerløw et al. (2022)] for details<br />
|-<br />
| tod/{channel label}/map || Frequency map for given channel (T,Q,U) || uK_cmb || See Basyrov et al. (2022) for details<br />
|-<br />
| tod/{channel label}/rms || Frequency standard devivation map for given channel (T,Q,U) || uK_cmb || See Basyrov et al. (2022) for details<br />
|-<br />
| tod/{channel label}/xi_n || Noise power spectral density parameters for radiometer and PID || {sigma_0, alpha, fknee, A_s} || See [https://arxiv.org/abs/2011.06650 Ihle et al. (2022)] for details<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===== Resampled CMB temperature chains =====<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
| Description || Markov chains from CMB temperature analysis. These are produced by imposing a CMB confidence mask on the CMB component, while fixing instrumental and (most of the) astrophysical parameters at the values sampled in the main run. Each CMB temperature sample in these chain represents one in-painted Gaussian constrained realization with full-sky coverage. These samples are useful for CMB temperature analysis. See Colombo et al. (2022) and Paradiso et al. (2022) for details.<br />
|-<br />
| Filename || BP_c000{1,2,3,4}_Tresamp_v2.h5<br />
|-<br />
| Number of samples per chain || 1000<br />
|-<br />
| Size per chain file || 15 GB<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! HDF path !! Description !! Specification !! Notes<br />
|-<br />
| cmb/amp_alm || (Unconvolved) a_lm's of CMB component map (T,Q,U) || uK_cmb || Ordered according to [https://github.com/Libsharp/libsharp libsharp] convention<br />
|-<br />
| cmb/sigma_l || Angular power spectrum of CMB component map, sigma_l || uK_cmb^2 || Ordered as {TT,TE,TB,EE,EB,BB}<br />
|-<br />
| cmb/D_l || Ensemble averaged (theory) angular power spectrum of CMB component map, D_l || uK_cmb^2 || Ordered as {TT,TE,TB,EE,EB,BB}<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===== Resampled CMB polarization chains =====<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
| Description || Markov chains from CMB polarization analysis. These are produced by resampling the CMB a_lms for l <= 64, while fixing instrumental and (most of the) astrophysical parameters at the values sampled in the main run. These samples are useful for low-resolution CMB polarization analysis. See Colombo et al. (2022) and Paradiso et al. (2022) for details.<br />
|-<br />
| Filename || BP_c000{1,2,3,4}_Presamp_v2.h5<br />
|-<br />
| Number of samples per chain || 50.000<br />
|-<br />
| Size per chain file || 2.3 GB<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! HDF path !! Description !! Specification !! Notes<br />
|-<br />
| cmb_lowl/amp_alm || (Unconvolved) a_lm's of CMB component map (T,Q,U), lmax = 64 || uK_cmb || Ordered according to [https://github.com/Libsharp/libsharp libsharp] convention<br />
|}<br />
<br />
==== Frequency maps ====<br />
<br />
[[Image:BP_freqmaps.png|thumb|600px|center|BeyondPlanck frequency maps at 30, 44 and 70 GHz. For further discussion, see Basyrov et al. (2022).]]<br />
<br />
''The BeyondPlanck frequency FITS maps are produced by averaging individual frequency map samples over Gibbs iterations, and thus correspond to ''posterior mean'' maps. We note that error propagation with these maps is challenging, and these are primarily provided for visualization and comparison purposes. For precision scientific analysis, operating with the individual samples provided in the chain files is highly encouraged to propagate errors properly.''<br />
<br />
Note 1: Unlike Planck DR3, but similar to Planck PR4, the BeyondPlanck frequency maps retain the CMB Solar dipole.<br />
Note 2: Unlike Planck, but similar to WMAP, the BeyondPlanck frequency maps retain the relativistic kinematic quadrupole. Instead of subtracting this signal, it is included as an additional component in the signal model.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Sky map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Filename = BP_{FREQ}_IQU_n{NSIDE}_v2.fits<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The signal intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The signal Stokes Q map<br />
|-<br />
|U_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The signal Stokes U map<br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The signal intensity white noise RMS<br />
|-<br />
|Q_RMS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The signal Stokes Q white noise RMS<br />
|-<br />
|U_RMS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The signal Stokes U white noise RMS<br />
|-<br />
|I_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The signal intensity posterior std (~ systematic uncertainty)<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The signal Stokes Q posterior std (~ systematic uncertainty)<br />
|-<br />
|U_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The signal Stokes U posterior std (~ systematic uncertainty)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || RING || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 512 or 1024 || Healpix Nside <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 3145727 or 12582911 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ || string || nnn || The frequency channel <br />
|}<br />
<br />
==== Component maps ====<br />
[[Image:BP_CMB.png|thumb|600px|center|BeyondPlanck CMB map. Rows show Stokes T, Q, and U, while columns show posterior mean and standard deviation. For further discussion, see Colombo et al. (2022).]]<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Full-resolution raw posterior mean CMB map'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Filename = BP_cmb_IQU_n1024_v2.fits<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The CMB intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The CMB Stokes Q map<br />
|-<br />
|U_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The CMB Stokes U map<br />
|-<br />
|I_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The CMB intensity posterior std<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The CMB Stokes Q posterior std<br />
|-<br />
|U_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The CMB Stokes U posterior std<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || RING || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside <br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Low-resolution raw posterior mean CMB map'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Filename = BP_CMB_QU_map_n8_v2.fits<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|TEMPERATURE || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Low-resolution CMB intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|Q-POLARIZATION || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Low-resolution CMB Stokes Q map<br />
|-<br />
|U-POLARIATION || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Low-resolution CMB Stokes U map<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || RING || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 8 || Healpix Nside <br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Single in-painted high-resolution CMB temperature sample'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Filename = BP_cmb_resamp_I_n1024_v2.fits<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_Stokes || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The CMB intensity map<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || RING || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside <br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Posterior mean AME map'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Filename = BP_ame_I_n1024_v2.fits<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || The AME intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|I_NU_P_MEAN || Real*4 || GHz || AME nu_peak frequency mean<br />
|-<br />
|I_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || AME intensity posterior std<br />
|-<br />
|I_NU_P_STDDEV || Real*4 || GHz || AME nu_peak frequency rms<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || RING || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside <br />
|-<br />
|FWHM || Real*4 || 120 || Smoothing FWHM in arcmin <br />
|-<br />
|NU_REF_T || Real*4 || 22.0 || AME reference frequency in GHz <br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Full-resolution raw posterior mean thermal dust map'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Filename = BP_dust_IQU_n1024_v2.fits<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean Stokes Q map<br />
|-<br />
|U_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean Stokes U map<br />
|-<br />
|P_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean polarization amplitude, P = sqrt(Q^2 + U^2)<br />
|-<br />
|I_BETA_MEAN || Real*4 || Unitless || Posterior mean spectral index, beta_d, in intensity<br />
|-<br />
|QU_BETA_MEAN || Real*4 || Unitless || Posterior mean spectral index, beta_d, in polarization<br />
|-<br />
|I_T_MEAN || Real*4 || Kelvin || Posterior mean dust temperature, T_d, in intensity<br />
|-<br />
|QU_T_MEAN || Real*4 || Kelvin || Posterior mean dust temperature, T_d, in polarization<br />
|-<br />
|I_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior rms intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior rms Stokes Q map<br />
|-<br />
|U_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior rms Stokes U map<br />
|-<br />
|P_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean polarization amplitude, P = sqrt(Q^2 + U^2)<br />
|-<br />
|I_BETA_STDDEV || Real*4 || Unitless || Posterior rms spectral index, beta_d, in intensity<br />
|-<br />
|QU_BETA_STDDEV || Real*4 || Unitless || Posterior rms spectral index, beta_d, in polarization<br />
|-<br />
|I_T_STDDEV || Real*4 || Kelvin || Posterior mean rms temperature, T_d, in intensity<br />
|-<br />
|QU_T_STDDEV || Real*4 || Kelvin || Posterior mean rms temperature, T_d, in polarization<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || RING || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside <br />
|-<br />
|FWHM || Real*4 || 10 || Smoothing FWHM in arcmin <br />
|-<br />
|NU_REF_T || Real*4 || 545 || Reference frequency in temperature in GHz <br />
|-<br />
|NU_REF_P || Real*4 || 353 || Reference frequency in polarization in GHz<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Full-resolution raw posterior mean free-free map'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Filename = BP_freefree_I_n1024_v2.fits<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|I_TE_MEAN || Real*4 || Kelvin || Posterior mean electron temperature, T_e. (Fixed in current analysis)<br />
|-<br />
|I_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior rms intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|I_TE_STDDEV || Real*4 || Kelvin || Posterior rms electron temperature, T_e. (Zero i in current analysis)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || RING || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside <br />
|-<br />
|FWHM || Real*4 || 30 || Smoothing FWHM in arcmin <br />
|-<br />
|NU_REF_T || Real*4 || 40.0 || Reference frequency in temperature in GHz <br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Full-resolution raw posterior mean synchrotron map'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Filename = BP_synch_IQU_n1024_v2.fits<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean Stokes Q map<br />
|-<br />
|U_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean Stokes U map<br />
|-<br />
|P_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean polarization amplitude, P = sqrt(Q^2 + U^2)<br />
|-<br />
|I_BETA_MEAN || Real*4 || Unitless || Posterior mean spectral index, beta_d, in intensity<br />
|-<br />
|QU_BETA_MEAN || Real*4 || Unitless || Posterior mean spectral index, beta_d, in polarization<br />
|-<br />
|I_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior rms intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior rms Stokes Q map<br />
|-<br />
|U_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior rms Stokes U map<br />
|-<br />
|P_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean polarization amplitude, P = sqrt(Q^2 + U^2)<br />
|-<br />
|I_BETA_STDDEV || Real*4 || Unitless || Posterior rms spectral index, beta_d, in intensity<br />
|-<br />
|QU_BETA_STDDEV || Real*4 || Unitless || Posterior rms spectral index, beta_d, in polarization<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || RING || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside <br />
|-<br />
|FWHM || Real*4 || 60 || Smoothing FWHM in arcmin <br />
|-<br />
|NU_REF_T || Real*4 || 0.408 || Reference frequency in temperature in GHz <br />
|-<br />
|NU_REF_P || Real*4 || 30 || Reference frequency in polarization in GHz<br />
|}<br />
<br />
==== Ancillary data ====<br />
<br />
===== CMB confidence masks =====<br />
<br />
[[Image:BP_masks.png|thumb|400px|center|CMB confidence masks for temperature (top) and polarization (bottom). For further discussion, see Colombo et al. (2022).]]<br />
<br />
The BeyondPlanck processing involves two different CMB confidence masks, with high and low resolution, respectively:<br />
* '''BP_CMB_I_analysis_mask_n1024_v2.fits''' -- CMB T-only analysis mask at Nside=1024<br />
* '''BP_CMB_QU_map_n8_v2.fits''' -- CMB T+P analysis mask at Nside=8<br />
Both maps are defined in Galactic coordinates with HEALPix ring ordering.<br />
<br />
===== Revised LFI bandpass profiles =====<br />
<br />
[[Image:BP_bandpass.png|thumb|600px|center|Comparison of Planck (orange) and BeyondPlanck (blue) bandpasses for all 30, 44 and 70 GHz radiometers. For further discussion, see Svalheim et al. (2022).]]<br />
<br />
As discussed by [https://arxiv.org/abs/1001.4589 Zonca et al. (2010)] and [https://arxiv.org/abs/2201.03417 Svalheim et al. (2022)], the official Planck LFI bandpasses measured from ground were affected by measurement errors. These have been partially mitigated in the updated BeyondPlanck processing, and the improved bandpass profiles are provided in the form of ASCII tables. Each file is called BP_bandpass_LFI_{radiometer}_v2.dat, and contains an array with {nu, tau} on each line. The symbol '#' indicates comments.<br />
<br />
=== Additional information ===<br />
<br />
* BeyondPlanck was an effort to generalize the Planck-developed component separation code called Commander to also support time-domain analysis. The BeyondPlanck software is thus an integral part of the latest Commander3 code, which is available from the Cosmoglobe [https://github.com/Cosmoglobe/Commander GitHub] repository<br />
* The Commander [https://docs.beyondplanck.science/#/parameters/intro documentation] describes both the installation procedure and the Commander parameter file<br />
* The BeyondPlanck papers are published in a Special Issue of Astronomy & Astrophysics called "[https://www.aanda.org/component/toc/?task=topic&id=1611 BeyondPlanck: end-to-end Bayesian analysis of Planck LFI]"</div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=Main_Page&diff=14628Main Page2023-02-14T08:31:32Z<p>Mlopezca: </p>
<hr />
<div>{{DISPLAYTITLE: 2018 Planck Explanatory Supplement}}<br />
<!---'''<span style="font-size:180%"> <span style="color:Blue"> This is the 2018 Explanatory Supplement page for the Planck Legacy Archive </span><br />
* Instructions for new users: [[Help:READ ME FIRST|Read me first]]<br />
* See [http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Help:Contents User's Guide] for a detailed User Guide of the MediaWiki software;<br />
* See [[Help:Contents|Explanatory Supplement Help page]] for Planck-specific guidelines.---><br />
<br />
The Explanatory Supplement is a reference text accompanying the public data products which result from the European Space Agency’s Planck mission, and includes descriptions of all the products available via the Planck Legacy Archive. The Explanatory Supplement has been produced by the [[Planck Collaboration]].<br />
<br />
There are have been four major data releases of Planck products: <br />
*PR1 in 2013 (all files are identified by the label *.R1.??) ;<br />
*PR2 in 2015 (all files are identified by the label *.R2.??) ;<br />
*PR3 in 2018 (all files are identified by the label *.R3.??) ;<br />
*PR4 (NPIPE) in 2020 (all files are identified by the label *.R4.??) .<br />
<br />
In addition, the so-called "Planck Legacy Release" is a combination of PR1+PR2+PR3 products tha thave been tagged as "Legacy" and are shown by default the PLA.<br />
<br />
This Explanatory Supplement accompanies the Planck 2018 release, however, the descriptions of the 2013, 2015 and 2020 products can be found at the end of each section under the heading '''Other Releases''' and appear under different background colors (white for 2018, salmon for 2015 and green for 2013).<br />
<br />
Also note that not all the products issued in 2015 have been updated in the 2018 or 2020 release, this is one of the reasons for tagging a "Legacy" release. <br />
<br />
The Index of the Explanatory Supplement is listed below; the Index and individual section headings can also be accessed directly via the menu bar at the left of this page.<br />
<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Introduction_WiP|Introduction]]<br />
##[[The Planck mission_WiP|The Planck mission]] <br />
##[[The satellite_WiP|The spacecraft]]<br />
##[[Ground Segment and Operations|Ground segment and Early operations]]<br />
##[[Survey_scanning_and_performance|Survey scanning and Routine operations]]<br />
##[[Questions and Answers|Questions and answers]]<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[The Instruments|The instruments]]<br />
##[[HFI design, qualification, and performance|HFI design, qualification, and performance]]<br />
###[[HFI_cryogenics | Cryogenics]]<br />
###[[HFI_cold_optics_%26_spectral_response | HFI cold optics and spectral response]]<br />
###[[HFI_detection_chain | Detection chain]]<br />
###[[HFI_operations | Operations]]<br />
###[[HFI_performance_summary | Performance summary]]<br />
###[[HFI_instrument_annexes | Annexes]]<br />
##[[LFI overview|LFI design, qualification, and performance]]<span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFIDescription| Instrument description]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFITests| Ground tests]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFICalibration| In-flight calibration]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFIPerformance| Performance summary]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFISystematics| Systematic effects]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#SCS| Sorption cooler]]<br />
###[[LFIAppendix| Annexes]]<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Data processing]]<br />
##[[The HFI DPC| HFI data processing]]<br />
###[[Pre-processing | Pre-processing]]<br />
###[[TOI processing|TOI processing]]<br />
###[[Beams | Beams]]<br />
###[[Spectral response | Spectral response]]<br />
###[[HFI-systematics | Systematic effects]]<br />
###[[Map-making | Mapmaking]]<br />
###[[HFI-Validation | Internal overall validation]]<br />
###[[Summary_of_HFI_data_characteristics | Summary of HFI data characteristics]]<br />
###[[HFI_sims | HFI simulations]]<br />
##[[The LFI DPC| LFI data processing]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[Pre-processing_LFI| Pre-processing]]<br />
###[[TOI processing_LFI| TOI processing]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[Beams_LFI | Beams]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[Galactic stray light removal]]<br />
###[[Map-making_LFI | Mapmaking]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[LFI systematic effect uncertainties | Systematic effects uncertainties]]<br />
###[[LFI-Validation | Internal overall validation]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
<!--- ###[[L3_LFI | Power spectra]] ---><br />
###[[Summary_LFI | Summary of LFI data characteristics ]]<br />
##[[HFI/LFI joint data processing]]<br />
###[[Detector pointing| Detector pointing]]<br />
<!--- ###[[NoiseCovarMatrices | Noise covariance matrices and low-resolution maps ]] ---><br />
###[[Compact Source catalogues | Compact source catalogues]]<br />
###[[Astrophysical component separation]]<br />
###[[C2 | CMB power spectra and Planck likelihood code]]<br />
###[[NPIPE_Introduction | NPIPE data processing pipeline ]]<br />
####[[ NPIPE_preprocessing | pre-processing ]]<br />
####[[ NPIPE_reprocessing | re-processing ]]<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Planck Legacy Archive: mission products]]<br />
##[[Timelines_and_rings | Timelines and Rings]]<br />
###[[Timelines | Timelines]]<br />
###[[Healpix_Rings| HEALPix rings]]<br />
<!--- ###[[Healpix_Rings_LFI| LFI HEALPix rings]]---><br />
<!--- ###[[Healpix_Rings_HFI| HFI HEALPix rings]]---><br />
##[[Maps|Maps]] <br />
###[[Frequency maps | Frequency maps in Temperature and Polarization]]<br />
###[[CMB maps | CMB maps]]<br />
###[[Foreground maps | Foreground maps]]<br />
####[[Foreground_maps#2018_Astrophysical_Components | Overview]]<br />
####[[Foreground_maps#Commander-derived_astrophysical_foreground_maps | Commander-derived astrophysical foreground maps]]<br />
####[[Foreground_maps#SMICA-derived_astrophysical_foreground_maps | SMICA-derived astrophysical foreground maps]]<br />
####[[Foreground_maps#GNILC_thermal_dust_maps | GNILC thermal dust maps]]<br />
###[[Correction maps | Correction maps]]<br />
###[[Masks | Masks]]<br />
###[[Simulation data | Simulation data]]<br />
###[[External maps | External maps]]<br />
####[[External_maps#WMAP| WMAP]]<br />
####[[External_maps#Haslam| Haslam]]<br />
####[[External_maps#IRIS| IRIS]]<br />
####[[External_maps#WISE| WISE]]<br />
####[[External_maps#IRAM| IRAM - Crab nebula]]<br />
####[[External_maps#QUIJOTE_.2F_RADIOFOREGROUNDS| QUIJOTE-RADIOFOREGROUNDS]] <br />
###[[DatesObs|Dates of observations]] <br />
##[[Catalogues | Catalogues]] <br />
###[[Catalogues#Catalogue of Compact Sources|PCCS]]<br />
###[[Catalogues#SZ Catalogue | PSZ]]<br />
###[[Catalogues#Catalogue_of_Planck_Galactic_Cold_Clumps | PGCC]]<br />
###[[Catalogues#.282015.29_Planck_List_of_high-redshift_source_candidates | PHZ]]<br />
##[[Cosmology | Cosmology]]<br />
###[[CMB spectrum & Likelihood Code | CMB spectrum and likelihood code]] <!--- <span style="color:red">Likelihood code description should be added here (and parentheses removed from title)</span>---><br />
###[[Cosmological Parameters | Cosmological parameters and MC chains]]<br />
###[[Lensing | Lensing]]<br />
## [[Beams_section|Beams]]<br />
###[[Scanning Beams | Scanning beams]]<br />
###[[Optical Beams | Optical beams]]<br />
###[[Effective Beams | Effective beams]]<br />
###[[Beam Window Functions | Beam window functions]]<br />
##[[The RIMO|Instrument model]]<br />
##[[Planets related data | Planet-related data]] <br />
##[[Software utilities | Software utilities]]<br />
<!---###[[Planck Sky Model | Planck Sky Model simulation tool]]---><br />
<!---###[[Mapmaking | Mapmaking from timelines and ring tools]] ---><br />
<!---###[[Febecop tools | FEBeCoP effective beam extraction and convolution tools]] ---><br />
###[[Unit conversion and Color correction | Unit conversion and colour correction]] <br />
###[[SMICA propagation code | SMICA propagation code ]] <br />
<!--- ##[[NoiseCovariance | Noise covariance matrices and low-resolution maps ]]<span style="color:red">(Keskitalo)</span ---><br />
<!---##[[Scientific data used to generate Planck products | Scientific data used to generate Planck products]] <span style="color:red">Not ready for release</span>---><br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Planck Legacy Archive: Community Provided Products]]<br />
##[[BeyondPLANCK | BeyondPLANCK]]<br />
##[[Sroll2 | Sroll2]]<br />
#[[Planck Added Value Tools | Planck value-added tools]] <br />
#[[Operational data]]<br />
<!---##[[Thermal|Thermal and cooler system]]---><br />
##[[Survey history | Survey history data]]<br />
##[[Satellite history | Satellite history data]]<br />
##[[Planck operational state history]]<br />
<!---##[[FOG|Fibre-optic gyro]]---><br />
##[[SREM|Space radiation environment monitor]]<br />
#[[Appendix]]<br />
##[[Glossary]]<br />
##[[List of acronyms]]<br />
[[Category:PSOBook]]</div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=Sroll2&diff=14627Sroll22023-02-14T08:27:45Z<p>Mlopezca: </p>
<hr />
<div>== Sroll2 ==<br />
<br />
'''Disclaimer''': the following data sets have been delivered and ingested in the PLA as agreed between ESA and the Sroll2 project reprocessing Planck data. Please note that these products have not been produced by the Planck Collaboration and we do not provide any kind of support for the content of these products. For questions about these products please contact the Sroll2 project directly.<br />
<br />
=== Overview and background ===<br />
<br />
Sroll2 is an improved mapmaking approach with respect to the one used for the Planck High Frequency Instrument 2018 Legacy release. The algorithm SRoll2 better corrects the known instrumental effects that still affected mostly the polarized large-angular-scale data by distorting the signal, and/or leaving residuals observable in null tests. The main systematic effect is the nonlinear response of the onboard analog-to-digital convertors that was cleaned in the Planck HFI Legacy release as an empirical time-varying linear detector chain response which is the first-order effect. The SRoll2 method fits the model parameters for higher-order effects and corrects the full distortion of the signal. The model parameters are fitted using the redundancies in the data by iteratively comparing the data and a model. The polarization efficiency uncertainties and associated errors have also been corrected based on the redundancies in the data and their residual levels characterized with simulations. <br />
<br />
SRoll2: an improved mapmaking approach to reduce large-scale systematic effects in the Planck High Frequency Instrument legacy maps (Delouis et al., A&A 609, A38, 2019), [https://www.aanda.org/articles/aa/full_html/2019/09/aa34882-18/aa34882-18.html A&A] <br />
<br />
=== Data Description ===<br />
<br />
Data set description<br />
<br />
The SRoll 2.0 data set is made of 28 FITS files each containing the I, Q and U Stokes parameters of a single frequency, multi-bolometer, full-sky observation in KCMB, as well as its hit count and covariance matrix elements (II, IQ, IU, QQ, QU, UU, in KCMB2). These maps are generated using only the 8 polarised HFI bolometers ("PSB") of each polarised HFI frequency (100 GHz, 143 GHz, 217 GHz and 353 GHz) to obtain the best possible polarised maps. The maps are stored in HEALPix format at Nside=2,048 (50,331,648 pixels per map). They are named and formatted in the same way as the Planck HFI 2018 products (see the Planck Legacy Archive (PLA)):<br />
<br />
* SRoll20 is the data product name and version,<br />
* SkyMap is the signal type, here all sky components,<br />
* the detector set, made of the detectors frequency (100, 143, 217, 353), followed by the detectors used in the map (psb for all 8 bolometers, ds1 for the first 4 bolometers, ds2 for the last 4 bolometers)<br />
* the ring set, either full for all the rings of the mission (240-26050), or halfmission-1 (rings 240-13144), halfmission-2 (rings 13145-26050), or even or odd numbered rings (full-even or full-odd, respectively).<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits]<br />
<br />
Source:<br />
http://sroll20.ias.u-psud.fr/sroll20_data.html<br />
http://sroll20.ias.u-psud.fr/sroll20_sim.html</div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=BeyondPLANCK&diff=14626BeyondPLANCK2023-02-14T08:27:18Z<p>Mlopezca: </p>
<hr />
<div>== BeyondPlanck ==<br />
<br />
'''Disclaimer''': the following data sets have been delivered and ingested in the PLA as agreed between ESA and the BeyondPlanck project reprocessing Planck data. Please note that these products have not been produced by the Planck Collaboration and we do not provide any kind of support for the content of these products. For questions about these products please contact the BeyondPlanck project directly.<br />
<br />
=== Overview and background ===<br />
<br />
As of 2020 and into the foreseeable future, ESA's [https://www.esa.int/Science_Exploration/Space_Science/Planck Planck] satellite measurements represent the state-of-art in terms of full-sky observations of the microwave sky between 30 and 857GHz, and the work by the Planck collaboration in terms of processing and interpreting these observations are summarized in a series of [https://www.cosmos.esa.int/web/planck/publications 150 papers]. Despite these massive efforts, several known outstanding issues regarding the final Planck maps remained unresolved at the end of the funded analysis phase, and several external initiatives were started to address these. One of these was [https://beyondplanck.science/ BeyondPlanck], which aimed to re-process the [https://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php/Main_Page Planck LFI] data within a self-consistent end-to-end Bayesian framework, in which both instrumental and astrophysical parameters are fitted jointly. This work started in 2018, and was successfully concluded in 2022. The final results from this project are described in a [https://beyondplanck.science/products/publications/ series of 17 papers], and the products made available through the [https://pla.esac.esa.int/ Planck Legacy Archive]. A long-term goal is to apply these techniques to a wide range of state-of-the-art experiments, and this work is organized within the [https://cosmoglobe.uio.no Cosmoglobe] project. <br />
<br />
==== Data model ====<br />
The main novel feature of the BeyondPlanck processing is a single joint parametric data model that accounts for both astrophysical and instrumental parameters on the form: <br />
[[Image:BP_model.png|thumb|600px|center|]]<br />
where <br />
* t denotes time sample and j denotes LFI radiometer index <br />
* g denotes the instrumental gain<br />
* P is the pointing matrix<br />
* M denotes the component-frequency mixing matrix, which depends on both astrophysical foreground spectral parameters, beta, and the instrument bandpass<br />
* a^c denotes the spatial amplitude map of component c<br />
* B denotes beam convolution (either with the symmetric main beam response, the asymmetric far-sidelobe beam response, or full 4pi response)<br />
* s^orb denotes the orbital CMB dipole<br />
* s^fsl denotes the sky signal observed through the far sidelobes<br />
* s^1Hz denotes electronic 1Hz spike contamination<br />
* n^corr denotes instrumental correlated noise<br />
* n^w denotes instrumental white noise<br />
Explicitly, the sum over components reads as follows (neglecting for notational simplicity bandpass integration; this is accounted for in the actual processing) <br />
[[Image:BP_astmodel.png|thumb|300px|center|]]<br />
<br />
In addition to these explicit parameters, the model also includes hyper-parameters for some of the stochastic fields, perhaps most notably the CMB power spectrum, C_l, which describes the variance of the CMB field, and the correlated noise power spectral density, N_corr(f), as a function of temporal frequency.<br />
<br />
For further information regarding this data model, see [https://arxiv.org/abs/2011.05609 BeyondPlanck overview paper] and references therein.<br />
<br />
==== Data sets ====<br />
<br />
The above data model is fitted using the following combination of datasets:<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/#timelines Planck LFI time-ordered data] for 30, 44 and 70 GHz<br />
* [https://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/wmap/dr5/m_products.html 9-year WMAP frequency maps] at Ka-band (33 GHz), Q-band (41 GHz), and V-band (61 GHz). The temperature component is sampled at full angular resolution with a white noise model, while polarization is sampled at low resolution with a dense covariance matrix<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/#maps Planck PR4 HFI 353 GHz] in polarization<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/#maps Planck PR4 HFI 857 GHz] in temperature<br />
* [https://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/foreground/fg_2014_haslam_408_info.html Haslam 408 MHz], reprocessed by Remazeilles et al. (2014)<br />
<br />
==== Posterior distribution and Gibbs sampling ====<br />
<br />
Let omega be the set of all free parameters in the above data model. The BeyondPlanck data model is then fitted to the listed data sets by mapping out the full joint posterior distribution by Monte Carlo sampling,<br />
[[Image:BP_posterior.png|thumb|250px|center|]]<br />
where the likelihood is defined by the white noise distribution<br />
[[Image:BP_likelihood.png|thumb|250px|center|]]<br />
The prior, P(omega), is summarized in the [https://arxiv.org/abs/2011.05609 BeyondPlanck overview paper], and consists of a mixture of informative and algorithmic priors.<br />
<br />
In practice, the posterior mapping is performed using [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gibbs_sampling Gibbs sampling] with the following Gibbs chain,[[Image:BP_gibbs.png|thumb|350px|center|]]<br />
<br />
Four independent chains are run for each 1000 iterations, and the first 200 samples are excluded as burn-in, leaving a total of 3200 samples for final analysis. All products listed below are derived from those post-burn-in 3200 samples.<br />
<br />
=== Products ===<br />
<br />
The BeyondPlanck products are available both through the [https://pla.esac.esa.int/ Planck Legacy Archive] and through the [https://cosmoglobe.uio.no/ Cosmoglobe] homepage.<br />
<br />
==== Markov Chain files ====<br />
<br />
The full Markov Chains are provided on an [https://www.hdfgroup.org/solutions/hdf5/ HDF5] format, which have convenient IO wrappers for most commonly used programming languages (Python, C/C++, Fortran etc.). Three types of chain files are provided, corresponding to 1) full chains; 2) resampled CMB temperature chains; and 3) resampled CMB polarization chains. Each chain file stores each complete sample in a separate HDF dataset ("folder") marked "NNNNNN" (e.g., "000010" for sample number 10). The internal structure of each sample folder is summarized below for each chain file type. (Only main variables are listed below.)<br />
<br />
[[Image:BP_traceplot.png|thumb|400px|center|Example traceplots from the BeyondPlanck chain file. For discussion of this plot, see Basyrov et al. (2022).]]<br />
<br />
===== Full chains =====<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
| Description || Markov chains from main run that includes both astrophysical and instrumental parameters.<br />
|-<br />
| Filename || BP_c000{1,2,3,4}_v2.h5<br />
|-<br />
| Number of samples per chain || 1000<br />
|-<br />
| Size per chain file || 1.7 TB<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! HDF path !! Description !! Specification !! Notes<br />
|-<br />
| ame/amp_alm || (Unconvolved) a_lm's of AME component map (T-only) || uK_RJ at 22 GHz || Ordered according to [https://github.com/Libsharp/libsharp libsharp] convention<br />
|-<br />
| ame/nu_p_map || AME nu_peak sky map || GHz in flux density units ||See [https://arxiv.org/abs/2201.08188 Andersen et al. (2022)] for details<br />
|-<br />
| cmb/amp_alm || (Unconvolved) a_lm's of CMB component map (T,Q,U) || uK_cmb || Ordered according to [https://github.com/Libsharp/libsharp libsharp] convention<br />
|-<br />
| cmb/sigma_l || Angular power spectrum of CMB component map, sigma_l || uK_cmb^2 || Ordered as {TT,TE,TB,EE,EB,BB}<br />
|-<br />
| dust/amp_alm || (Unconvolved) a_lm's of dust component map (T,Q,U) || uK_RJ at 857 GHz for T; at 353 GHz for Q,U || Ordered according to [https://github.com/Libsharp/libsharp libsharp] convention<br />
|-<br />
| dust/beta_map || Thermal dust spectral index, beta_d, map (T,Q,U) || Unitless || Spatially constant but variable <br />
|-<br />
| dust/T_map || Thermal dust temperature, T_d, map (T,Q,U) || Kelvin || Fixed to Planck PR4; does not vary with sample<br />
|-<br />
| ff/amp_alm || (Unconvolved) a_lm's of free-free component map (T-only) || uK_RJ at 40 GHz || Ordered according to [https://github.com/Libsharp/libsharp libsharp] convention<br />
|-<br />
| md/{channel label} || 4-element array with {monopole, d_x, d_y, d_z} corrections || Same units as respective frequency channel || Only monopoles and Haslam dipoles are non-zero<br />
|-<br />
| radio/amp || Radio source amplitude per object (T-only) || mJy at 30 GHz || Ordered according to BP/Planck Commander point source catalog<br />
|-<br />
| radio/spec_ind || Radio source spectral index per object (T-only) || Unitless || <br />
|-<br />
| synch/amp_alm || (Unconvolved) a_lm's of synchrotron component map (T,Q,U) || uK_RJ at 408 MHz in T; at 30 GHz in Q,U || Ordered according to [https://github.com/Libsharp/libsharp libsharp] convention<br />
|-<br />
| synch/beta_map || Synchrotron spectral index, beta_s, sky map || Unitless || See [https://arxiv.org/abs/2011.08503 Svalheim et al. (2022)] for details<br />
|-<br />
| tod/{channel label}/1Hz_ampl || 1Hz amplitude per radiometer and PID || Volt || <br />
|-<br />
| tod/{channel label}/1Hz_temp || Binned 1Hz template per radiometer || Unitless || Binned between 0 and 1 sec<br />
|-<br />
| tod/{channel label}/accept || Accept flag per radiometer and PID || Unitless || 0 = rejected, 1 = accepted<br />
|-<br />
| tod/{channel label}/chisq || Reduced normalized chisq per radiometer and scan || sigma || See [https://arxiv.org/abs/2011.06650 Ihle et al. (2022)] for details<br />
|-<br />
| tod/{channel label}/gain || Total gain per radiometer and scan || V/K || See [https://arxiv.org/abs/2011.08082 Gjerløw et al. (2022)] for details<br />
|-<br />
| tod/{channel label}/map || Frequency map for given channel (T,Q,U) || uK_cmb || See Basyrov et al. (2022) for details<br />
|-<br />
| tod/{channel label}/rms || Frequency standard devivation map for given channel (T,Q,U) || uK_cmb || See Basyrov et al. (2022) for details<br />
|-<br />
| tod/{channel label}/xi_n || Noise power spectral density parameters for radiometer and PID || {sigma_0, alpha, fknee, A_s} || See [https://arxiv.org/abs/2011.06650 Ihle et al. (2022)] for details<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===== Resampled CMB temperature chains =====<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
| Description || Markov chains from CMB temperature analysis. These are produced by imposing a CMB confidence mask on the CMB component, while fixing instrumental and (most of the) astrophysical parameters at the values sampled in the main run. Each CMB temperature sample in these chain represents one in-painted Gaussian constrained realization with full-sky coverage. These samples are useful for CMB temperature analysis. See Colombo et al. (2022) and Paradiso et al. (2022) for details.<br />
|-<br />
| Filename || BP_c000{1,2,3,4}_Tresamp_v2.h5<br />
|-<br />
| Number of samples per chain || 1000<br />
|-<br />
| Size per chain file || 15 GB<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! HDF path !! Description !! Specification !! Notes<br />
|-<br />
| cmb/amp_alm || (Unconvolved) a_lm's of CMB component map (T,Q,U) || uK_cmb || Ordered according to [https://github.com/Libsharp/libsharp libsharp] convention<br />
|-<br />
| cmb/sigma_l || Angular power spectrum of CMB component map, sigma_l || uK_cmb^2 || Ordered as {TT,TE,TB,EE,EB,BB}<br />
|-<br />
| cmb/D_l || Ensemble averaged (theory) angular power spectrum of CMB component map, D_l || uK_cmb^2 || Ordered as {TT,TE,TB,EE,EB,BB}<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===== Resampled CMB polarization chains =====<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
| Description || Markov chains from CMB polarization analysis. These are produced by resampling the CMB a_lms for l <= 64, while fixing instrumental and (most of the) astrophysical parameters at the values sampled in the main run. These samples are useful for low-resolution CMB polarization analysis. See Colombo et al. (2022) and Paradiso et al. (2022) for details.<br />
|-<br />
| Filename || BP_c000{1,2,3,4}_Presamp_v2.h5<br />
|-<br />
| Number of samples per chain || 50.000<br />
|-<br />
| Size per chain file || 2.3 GB<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! HDF path !! Description !! Specification !! Notes<br />
|-<br />
| cmb_lowl/amp_alm || (Unconvolved) a_lm's of CMB component map (T,Q,U), lmax = 64 || uK_cmb || Ordered according to [https://github.com/Libsharp/libsharp libsharp] convention<br />
|}<br />
<br />
==== Frequency maps ====<br />
<br />
[[Image:BP_freqmaps.png|thumb|600px|center|BeyondPlanck frequency maps at 30, 44 and 70 GHz. For further discussion, see Basyrov et al. (2022).]]<br />
<br />
''The BeyondPlanck frequency FITS maps are produced by averaging individual frequency map samples over Gibbs iterations, and thus correspond to ''posterior mean'' maps. We note that error propagation with these maps is challenging, and these are primarily provided for visualization and comparison purposes. For precision scientific analysis, operating with the individual samples provided in the chain files is highly encouraged to propagate errors properly.''<br />
<br />
Note 1: Unlike Planck DR3, but similar to Planck PR4, the BeyondPlanck frequency maps retain the CMB Solar dipole.<br />
Note 2: Unlike Planck, but similar to WMAP, the BeyondPlanck frequency maps retain the relativistic kinematic quadrupole. Instead of subtracting this signal, it is included as an additional component in the signal model.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Sky map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Filename = BP_{FREQ}_IQU_n{NSIDE}_v2.fits<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The signal intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The signal Stokes Q map<br />
|-<br />
|U_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The signal Stokes U map<br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The signal intensity white noise RMS<br />
|-<br />
|Q_RMS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The signal Stokes Q white noise RMS<br />
|-<br />
|U_RMS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The signal Stokes U white noise RMS<br />
|-<br />
|I_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The signal intensity posterior std (~ systematic uncertainty)<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The signal Stokes Q posterior std (~ systematic uncertainty)<br />
|-<br />
|U_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The signal Stokes U posterior std (~ systematic uncertainty)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || RING || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 512 or 1024 || Healpix Nside <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 3145727 or 12582911 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ || string || nnn || The frequency channel <br />
|}<br />
<br />
==== Component maps ====<br />
[[Image:BP_CMB.png|thumb|600px|center|BeyondPlanck CMB map. Rows show Stokes T, Q, and U, while columns show posterior mean and standard deviation. For further discussion, see Colombo et al. (2022).]]<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Full-resolution raw posterior mean CMB map'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Filename = BP_cmb_IQU_n1024_v2.fits<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The CMB intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The CMB Stokes Q map<br />
|-<br />
|U_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The CMB Stokes U map<br />
|-<br />
|I_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The CMB intensity posterior std<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The CMB Stokes Q posterior std<br />
|-<br />
|U_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The CMB Stokes U posterior std<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || RING || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside <br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Low-resolution raw posterior mean CMB map'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Filename = BP_CMB_QU_map_n8_v2.fits<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|TEMPERATURE || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Low-resolution CMB intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|Q-POLARIZATION || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Low-resolution CMB Stokes Q map<br />
|-<br />
|U-POLARIATION || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Low-resolution CMB Stokes U map<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || RING || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 8 || Healpix Nside <br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Single in-painted high-resolution CMB temperature sample'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Filename = BP_cmb_resamp_I_n1024_v2.fits<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_Stokes || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The CMB intensity map<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || RING || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside <br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Posterior mean AME map'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Filename = BP_ame_I_n1024_v2.fits<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || The AME intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|I_NU_P_MEAN || Real*4 || GHz || AME nu_peak frequency mean<br />
|-<br />
|I_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || AME intensity posterior std<br />
|-<br />
|I_NU_P_STDDEV || Real*4 || GHz || AME nu_peak frequency rms<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || RING || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside <br />
|-<br />
|FWHM || Real*4 || 120 || Smoothing FWHM in arcmin <br />
|-<br />
|NU_REF_T || Real*4 || 22.0 || AME reference frequency in GHz <br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Full-resolution raw posterior mean thermal dust map'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Filename = BP_dust_IQU_n1024_v2.fits<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean Stokes Q map<br />
|-<br />
|U_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean Stokes U map<br />
|-<br />
|P_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean polarization amplitude, P = sqrt(Q^2 + U^2)<br />
|-<br />
|I_BETA_MEAN || Real*4 || Unitless || Posterior mean spectral index, beta_d, in intensity<br />
|-<br />
|QU_BETA_MEAN || Real*4 || Unitless || Posterior mean spectral index, beta_d, in polarization<br />
|-<br />
|I_T_MEAN || Real*4 || Kelvin || Posterior mean dust temperature, T_d, in intensity<br />
|-<br />
|QU_T_MEAN || Real*4 || Kelvin || Posterior mean dust temperature, T_d, in polarization<br />
|-<br />
|I_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior rms intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior rms Stokes Q map<br />
|-<br />
|U_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior rms Stokes U map<br />
|-<br />
|P_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean polarization amplitude, P = sqrt(Q^2 + U^2)<br />
|-<br />
|I_BETA_STDDEV || Real*4 || Unitless || Posterior rms spectral index, beta_d, in intensity<br />
|-<br />
|QU_BETA_STDDEV || Real*4 || Unitless || Posterior rms spectral index, beta_d, in polarization<br />
|-<br />
|I_T_STDDEV || Real*4 || Kelvin || Posterior mean rms temperature, T_d, in intensity<br />
|-<br />
|QU_T_STDDEV || Real*4 || Kelvin || Posterior mean rms temperature, T_d, in polarization<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || RING || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside <br />
|-<br />
|FWHM || Real*4 || 10 || Smoothing FWHM in arcmin <br />
|-<br />
|NU_REF_T || Real*4 || 545 || Reference frequency in temperature in GHz <br />
|-<br />
|NU_REF_P || Real*4 || 353 || Reference frequency in polarization in GHz<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Full-resolution raw posterior mean free-free map'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Filename = BP_freefree_I_n1024_v2.fits<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|I_TE_MEAN || Real*4 || Kelvin || Posterior mean electron temperature, T_e. (Fixed in current analysis)<br />
|-<br />
|I_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior rms intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|I_TE_STDDEV || Real*4 || Kelvin || Posterior rms electron temperature, T_e. (Zero i in current analysis)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || RING || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside <br />
|-<br />
|FWHM || Real*4 || 30 || Smoothing FWHM in arcmin <br />
|-<br />
|NU_REF_T || Real*4 || 40.0 || Reference frequency in temperature in GHz <br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Full-resolution raw posterior mean synchrotron map'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Filename = BP_synch_IQU_n1024_v2.fits<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean Stokes Q map<br />
|-<br />
|U_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean Stokes U map<br />
|-<br />
|P_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean polarization amplitude, P = sqrt(Q^2 + U^2)<br />
|-<br />
|I_BETA_MEAN || Real*4 || Unitless || Posterior mean spectral index, beta_d, in intensity<br />
|-<br />
|QU_BETA_MEAN || Real*4 || Unitless || Posterior mean spectral index, beta_d, in polarization<br />
|-<br />
|I_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior rms intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior rms Stokes Q map<br />
|-<br />
|U_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior rms Stokes U map<br />
|-<br />
|P_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean polarization amplitude, P = sqrt(Q^2 + U^2)<br />
|-<br />
|I_BETA_STDDEV || Real*4 || Unitless || Posterior rms spectral index, beta_d, in intensity<br />
|-<br />
|QU_BETA_STDDEV || Real*4 || Unitless || Posterior rms spectral index, beta_d, in polarization<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || RING || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside <br />
|-<br />
|FWHM || Real*4 || 60 || Smoothing FWHM in arcmin <br />
|-<br />
|NU_REF_T || Real*4 || 0.408 || Reference frequency in temperature in GHz <br />
|-<br />
|NU_REF_P || Real*4 || 30 || Reference frequency in polarization in GHz<br />
|}<br />
<br />
==== Ancillary data ====<br />
<br />
===== CMB confidence masks =====<br />
<br />
[[Image:BP_masks.png|thumb|400px|center|CMB confidence masks for temperature (top) and polarization (bottom). For further discussion, see Colombo et al. (2022).]]<br />
<br />
The BeyondPlanck processing involves two different CMB confidence masks, with high and low resolution, respectively:<br />
* '''BP_CMB_I_analysis_mask_n1024_v2.fits''' -- CMB T-only analysis mask at Nside=1024<br />
* '''BP_CMB_QU_map_n8_v2.fits''' -- CMB T+P analysis mask at Nside=8<br />
Both maps are defined in Galactic coordinates with HEALPix ring ordering.<br />
<br />
===== Revised LFI bandpass profiles =====<br />
<br />
[[Image:BP_bandpass.png|thumb|600px|center|Comparison of Planck (orange) and BeyondPlanck (blue) bandpasses for all 30, 44 and 70 GHz radiometers. For further discussion, see Svalheim et al. (2022).]]<br />
<br />
As discussed by [https://arxiv.org/abs/1001.4589 Zonca et al. (2010)] and [https://arxiv.org/abs/2201.03417 Svalheim et al. (2022)], the official Planck LFI bandpasses measured from ground were affected by measurement errors. These have been partially mitigated in the updated BeyondPlanck processing, and the improved bandpass profiles are provided in the form of ASCII tables. Each file is called BP_bandpass_LFI_{radiometer}_v2.dat, and contains an array with {nu, tau} on each line. The symbol '#' indicates comments.<br />
<br />
=== Additional information ===<br />
<br />
* BeyondPlanck was an effort to generalize the Planck-developed component separation code called Commander to also support time-domain analysis. The BeyondPlanck software is thus an integral part of the latest Commander3 code, which is available from the Cosmoglobe [https://github.com/Cosmoglobe/Commander GitHub] repository<br />
* The Commander [https://docs.beyondplanck.science/#/parameters/intro documentation] describes both the installation procedure and the Commander parameter file<br />
* The BeyondPlanck papers are published in a Special Issue of Astronomy & Astrophysics called "[https://www.aanda.org/component/toc/?task=topic&id=1611 BeyondPlanck: end-to-end Bayesian analysis of Planck LFI]"</div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=BeyondPLANCK&diff=14625BeyondPLANCK2023-02-14T08:26:59Z<p>Mlopezca: </p>
<hr />
<div>== BeyondPlanck ==<br />
<br />
'''Disclaimer: the following data sets have been delivered and ingested in the PLA as agreed between ESA and the BeyondPlanck project reprocessing Planck data. Please note that these products have not been produced by the Planck Collaboration and we do not provide any kind of support for the content of these products. For questions about these products please contact the BeyondPlanck project directly.'''<br />
<br />
=== Overview and background ===<br />
<br />
As of 2020 and into the foreseeable future, ESA's [https://www.esa.int/Science_Exploration/Space_Science/Planck Planck] satellite measurements represent the state-of-art in terms of full-sky observations of the microwave sky between 30 and 857GHz, and the work by the Planck collaboration in terms of processing and interpreting these observations are summarized in a series of [https://www.cosmos.esa.int/web/planck/publications 150 papers]. Despite these massive efforts, several known outstanding issues regarding the final Planck maps remained unresolved at the end of the funded analysis phase, and several external initiatives were started to address these. One of these was [https://beyondplanck.science/ BeyondPlanck], which aimed to re-process the [https://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php/Main_Page Planck LFI] data within a self-consistent end-to-end Bayesian framework, in which both instrumental and astrophysical parameters are fitted jointly. This work started in 2018, and was successfully concluded in 2022. The final results from this project are described in a [https://beyondplanck.science/products/publications/ series of 17 papers], and the products made available through the [https://pla.esac.esa.int/ Planck Legacy Archive]. A long-term goal is to apply these techniques to a wide range of state-of-the-art experiments, and this work is organized within the [https://cosmoglobe.uio.no Cosmoglobe] project. <br />
<br />
==== Data model ====<br />
The main novel feature of the BeyondPlanck processing is a single joint parametric data model that accounts for both astrophysical and instrumental parameters on the form: <br />
[[Image:BP_model.png|thumb|600px|center|]]<br />
where <br />
* t denotes time sample and j denotes LFI radiometer index <br />
* g denotes the instrumental gain<br />
* P is the pointing matrix<br />
* M denotes the component-frequency mixing matrix, which depends on both astrophysical foreground spectral parameters, beta, and the instrument bandpass<br />
* a^c denotes the spatial amplitude map of component c<br />
* B denotes beam convolution (either with the symmetric main beam response, the asymmetric far-sidelobe beam response, or full 4pi response)<br />
* s^orb denotes the orbital CMB dipole<br />
* s^fsl denotes the sky signal observed through the far sidelobes<br />
* s^1Hz denotes electronic 1Hz spike contamination<br />
* n^corr denotes instrumental correlated noise<br />
* n^w denotes instrumental white noise<br />
Explicitly, the sum over components reads as follows (neglecting for notational simplicity bandpass integration; this is accounted for in the actual processing) <br />
[[Image:BP_astmodel.png|thumb|300px|center|]]<br />
<br />
In addition to these explicit parameters, the model also includes hyper-parameters for some of the stochastic fields, perhaps most notably the CMB power spectrum, C_l, which describes the variance of the CMB field, and the correlated noise power spectral density, N_corr(f), as a function of temporal frequency.<br />
<br />
For further information regarding this data model, see [https://arxiv.org/abs/2011.05609 BeyondPlanck overview paper] and references therein.<br />
<br />
==== Data sets ====<br />
<br />
The above data model is fitted using the following combination of datasets:<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/#timelines Planck LFI time-ordered data] for 30, 44 and 70 GHz<br />
* [https://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/wmap/dr5/m_products.html 9-year WMAP frequency maps] at Ka-band (33 GHz), Q-band (41 GHz), and V-band (61 GHz). The temperature component is sampled at full angular resolution with a white noise model, while polarization is sampled at low resolution with a dense covariance matrix<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/#maps Planck PR4 HFI 353 GHz] in polarization<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/#maps Planck PR4 HFI 857 GHz] in temperature<br />
* [https://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/foreground/fg_2014_haslam_408_info.html Haslam 408 MHz], reprocessed by Remazeilles et al. (2014)<br />
<br />
==== Posterior distribution and Gibbs sampling ====<br />
<br />
Let omega be the set of all free parameters in the above data model. The BeyondPlanck data model is then fitted to the listed data sets by mapping out the full joint posterior distribution by Monte Carlo sampling,<br />
[[Image:BP_posterior.png|thumb|250px|center|]]<br />
where the likelihood is defined by the white noise distribution<br />
[[Image:BP_likelihood.png|thumb|250px|center|]]<br />
The prior, P(omega), is summarized in the [https://arxiv.org/abs/2011.05609 BeyondPlanck overview paper], and consists of a mixture of informative and algorithmic priors.<br />
<br />
In practice, the posterior mapping is performed using [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gibbs_sampling Gibbs sampling] with the following Gibbs chain,[[Image:BP_gibbs.png|thumb|350px|center|]]<br />
<br />
Four independent chains are run for each 1000 iterations, and the first 200 samples are excluded as burn-in, leaving a total of 3200 samples for final analysis. All products listed below are derived from those post-burn-in 3200 samples.<br />
<br />
=== Products ===<br />
<br />
The BeyondPlanck products are available both through the [https://pla.esac.esa.int/ Planck Legacy Archive] and through the [https://cosmoglobe.uio.no/ Cosmoglobe] homepage.<br />
<br />
==== Markov Chain files ====<br />
<br />
The full Markov Chains are provided on an [https://www.hdfgroup.org/solutions/hdf5/ HDF5] format, which have convenient IO wrappers for most commonly used programming languages (Python, C/C++, Fortran etc.). Three types of chain files are provided, corresponding to 1) full chains; 2) resampled CMB temperature chains; and 3) resampled CMB polarization chains. Each chain file stores each complete sample in a separate HDF dataset ("folder") marked "NNNNNN" (e.g., "000010" for sample number 10). The internal structure of each sample folder is summarized below for each chain file type. (Only main variables are listed below.)<br />
<br />
[[Image:BP_traceplot.png|thumb|400px|center|Example traceplots from the BeyondPlanck chain file. For discussion of this plot, see Basyrov et al. (2022).]]<br />
<br />
===== Full chains =====<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
| Description || Markov chains from main run that includes both astrophysical and instrumental parameters.<br />
|-<br />
| Filename || BP_c000{1,2,3,4}_v2.h5<br />
|-<br />
| Number of samples per chain || 1000<br />
|-<br />
| Size per chain file || 1.7 TB<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! HDF path !! Description !! Specification !! Notes<br />
|-<br />
| ame/amp_alm || (Unconvolved) a_lm's of AME component map (T-only) || uK_RJ at 22 GHz || Ordered according to [https://github.com/Libsharp/libsharp libsharp] convention<br />
|-<br />
| ame/nu_p_map || AME nu_peak sky map || GHz in flux density units ||See [https://arxiv.org/abs/2201.08188 Andersen et al. (2022)] for details<br />
|-<br />
| cmb/amp_alm || (Unconvolved) a_lm's of CMB component map (T,Q,U) || uK_cmb || Ordered according to [https://github.com/Libsharp/libsharp libsharp] convention<br />
|-<br />
| cmb/sigma_l || Angular power spectrum of CMB component map, sigma_l || uK_cmb^2 || Ordered as {TT,TE,TB,EE,EB,BB}<br />
|-<br />
| dust/amp_alm || (Unconvolved) a_lm's of dust component map (T,Q,U) || uK_RJ at 857 GHz for T; at 353 GHz for Q,U || Ordered according to [https://github.com/Libsharp/libsharp libsharp] convention<br />
|-<br />
| dust/beta_map || Thermal dust spectral index, beta_d, map (T,Q,U) || Unitless || Spatially constant but variable <br />
|-<br />
| dust/T_map || Thermal dust temperature, T_d, map (T,Q,U) || Kelvin || Fixed to Planck PR4; does not vary with sample<br />
|-<br />
| ff/amp_alm || (Unconvolved) a_lm's of free-free component map (T-only) || uK_RJ at 40 GHz || Ordered according to [https://github.com/Libsharp/libsharp libsharp] convention<br />
|-<br />
| md/{channel label} || 4-element array with {monopole, d_x, d_y, d_z} corrections || Same units as respective frequency channel || Only monopoles and Haslam dipoles are non-zero<br />
|-<br />
| radio/amp || Radio source amplitude per object (T-only) || mJy at 30 GHz || Ordered according to BP/Planck Commander point source catalog<br />
|-<br />
| radio/spec_ind || Radio source spectral index per object (T-only) || Unitless || <br />
|-<br />
| synch/amp_alm || (Unconvolved) a_lm's of synchrotron component map (T,Q,U) || uK_RJ at 408 MHz in T; at 30 GHz in Q,U || Ordered according to [https://github.com/Libsharp/libsharp libsharp] convention<br />
|-<br />
| synch/beta_map || Synchrotron spectral index, beta_s, sky map || Unitless || See [https://arxiv.org/abs/2011.08503 Svalheim et al. (2022)] for details<br />
|-<br />
| tod/{channel label}/1Hz_ampl || 1Hz amplitude per radiometer and PID || Volt || <br />
|-<br />
| tod/{channel label}/1Hz_temp || Binned 1Hz template per radiometer || Unitless || Binned between 0 and 1 sec<br />
|-<br />
| tod/{channel label}/accept || Accept flag per radiometer and PID || Unitless || 0 = rejected, 1 = accepted<br />
|-<br />
| tod/{channel label}/chisq || Reduced normalized chisq per radiometer and scan || sigma || See [https://arxiv.org/abs/2011.06650 Ihle et al. (2022)] for details<br />
|-<br />
| tod/{channel label}/gain || Total gain per radiometer and scan || V/K || See [https://arxiv.org/abs/2011.08082 Gjerløw et al. (2022)] for details<br />
|-<br />
| tod/{channel label}/map || Frequency map for given channel (T,Q,U) || uK_cmb || See Basyrov et al. (2022) for details<br />
|-<br />
| tod/{channel label}/rms || Frequency standard devivation map for given channel (T,Q,U) || uK_cmb || See Basyrov et al. (2022) for details<br />
|-<br />
| tod/{channel label}/xi_n || Noise power spectral density parameters for radiometer and PID || {sigma_0, alpha, fknee, A_s} || See [https://arxiv.org/abs/2011.06650 Ihle et al. (2022)] for details<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===== Resampled CMB temperature chains =====<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
| Description || Markov chains from CMB temperature analysis. These are produced by imposing a CMB confidence mask on the CMB component, while fixing instrumental and (most of the) astrophysical parameters at the values sampled in the main run. Each CMB temperature sample in these chain represents one in-painted Gaussian constrained realization with full-sky coverage. These samples are useful for CMB temperature analysis. See Colombo et al. (2022) and Paradiso et al. (2022) for details.<br />
|-<br />
| Filename || BP_c000{1,2,3,4}_Tresamp_v2.h5<br />
|-<br />
| Number of samples per chain || 1000<br />
|-<br />
| Size per chain file || 15 GB<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! HDF path !! Description !! Specification !! Notes<br />
|-<br />
| cmb/amp_alm || (Unconvolved) a_lm's of CMB component map (T,Q,U) || uK_cmb || Ordered according to [https://github.com/Libsharp/libsharp libsharp] convention<br />
|-<br />
| cmb/sigma_l || Angular power spectrum of CMB component map, sigma_l || uK_cmb^2 || Ordered as {TT,TE,TB,EE,EB,BB}<br />
|-<br />
| cmb/D_l || Ensemble averaged (theory) angular power spectrum of CMB component map, D_l || uK_cmb^2 || Ordered as {TT,TE,TB,EE,EB,BB}<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===== Resampled CMB polarization chains =====<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
| Description || Markov chains from CMB polarization analysis. These are produced by resampling the CMB a_lms for l <= 64, while fixing instrumental and (most of the) astrophysical parameters at the values sampled in the main run. These samples are useful for low-resolution CMB polarization analysis. See Colombo et al. (2022) and Paradiso et al. (2022) for details.<br />
|-<br />
| Filename || BP_c000{1,2,3,4}_Presamp_v2.h5<br />
|-<br />
| Number of samples per chain || 50.000<br />
|-<br />
| Size per chain file || 2.3 GB<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! HDF path !! Description !! Specification !! Notes<br />
|-<br />
| cmb_lowl/amp_alm || (Unconvolved) a_lm's of CMB component map (T,Q,U), lmax = 64 || uK_cmb || Ordered according to [https://github.com/Libsharp/libsharp libsharp] convention<br />
|}<br />
<br />
==== Frequency maps ====<br />
<br />
[[Image:BP_freqmaps.png|thumb|600px|center|BeyondPlanck frequency maps at 30, 44 and 70 GHz. For further discussion, see Basyrov et al. (2022).]]<br />
<br />
''The BeyondPlanck frequency FITS maps are produced by averaging individual frequency map samples over Gibbs iterations, and thus correspond to ''posterior mean'' maps. We note that error propagation with these maps is challenging, and these are primarily provided for visualization and comparison purposes. For precision scientific analysis, operating with the individual samples provided in the chain files is highly encouraged to propagate errors properly.''<br />
<br />
Note 1: Unlike Planck DR3, but similar to Planck PR4, the BeyondPlanck frequency maps retain the CMB Solar dipole.<br />
Note 2: Unlike Planck, but similar to WMAP, the BeyondPlanck frequency maps retain the relativistic kinematic quadrupole. Instead of subtracting this signal, it is included as an additional component in the signal model.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Sky map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Filename = BP_{FREQ}_IQU_n{NSIDE}_v2.fits<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The signal intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The signal Stokes Q map<br />
|-<br />
|U_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The signal Stokes U map<br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The signal intensity white noise RMS<br />
|-<br />
|Q_RMS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The signal Stokes Q white noise RMS<br />
|-<br />
|U_RMS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The signal Stokes U white noise RMS<br />
|-<br />
|I_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The signal intensity posterior std (~ systematic uncertainty)<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The signal Stokes Q posterior std (~ systematic uncertainty)<br />
|-<br />
|U_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The signal Stokes U posterior std (~ systematic uncertainty)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || RING || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 512 or 1024 || Healpix Nside <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 3145727 or 12582911 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ || string || nnn || The frequency channel <br />
|}<br />
<br />
==== Component maps ====<br />
[[Image:BP_CMB.png|thumb|600px|center|BeyondPlanck CMB map. Rows show Stokes T, Q, and U, while columns show posterior mean and standard deviation. For further discussion, see Colombo et al. (2022).]]<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Full-resolution raw posterior mean CMB map'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Filename = BP_cmb_IQU_n1024_v2.fits<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The CMB intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The CMB Stokes Q map<br />
|-<br />
|U_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The CMB Stokes U map<br />
|-<br />
|I_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The CMB intensity posterior std<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The CMB Stokes Q posterior std<br />
|-<br />
|U_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The CMB Stokes U posterior std<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || RING || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside <br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Low-resolution raw posterior mean CMB map'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Filename = BP_CMB_QU_map_n8_v2.fits<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|TEMPERATURE || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Low-resolution CMB intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|Q-POLARIZATION || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Low-resolution CMB Stokes Q map<br />
|-<br />
|U-POLARIATION || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Low-resolution CMB Stokes U map<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || RING || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 8 || Healpix Nside <br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Single in-painted high-resolution CMB temperature sample'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Filename = BP_cmb_resamp_I_n1024_v2.fits<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_Stokes || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The CMB intensity map<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || RING || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside <br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Posterior mean AME map'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Filename = BP_ame_I_n1024_v2.fits<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || The AME intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|I_NU_P_MEAN || Real*4 || GHz || AME nu_peak frequency mean<br />
|-<br />
|I_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || AME intensity posterior std<br />
|-<br />
|I_NU_P_STDDEV || Real*4 || GHz || AME nu_peak frequency rms<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || RING || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside <br />
|-<br />
|FWHM || Real*4 || 120 || Smoothing FWHM in arcmin <br />
|-<br />
|NU_REF_T || Real*4 || 22.0 || AME reference frequency in GHz <br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Full-resolution raw posterior mean thermal dust map'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Filename = BP_dust_IQU_n1024_v2.fits<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean Stokes Q map<br />
|-<br />
|U_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean Stokes U map<br />
|-<br />
|P_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean polarization amplitude, P = sqrt(Q^2 + U^2)<br />
|-<br />
|I_BETA_MEAN || Real*4 || Unitless || Posterior mean spectral index, beta_d, in intensity<br />
|-<br />
|QU_BETA_MEAN || Real*4 || Unitless || Posterior mean spectral index, beta_d, in polarization<br />
|-<br />
|I_T_MEAN || Real*4 || Kelvin || Posterior mean dust temperature, T_d, in intensity<br />
|-<br />
|QU_T_MEAN || Real*4 || Kelvin || Posterior mean dust temperature, T_d, in polarization<br />
|-<br />
|I_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior rms intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior rms Stokes Q map<br />
|-<br />
|U_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior rms Stokes U map<br />
|-<br />
|P_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean polarization amplitude, P = sqrt(Q^2 + U^2)<br />
|-<br />
|I_BETA_STDDEV || Real*4 || Unitless || Posterior rms spectral index, beta_d, in intensity<br />
|-<br />
|QU_BETA_STDDEV || Real*4 || Unitless || Posterior rms spectral index, beta_d, in polarization<br />
|-<br />
|I_T_STDDEV || Real*4 || Kelvin || Posterior mean rms temperature, T_d, in intensity<br />
|-<br />
|QU_T_STDDEV || Real*4 || Kelvin || Posterior mean rms temperature, T_d, in polarization<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || RING || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside <br />
|-<br />
|FWHM || Real*4 || 10 || Smoothing FWHM in arcmin <br />
|-<br />
|NU_REF_T || Real*4 || 545 || Reference frequency in temperature in GHz <br />
|-<br />
|NU_REF_P || Real*4 || 353 || Reference frequency in polarization in GHz<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Full-resolution raw posterior mean free-free map'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Filename = BP_freefree_I_n1024_v2.fits<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|I_TE_MEAN || Real*4 || Kelvin || Posterior mean electron temperature, T_e. (Fixed in current analysis)<br />
|-<br />
|I_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior rms intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|I_TE_STDDEV || Real*4 || Kelvin || Posterior rms electron temperature, T_e. (Zero i in current analysis)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || RING || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside <br />
|-<br />
|FWHM || Real*4 || 30 || Smoothing FWHM in arcmin <br />
|-<br />
|NU_REF_T || Real*4 || 40.0 || Reference frequency in temperature in GHz <br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Full-resolution raw posterior mean synchrotron map'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Filename = BP_synch_IQU_n1024_v2.fits<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean Stokes Q map<br />
|-<br />
|U_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean Stokes U map<br />
|-<br />
|P_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean polarization amplitude, P = sqrt(Q^2 + U^2)<br />
|-<br />
|I_BETA_MEAN || Real*4 || Unitless || Posterior mean spectral index, beta_d, in intensity<br />
|-<br />
|QU_BETA_MEAN || Real*4 || Unitless || Posterior mean spectral index, beta_d, in polarization<br />
|-<br />
|I_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior rms intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior rms Stokes Q map<br />
|-<br />
|U_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior rms Stokes U map<br />
|-<br />
|P_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean polarization amplitude, P = sqrt(Q^2 + U^2)<br />
|-<br />
|I_BETA_STDDEV || Real*4 || Unitless || Posterior rms spectral index, beta_d, in intensity<br />
|-<br />
|QU_BETA_STDDEV || Real*4 || Unitless || Posterior rms spectral index, beta_d, in polarization<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || RING || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside <br />
|-<br />
|FWHM || Real*4 || 60 || Smoothing FWHM in arcmin <br />
|-<br />
|NU_REF_T || Real*4 || 0.408 || Reference frequency in temperature in GHz <br />
|-<br />
|NU_REF_P || Real*4 || 30 || Reference frequency in polarization in GHz<br />
|}<br />
<br />
==== Ancillary data ====<br />
<br />
===== CMB confidence masks =====<br />
<br />
[[Image:BP_masks.png|thumb|400px|center|CMB confidence masks for temperature (top) and polarization (bottom). For further discussion, see Colombo et al. (2022).]]<br />
<br />
The BeyondPlanck processing involves two different CMB confidence masks, with high and low resolution, respectively:<br />
* '''BP_CMB_I_analysis_mask_n1024_v2.fits''' -- CMB T-only analysis mask at Nside=1024<br />
* '''BP_CMB_QU_map_n8_v2.fits''' -- CMB T+P analysis mask at Nside=8<br />
Both maps are defined in Galactic coordinates with HEALPix ring ordering.<br />
<br />
===== Revised LFI bandpass profiles =====<br />
<br />
[[Image:BP_bandpass.png|thumb|600px|center|Comparison of Planck (orange) and BeyondPlanck (blue) bandpasses for all 30, 44 and 70 GHz radiometers. For further discussion, see Svalheim et al. (2022).]]<br />
<br />
As discussed by [https://arxiv.org/abs/1001.4589 Zonca et al. (2010)] and [https://arxiv.org/abs/2201.03417 Svalheim et al. (2022)], the official Planck LFI bandpasses measured from ground were affected by measurement errors. These have been partially mitigated in the updated BeyondPlanck processing, and the improved bandpass profiles are provided in the form of ASCII tables. Each file is called BP_bandpass_LFI_{radiometer}_v2.dat, and contains an array with {nu, tau} on each line. The symbol '#' indicates comments.<br />
<br />
=== Additional information ===<br />
<br />
* BeyondPlanck was an effort to generalize the Planck-developed component separation code called Commander to also support time-domain analysis. The BeyondPlanck software is thus an integral part of the latest Commander3 code, which is available from the Cosmoglobe [https://github.com/Cosmoglobe/Commander GitHub] repository<br />
* The Commander [https://docs.beyondplanck.science/#/parameters/intro documentation] describes both the installation procedure and the Commander parameter file<br />
* The BeyondPlanck papers are published in a Special Issue of Astronomy & Astrophysics called "[https://www.aanda.org/component/toc/?task=topic&id=1611 BeyondPlanck: end-to-end Bayesian analysis of Planck LFI]"</div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=Planck_Legacy_Archive:_Community_Provided_Products&diff=14624Planck Legacy Archive: Community Provided Products2023-02-14T08:25:38Z<p>Mlopezca: </p>
<hr />
<div>The following data sets have been delivered and ingested in the PLA as agreed between ESA and the projects reprocessing Planck data. Please note that these products have not been produced by the Planck Collaboration and we do not provide any kind of support for the content of these products. For questions about these products please contact the projects directly.<br />
<br />
* [[BeyondPLANCK]]<br />
* [[Sroll2]]</div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=Planck_Legacy_Archive:_Community_Provided_Products&diff=14623Planck Legacy Archive: Community Provided Products2023-02-14T08:25:26Z<p>Mlopezca: </p>
<hr />
<div>The following data sets have been delivered and ingested in the PLA as agreed between ESA and the projects reprocessing Planck data. Please note that these products have not been produced by the Planck Collaboration and we do not provide any kind of support for the content of these products. For questions about these products please contact the projects directly.<br />
<br />
[[BeyondPLANCK]]<br />
[[Sroll2]]</div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=Planck_Legacy_Archive:_Community_Provided_Products&diff=14622Planck Legacy Archive: Community Provided Products2023-02-14T08:21:46Z<p>Mlopezca: Created page with " BeyondPLANCK"</p>
<hr />
<div><br />
[[BeyondPLANCK]]</div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=Sroll2&diff=14621Sroll22023-01-19T16:32:00Z<p>Mlopezca: </p>
<hr />
<div>== Sroll2 ==<br />
<br />
=== Overview and background ===<br />
<br />
Sroll2 is an improved mapmaking approach with respect to the one used for the Planck High Frequency Instrument 2018 Legacy release. The algorithm SRoll2 better corrects the known instrumental effects that still affected mostly the polarized large-angular-scale data by distorting the signal, and/or leaving residuals observable in null tests. The main systematic effect is the nonlinear response of the onboard analog-to-digital convertors that was cleaned in the Planck HFI Legacy release as an empirical time-varying linear detector chain response which is the first-order effect. The SRoll2 method fits the model parameters for higher-order effects and corrects the full distortion of the signal. The model parameters are fitted using the redundancies in the data by iteratively comparing the data and a model. The polarization efficiency uncertainties and associated errors have also been corrected based on the redundancies in the data and their residual levels characterized with simulations. <br />
<br />
SRoll2: an improved mapmaking approach to reduce large-scale systematic effects in the Planck High Frequency Instrument legacy maps (Delouis et al., A&A 609, A38, 2019), [https://www.aanda.org/articles/aa/full_html/2019/09/aa34882-18/aa34882-18.html A&A] <br />
<br />
=== Data Description ===<br />
<br />
Data set description<br />
<br />
The SRoll 2.0 data set is made of 28 FITS files each containing the I, Q and U Stokes parameters of a single frequency, multi-bolometer, full-sky observation in KCMB, as well as its hit count and covariance matrix elements (II, IQ, IU, QQ, QU, UU, in KCMB2). These maps are generated using only the 8 polarised HFI bolometers ("PSB") of each polarised HFI frequency (100 GHz, 143 GHz, 217 GHz and 353 GHz) to obtain the best possible polarised maps. The maps are stored in HEALPix format at Nside=2,048 (50,331,648 pixels per map). They are named and formatted in the same way as the Planck HFI 2018 products (see the Planck Legacy Archive (PLA)):<br />
<br />
* SRoll20 is the data product name and version,<br />
* SkyMap is the signal type, here all sky components,<br />
* the detector set, made of the detectors frequency (100, 143, 217, 353), followed by the detectors used in the map (psb for all 8 bolometers, ds1 for the first 4 bolometers, ds2 for the last 4 bolometers)<br />
* the ring set, either full for all the rings of the mission (240-26050), or halfmission-1 (rings 240-13144), halfmission-2 (rings 13145-26050), or even or odd numbered rings (full-even or full-odd, respectively).<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits]<br />
<br />
Source:<br />
http://sroll20.ias.u-psud.fr/sroll20_data.html<br />
http://sroll20.ias.u-psud.fr/sroll20_sim.html</div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=Sroll2&diff=14620Sroll22023-01-19T16:31:30Z<p>Mlopezca: </p>
<hr />
<div>== Sroll2 ==<br />
<br />
=== Overview and background ===<br />
<br />
Sroll2 is an improved mapmaking approach with respect to the one used for the Planck High Frequency Instrument 2018 Legacy release. The algorithm SRoll2 better corrects the known instrumental effects that still affected mostly the polarized large-angular-scale data by distorting the signal, and/or leaving residuals observable in null tests. The main systematic effect is the nonlinear response of the onboard analog-to-digital convertors that was cleaned in the Planck HFI Legacy release as an empirical time-varying linear detector chain response which is the first-order effect. The SRoll2 method fits the model parameters for higher-order effects and corrects the full distortion of the signal. The model parameters are fitted using the redundancies in the data by iteratively comparing the data and a model. The polarization efficiency uncertainties and associated errors have also been corrected based on the redundancies in the data and their residual levels characterized with simulations. <br />
<br />
SRoll2: an improved mapmaking approach to reduce large-scale systematic effects in the Planck High Frequency Instrument legacy maps (Delouis et al., A&A 609, A38, 2019), [https://www.aanda.org/articles/aa/full_html/2019/09/aa34882-18/aa34882-18.html A&A] <br />
<br />
=== Data Description ===<br />
<br />
Data set description<br />
<br />
The SRoll 2.0 data set is made of 28 FITS files each containing the I, Q and U Stokes parameters of a single frequency, multi-bolometer, full-sky observation in KCMB, as well as its hit count and covariance matrix elements (II, IQ, IU, QQ, QU, UU, in KCMB2). These maps are generated using only the 8 polarised HFI bolometers ("PSB") of each polarised HFI frequency (100 GHz, 143 GHz, 217 GHz and 353 GHz) to obtain the best possible polarised maps. The maps are stored in HEALPix format at Nside=2,048 (50,331,648 pixels per map). They are named and formatted in the same way as the Planck HFI 2018 products (see the Planck Legacy Archive (PLA)):<br />
<br />
* SRoll20 is the data product name and version,<br />
* SkyMap is the signal type, here all sky components,<br />
* the detector set, made of the detectors frequency (100, 143, 217, 353), followed by the detectors used in the map (psb for all 8 bolometers, ds1 for the first 4 bolometers, ds2 for the last 4 bolometers)<br />
* the ring set, either full for all the rings of the mission (240-26050), or halfmission-1 (rings 240-13144), halfmission-2 (rings 13145-26050), or even or odd numbered rings (full-even or full-odd, respectively).<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits]</div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=Sroll2&diff=14619Sroll22023-01-19T16:29:50Z<p>Mlopezca: </p>
<hr />
<div>== Sroll2 ==<br />
<br />
=== Overview and background ===<br />
<br />
Sroll2 is an improved mapmaking approach with respect to the one used for the Planck High Frequency Instrument 2018 Legacy release. The algorithm SRoll2 better corrects the known instrumental effects that still affected mostly the polarized large-angular-scale data by distorting the signal, and/or leaving residuals observable in null tests. The main systematic effect is the nonlinear response of the onboard analog-to-digital convertors that was cleaned in the Planck HFI Legacy release as an empirical time-varying linear detector chain response which is the first-order effect. The SRoll2 method fits the model parameters for higher-order effects and corrects the full distortion of the signal. The model parameters are fitted using the redundancies in the data by iteratively comparing the data and a model. The polarization efficiency uncertainties and associated errors have also been corrected based on the redundancies in the data and their residual levels characterized with simulations. <br />
<br />
SRoll2: an improved mapmaking approach to reduce large-scale systematic effects in the Planck High Frequency Instrument legacy maps (Delouis et al., A&A 609, A38, 2019, arXiv:1901.11386) <br />
<br />
=== Data Description ===<br />
<br />
Data set description<br />
<br />
The SRoll 2.0 data set is made of 28 FITS files each containing the I, Q and U Stokes parameters of a single frequency, multi-bolometer, full-sky observation in KCMB, as well as its hit count and covariance matrix elements (II, IQ, IU, QQ, QU, UU, in KCMB2). These maps are generated using only the 8 polarised HFI bolometers ("PSB") of each polarised HFI frequency (100 GHz, 143 GHz, 217 GHz and 353 GHz) to obtain the best possible polarised maps. The maps are stored in HEALPix format at Nside=2,048 (50,331,648 pixels per map). They are named and formatted in the same way as the Planck HFI 2018 products (see the Planck Legacy Archive (PLA)):<br />
<br />
* SRoll20 is the data product name and version,<br />
* SkyMap is the signal type, here all sky components,<br />
* the detector set, made of the detectors frequency (100, 143, 217, 353), followed by the detectors used in the map (psb for all 8 bolometers, ds1 for the first 4 bolometers, ds2 for the last 4 bolometers)<br />
* the ring set, either full for all the rings of the mission (240-26050), or halfmission-1 (rings 240-13144), halfmission-2 (rings 13145-26050), or even or odd numbered rings (full-even or full-odd, respectively).<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits]<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits]</div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=Sroll2&diff=14618Sroll22023-01-19T16:28:36Z<p>Mlopezca: </p>
<hr />
<div>== Sroll2 ==<br />
<br />
=== Overview and background ===<br />
<br />
Sroll2 is an improved mapmaking approach with respect to the one used for the Planck High Frequency Instrument 2018 Legacy release. The algorithm SRoll2 better corrects the known instrumental effects that still affected mostly the polarized large-angular-scale data by distorting the signal, and/or leaving residuals observable in null tests. The main systematic effect is the nonlinear response of the onboard analog-to-digital convertors that was cleaned in the Planck HFI Legacy release as an empirical time-varying linear detector chain response which is the first-order effect. The SRoll2 method fits the model parameters for higher-order effects and corrects the full distortion of the signal. The model parameters are fitted using the redundancies in the data by iteratively comparing the data and a model. The polarization efficiency uncertainties and associated errors have also been corrected based on the redundancies in the data and their residual levels characterized with simulations. <br />
<br />
SRoll2: an improved mapmaking approach to reduce large-scale systematic effects in the Planck High Frequency Instrument legacy maps (Delouis et al., A&A 609, A38, 2019, arXiv:1901.11386) <br />
<br />
=== Data Description ===<br />
<br />
Data set description<br />
<br />
The SRoll 2.0 data set is made of 28 FITS files each containing the I, Q and U Stokes parameters of a single frequency, multi-bolometer, full-sky observation in KCMB, as well as its hit count and covariance matrix elements (II, IQ, IU, QQ, QU, UU, in KCMB2). These maps are generated using only the 8 polarised HFI bolometers ("PSB") of each polarised HFI frequency (100 GHz, 143 GHz, 217 GHz and 353 GHz) to obtain the best possible polarised maps. The maps are stored in HEALPix format at Nside=2,048 (50,331,648 pixels per map). They are named and formatted in the same way as the Planck HFI 2018 products (see the Planck Legacy Archive (PLA)):<br />
<br />
* SRoll20 is the data product name and version,<br />
* SkyMap is the signal type, here all sky components,<br />
* the detector set, made of the detectors frequency (100, 143, 217, 353), followed by the detectors used in the map (psb for all 8 bolometers, ds1 for the first 4 bolometers, ds2 for the last 4 bolometers)<br />
* the ring set, either full for all the rings of the mission (240-26050), or halfmission-1 (rings 240-13144), halfmission-2 (rings 13145-26050), or even or odd numbered rings (full-even or full-odd, respectively).<br />
<br />
<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits | HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits | HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits | HFI_SkyMap_143-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits | HFI_SkyMap_143-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits | HFI_SkyMap_217-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits | HFI_SkyMap_217-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits | HFI_SkyMap_353-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits | HFI_SkyMap_353-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits | HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits | HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits | HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits | HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits | HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits | HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits | HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits | HFI_SkyMap_143-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits | HFI_SkyMap_143-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits | HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits | HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits | HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits | HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits | HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits | HFI_SkyMap_217-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits | HFI_SkyMap_217-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits | HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits | HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits | HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits | HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits | HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits | HFI_SkyMap_353-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits | HFI_SkyMap_353-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits | HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits | HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits | HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits | HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits | HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits]</div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=Sroll2&diff=14617Sroll22023-01-19T16:28:03Z<p>Mlopezca: Created page with "== Sroll2 == === Overview and background === Sroll2 is an improved mapmaking approach with respect to the one used for the Planck High Frequency Instrument 2018 Legacy relea..."</p>
<hr />
<div>== Sroll2 ==<br />
<br />
=== Overview and background ===<br />
<br />
Sroll2 is an improved mapmaking approach with respect to the one used for the Planck High Frequency Instrument 2018 Legacy release. The algorithm SRoll2 better corrects the known instrumental effects that still affected mostly the polarized large-angular-scale data by distorting the signal, and/or leaving residuals observable in null tests. The main systematic effect is the nonlinear response of the onboard analog-to-digital convertors that was cleaned in the Planck HFI Legacy release as an empirical time-varying linear detector chain response which is the first-order effect. The SRoll2 method fits the model parameters for higher-order effects and corrects the full distortion of the signal. The model parameters are fitted using the redundancies in the data by iteratively comparing the data and a model. The polarization efficiency uncertainties and associated errors have also been corrected based on the redundancies in the data and their residual levels characterized with simulations. <br />
<br />
SRoll2: an improved mapmaking approach to reduce large-scale systematic effects in the Planck High Frequency Instrument legacy maps (Delouis et al., A&A 609, A38, 2019, arXiv:1901.11386) <br />
<br />
=== Data Description ===<br />
<br />
Data set description<br />
<br />
The SRoll 2.0 data set is made of 28 FITS files each containing the I, Q and U Stokes parameters of a single frequency, multi-bolometer, full-sky observation in KCMB, as well as its hit count and covariance matrix elements (II, IQ, IU, QQ, QU, UU, in KCMB2). These maps are generated using only the 8 polarised HFI bolometers ("PSB") of each polarised HFI frequency (100 GHz, 143 GHz, 217 GHz and 353 GHz) to obtain the best possible polarised maps. The maps are stored in HEALPix format at Nside=2,048 (50,331,648 pixels per map). They are named and formatted in the same way as the Planck HFI 2018 products (see the Planck Legacy Archive (PLA)):<br />
<br />
* SRoll20 is the data product name and version,<br />
* SkyMap is the signal type, here all sky components,<br />
* the detector set, made of the detectors frequency (100, 143, 217, 353), followed by the detectors used in the map (psb for all 8 bolometers, ds1 for the first 4 bolometers, ds2 for the last 4 bolometers)<br />
* the ring set, either full for all the rings of the mission (240-26050), or halfmission-1 (rings 240-13144), halfmission-2 (rings 13145-26050), or even or odd numbered rings (full-even or full-odd, respectively).<br />
<br />
<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits |HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits |HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits |HFI_SkyMap_143-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits |HFI_SkyMap_143-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits |HFI_SkyMap_217-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits |HFI_SkyMap_217-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits |HFI_SkyMap_353-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits |HFI_SkyMap_353-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits | HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits | HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits | HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits | HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits | HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits | HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits | HFI_SkyMap_100-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits | HFI_SkyMap_143-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits | HFI_SkyMap_143-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits | HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits | HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits | HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits | HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits | HFI_SkyMap_143-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits | HFI_SkyMap_217-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits | HFI_SkyMap_217-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits | HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits | HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits | HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits | HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits | HFI_SkyMap_217-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits | HFI_SkyMap_353-ds1_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits | HFI_SkyMap_353-ds2_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits | HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-evenring.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits | HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits | HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_full-oddring.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits | HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-1.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits | HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_RSR.00_halfmission-2.fits]</div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=Main_Page&diff=14616Main Page2023-01-19T16:13:19Z<p>Mlopezca: </p>
<hr />
<div>{{DISPLAYTITLE: 2018 Planck Explanatory Supplement}}<br />
<!---'''<span style="font-size:180%"> <span style="color:Blue"> This is the 2018 Explanatory Supplement page for the Planck Legacy Archive </span><br />
* Instructions for new users: [[Help:READ ME FIRST|Read me first]]<br />
* See [http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Help:Contents User's Guide] for a detailed User Guide of the MediaWiki software;<br />
* See [[Help:Contents|Explanatory Supplement Help page]] for Planck-specific guidelines.---><br />
<br />
The Explanatory Supplement is a reference text accompanying the public data products which result from the European Space Agency’s Planck mission, and includes descriptions of all the products available via the Planck Legacy Archive. The Explanatory Supplement has been produced by the [[Planck Collaboration]].<br />
<br />
There are have been four major data releases of Planck products: <br />
*PR1 in 2013 (all files are identified by the label *.R1.??) ;<br />
*PR2 in 2015 (all files are identified by the label *.R2.??) ;<br />
*PR3 in 2018 (all files are identified by the label *.R3.??) ;<br />
*PR4 (NPIPE) in 2020 (all files are identified by the label *.R4.??) .<br />
<br />
In addition, the so-called "Planck Legacy Release" is a combination of PR1+PR2+PR3 products tha thave been tagged as "Legacy" and are shown by default the PLA.<br />
<br />
This Explanatory Supplement accompanies the Planck 2018 release, however, the descriptions of the 2013, 2015 and 2020 products can be found at the end of each section under the heading '''Other Releases''' and appear under different background colors (white for 2018, salmon for 2015 and green for 2013).<br />
<br />
Also note that not all the products issued in 2015 have been updated in the 2018 or 2020 release, this is one of the reasons for tagging a "Legacy" release. <br />
<br />
The Index of the Explanatory Supplement is listed below; the Index and individual section headings can also be accessed directly via the menu bar at the left of this page.<br />
<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Introduction_WiP|Introduction]]<br />
##[[The Planck mission_WiP|The Planck mission]] <br />
##[[The satellite_WiP|The spacecraft]]<br />
##[[Ground Segment and Operations|Ground segment and Early operations]]<br />
##[[Survey_scanning_and_performance|Survey scanning and Routine operations]]<br />
##[[Questions and Answers|Questions and answers]]<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[The Instruments|The instruments]]<br />
##[[HFI design, qualification, and performance|HFI design, qualification, and performance]]<br />
###[[HFI_cryogenics | Cryogenics]]<br />
###[[HFI_cold_optics_%26_spectral_response | HFI cold optics and spectral response]]<br />
###[[HFI_detection_chain | Detection chain]]<br />
###[[HFI_operations | Operations]]<br />
###[[HFI_performance_summary | Performance summary]]<br />
###[[HFI_instrument_annexes | Annexes]]<br />
##[[LFI overview|LFI design, qualification, and performance]]<span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFIDescription| Instrument description]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFITests| Ground tests]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFICalibration| In-flight calibration]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFIPerformance| Performance summary]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFISystematics| Systematic effects]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#SCS| Sorption cooler]]<br />
###[[LFIAppendix| Annexes]]<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Data processing]]<br />
##[[The HFI DPC| HFI data processing]]<br />
###[[Pre-processing | Pre-processing]]<br />
###[[TOI processing|TOI processing]]<br />
###[[Beams | Beams]]<br />
###[[Spectral response | Spectral response]]<br />
###[[HFI-systematics | Systematic effects]]<br />
###[[Map-making | Mapmaking]]<br />
###[[HFI-Validation | Internal overall validation]]<br />
###[[Summary_of_HFI_data_characteristics | Summary of HFI data characteristics]]<br />
###[[HFI_sims | HFI simulations]]<br />
##[[The LFI DPC| LFI data processing]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[Pre-processing_LFI| Pre-processing]]<br />
###[[TOI processing_LFI| TOI processing]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[Beams_LFI | Beams]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[Galactic stray light removal]]<br />
###[[Map-making_LFI | Mapmaking]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[LFI systematic effect uncertainties | Systematic effects uncertainties]]<br />
###[[LFI-Validation | Internal overall validation]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
<!--- ###[[L3_LFI | Power spectra]] ---><br />
###[[Summary_LFI | Summary of LFI data characteristics ]]<br />
##[[HFI/LFI joint data processing]]<br />
###[[Detector pointing| Detector pointing]]<br />
<!--- ###[[NoiseCovarMatrices | Noise covariance matrices and low-resolution maps ]] ---><br />
###[[Compact Source catalogues | Compact source catalogues]]<br />
###[[Astrophysical component separation]]<br />
###[[C2 | CMB power spectra and Planck likelihood code]]<br />
###[[NPIPE_Introduction | NPIPE data processing pipeline ]]<br />
####[[ NPIPE_preprocessing | pre-processing ]]<br />
####[[ NPIPE_reprocessing | re-processing ]]<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Planck Legacy Archive: mission products]]<br />
##[[Timelines_and_rings | Timelines and Rings]]<br />
###[[Timelines | Timelines]]<br />
###[[Healpix_Rings| HEALPix rings]]<br />
<!--- ###[[Healpix_Rings_LFI| LFI HEALPix rings]]---><br />
<!--- ###[[Healpix_Rings_HFI| HFI HEALPix rings]]---><br />
##[[Maps|Maps]] <br />
###[[Frequency maps | Frequency maps in Temperature and Polarization]]<br />
###[[CMB maps | CMB maps]]<br />
###[[Foreground maps | Foreground maps]]<br />
####[[Foreground_maps#2018_Astrophysical_Components | Overview]]<br />
####[[Foreground_maps#Commander-derived_astrophysical_foreground_maps | Commander-derived astrophysical foreground maps]]<br />
####[[Foreground_maps#SMICA-derived_astrophysical_foreground_maps | SMICA-derived astrophysical foreground maps]]<br />
####[[Foreground_maps#GNILC_thermal_dust_maps | GNILC thermal dust maps]]<br />
###[[Correction maps | Correction maps]]<br />
###[[Masks | Masks]]<br />
###[[Simulation data | Simulation data]]<br />
###[[External maps | External maps]]<br />
####[[External_maps#WMAP| WMAP]]<br />
####[[External_maps#Haslam| Haslam]]<br />
####[[External_maps#IRIS| IRIS]]<br />
####[[External_maps#WISE| WISE]]<br />
####[[External_maps#IRAM| IRAM - Crab nebula]] <br />
###[[DatesObs|Dates of observations]] <br />
##[[Catalogues | Catalogues]] <br />
###[[Catalogues#Catalogue of Compact Sources|PCCS]]<br />
###[[Catalogues#SZ Catalogue | PSZ]]<br />
###[[Catalogues#Catalogue_of_Planck_Galactic_Cold_Clumps | PGCC]]<br />
###[[Catalogues#.282015.29_Planck_List_of_high-redshift_source_candidates | PHZ]]<br />
##[[Cosmology | Cosmology]]<br />
###[[CMB spectrum & Likelihood Code | CMB spectrum and likelihood code]] <!--- <span style="color:red">Likelihood code description should be added here (and parentheses removed from title)</span>---><br />
###[[Cosmological Parameters | Cosmological parameters and MC chains]]<br />
###[[Lensing | Lensing]]<br />
## [[Beams_section|Beams]]<br />
###[[Scanning Beams | Scanning beams]]<br />
###[[Optical Beams | Optical beams]]<br />
###[[Effective Beams | Effective beams]]<br />
###[[Beam Window Functions | Beam window functions]]<br />
##[[The RIMO|Instrument model]]<br />
##[[Planets related data | Planet-related data]] <br />
##[[Software utilities | Software utilities]]<br />
<!---###[[Planck Sky Model | Planck Sky Model simulation tool]]---><br />
<!---###[[Mapmaking | Mapmaking from timelines and ring tools]] ---><br />
<!---###[[Febecop tools | FEBeCoP effective beam extraction and convolution tools]] ---><br />
###[[Unit conversion and Color correction | Unit conversion and colour correction]] <br />
###[[SMICA propagation code | SMICA propagation code ]] <br />
<!--- ##[[NoiseCovariance | Noise covariance matrices and low-resolution maps ]]<span style="color:red">(Keskitalo)</span ---><br />
<!---##[[Scientific data used to generate Planck products | Scientific data used to generate Planck products]] <span style="color:red">Not ready for release</span>---><br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Planck Legacy Archive: Community Provided Products]]<br />
##[[BeyondPLANCK | BeyondPLANCK]]<br />
##[[Sroll2 | Sroll2]]<br />
#[[Planck Added Value Tools | Planck value-added tools]] <br />
#[[Operational data]]<br />
<!---##[[Thermal|Thermal and cooler system]]---><br />
##[[Survey history | Survey history data]]<br />
##[[Satellite history | Satellite history data]]<br />
##[[Planck operational state history]]<br />
<!---##[[FOG|Fibre-optic gyro]]---><br />
##[[SREM|Space radiation environment monitor]]<br />
#[[Appendix]]<br />
##[[Glossary]]<br />
##[[List of acronyms]]<br />
[[Category:PSOBook]]</div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=File:BP_bandpass.png&diff=14615File:BP bandpass.png2023-01-19T16:10:45Z<p>Mlopezca: </p>
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<div></div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=File:BP_masks.png&diff=14614File:BP masks.png2023-01-19T16:09:37Z<p>Mlopezca: </p>
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<div></div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=File:BP_CMB.png&diff=14613File:BP CMB.png2023-01-19T16:09:17Z<p>Mlopezca: </p>
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<div></div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=File:BP_freqmaps.png&diff=14612File:BP freqmaps.png2023-01-19T16:08:57Z<p>Mlopezca: </p>
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<div></div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=File:BP_traceplot.png&diff=14611File:BP traceplot.png2023-01-19T16:08:37Z<p>Mlopezca: </p>
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<div></div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=File:BP_gibbs.png&diff=14610File:BP gibbs.png2023-01-19T16:08:20Z<p>Mlopezca: </p>
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<div></div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=File:BP_likelihood.png&diff=14609File:BP likelihood.png2023-01-19T16:08:04Z<p>Mlopezca: </p>
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<div></div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=File:BP_posterior.png&diff=14608File:BP posterior.png2023-01-19T16:07:51Z<p>Mlopezca: </p>
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<div></div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=File:BP_astmodel.png&diff=14607File:BP astmodel.png2023-01-19T16:07:03Z<p>Mlopezca: </p>
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<div></div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=File:BP_model.png&diff=14606File:BP model.png2023-01-19T16:05:08Z<p>Mlopezca: </p>
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<div></div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=BeyondPLANCK&diff=14605BeyondPLANCK2023-01-19T15:58:41Z<p>Mlopezca: Created page with "== BeyondPlanck == === Overview and background === As of 2020 and into the foreseeable future, ESA's [https://www.esa.int/Science_Exploration/Space_Science/Planck Planck] sa..."</p>
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<div>== BeyondPlanck ==<br />
<br />
=== Overview and background ===<br />
<br />
As of 2020 and into the foreseeable future, ESA's [https://www.esa.int/Science_Exploration/Space_Science/Planck Planck] satellite measurements represent the state-of-art in terms of full-sky observations of the microwave sky between 30 and 857GHz, and the work by the Planck collaboration in terms of processing and interpreting these observations are summarized in a series of [https://www.cosmos.esa.int/web/planck/publications 150 papers]. Despite these massive efforts, several known outstanding issues regarding the final Planck maps remained unresolved at the end of the funded analysis phase, and several external initiatives were started to address these. One of these was [https://beyondplanck.science/ BeyondPlanck], which aimed to re-process the [https://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php/Main_Page Planck LFI] data within a self-consistent end-to-end Bayesian framework, in which both instrumental and astrophysical parameters are fitted jointly. This work started in 2018, and was successfully concluded in 2022. The final results from this project are described in a [https://beyondplanck.science/products/publications/ series of 17 papers], and the products made available through the [https://pla.esac.esa.int/ Planck Legacy Archive]. A long-term goal is to apply these techniques to a wide range of state-of-the-art experiments, and this work is organized within the [https://cosmoglobe.uio.no Cosmoglobe] project. <br />
<br />
==== Data model ====<br />
The main novel feature of the BeyondPlanck processing is a single joint parametric data model that accounts for both astrophysical and instrumental parameters on the form: <br />
[[Image:BP_model.png|thumb|600px|center|]]<br />
where <br />
* t denotes time sample and j denotes LFI radiometer index <br />
* g denotes the instrumental gain<br />
* P is the pointing matrix<br />
* M denotes the component-frequency mixing matrix, which depends on both astrophysical foreground spectral parameters, beta, and the instrument bandpass<br />
* a^c denotes the spatial amplitude map of component c<br />
* B denotes beam convolution (either with the symmetric main beam response, the asymmetric far-sidelobe beam response, or full 4pi response)<br />
* s^orb denotes the orbital CMB dipole<br />
* s^fsl denotes the sky signal observed through the far sidelobes<br />
* s^1Hz denotes electronic 1Hz spike contamination<br />
* n^corr denotes instrumental correlated noise<br />
* n^w denotes instrumental white noise<br />
Explicitly, the sum over components reads as follows (neglecting for notational simplicity bandpass integration; this is accounted for in the actual processing) <br />
[[Image:BP_astmodel.png|thumb|300px|center|]]<br />
<br />
In addition to these explicit parameters, the model also includes hyper-parameters for some of the stochastic fields, perhaps most notably the CMB power spectrum, C_l, which describes the variance of the CMB field, and the correlated noise power spectral density, N_corr(f), as a function of temporal frequency.<br />
<br />
For further information regarding this data model, see [https://arxiv.org/abs/2011.05609 BeyondPlanck overview paper] and references therein.<br />
<br />
==== Data sets ====<br />
<br />
The above data model is fitted using the following combination of datasets:<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/#timelines Planck LFI time-ordered data] for 30, 44 and 70 GHz<br />
* [https://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/wmap/dr5/m_products.html 9-year WMAP frequency maps] at Ka-band (33 GHz), Q-band (41 GHz), and V-band (61 GHz). The temperature component is sampled at full angular resolution with a white noise model, while polarization is sampled at low resolution with a dense covariance matrix<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/#maps Planck PR4 HFI 353 GHz] in polarization<br />
* [https://pla.esac.esa.int/#maps Planck PR4 HFI 857 GHz] in temperature<br />
* [https://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/foreground/fg_2014_haslam_408_info.html Haslam 408 MHz], reprocessed by Remazeilles et al. (2014)<br />
<br />
==== Posterior distribution and Gibbs sampling ====<br />
<br />
Let omega be the set of all free parameters in the above data model. The BeyondPlanck data model is then fitted to the listed data sets by mapping out the full joint posterior distribution by Monte Carlo sampling,<br />
[[Image:BP_posterior.png|thumb|250px|center|]]<br />
where the likelihood is defined by the white noise distribution<br />
[[Image:BP_likelihood.png|thumb|250px|center|]]<br />
The prior, P(omega), is summarized in the [https://arxiv.org/abs/2011.05609 BeyondPlanck overview paper], and consists of a mixture of informative and algorithmic priors.<br />
<br />
In practice, the posterior mapping is performed using [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gibbs_sampling Gibbs sampling] with the following Gibbs chain,[[Image:BP_gibbs.png|thumb|350px|center|]]<br />
<br />
Four independent chains are run for each 1000 iterations, and the first 200 samples are excluded as burn-in, leaving a total of 3200 samples for final analysis. All products listed below are derived from those post-burn-in 3200 samples.<br />
<br />
=== Products ===<br />
<br />
The BeyondPlanck products are available both through the [https://pla.esac.esa.int/ Planck Legacy Archive] and through the [https://cosmoglobe.uio.no/ Cosmoglobe] homepage.<br />
<br />
==== Markov Chain files ====<br />
<br />
The full Markov Chains are provided on an [https://www.hdfgroup.org/solutions/hdf5/ HDF5] format, which have convenient IO wrappers for most commonly used programming languages (Python, C/C++, Fortran etc.). Three types of chain files are provided, corresponding to 1) full chains; 2) resampled CMB temperature chains; and 3) resampled CMB polarization chains. Each chain file stores each complete sample in a separate HDF dataset ("folder") marked "NNNNNN" (e.g., "000010" for sample number 10). The internal structure of each sample folder is summarized below for each chain file type. (Only main variables are listed below.)<br />
<br />
[[Image:BP_traceplot.png|thumb|400px|center|Example traceplots from the BeyondPlanck chain file. For discussion of this plot, see Basyrov et al. (2022).]]<br />
<br />
===== Full chains =====<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
| Description || Markov chains from main run that includes both astrophysical and instrumental parameters.<br />
|-<br />
| Filename || BP_c000{1,2,3,4}_v2.h5<br />
|-<br />
| Number of samples per chain || 1000<br />
|-<br />
| Size per chain file || 1.7 TB<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! HDF path !! Description !! Specification !! Notes<br />
|-<br />
| ame/amp_alm || (Unconvolved) a_lm's of AME component map (T-only) || uK_RJ at 22 GHz || Ordered according to [https://github.com/Libsharp/libsharp libsharp] convention<br />
|-<br />
| ame/nu_p_map || AME nu_peak sky map || GHz in flux density units ||See [https://arxiv.org/abs/2201.08188 Andersen et al. (2022)] for details<br />
|-<br />
| cmb/amp_alm || (Unconvolved) a_lm's of CMB component map (T,Q,U) || uK_cmb || Ordered according to [https://github.com/Libsharp/libsharp libsharp] convention<br />
|-<br />
| cmb/sigma_l || Angular power spectrum of CMB component map, sigma_l || uK_cmb^2 || Ordered as {TT,TE,TB,EE,EB,BB}<br />
|-<br />
| dust/amp_alm || (Unconvolved) a_lm's of dust component map (T,Q,U) || uK_RJ at 857 GHz for T; at 353 GHz for Q,U || Ordered according to [https://github.com/Libsharp/libsharp libsharp] convention<br />
|-<br />
| dust/beta_map || Thermal dust spectral index, beta_d, map (T,Q,U) || Unitless || Spatially constant but variable <br />
|-<br />
| dust/T_map || Thermal dust temperature, T_d, map (T,Q,U) || Kelvin || Fixed to Planck PR4; does not vary with sample<br />
|-<br />
| ff/amp_alm || (Unconvolved) a_lm's of free-free component map (T-only) || uK_RJ at 40 GHz || Ordered according to [https://github.com/Libsharp/libsharp libsharp] convention<br />
|-<br />
| md/{channel label} || 4-element array with {monopole, d_x, d_y, d_z} corrections || Same units as respective frequency channel || Only monopoles and Haslam dipoles are non-zero<br />
|-<br />
| radio/amp || Radio source amplitude per object (T-only) || mJy at 30 GHz || Ordered according to BP/Planck Commander point source catalog<br />
|-<br />
| radio/spec_ind || Radio source spectral index per object (T-only) || Unitless || <br />
|-<br />
| synch/amp_alm || (Unconvolved) a_lm's of synchrotron component map (T,Q,U) || uK_RJ at 408 MHz in T; at 30 GHz in Q,U || Ordered according to [https://github.com/Libsharp/libsharp libsharp] convention<br />
|-<br />
| synch/beta_map || Synchrotron spectral index, beta_s, sky map || Unitless || See [https://arxiv.org/abs/2011.08503 Svalheim et al. (2022)] for details<br />
|-<br />
| tod/{channel label}/1Hz_ampl || 1Hz amplitude per radiometer and PID || Volt || <br />
|-<br />
| tod/{channel label}/1Hz_temp || Binned 1Hz template per radiometer || Unitless || Binned between 0 and 1 sec<br />
|-<br />
| tod/{channel label}/accept || Accept flag per radiometer and PID || Unitless || 0 = rejected, 1 = accepted<br />
|-<br />
| tod/{channel label}/chisq || Reduced normalized chisq per radiometer and scan || sigma || See [https://arxiv.org/abs/2011.06650 Ihle et al. (2022)] for details<br />
|-<br />
| tod/{channel label}/gain || Total gain per radiometer and scan || V/K || See [https://arxiv.org/abs/2011.08082 Gjerløw et al. (2022)] for details<br />
|-<br />
| tod/{channel label}/map || Frequency map for given channel (T,Q,U) || uK_cmb || See Basyrov et al. (2022) for details<br />
|-<br />
| tod/{channel label}/rms || Frequency standard devivation map for given channel (T,Q,U) || uK_cmb || See Basyrov et al. (2022) for details<br />
|-<br />
| tod/{channel label}/xi_n || Noise power spectral density parameters for radiometer and PID || {sigma_0, alpha, fknee, A_s} || See [https://arxiv.org/abs/2011.06650 Ihle et al. (2022)] for details<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===== Resampled CMB temperature chains =====<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
| Description || Markov chains from CMB temperature analysis. These are produced by imposing a CMB confidence mask on the CMB component, while fixing instrumental and (most of the) astrophysical parameters at the values sampled in the main run. Each CMB temperature sample in these chain represents one in-painted Gaussian constrained realization with full-sky coverage. These samples are useful for CMB temperature analysis. See Colombo et al. (2022) and Paradiso et al. (2022) for details.<br />
|-<br />
| Filename || BP_c000{1,2,3,4}_Tresamp_v2.h5<br />
|-<br />
| Number of samples per chain || 1000<br />
|-<br />
| Size per chain file || 15 GB<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! HDF path !! Description !! Specification !! Notes<br />
|-<br />
| cmb/amp_alm || (Unconvolved) a_lm's of CMB component map (T,Q,U) || uK_cmb || Ordered according to [https://github.com/Libsharp/libsharp libsharp] convention<br />
|-<br />
| cmb/sigma_l || Angular power spectrum of CMB component map, sigma_l || uK_cmb^2 || Ordered as {TT,TE,TB,EE,EB,BB}<br />
|-<br />
| cmb/D_l || Ensemble averaged (theory) angular power spectrum of CMB component map, D_l || uK_cmb^2 || Ordered as {TT,TE,TB,EE,EB,BB}<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===== Resampled CMB polarization chains =====<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
| Description || Markov chains from CMB polarization analysis. These are produced by resampling the CMB a_lms for l <= 64, while fixing instrumental and (most of the) astrophysical parameters at the values sampled in the main run. These samples are useful for low-resolution CMB polarization analysis. See Colombo et al. (2022) and Paradiso et al. (2022) for details.<br />
|-<br />
| Filename || BP_c000{1,2,3,4}_Presamp_v2.h5<br />
|-<br />
| Number of samples per chain || 50.000<br />
|-<br />
| Size per chain file || 2.3 GB<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! HDF path !! Description !! Specification !! Notes<br />
|-<br />
| cmb_lowl/amp_alm || (Unconvolved) a_lm's of CMB component map (T,Q,U), lmax = 64 || uK_cmb || Ordered according to [https://github.com/Libsharp/libsharp libsharp] convention<br />
|}<br />
<br />
==== Frequency maps ====<br />
<br />
[[Image:BP_freqmaps.png|thumb|600px|center|BeyondPlanck frequency maps at 30, 44 and 70 GHz. For further discussion, see Basyrov et al. (2022).]]<br />
<br />
''The BeyondPlanck frequency FITS maps are produced by averaging individual frequency map samples over Gibbs iterations, and thus correspond to ''posterior mean'' maps. We note that error propagation with these maps is challenging, and these are primarily provided for visualization and comparison purposes. For precision scientific analysis, operating with the individual samples provided in the chain files is highly encouraged to propagate errors properly.''<br />
<br />
Note 1: Unlike Planck DR3, but similar to Planck PR4, the BeyondPlanck frequency maps retain the CMB Solar dipole.<br />
Note 2: Unlike Planck, but similar to WMAP, the BeyondPlanck frequency maps retain the relativistic kinematic quadrupole. Instead of subtracting this signal, it is included as an additional component in the signal model.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Sky map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Filename = BP_{FREQ}_IQU_n{NSIDE}_v2.fits<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The signal intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The signal Stokes Q map<br />
|-<br />
|U_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The signal Stokes U map<br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The signal intensity white noise RMS<br />
|-<br />
|Q_RMS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The signal Stokes Q white noise RMS<br />
|-<br />
|U_RMS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The signal Stokes U white noise RMS<br />
|-<br />
|I_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The signal intensity posterior std (~ systematic uncertainty)<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The signal Stokes Q posterior std (~ systematic uncertainty)<br />
|-<br />
|U_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The signal Stokes U posterior std (~ systematic uncertainty)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || RING || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 512 or 1024 || Healpix Nside <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 3145727 or 12582911 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ || string || nnn || The frequency channel <br />
|}<br />
<br />
==== Component maps ====<br />
[[Image:BP_CMB.png|thumb|600px|center|BeyondPlanck CMB map. Rows show Stokes T, Q, and U, while columns show posterior mean and standard deviation. For further discussion, see Colombo et al. (2022).]]<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Full-resolution raw posterior mean CMB map'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Filename = BP_cmb_IQU_n1024_v2.fits<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The CMB intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The CMB Stokes Q map<br />
|-<br />
|U_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The CMB Stokes U map<br />
|-<br />
|I_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The CMB intensity posterior std<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The CMB Stokes Q posterior std<br />
|-<br />
|U_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The CMB Stokes U posterior std<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || RING || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside <br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Low-resolution raw posterior mean CMB map'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Filename = BP_CMB_QU_map_n8_v2.fits<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|TEMPERATURE || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Low-resolution CMB intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|Q-POLARIZATION || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Low-resolution CMB Stokes Q map<br />
|-<br />
|U-POLARIATION || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Low-resolution CMB Stokes U map<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || RING || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 8 || Healpix Nside <br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Single in-painted high-resolution CMB temperature sample'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Filename = BP_cmb_resamp_I_n1024_v2.fits<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_Stokes || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The CMB intensity map<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || RING || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside <br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Posterior mean AME map'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Filename = BP_ame_I_n1024_v2.fits<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || The AME intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|I_NU_P_MEAN || Real*4 || GHz || AME nu_peak frequency mean<br />
|-<br />
|I_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || AME intensity posterior std<br />
|-<br />
|I_NU_P_STDDEV || Real*4 || GHz || AME nu_peak frequency rms<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || RING || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside <br />
|-<br />
|FWHM || Real*4 || 120 || Smoothing FWHM in arcmin <br />
|-<br />
|NU_REF_T || Real*4 || 22.0 || AME reference frequency in GHz <br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Full-resolution raw posterior mean thermal dust map'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Filename = BP_dust_IQU_n1024_v2.fits<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean Stokes Q map<br />
|-<br />
|U_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean Stokes U map<br />
|-<br />
|P_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean polarization amplitude, P = sqrt(Q^2 + U^2)<br />
|-<br />
|I_BETA_MEAN || Real*4 || Unitless || Posterior mean spectral index, beta_d, in intensity<br />
|-<br />
|QU_BETA_MEAN || Real*4 || Unitless || Posterior mean spectral index, beta_d, in polarization<br />
|-<br />
|I_T_MEAN || Real*4 || Kelvin || Posterior mean dust temperature, T_d, in intensity<br />
|-<br />
|QU_T_MEAN || Real*4 || Kelvin || Posterior mean dust temperature, T_d, in polarization<br />
|-<br />
|I_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior rms intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior rms Stokes Q map<br />
|-<br />
|U_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior rms Stokes U map<br />
|-<br />
|P_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean polarization amplitude, P = sqrt(Q^2 + U^2)<br />
|-<br />
|I_BETA_STDDEV || Real*4 || Unitless || Posterior rms spectral index, beta_d, in intensity<br />
|-<br />
|QU_BETA_STDDEV || Real*4 || Unitless || Posterior rms spectral index, beta_d, in polarization<br />
|-<br />
|I_T_STDDEV || Real*4 || Kelvin || Posterior mean rms temperature, T_d, in intensity<br />
|-<br />
|QU_T_STDDEV || Real*4 || Kelvin || Posterior mean rms temperature, T_d, in polarization<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || RING || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside <br />
|-<br />
|FWHM || Real*4 || 10 || Smoothing FWHM in arcmin <br />
|-<br />
|NU_REF_T || Real*4 || 545 || Reference frequency in temperature in GHz <br />
|-<br />
|NU_REF_P || Real*4 || 353 || Reference frequency in polarization in GHz<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Full-resolution raw posterior mean free-free map'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Filename = BP_freefree_I_n1024_v2.fits<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|I_TE_MEAN || Real*4 || Kelvin || Posterior mean electron temperature, T_e. (Fixed in current analysis)<br />
|-<br />
|I_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior rms intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|I_TE_STDDEV || Real*4 || Kelvin || Posterior rms electron temperature, T_e. (Zero i in current analysis)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || RING || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside <br />
|-<br />
|FWHM || Real*4 || 30 || Smoothing FWHM in arcmin <br />
|-<br />
|NU_REF_T || Real*4 || 40.0 || Reference frequency in temperature in GHz <br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Full-resolution raw posterior mean synchrotron map'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Filename = BP_synch_IQU_n1024_v2.fits<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean Stokes Q map<br />
|-<br />
|U_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean Stokes U map<br />
|-<br />
|P_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean polarization amplitude, P = sqrt(Q^2 + U^2)<br />
|-<br />
|I_BETA_MEAN || Real*4 || Unitless || Posterior mean spectral index, beta_d, in intensity<br />
|-<br />
|QU_BETA_MEAN || Real*4 || Unitless || Posterior mean spectral index, beta_d, in polarization<br />
|-<br />
|I_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior rms intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior rms Stokes Q map<br />
|-<br />
|U_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior rms Stokes U map<br />
|-<br />
|P_STDDEV || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Posterior mean polarization amplitude, P = sqrt(Q^2 + U^2)<br />
|-<br />
|I_BETA_STDDEV || Real*4 || Unitless || Posterior rms spectral index, beta_d, in intensity<br />
|-<br />
|QU_BETA_STDDEV || Real*4 || Unitless || Posterior rms spectral index, beta_d, in polarization<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || RING || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside <br />
|-<br />
|FWHM || Real*4 || 60 || Smoothing FWHM in arcmin <br />
|-<br />
|NU_REF_T || Real*4 || 0.408 || Reference frequency in temperature in GHz <br />
|-<br />
|NU_REF_P || Real*4 || 30 || Reference frequency in polarization in GHz<br />
|}<br />
<br />
==== Ancillary data ====<br />
<br />
===== CMB confidence masks =====<br />
<br />
[[Image:BP_masks.png|thumb|400px|center|CMB confidence masks for temperature (top) and polarization (bottom). For further discussion, see Colombo et al. (2022).]]<br />
<br />
The BeyondPlanck processing involves two different CMB confidence masks, with high and low resolution, respectively:<br />
* '''BP_CMB_I_analysis_mask_n1024_v2.fits''' -- CMB T-only analysis mask at Nside=1024<br />
* '''BP_CMB_QU_map_n8_v2.fits''' -- CMB T+P analysis mask at Nside=8<br />
Both maps are defined in Galactic coordinates with HEALPix ring ordering.<br />
<br />
===== Revised LFI bandpass profiles =====<br />
<br />
[[Image:BP_bandpass.png|thumb|600px|center|Comparison of Planck (orange) and BeyondPlanck (blue) bandpasses for all 30, 44 and 70 GHz radiometers. For further discussion, see Svalheim et al. (2022).]]<br />
<br />
As discussed by [https://arxiv.org/abs/1001.4589 Zonca et al. (2010)] and [https://arxiv.org/abs/2201.03417 Svalheim et al. (2022)], the official Planck LFI bandpasses measured from ground were affected by measurement errors. These have been partially mitigated in the updated BeyondPlanck processing, and the improved bandpass profiles are provided in the form of ASCII tables. Each file is called BP_bandpass_LFI_{radiometer}_v2.dat, and contains an array with {nu, tau} on each line. The symbol '#' indicates comments.<br />
<br />
=== Additional information ===<br />
<br />
* BeyondPlanck was an effort to generalize the Planck-developed component separation code called Commander to also support time-domain analysis. The BeyondPlanck software is thus an integral part of the latest Commander3 code, which is available from the Cosmoglobe [https://github.com/Cosmoglobe/Commander GitHub] repository<br />
* The Commander [https://docs.beyondplanck.science/#/parameters/intro documentation] describes both the installation procedure and the Commander parameter file<br />
* The BeyondPlanck papers are published in a Special Issue of Astronomy & Astrophysics called "[https://www.aanda.org/component/toc/?task=topic&id=1611 BeyondPlanck: end-to-end Bayesian analysis of Planck LFI]"</div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=Main_Page&diff=14604Main Page2023-01-19T15:57:36Z<p>Mlopezca: </p>
<hr />
<div>{{DISPLAYTITLE: 2018 Planck Explanatory Supplement}}<br />
<!---'''<span style="font-size:180%"> <span style="color:Blue"> This is the 2018 Explanatory Supplement page for the Planck Legacy Archive </span><br />
* Instructions for new users: [[Help:READ ME FIRST|Read me first]]<br />
* See [http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Help:Contents User's Guide] for a detailed User Guide of the MediaWiki software;<br />
* See [[Help:Contents|Explanatory Supplement Help page]] for Planck-specific guidelines.---><br />
<br />
The Explanatory Supplement is a reference text accompanying the public data products which result from the European Space Agency’s Planck mission, and includes descriptions of all the products available via the Planck Legacy Archive. The Explanatory Supplement has been produced by the [[Planck Collaboration]].<br />
<br />
There are have been four major data releases of Planck products: <br />
*PR1 in 2013 (all files are identified by the label *.R1.??) ;<br />
*PR2 in 2015 (all files are identified by the label *.R2.??) ;<br />
*PR3 in 2018 (all files are identified by the label *.R3.??) ;<br />
*PR4 (NPIPE) in 2020 (all files are identified by the label *.R4.??) .<br />
<br />
In addition, the so-called "Planck Legacy Release" is a combination of PR1+PR2+PR3 products tha thave been tagged as "Legacy" and are shown by default the PLA.<br />
<br />
This Explanatory Supplement accompanies the Planck 2018 release, however, the descriptions of the 2013, 2015 and 2020 products can be found at the end of each section under the heading '''Other Releases''' and appear under different background colors (white for 2018, salmon for 2015 and green for 2013).<br />
<br />
Also note that not all the products issued in 2015 have been updated in the 2018 or 2020 release, this is one of the reasons for tagging a "Legacy" release. <br />
<br />
The Index of the Explanatory Supplement is listed below; the Index and individual section headings can also be accessed directly via the menu bar at the left of this page.<br />
<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Introduction_WiP|Introduction]]<br />
##[[The Planck mission_WiP|The Planck mission]] <br />
##[[The satellite_WiP|The spacecraft]]<br />
##[[Ground Segment and Operations|Ground segment and Early operations]]<br />
##[[Survey_scanning_and_performance|Survey scanning and Routine operations]]<br />
##[[Questions and Answers|Questions and answers]]<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[The Instruments|The instruments]]<br />
##[[HFI design, qualification, and performance|HFI design, qualification, and performance]]<br />
###[[HFI_cryogenics | Cryogenics]]<br />
###[[HFI_cold_optics_%26_spectral_response | HFI cold optics and spectral response]]<br />
###[[HFI_detection_chain | Detection chain]]<br />
###[[HFI_operations | Operations]]<br />
###[[HFI_performance_summary | Performance summary]]<br />
###[[HFI_instrument_annexes | Annexes]]<br />
##[[LFI overview|LFI design, qualification, and performance]]<span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFIDescription| Instrument description]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFITests| Ground tests]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFICalibration| In-flight calibration]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFIPerformance| Performance summary]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#LFISystematics| Systematic effects]]<br />
###[[LFI design, qualification, and performance#SCS| Sorption cooler]]<br />
###[[LFIAppendix| Annexes]]<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Data processing]]<br />
##[[The HFI DPC| HFI data processing]]<br />
###[[Pre-processing | Pre-processing]]<br />
###[[TOI processing|TOI processing]]<br />
###[[Beams | Beams]]<br />
###[[Spectral response | Spectral response]]<br />
###[[HFI-systematics | Systematic effects]]<br />
###[[Map-making | Mapmaking]]<br />
###[[HFI-Validation | Internal overall validation]]<br />
###[[Summary_of_HFI_data_characteristics | Summary of HFI data characteristics]]<br />
###[[HFI_sims | HFI simulations]]<br />
##[[The LFI DPC| LFI data processing]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[Pre-processing_LFI| Pre-processing]]<br />
###[[TOI processing_LFI| TOI processing]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[Beams_LFI | Beams]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[Galactic stray light removal]]<br />
###[[Map-making_LFI | Mapmaking]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
###[[LFI systematic effect uncertainties | Systematic effects uncertainties]]<br />
###[[LFI-Validation | Internal overall validation]] <span style="color:red"></span><br />
<!--- ###[[L3_LFI | Power spectra]] ---><br />
###[[Summary_LFI | Summary of LFI data characteristics ]]<br />
##[[HFI/LFI joint data processing]]<br />
###[[Detector pointing| Detector pointing]]<br />
<!--- ###[[NoiseCovarMatrices | Noise covariance matrices and low-resolution maps ]] ---><br />
###[[Compact Source catalogues | Compact source catalogues]]<br />
###[[Astrophysical component separation]]<br />
###[[C2 | CMB power spectra and Planck likelihood code]]<br />
###[[NPIPE_Introduction | NPIPE data processing pipeline ]]<br />
####[[ NPIPE_preprocessing | pre-processing ]]<br />
####[[ NPIPE_reprocessing | re-processing ]]<br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Planck Legacy Archive: mission products]]<br />
##[[Timelines_and_rings | Timelines and Rings]]<br />
###[[Timelines | Timelines]]<br />
###[[Healpix_Rings| HEALPix rings]]<br />
<!--- ###[[Healpix_Rings_LFI| LFI HEALPix rings]]---><br />
<!--- ###[[Healpix_Rings_HFI| HFI HEALPix rings]]---><br />
##[[Maps|Maps]] <br />
###[[Frequency maps | Frequency maps in Temperature and Polarization]]<br />
###[[CMB maps | CMB maps]]<br />
###[[Foreground maps | Foreground maps]]<br />
####[[Foreground_maps#2018_Astrophysical_Components | Overview]]<br />
####[[Foreground_maps#Commander-derived_astrophysical_foreground_maps | Commander-derived astrophysical foreground maps]]<br />
####[[Foreground_maps#SMICA-derived_astrophysical_foreground_maps | SMICA-derived astrophysical foreground maps]]<br />
####[[Foreground_maps#GNILC_thermal_dust_maps | GNILC thermal dust maps]]<br />
###[[Correction maps | Correction maps]]<br />
###[[Masks | Masks]]<br />
###[[Simulation data | Simulation data]]<br />
###[[External maps | External maps]]<br />
####[[External_maps#WMAP| WMAP]]<br />
####[[External_maps#Haslam| Haslam]]<br />
####[[External_maps#IRIS| IRIS]]<br />
####[[External_maps#WISE| WISE]]<br />
####[[External_maps#IRAM| IRAM - Crab nebula]] <br />
###[[DatesObs|Dates of observations]] <br />
##[[Catalogues | Catalogues]] <br />
###[[Catalogues#Catalogue of Compact Sources|PCCS]]<br />
###[[Catalogues#SZ Catalogue | PSZ]]<br />
###[[Catalogues#Catalogue_of_Planck_Galactic_Cold_Clumps | PGCC]]<br />
###[[Catalogues#.282015.29_Planck_List_of_high-redshift_source_candidates | PHZ]]<br />
##[[Cosmology | Cosmology]]<br />
###[[CMB spectrum & Likelihood Code | CMB spectrum and likelihood code]] <!--- <span style="color:red">Likelihood code description should be added here (and parentheses removed from title)</span>---><br />
###[[Cosmological Parameters | Cosmological parameters and MC chains]]<br />
###[[Lensing | Lensing]]<br />
## [[Beams_section|Beams]]<br />
###[[Scanning Beams | Scanning beams]]<br />
###[[Optical Beams | Optical beams]]<br />
###[[Effective Beams | Effective beams]]<br />
###[[Beam Window Functions | Beam window functions]]<br />
##[[The RIMO|Instrument model]]<br />
##[[Planets related data | Planet-related data]] <br />
##[[Software utilities | Software utilities]]<br />
<!---###[[Planck Sky Model | Planck Sky Model simulation tool]]---><br />
<!---###[[Mapmaking | Mapmaking from timelines and ring tools]] ---><br />
<!---###[[Febecop tools | FEBeCoP effective beam extraction and convolution tools]] ---><br />
###[[Unit conversion and Color correction | Unit conversion and colour correction]] <br />
###[[SMICA propagation code | SMICA propagation code ]] <br />
<!--- ##[[NoiseCovariance | Noise covariance matrices and low-resolution maps ]]<span style="color:red">(Keskitalo)</span ---><br />
<!---##[[Scientific data used to generate Planck products | Scientific data used to generate Planck products]] <span style="color:red">Not ready for release</span>---><br />
<!--- ############# ---><br />
#[[Planck Legacy Archive: Community Provided Products]]<br />
##[[BeyondPLANCK | BeyondPLANCK]]<br />
#[[Planck Added Value Tools | Planck value-added tools]] <br />
#[[Operational data]]<br />
<!---##[[Thermal|Thermal and cooler system]]---><br />
##[[Survey history | Survey history data]]<br />
##[[Satellite history | Satellite history data]]<br />
##[[Planck operational state history]]<br />
<!---##[[FOG|Fibre-optic gyro]]---><br />
##[[SREM|Space radiation environment monitor]]<br />
#[[Appendix]]<br />
##[[Glossary]]<br />
##[[List of acronyms]]<br />
[[Category:PSOBook]]</div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=External_maps&diff=14603External maps2023-01-19T15:50:33Z<p>Mlopezca: </p>
<hr />
<div>In the External Maps section of the Planck Legacy Archive we have included a small set of maps that users frequently use in combination of Planck data.<br />
<br />
These is the list of external maps currently available in the PLA:<br />
<br />
= WMAP =<br />
<br />
WMAP K, Ka, Q, V and W bands (23, 33, 41, 61 and 94 GHz) full resolution coadded nine year sky maps in intensity and polarization.<br />
<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=wmap_band_iqumap_r9_9yr_K_v5.fits wmap_band_iqumap_r9_9yr_K_v5.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=wmap_band_iqumap_r9_9yr_Ka_v5.fits wmap_band_iqumap_r9_9yr_Ka_v5.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=wmap_band_iqumap_r9_9yr_Q_v5.fits wmap_band_iqumap_r9_9yr_Q_v5.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=wmap_band_iqumap_r9_9yr_V_v5.fits wmap_band_iqumap_r9_9yr_V_v5.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=wmap_band_iqumap_r9_9yr_W_v5.fits wmap_band_iqumap_r9_9yr_W_v5.fits]<br />
<br />
Source http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map<br />
<br />
= Haslam =<br />
<br />
Improved Haslam et al. 408 MHz radio continuum all-sky map desourced and destriped.<br />
<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=haslam408_dsds_Remazeilles2014.fits haslam408_dsds_Remazeilles2014.fits]<br />
<br />
Source http://www.jb.man.ac.uk/research/cosmos/haslam_map/<br />
<br />
= IRIS =<br />
<br />
IRIS 12, 25, 60 and 100 microns full resolution infrared maps (IRIS: Improved Reprocessing of the IRAS Survey)<br />
<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=IRIS_nohole_1_2048.fits IRIS_nohole_1_2048.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=IRIS_nohole_2_2048.fits IRIS_nohole_2_2048.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=IRIS_nohole_3_2048.fits IRIS_nohole_3_2048.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=IRIS_nohole_4_2048.fits IRIS_nohole_4_2048.fits]<br />
<br />
Source http://www.cita.utoronto.ca/~mamd/IRIS/<br />
<br />
= WISE =<br />
<br />
WISE 12 micron low-resolution (NSIDE 2048) full-sky dust map.<br />
<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=wssa_sample_2048.fits wssa_sample_2048.fits]<br />
<br />
Source http://faun.rc.fas.harvard.edu/ameisner/wssa/index.html.<br />
<br />
= IRAM =<br />
<br />
2013 maps of the Crab nebula at 89.189 GHz (HCO+(1-0) transition) in both temperature and polarization, prodouced from observations performed at the IRAM 30m telescope from January 9th to January 12th 2009, are delivered as a tarball of 416 KB in the file<br />
<br />
: [[File:Crab_IRAM_2010.zip]]<br />
<br />
See README in the tarball for full details. These data were used in Aumont et al. 2010 {{BibCite|aumont2010}}.<br />
<br />
= QUIJOTE / RADIOFOREGROUNDS =<br />
<br />
QUIJOTE 2023 maps at 11, 13, 17 and 19 GHz from the QUIJOTE Wide Field Survey:<br />
<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=quijote_mfi_skymap_11ghz_512_dr1.fits quijote_mfi_skymap_11ghz_512_dr1.fits ]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=quijote_mfi_skymap_13ghz_512_dr1.fits quijote_mfi_skymap_13ghz_512_dr1.fits ]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=quijote_mfi_skymap_17ghz_512_dr1.fits quijote_mfi_skymap_17ghz_512_dr1.fits ]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=quijote_mfi_skymap_19ghz_512_dr1.fits quijote_mfi_skymap_19ghz_512_dr1.fits ]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=quijote_mfi_smth_skymap_11ghz_512_dr1.fits quijote_mfi_smth_skymap_11ghz_512_dr1.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=quijote_mfi_smth_skymap_13ghz_512_dr1.fits quijote_mfi_smth_skymap_13ghz_512_dr1.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=quijote_mfi_smth_skymap_17ghz_512_dr1.fits quijote_mfi_smth_skymap_17ghz_512_dr1.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=quijote_mfi_smth_skymap_19ghz_512_dr1.fits quijote_mfi_smth_skymap_19ghz_512_dr1.fits]<br />
<br />
Source https://www.iac.es/es/proyectos/quijote and https://research.iac.es/proyecto/quijote/pages/en/data.php<br />
<br />
= References =<br />
<References /></div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=External_maps&diff=14602External maps2023-01-19T15:45:54Z<p>Mlopezca: </p>
<hr />
<div>In the External Maps section of the Planck Legacy Archive we have included a small set of maps that users frequently use in combination of Planck data.<br />
<br />
These is the list of external maps currently available in the PLA:<br />
<br />
= WMAP =<br />
<br />
WMAP K, Ka, Q, V and W bands (23, 33, 41, 61 and 94 GHz) full resolution coadded nine year sky maps in intensity and polarization.<br />
<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=wmap_band_iqumap_r9_9yr_K_v5.fits wmap_band_iqumap_r9_9yr_K_v5.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=wmap_band_iqumap_r9_9yr_Ka_v5.fits wmap_band_iqumap_r9_9yr_Ka_v5.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=wmap_band_iqumap_r9_9yr_Q_v5.fits wmap_band_iqumap_r9_9yr_Q_v5.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=wmap_band_iqumap_r9_9yr_V_v5.fits wmap_band_iqumap_r9_9yr_V_v5.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=wmap_band_iqumap_r9_9yr_W_v5.fits wmap_band_iqumap_r9_9yr_W_v5.fits]<br />
<br />
Source http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map<br />
<br />
= Haslam =<br />
<br />
Improved Haslam et al. 408 MHz radio continuum all-sky map desourced and destriped.<br />
<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=haslam408_dsds_Remazeilles2014.fits haslam408_dsds_Remazeilles2014.fits]<br />
<br />
Source http://www.jb.man.ac.uk/research/cosmos/haslam_map/<br />
<br />
= IRIS =<br />
<br />
IRIS 12, 25, 60 and 100 microns full resolution infrared maps (IRIS: Improved Reprocessing of the IRAS Survey)<br />
<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=IRIS_nohole_1_2048.fits IRIS_nohole_1_2048.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=IRIS_nohole_2_2048.fits IRIS_nohole_2_2048.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=IRIS_nohole_3_2048.fits IRIS_nohole_3_2048.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=IRIS_nohole_4_2048.fits IRIS_nohole_4_2048.fits]<br />
<br />
Source http://www.cita.utoronto.ca/~mamd/IRIS/<br />
<br />
= WISE =<br />
<br />
WISE 12 micron low-resolution (NSIDE 2048) full-sky dust map.<br />
<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=wssa_sample_2048.fits wssa_sample_2048.fits]<br />
<br />
Source http://faun.rc.fas.harvard.edu/ameisner/wssa/index.html.<br />
<br />
= IRAM =<br />
<br />
2013 maps of the Crab nebula at 89.189 GHz (HCO+(1-0) transition) in both temperature and polarization, prodouced from observations performed at the IRAM 30m telescope from January 9th to January 12th 2009, are delivered as a tarball of 416 KB in the file<br />
<br />
: [[File:Crab_IRAM_2010.zip]]<br />
<br />
See README in the tarball for full details. These data were used in Aumont et al. 2010 {{BibCite|aumont2010}}.<br />
<br />
= RADIOFOREGROUNDS -- QUIJOTE =<br />
<br />
QUIJOTE 2023 maps at 11, 13, 17 and 19 GHz from the QUIJOTE Wide Field Survey:<br />
<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=quijote_mfi_skymap_11ghz_512_dr1.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=quijote_mfi_skymap_13ghz_512_dr1.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=quijote_mfi_skymap_17ghz_512_dr1.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=quijote_mfi_skymap_19ghz_512_dr1.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=quijote_mfi_smth_skymap_11ghz_512_dr1.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=quijote_mfi_smth_skymap_13ghz_512_dr1.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=quijote_mfi_smth_skymap_17ghz_512_dr1.fits]<br />
* [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?MAP.MAP_ID=quijote_mfi_smth_skymap_19ghz_512_dr1.fits]<br />
<br />
<br />
Source https://www.iac.es/es/proyectos/quijote and https://research.iac.es/proyecto/quijote/pages/en/data.php<br />
<br />
= References =<br />
<References /></div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=CMB_maps&diff=14601CMB maps2022-12-14T12:00:37Z<p>Mlopezca: /* Previous Releases: (2022-NPIPE), (2015) and (2013) CMB Maps */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{DISPLAYTITLE:2018 CMB maps}}<br />
<br />
== Overview ==<br />
This section describes the CMB maps produced from the Planck data. These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of each product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITS file containing the data and associated information.<br />
All the details can be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l04}} and, for earlier releases, in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}}.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
==2018 CMB maps==<br />
CMB maps have been produced using four different methods: COMMANDER, NILC, SEVEM, and SMICA, as described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation | CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l04}} and references therein.<br />
<br />
For each method we provide the following:<br />
* Full-mission CMB intensity map, with corresponding confidence mask and effective beam transfer function.<br />
* Full-mission CMB polarisation map, with corresponding confidence mask and effective beam transfer function. <br />
* In-painted CMB intensity and polarisation maps, intended for PR purposes.<br />
In addition, and for characterisation purposes, we include four other sets of maps from two data splits: odd/even ring and first/second half-mission. Half-difference maps can be used to provide an approximate noise estimates for the full mission, but they should be used with caution. Each split has caveats in this regard: there are noise correlations between the odd/even split maps, and unobserved pixels in both splits. Masks flagging unobserved pixels are provided for each split, and we strongly encourage use of these when analysing split maps. <br />
<br />
In addition, for SMICA, we also provide a CMB map from which Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources have been projected out, while SEVEM provides cleaned single-frequency maps at 70, 100, 143 and 217 GHz for both intensity and polarization.<br />
<br />
All CMB products are provided at an approximate angular resolution of 5 arcmin FWHM, and HEALPix resolution <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048. Explicit effective beam profiles are provided for each foreground reduced CMB map.<br />
<br />
For a complete description of the above data structures, see [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
The gallery below shows the inpainted full-mission CMB maps (T, Q and U) from each pipeline. The temperature maps are shown at 5 arcmin FWHM resolution, while the polarization maps are shown at 80 arcmin FWHM resolution, in order to suppress instrumental noise. <br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=300px heights=180> <br />
File:cmb_inpaint_T_commander_v1.png | '''Commander temperature'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_Q_commander_v1.png | '''Commander Stokes Q'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_U_commander_v1.png | '''Commander Stokes U'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_T_nilc_v1.png | '''NILC temperature'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_Q_nilc_v1.png | '''NILC Stokes Q'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_U_nilc_v1.png | '''NILC Stokes U'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_T_sevem_v2.png | '''SEVEM temperature'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_Q_sevem_v2.png | '''SEVEM Stokes Q'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_U_sevem_v2.png | '''SEVEM Stokes U'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_T_smica_v1.png | '''SMICA temperature'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_Q_smica_v1.png | '''SMICA Stokes Q'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_U_smica_v1.png | '''SMICA Stokes U'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
===Product description ===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: COMMANDER is a Planck software code implementing Bayesian parametric component separation. Each astrophysical signal component is modelled in terms of a small number of free parameters per pixel, typically in terms of an amplitude at a given reference frequency and a small set of spectral parameters, and these are fitted to the data with an MCMC Gibbs sampling algorithm. A new feature in the Planck 2018 analysis is support for multi-resolution analysis, allowing reconstruction of both CMB and foreground maps at full angular resolution. Only CMB products are provided from Commander in the Planck 2018 release (see {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l04}} for details), while for polarization both CMB and foreground products are provided. For temperature, a dedicated low-resolution CMB map is also provided as part of the Planck likelihood package.<br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The Commander sky maps have different angular resolutions depending on data products:<br />
:* CMB temperature and polarization and thermal dust polarization maps are provided at 5 arcmin FWHM resolution<br />
:* Synchrotron polarization maps are provided at 40 arcmin FWHM resolution<br />
:* The low-resolution CMB likelihood map is provided at an angular resolution of 40 arcmin FWHM.<br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The Commander temperature confidence mask is produced by thresholding the chi-square map characterizing the global fits, combined with direct CO amplitude thresholding to eliminate known leakage effects. In addition, we exclude all pixels brighter than 10mK in the 30GHz map, in order to remove particularly bright radio sources. Finally, we remove by hand the Virgo and Coma clusters, as well as the Crab nebula. A total of 88% of the sky is admitted for analysis.<br />
<br />
: The Commander polarization mask is produced in a similar manner, starting by thresholding the chi-squared map. In addition, we exclude all pixels for which the thermal dust polarization amplitude is brighter than 20µK<sub>RJ</sub> at 353GHz, as well as particularly bright objects in the PCCS2 source catalog. Finally, we remove a small region that is particularly contaminated by cosmic ray glitches. A total of 86% of the sky is admitted for analysis.<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing and data selection<br />
<br />
: The primary Commander 2018 analysis is carried out at full angular resolution, and no smoothing to a common resolution is applied to the maps, in constrast to the procedure employed in previous releases. The temperature analysis employs all nine Planck frequency maps between 30 and 857 GHz, while the polarization analysis employs the seven frequency maps between 30 and 353 GHz. No external data are used in the 2018 Commander analysis.<br />
<br />
; Priors<br />
<br />
: The following priors are enforced in the Commander analysis:<br />
* The 30 GHz zero-level is fixed to zero, while the 44 and 70 GHz zero-levels are fitted freely with uniform priors. HFI zero-levels are fitted with a strong CIB prior.<br />
* Dipoles are fitted only at 70 and 100 GHz; all other are fixed to zero.<br />
* Gaussian priors are enforced on spectral parameters, with values informed by the values derived in the high signal-to-noise areas of the sky<br />
* The Jeffreys ignorance prior is enforced on spectral parameters in addition to the informative Gaussian priors<br />
<br />
; Fitting procedure<br />
<br />
: Given data and priors, Commander either maximizes, or samples from, the Bayesian posterior, P(theta|data). Because this is a highly non-Gaussian and correlated distribution, involving millions of parameters, these operations are performed by means of the Gibbs sampling algorithm, in which joint samples from the full distributions are generated by iteratively sampling from the corresponding conditional posterior distributions, P(theta_i| data, theta_{j/=i}). All parameters are optimized jointly.<br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: Needlet Internal Linear Combination (or NILC in short) is a blind component separation method for the measurement of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from the multi-frequency observations of sky. It is an implementation of an Internal Linear Combination (ILC) of the frequency channels under consideration with minimum error variance on a frame of spherical wavelets called needlets, allowing localized filtering in both pixel space and harmonic space. The method includes multipoles up to 4000. Temperature and, E-mode and B-mode of polarization maps are produced independently. The Q and U maps of CMB polarization have been reconstructed from the corresponding E-mode and B-mode maps.<br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The effective beam is equivalent to a Gaussian circular beam with FWHM=5 arcminutes. <br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: For each needlet scale, we identify the frequency channel that contributes the most to the final reconstruction of CMB for that band. Then we scale the sky maps for 30GHz and 353GHz to that frequency channel to obtain the scaled-sky map and compute the root mean square (RMS) of full mission CMB map. The mask is obtained by setting a cut-off at each needlet scale. The cutoff values are 500 times the RMS value of CMB for temperature and 1500 times the RMS value of CMB for polarization for each scale. The final mask is reconstructed from the union of all the masks obtained at different needlet scales. The confidence masks cover the most contaminated regions of the sky, leaving approximately 78.6 per cent of useful sky for temperature and 82 per cent for polarization.<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky maps are convolved/deconvolved in harmonic space, to a common beam resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of 5 arc-minutes FWHM. A very small preprocessing mask has been used on the temperature sky maps. Prior to implement the pipeline on the sky maps, the masked regions are filled using PSM tools which uses an increasing number of neighboring pixels to fill regions deeper in the hole. At each iteration it uses pixels at up to twice the diameter of the pixel times number of iteration. No preprocessing has been done on polarization sky maps.<br />
<br />
; Linear combination<br />
<br />
: Needlet ILC weights are computed for each of T, E and B, for each scale and for each pixel of the needlet representation at that scale. For each of T, E and B, a full-sky CMB map, at 5 arc-minutes beam resolution, is synthesized from the NILC needlet coefficients.<br />
<br />
; Post-processing<br />
<br />
: E and B maps are re-combined into Q and U products using standard HEALPix tools.<br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
<br />
; Principle<br />
<br />
: SEVEM produces cleaned CMB maps at several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting in real space. The templates used in the SEVEM pipeline are typically constructed by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a cleaned CMB map at that frequency. This is done in real space at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. The <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the cleaned map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. Note that the same expression applies for I, Q and U. Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although foreground residuals are expected to be particularly large in those areas excluded by the minimisation). In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. A subset of the cleaned single frequency maps are then combined to obtain the final CMB map.<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of cleaned maps at different frequencies is of great interest by itself in order to test the robustness of the results, and these intermediate products (cleaned maps at individual frequencies for intensity and polarization) are also provided in the archive. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
;Intensity<br />
<br />
For the CMB intensity case, we have cleaned the 70, 100, 143 and 217 GHz maps using a total of five templates. In particular, three templates constructed as the difference of two consecutive Planck channels smoothed to a common resolution [30GHz &ndash; 44GHz], [44GHz &ndash; 70GHz] and [543GHz &ndash; 535GHz] as well as a fourth template given by the 857 GHz channel are used to clean the 100, 143 and 217 GHz maps. Before constructing the templates, the six frequency channels involved in the templates are inpainted at the corresponding point source positions detected at each frequency using the Mexican Hat Wavelet algorithm (these positions are given in the provided point sources masks). The size of the holes to be inpainted is determined taking into account the beam size of the channel as well as the flux of each source. The inpainting algorithm is based on simple diffuse inpainting, which fills one pixel with the mean value of the neighbouring pixels in an iterative way. To avoid inconsistencies when subtracting two channels, each frequency map is inpainted on the sources detected in that map and on the second map (if any) used to construct the template. Then the maps are smoothed to a common resolution, by convolving the first map with the beam of the second one and viceversa. For the fourth template, we simply filter the inpainted 857 GHz map with the 545 GHz beam. The cleaned 70 GHz map is produced similarly by considering two templates, the [30GHz &ndash; 44GHz] map and a second template obtained as [353GHz &ndash; 143GHz] constructed at the original resolution of the 70 GHz map.<br />
<br />
The coefficients to clean the frequency maps are obtained by minimising the variance outside the analysis mask, that covers the 1 per cent brightest emission of the sky as well as point sources detected at all frequency channels. Once the maps are cleaned, each of them is inpainted on the point sources positions detected at that (raw) channel. Then, the Mexican Hat Wavelet algorithm is run again, now on the cleaned maps. A number of new sources are found and are also inpainted at each channel. The resolution of the cleaned map is the same as that of the original data. Our final CMB map is then constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes and <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048 and the maximum considered multipole is <math>\ell=4000</math>. The monopole and dipole over the full-sky have been subtracted from the final CMB map.<br />
<br />
In addition, the cleaned CMB maps produced at 70, 100, 143 and 217 GHz frequencies are also provided. The resolution of these maps is the same as that of the uncleaned frequency channels and have been constructed at <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=1024 for 70 GHz and <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048 for the rest of the maps. They have been inpainted at the position of the point sources detected in the raw and cleaned maps (these positions are given in the corresponding inpainting masks). The monopole and dipole over the full-sky have also been removed from each of the cleaned maps.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask is produced by studying the differences between several SEVEM CMB reconstructions, which correspond to maps cleaned at different frequencies or using different analysis masks. The obtained mask leaves a useful sky fraction of approximately 84 per cent.<br />
<br />
;Polarization<br />
<br />
To clean the polarization maps, a procedure similar to the one used for intensity data is applied to the Q and U maps independently. Cleaned maps at 70, 100, 143 and 217 GHz are also produced but, given that a smaller number of frequency channels is available for polarization, the templates selected to clean the maps are different. In particular, we clean the 70 GHz map using two templates and the rest of the channels using different combinations of three templates. <br />
<br />
Following the same procedure as for the intensity case, those channels involved in the construction of the templates are inpainted in the position of the sources detected in the raw frequency maps. The sources are selected from a non-blind search, based on the Filtered Fusion technique, using as candidates those sources detected in intensity. These inpainted maps are then used to construct a total of six templates, one of them at two different resolutions. To trace the synchrotron emission, we construct a template as the subtraction of the 30 GHz minus the 44 GHz map, after being convolved with the beam of each other. For the dust emission, the following templates are considered: [217GHz &ndash; 143GHz], [217GHz &ndash; 100GHz] and [143GHz &ndash; 100GHz] at 1 degree resolution, [353GHz &ndash; 217GHz] and [353GHz &ndash; 143GHz] at 10 arcminutes resolution. The last template is also constructed at the resolution of the 70 GHz channel, in order to clean that map. <br />
<br />
Different combinations of these templates (see Table C.3 in {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l04}} for details) are then used to clean the raw 70, 100, 143 and 217 GHz channels (at its native resolution). The corresponding linear coefficients are estimated independently for Q and U by minimising the variance of the cleaned maps outside a mask, that covers the point sources detected in polarization and the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission. Once the maps have been cleaned, inpainting of the point sources detected at the corresponding raw maps is carried out. Then the non-blind search for point sources is run again on the cleaned maps and the new identified sources are also inpainted. The 100, 143 and 217 GHz cleaned maps are then combined in harmonic space, using E and B decomposition, to produce the final CMB maps for the Q and U components at a resolution of 5' (Gaussian beam) for a HEALPix parameter <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048. The maximum considered multipole is <math>\ell=3000</math>. Each map is weighted taking into account its noise and resolution. In addition, the lowest multipoles of the 217 GHz cleaned map are down-weighting, since they are expected to be more contaminated by the presence of residual systematics.<br />
<br />
The cleaned CMB maps at individual frequency channels produced as intermediate steps of SEVEM are also provided for Q and U, at their native resolution. The four pairs of Q/U maps have been inpainted in the positions of the detected point sources (given by the corresponding inpainting masks).<br />
<br />
The confidence mask is constructed as the product of two different masks. One of them is obtained from the 353 GHz data channel and excludes those regions more contaminated by thermal dust. The second mask is constructed by thresholding a map of the ratio between the locally estimated RMS of P in the cleaned CMB map, over the same quantity expected for a map containg CMB plus noise. The combination of these two masks leaves a useful sky fraction of approximately 80 per cent.<br />
<br />
;Resolution<br />
<br />
: The cleaned CMB maps for intensity and polarization are constructed at <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048 and at the standard resolution of 5 arcminutes (Gaussian beam). The maximum considered multipole is <math>\ell=4000</math> for intensity and <math>\ell=3000</math> for polarization.<br />
<br />
; Confidence masks<br />
<br />
: The confidence masks cover the most contaminated regions of the sky, leaving approximately 84 per cent of useful sky for intensity, and 80 per cent for polarization.<br />
<br />
; Point source masks<br />
<br />
: The point source masks contain the holes corresponding to the point sources detected at each raw Planck frequency channel in intensity and polarization. The number of sources detected are given in the upper part of Table C.1 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l04}}. There is one mask for intensity and another one for polarization per frequency channel. When using the Planck channels in the construction of the templates, these have been inpainted in the positions of the point sources given in these masks, to reduce the emission from this contaminant in the templates and its propagation to the final cleaned CMB maps.<br />
<br />
; Inpainting masks<br />
: The inpainting masks include the positions of the point sources that have been inpainted in the cleaned single-frequency maps. They contain point sources detected at the original raw data at those frequencies plus the sources detected in the cleaned frequency maps (see Table C.1 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l04}}). There is a mask for intensity and another one for polarization for each of the cleaned frequency maps (70, 100, 143 and 217 GHz) as well as the corresponding masks for the combined map. The latter are constructed as the product of the individual frequency masks of those cleaned channels that are combined in the final CMB map (i.e., the product of 143 and 217 GHz masks for intensity and of 100, 143 and 217 GHz for polarization). Note that the inpainted positions are not excluded by default by the SEVEM confidence mask, but only if they are considered unreliable with the general procedure used to construct the SEVEM confidence mask.<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Foreground-subtracted maps=====<br />
<br />
In addition to the regular CMB maps, SEVEM provides maps cleaned of the foregrounds for selected frequency channels (categorized as fgsub-sevem in the archive). In particular, for both intensity and polarization there are cleaned CMB maps available at 70, 100, 143 and 217 GHz, provided at the original resolution and <i>N</i><sub>side</sub> of the uncleaned channel (1024 for 70 GHz and 2048 for the rest of the maps).<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces CMB maps by linearly combining Planck input channels with multipole-dependent weights, including multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>. Temperature and polarization maps are produced independently. In temperature, two distinct CMB renderings are produced and then merged (hybridized) together into a single CMB intensity map. In polarization, the E and B modes are processed independently and the results are combined to produce Q and U maps.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA intensity map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes which is truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math>.<br />
: The SMICA Q and U maps are obtained similarly but are produced at <math>N_{side}</math>=1024 with an effective beam of 10 arc-minutes.<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel.<br />
<br />
; Intensity.<br />
<br />
SMICA operation starts with a pre-processing step to deal with regions of very strong emission<br />
(such as the Galactic center) and point sources. <br />
The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHz are then masked<br />
and harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> to form spectral statistics (all auto- and cross- angular spectra). Two different masks are used to compute the spectral statistics. The first one preserves most of the sky while the second preserves CMB-dominated areas. These two sets of spectral statistics are used to determine two sets of harmonic weights which are thus adapted to two different levels of contamination. <br />
Two CMB intensity maps are produced and then merged into a single intensity product.<br />
The merging process is devised so that the information at high Galactic latitude and medium-to-high multipole<br />
is provided by the CMB map computed from high Galatic latitude statistics<br />
(note that this map does not include the LFI channels)<br />
while the remaining information is provided by the other CMB map (which does include all Planck channels).<br />
See {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l04}} for more details.<br />
<br />
; Polarisation.<br />
<br />
The SMICA pipeline for polarization uses all the 7 polarized Planck channels.<br />
The E and B modes of the frequency maps are processed independently by SMICA<br />
to produce E and B modes of the CMB map from which Q and U maps are derived.<br />
The foreground model fitted by SMICA is 6-dimensional which is the maximal dimension<br />
supported by SMICA when operating in blind mode, that is, assuming nothing about the<br />
foregrounds except that they can be represented by a superposition of 6 components<br />
with unconstrained emission laws, unconstrained angular spectra and unconstrained angular correlation.<br />
See {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l04}} for more details.<br />
<br />
Note: in general, any I, Q and U CMB map can be transformed into a T, E and B CMB map using the HEALpix routines "anafast" and "synfast"(See the links below for the details). The "anafast" routine generates harmonic coefficients of T, E and B maps from the full sky I, Q and U maps. Finally, the full sky T, E and B maps in real space are generated using "synfast" routine separately from the corresponding harmonic coefficients obtained using "anafast". Further details about the spherical harmonic transform from HEALPix can be found in https://healpix.jpl.nasa.gov/html/intro.htm, https://healpix.jpl.nasa.gov/html/idlnode25.htm, and https://healpix.jpl.nasa.gov/html/idlnode27.htm". In the particular case of NILC, that works in needlet space, the IQU maps are converted into TEB maps using anafast and synfast, while in the case of SMICA, that works in harmonic space, the IQU maps are converted into TEB harmonic coefficents (alms) using anafast only.<br />
<br />
====Common Masks====<br />
<br />
Common masks have been defined for analysis of the CMB temperature and polarization maps. In previous releases, these were constructed simply as the union of the individual pipeline confidence masks. In the 2018 release, a more direct approach has been adopted, by thresholding the standard deviation map evaluated between each of the four cleaned CMB maps. This standard deviation mask is then augmented with the Commander and SEVEM confidence masks, as well as with the SEVEM and SMICA in-painting masks.<br />
<br />
In addition, we provide masks for unobserved pixels for the half-mission and odd-even data splits, as well as an in-painting mask. The latter is not intended for scientific analysis, but for producing visually acceptable CMB representation for PR purposes.<br />
<br />
In total, we provide the following masks:<br />
<br />
* COM_Mask_CMB-common-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits -- Temperature confidence mask with f<sub>sky</sub> = 77.9%. This is the preferred mask for temperature science analysis.<br />
* COM_Mask_CMB-common-Mask-Pol_2048_R3.00.fits -- Polarization confidence mask with f<sub>sky</sub> = 78.1%. This is the preferred mask for polarization science analysis.<br />
* COM_Mask_CMB-HM-Misspix-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits -- Temperature half-mission missing pixels mask with f<sub>sky</sub> = 96.0%. This should be applied in analyses of the half-mission split temperature maps.<br />
* COM_Mask_CMB-HM-Misspix-Mask-Pol_2048_R3.00.fits -- Polarization half-mission missing pixels mask with f<sub>sky</sub> = 96.1%. This should be applied in analyses of the half-mission split polarization maps.<br />
* COM_Mask_CMB-HM-Misspix-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits -- Temperature half-mission missing pixels mask with f<sub>sky</sub> = 98.1%. This should be applied in analyses of the half-mission split temperature maps.<br />
* COM_Mask_CMB-HM-Misspix-Mask-Pol_2048_R3.00.fits -- Polarization half-mission missing pixels mask with f<sub>sky</sub> = 98.1%. This should be applied in analyses of the half-mission split polarization maps.<br />
* COM_Mask_CMB-Inpainting-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits -- Temperature CMB in-painting mask with f<sub>sky</sub> = 97.9%.<br />
<br />
====CMB-subtracted frequency maps ("Foreground maps")====<br />
<br />
These are the full-sky, full-mission frequency maps in intensity and polarization from which the CMB has been subtracted. The maps contain foregrounds and noise. They are provided for each frequency channel and for each component separation method. They are grouped into 8 files, two for each method of which there is one for each instrument. The maps are are at N<sub>side</sub> = 1024 for the three LFI channels and at N<sub>side</sub> = 2048 for the six HFI channels. The filenames are:<br />
<br />
* ''LFI_Foregrounds-{method}_1024_Rn.nn.fits'' (145 MB each)<br />
* ''HFI_Foregrounds-{method}_2048_Rn.nn.fits'' (1.2 GB each)<br />
<br />
To remove the CMB, the respective CMB map was first deconvolved with the 5 arcmin beam, then convolved with the beam of the frequency channel, and finally subtracted from the frequency map. This was done using the <math>B_\rm{l}</math> in harmonic space, assuming a symmetric beam.<br />
<br />
The CMB-subtracted maps have complicated noise properties. The CMB maps contain a noise contribution from each of the frequency maps, depending on the weights with which they were combined. Therefore subtracting the CMB map from a frequency channel contributes additional noise from the other frequency channels. This caveat is particularly important for polarization, for which the noise in the cleaned CMB maps is large. After subtraction this noise term is perfectly correlated between frequency channels, with a perfect blackbody spectrum with T=2.7255K. Caution is therefore warranted when using these maps for scientific analysis.<br />
<br />
The frequency maps from which the CMB have been subtracted are:<br />
<br />
* ''LFI_SkyMap_0nn_1024_R3.00_full.fits''<br />
* ''HFI_SkyMap_nnn_2048_R3.00_full.fits''<br />
<br />
Note that the zodiacal light correction described [https://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php/Map-making#Zodiacal_light_correction here] was applied to the HFI temperature maps before the CMB subtraction.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====Masks====<br />
Summary table with the various masks that have been either been used or produced by the component separation methods to pre- or post-process the CMB maps.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left"<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Common mask filename || Field || Description || <br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-common-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits}} || TMASK || Common temperature confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-common-Mask-Pol_2048_R3.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common-Mask-Pol_2048_R3.00.fits}} || PMASK || Common polarization confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-HM-Misspix-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-HM-Misspix-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits}} || TMASK || Missing pixels temperature mask for the half-mission data split.<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-HM-Misspix-Mask-Pol_2048_R3.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-HM-Misspix-Mask-Pol_2048_R3.00.fits}} || PMASK || Missing pixels polarization mask for the half-mission data split.<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-OE-Misspix-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-OE-Misspix-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits}} || TMASK || Missing pixels temperature mask for the odd-even data split.<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-OE-Misspix-Mask-Pol_2048_R3.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-OE-Misspix-Mask-Pol_2048_R3.00.fits}} || PMASK || Missing pixels polarization mask for the odd-even data split.<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-Inpainting-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-Inpainting-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits}} || TMASK || Temperature inpainting mask.<br />
|- bgcolor="800000"<br />
|<br />
! ||<br />
|<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Pipeline specific mask filename || Field || Description<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-commander_2048_R3.00_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-commander_2048_R3.00_full.fits}} || TMASK || Commander temperature confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
| || PMASK || Commander polarization confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-nilc_2048_R3.00_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-nilc_2048_R3.00_full.fits}} || TMASK || NILC temperature confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
| || PMASK || NILC polarization confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-sevem_2048_R3.00_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-sevem_2048_R3.00_full.fits}} || TMASK || SEVEM temperature confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
| || PMASK || SEVEM polarization confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
| || TMASKINP || SEVEM polarization (pre-processing) in-painting mask.<br />
|-<br />
| || PMASKINP || SEVEM polarization (pre-processing) in-painting mask.<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-smica_2048_R3.00_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-smica_2048_R3.00_full.fits}} || TMASK || SMICA temperature confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
| || PMASK || SMICA polarization confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
| || TMASKINP || SMICA polarization (pre-processing) in-painting mask.<br />
|-<br />
| || PMASKINP || SMICA polarization (pre-processing) in-painting mask.<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. All pipelines use all maps between 30 and 857 GHz in temperature, and all maps between 30 and 353 GHz in polarization.<br />
<br />
===CMB file names===<br />
<br />
The CMB products are provided as a set of five files per pipeline, one file covering some part of the entire mission (full mission; first half-mission; second half-mission; odd rings; and even rings), with a filename structure on the form<br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}-2048-R3.00_{full,hm1,hm2,oe1,oe2}.fits''<br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-SEVEM-2048-R3.01_{full,hm1,hm2,oe1,oe2}.fits''. <br />
<br />
<span style="color:#FF0000>UPDATE 17 January 2019</span>: version R3.00 of the SEVEM CMB map has been replaced with version R3.01 because in version R3.00 the temperatue and polarization effective beams were missing. <br />
<br />
The first extension contains the full-sky CMB maps in the fields called I_STOKES, Q_STOKES, U_STOKES. The full-mission files additionally contains an ASCII table with the effective beam transfer function in the second extension. The structure of each file is given as follows:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB R3.00 map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb || I map <br />
|- <br />
|Q_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb || Q map <br />
|-<br />
|U_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb || U map <br />
|-<br />
|TMASK || Int || none || Temperature confidence mask (full-mission only) <br />
|-<br />
|PMASK || Int || none || Polarisation confidence mask (full-mission only) <br />
|-<br />
|I_STOKES_INP || Real*4 || K_cmb || I inpainted map <br />
|- <br />
|Q_STOKES_INP || Real*4 || K_cmb || Q inpainted map <br />
|-<br />
|U_STOKES_INP || Real*4 || K_cmb || U inpainted map <br />
|-<br />
|TMASKINP || Int || none || Temperature confidence mask (full-mission SEVEM, SMICA only) <br />
|-<br />
|PMASKINP || Int || none || Polarisation confidence mask (full-mission SEVEM, SMICA only) <br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (COMMANDER/NILC/SEVEM/SMICA)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Optional Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_TF'' (BINTABLE). ONLY FULL-MISSION DATA FILES<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|INT_BEAM || Real*4 || none || Effective beam transfer function. <br />
|-<br />
|POL_BEAM || Real*4 || none || Effective beam transfer function.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX_I || Int || value || Last multipole for Int beam TF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX_P || Int || value || Last multipole for Pol beam TF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method <br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
All maps are provided in thermodynamic units (K<sub>cmb</cmb>), with Nside=2048 and a nominal angular resolution of 5' FWHM.<br />
<br />
===CMB simulations===<br />
<br />
End-to-end simulations corresponding to each of the CMB data products are provided in terms of 999 CMB realization and 300 noise realizations individually propagated through each pipeline. These files are called <br />
*''dx12_v3_{method}_{cmb,noise,noise_hm1,noise_hm2,noise_oe1,noise_oe2}_mc_?????_raw.fits''<br />
*''dx12_v3_sevem_{freq}_{cmb,noise,noise_hm1,noise_hm2,noise_oe1,noise_oe2}_mc_?????_raw.fits'' for SEVEM cleaned cmb maps at single frequencies.<br />
*''dx12_v3_smica_nosz_{cmb,noise,noise_hm1,noise_hm2,noise_oe1,noise_oe2}_mc_?????_raw.fits'' for SMICA SZ-free cmb maps.<br />
<br />
Note that only 999 CMB realizations are available, as one realization was corrupted during processing.<br />
<br />
== Previous Releases: (2022-NPIPE), (2015) and (2013) CMB Maps ==<br />
<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="background-color: #9ef542;width:80%"><br />
'''2020 - NPIPE'''<br />
<div class="mw-collapsible-content"><br />
The NPIPE flight data maps include several subsets and differ from earlier Planck releases.<br />
<br />
'''CMB maps'''<br />
<br />
The full-frequency and A/B maps were component separated using Commander and SEVEM. At the moment only the "full" versions are provided.<br />
<br />
The Commander temperature map is now provided at <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=4096, making it incompatible with the <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048 polarization maps. To fit temperature and polarization into the same FITS file, two separate header data units (HDUs) are employed. HDU 1 contains the single temperature map and HDU 2 contains the <i>Q</i> and <i>U</i> polarization maps.<br />
<br />
SEVEM products include the jointly-fitted CMB map and foreground-subtracted frequency maps at 70-217GHz. Unlike Commander, SEVEM temperature maps do not contain the CMB dipole.<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align"left" border="1" cellpadding="15" cellspacing="20" width=880px<br />
|+ '''CMB map FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Component-separation code, coverage || Filename <br />
|-<br />
| SEVEM CMB map || COM_CMB_IQU-sevem_2048_R4.??.fits<br />
|-<br />
| SEVEM foreground-subtracted frequency map || COM_CMB_IQU-fff-fgsub-sevem_2048_R4.??.fits<br />
|-<br />
<br />
|}<br />
<br />
'''FITS file structure'''<br />
<br />
The FITS files for the sky maps contain a minimal primary header with no data, and a ''BINTABLE'' extension (EXTENSION 1, EXTNAME = ''FREQ-MAP'') containing the data. The structure is shown schematically in the figure below. The ''FREQ-MAP'' extension contains a 3- or 10-column table that includes the signal, hit-count, and variance maps, all in HEALPix format. The 3-column case is for intensity-only maps, while the 10-column case is for polarization. The number of rows is the number of map pixels, which is <i>N</i><sub>pix</sub> = 12 <i>N</i><sub>side</sub><sup>2</sup> for HEALPix maps, where <i>N</i><sub>side</sub> = 1024 or 2048 for most of the maps presented in this section.<br />
<br />
[[File:FITS_FreqMap.png | 550px | center | thumb | '''FITS file structure.''']]<br />
<br />
Note that file sizes are approximately 0.6 GB for <i>I</i>-only maps and 1.9 GB for <i>IQU</i> maps at <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048, but about 0.14 GB for <i>I</i>-only maps and 0.45 GB for <i>IQU</i> maps at <i>N</i><sub>pix</sub>=1024 .<br />
<br />
Keywords indicate the coordinate system ("GALACTIC"), the HEALPix ordering scheme ("NESTED"), the units (K<sub>CMB</sub> of each column, and of course the frequency channel ("FREQ"). Where polarization <i>Q</i> and <i>U</i> maps are provided, the "COSMO" polarization convention (used in HEALPix) is adopted, and it is specified in the "POLCCONV" keyword. The original filename is also given in the "FILENAME" keyword. The "BAD_DATA" keyword gives the value used by HEALPix to indicate pixels for which no signal is present (these will also have a hit-count value of 0). The main parameters are summarized in the table below.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Sky map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column name || Data type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_STOKES || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub> || Stokes <i>I</i> map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STOKES || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub> || Stokes <i>Q</i> map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|U_STOKES || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub> || Stokes <i>U</i> map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|HITS || Int*4 || none || The hit-count map<br />
|-<br />
|II_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> || <i>II</i> variance map<br />
|-<br />
|IQ_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> || <i>IQ</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|IU_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> || <i>IQ</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QQ_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> || <i>QQ</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QU_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> || <i>QU</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|UU_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> || <i>UU</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || HEALPix <i>N</i><sub>side</sub> <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12 <i>N</i><sub>side</sub><sup>2</sup> – 1 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ || String || nnn || Frequency channel <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
The same structure applies to all "SkyMap" products, independent of whether they are full channel, survey of half-ring. The distinction between the types of map is present in the FITS filename (and in the traceability comment fields).<br />
<br />
</div><br />
</div><br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="background-color: #FFDAB9;width:80%"><br />
'''2015 Release of CMB maps'''<br />
<div class="mw-collapsible-content"><br />
<br />
'''CMB maps'''<br />
<br />
CMB maps have been produced using four different methods: COMMANDER, NILC, SEVEM, and SMICA, as described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation | CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and references therein.<br />
<br />
'''As discussed extensively in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a01}}, {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a07}}, {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a09}}, and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}}, the residual systematics in the Planck 2015 polarization maps have been dramatically reduced compared to 2013, by as much as two orders of magnitude on large angular scales. Nevertheless, on angular scales greater than 10 degrees, correponding to l < 20, systematics are still non-negligible compared to the expected cosmological signal.'''<br />
<br />
'''It was not possible, for this data release, to fully characterize the large-scale residuals from the data or from simulations. Therefore all results published by the Planck Collaboration in 2015 which are based on CMB polarization have used maps which have been high-pass filtered to remove the large angular scales. We warn all users of the CMB polarization maps that they cannot yet be used for cosmological studies at large angular scales.'''<br />
<br />
'''For convenience, we provide as default polarized CMB maps from which all angular scales at l < 30 have been filtered out. '''<br />
<br />
For each method we provide the following:<br />
* Full-mission CMB intensity map, confidence mask and beam transfer function.<br />
* Full-mission CMB polarisation map, <br />
* A confidence mask.<br />
* A beam transfer function.<br />
In addition, and for characterisation purposes, we include six other sets of maps from three data splits: first/second half-ring, odd/even years and first/second half-mission. For the year-1,2 and half-mission-1,2 data splits we provide half-sum and half-difference maps which are produced by running the corresponding sums and differences inputs through the pipelines. The half-difference maps can be used to provide an approximate noise estimates for the full mission, but they should be used with caution. Each split has caveats in this regard: there are noise correlations between the half-ring maps, and missing pixels in the other splits. The Intensity maps are provided at Nside = 2048, at 5 arcmin resolution, while the Polarisation ones are provided at Nside = 1024, at 10 arcmin resolution. All maps are in units of K<sub>cmb</sub>.<br />
<br />
In addition, for each method we provide three sets of files, each categorized by the "R2.0X" label as follows:<br />
<br />
; ''R2.02''<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre-wrap; <br />
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This set of intensity and polarisation maps are provided at a resolution of Nside=1024. The Stokes Q and U maps are high-pass filtered to contain only modes above l > 30, as explained above and as used for analysis by the Planck Collaboration; THESE ARE THE POLARISATION MAPS WHICH SHOULD BE USED FOR COSMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS. Each type of map is packaged into a separate fits file (as for "R2.01"), resulting in file sizes which are easier to download (as opposed to the "R2.00" files), and more convenient to use with commonly used analysis software.<br />
</pre><br />
<br />
; ''R2.01''<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre-wrap; <br />
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This is the most complete set of 2015 CMB maps, containing Intensity products at a resolution of Nside=2048, and both Intensity and Polarisation at resolution of Nside=1024. For polarisation (Q and U), they contain all angular resolution modes. WE CAUTION USERS ONCE AGAIN THAT THE STOKES Q AND U MAPS ARE NOT CONSIDERED USEABLE FOR COSMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS AT l < 30. The structure of these files is the same as for "R2.02".<br />
</pre><br />
<br />
; ''R2.00''<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre-wrap; <br />
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This set of files is equivalent to the "R2.01" set, but are packaged into only two large files. Warning: downloading these files could be very lengthy...<br />
</pre><br />
<br />
For a complete description of the above data structures, see [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
<br />
The gallery below shows the Intensity, noise from half-mission, half-difference, and confidence mask for the four pipelines, in the order COMMANDER, NILC, SEVEM and SMICA, from top to bottom. The Intensity maps' scale is [–500.+500] μK, and the noise spans [–25,+25] μK. We do not show the Q and U maps since they have no significant visible structure to contemplate.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=300px heights=180> <br />
File:CMB_commander_tsig.png | '''commander temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tnoi.png | '''commander noise'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tmask.png | '''commander mask'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tsig.png | '''nilc temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tnoi.png | '''nilc noise'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tmask.png | '''nilc mask'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tsig.png | '''sevem temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tnoi.png | '''sevem noise'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tmask.png | '''sevem mask'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tsig.png | '''smica temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tnoi.png | '''smica noise'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tmask.png | '''smica mask'''</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
'''Product description '''<br />
<br />
'''COMMANDER'''<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: COMMANDER is a Planck software code implementing pixel based Bayesian parametric component separation. Each astrophysical signal component is modelled in terms of a small number of free parameters per pixel, typically in terms of an amplitude at a given reference frequency and a small set of spectral parameters, and these are fitted to the data with an MCMC Gibbs sampling algorithm. Instrumental parameters, including calibration, bandpass corrections, monopole and dipoles, are fitted jointly with the astrophysical components. A new feature in the Planck 2015 analysis is that the astrophysical model is derived from a combination of Planck, WMAP and a 408 MHz (Haslam et al. 1982) survey, providing sufficient frequency support to resolve the low-frequency components into synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust. For full details, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The Commander sky maps have different angular resolutions depending on data products:<br />
* The components of the full astrophysical sky model derived from the complete data combination (Planck, WMAP, 408 MHz) have a 1 degree FWHM resolution, and are pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=256. The corresponding CMB map defines the input map for the low-l Planck 2015 temperature likelihood. <br />
* The Commander CMB temperature map derived from Planck-only observations has an angular resolution of ~5 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=2048. This map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-857 GHz data), 7.5 arcmin (using 143-857 GHz data), and 5 arcmin (using 217-857 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
* The Commander CMB polarization map has an angular resolution of 10 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=1024. As for the temperature case, this map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-353 GHz data) and 10 arcmin (using 100-353 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The Commander confidence masks are produced by thresholding the chi-square map characterizing the global fits, combined with direct CO amplitude thresholding to eliminate known leakage effects. In addition, we exclude the 9-year WMAP point source mask in the temperature mask. For full details, see Sections 5 and 6 in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}. A total of 81% of the sky is admitted for high-resolution temperature analysis, and 83% for polarization analysis. For low-resolution temperature analysis, for which the additional WMAP and 408 MHz observations improve foreground constraints, a total of 93% of the sky is admitted. <br />
<br />
'''NILC'''<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: The Needlet-ILC (hereafter NILC) CMB map is constructed both in total intensity as well as polarization: Q and U Stokes parameters. For total intensity, all Planck frequency channels are included. For polarization, all polarization sensitive frequency channels are included, from 30 to 353 GHz. The solution, for T, Q and U is obtained by applying the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) technique in needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range. <br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The spectral analysis, and estimation of the NILC coefficients, is performed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math>. The effective beam is equivalent to a Gaussian circular beam with FWHM=5 arcminutes. <br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The same procedure is followed by SMICA and NILC for producing confidence masks, though with different parametrizations. A low resolution smoothed version of the NILC map, noise subtracted, is thresholded to 73.5 squared micro-K for T, and 6.75 squared micro-K for Q and U.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''SEVEM'''<br />
; Principle<br />
<br />
: SEVEM produces clean CMB maps at several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting in real space. The templates are typically constructed from the lowest and highest Planck frequencies and then subtracted from the CMB-dominated channels, with coefficients that are chosen to minimize the variance of the clean map outside a considered mask. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. Two single frequency clean maps are then combined to obtain the final CMB map.<br />
<br />
;Resolution<br />
<br />
: For intensity the clean CMB map is constructed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math> at Nside=2048 and at the standard resolution of 5 arcminutes (Gaussian beam).<br />
: For polarization the clean CMB map is produced at Nside=1024 with a resolution of 10 arcminutes (Gaussian beam) and a maximum <math>\ell=3071</math>.<br />
<br />
; Confidence masks<br />
<br />
: The confidence masks cover the most contaminated regions of the sky, leaving approximately 85 per cent of useful sky for intensity, and 80 per cent for polarization.<br />
<br />
'''Foregrounds-subtracted maps'''<br />
<br />
In addition to the regular CMB maps, SEVEM provides maps cleaned of the foregrounds for selected frequency channels (categorized as fgsub-sevem in the archive). In particular, for intensity there are clean CMB maps available at 100, 143 and 217 GHz, provided at the original resolution of the uncleaned channel and at Nside=2048. For polarization, there are Q/U clean CMB maps for the 70, 100 and 143 GHz (at Nside=1024). The 70 GHz clean map is provided at its original resolution, whereas the 100 and 143 GHz maps have a resolution given by a Gaussian beam with fwhm=10 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
'''SMICA'''<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces CMB maps by linearly combining all Planck input channels with multipole-dependent weights. It includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>. Temperature and polarization maps are produced independently.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA intensity map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes which is truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math> and is '''not''' deconvolved from the pixel window function. Thus the delivered beam window function is the product of a Gaussian beam at 5 arcminutes and the pixel window function for <math>N_{side}</math>=2048.<br />
: The SMICA Q and U maps are obtained similarly but are produced at <math>N_{side}</math>=1024 with an effective beam of 10 arc-minutes (to be multiplied by the pixel window function, as for the intensity map).<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. See section below detailing the production process.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''Common Masks'''<br />
<br />
A number of common masks have been defined for analysis of the CMB temperature and polarization maps. They are based on the confidence masks provided by the component separation methods. One mask for temperature and one mask for polarization have been chosen as the preferred masks based on subsequent analyses.<br />
<br />
The common masks for the CMB temperature maps are:<br />
<br />
* UT78: union of the Commander, SEVEM, and SMICA temperature confidence masks (the NILC mask was not included since it masks much less of the sky). It has f<sub>sky</sub> = 77.6%. This is the preferred mask for temperature.<br />
<br />
* UTA76: in addition to the UT78 mask, it masks pixels where standard deviation between the four CMB maps is greater than 10 &mu;K. It has f<sub>sky</sub> = 76.1%.<br />
<br />
The common masks for the CMB polarization maps are:<br />
<br />
* UP78: the union of the Commander, SEVEM and SMICA polarization confidence masks (the NILC mask was not included since it masks much less of the sky). It has f<sub>sky</sub> = 77.6%.<br />
<br />
* UPA77: In addition to the UP78 mask, it masks pixels where the standard deviation between the four CMB maps, averaged in Q and U, is greater than 4 &mu;K. It has f<sub>sky</sub> = 76.7%.<br />
<br />
* UPB77: in addition to the UP78 mask, it masks polarized point sources detected in the frequency channel maps. It has f<sub>sky</sub> = 77.4%. This is the preferred mask for polarization.<br />
<br />
Additional pre-processing masks used mainly for inpainting of the frequency and/or cmb maps is show below in [https://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=CMB_maps#Masks Masks]<br />
<br />
'''CMB-subtracted frequency maps ("Foreground maps")'''<br />
<br />
These are the full-sky, full-mission frequency maps in intensity from which the CMB has been subtracted. The maps contain foregrounds and noise. They are provided for each frequency channel and for each component separation method. They are grouped into 8 files, two for each method of which there is one for each instrument. The maps are are at N<sub>side</sub> = 1024 for the three LFI channels and at N<sub>side</sub> = 2048 for the six HFI channels. The filenames are:<br />
<br />
* ''LFI_Foregrounds-{method}_1024_Rn.nn.fits'' (145 MB each)<br />
* ''HFI_Foregrounds-{method}_2048_Rn.nn.fits'' (1.2 GB each)<br />
<br />
To remove the CMB, the respective CMB map was first deconvolved with the 5 arcmin beam, then convolved with the beam of the frequency channel, and finally subtracted from the frequency map. This was done using the <math>B_\rm{l}</math> in harmonic space, assuming a symmetric beam.<br />
<br />
The CMB-subtracted maps have complicated noise properties. The CMB maps contain a noise contribution from each of the frequency maps, depending on the weights with which they were combined. Therefore subtracting the CMB map from a frequency channel contributes additional noise from the other frequency channels.<br />
<br />
'''Quadrupole Residual Maps'''<br />
<br />
The second-order (kinematic) quadrupole is a frequency-dependent effect. During the production of the frequency maps the frequency-independent part was subtracted, which leaves a frequency-dependent residual quadrupole. The residuals in the component-separated CMB temperature maps have been estimated by simulating the effect in the frequency maps and propagating it through the component separation pipelines. The residuals have an amplitude of around 2 &mu;K peak-to-peak. The maps of the estimated residuals can be used to remove the effect by subtracting them from the CMB maps.<br />
<br />
'''Production process'''<br />
<br />
'''COMMANDER'''<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky maps are first convolved to a common resolution that is larger than the largest beam of any frequency channel. For the combined Planck, WMAP and 408 MHz temperature analysis, the common resolution is 1 degree FWHM; for the Planck-only, all-frequency analysis it is 40 arcmin FWHM; and for the intermediate-resolution analysis it is 7.5 arcmin; while for the full-resolution analysis, we assume all frequencies between 217 and 857 GHz have a common resolution, and no additional convolution is performed. For polarization, only two smoothing scales are employed, 40 and 10 arcmin, respectively. The instrumental noise rms maps are convolved correspondingly, properly accouting for their matrix-like nature. <br />
<br />
; Priors<br />
<br />
: The following priors are enforced in the Commander analysis:<br />
* All foreground amplitudes are enforced to be positive definite in the low-resolution analysis, while no amplitude priors are enforced in the high-resolution analyses<br />
* Monopoles and dipoles are fixed to nominal values for a small set of reference frequencies<br />
* Gaussian priors are enforced on spectral parameters, with values informed by the values derived in the high signal-to-noise areas of the sky<br />
* The Jeffreys ignorance prior is enforced on spectral parameters in addition to the informative Gaussian priors<br />
<br />
; Fitting procedure<br />
<br />
: Given data and priors, Commander either maximizes, or samples from, the Bayesian posterior, P(theta|data). Because this is a highly non-Gaussian and correlated distribution, involving millions of parameters, these operations are performed by means of the Gibbs sampling algorithm, in which joint samples from the full distributions are generated by iteratively sampling from the corresponding conditional posterior distributions, P(theta_i| data, theta_{j/=i}). For the low-resolution analysis, all parameters are optimized jointly, while in the high-resolution analyses, which employs fewer frequency channels, low signal-to-noise parameters are fixed to those derived at low resolution. Examples of such parameters include monopoles and dipoles, calibration and bandpass parameters, thermal dust temperature etc.<br />
<br />
'''NILC'''<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky frequency maps are deconvolved using the DPC beam transfer function provided, and re-convolved with a 5 arcminutes FWHM circular Gaussian beam. In polarization, prior to the smoothing process, all sky E and B maps are derived from Q and U using standard HEALPix tools from each individual frequency channels <br />
<br />
; Linear combination<br />
<br />
: Pre-processed input frequency maps are decomposed in needlet coefficients, specified in the Appendix B of the Planck A11 paper, with shape given by Table B.1. Minimum variance coefficients are then obtained, using all channels for T, from 30 to 353 for E and B. <br />
<br />
; Post-processing<br />
<br />
: E and B maps are re-combined into Q and U products using standard HEALPix tools. <br />
<br />
'''SEVEM'''<br />
<br />
The templates used in the SEVEM pipeline are typically constructed by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMB map at that frequency. This is done in real space at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. The <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. Note that the same expression applies for I, Q and U. Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of clean maps at different frequencies is of great interest in order to test the robustness of the results, and these intermediate products (clean maps at individual frequencies for intensity and polarization) are also provided in the archive. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned independently and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
;Intensity<br />
<br />
For the CMB intensity map, we have cleaned the 100 GHz, 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps using a total of four templates. Three of them are constructed as the difference of two consecutive Planck channels smoothed to a common resolution (30-44, 44-70 and 545-353) while the 857 GHz channel is chosen as the fourth template. First of all, the six frequency channels which are going to be part of the templates are inpainted at the point source positions detected using the Mexican Hat Wavelet algorithm. The size of the holes to be inpainted is determined taking into account the beam size of the channel as well as the flux of each source. The inpainting algorithm is based on simple diffuse inpainting, which fills one pixel with the mean value of the neighbouring pixels in an iterative way. To avoid inconsistencies when subtracting two channels, each frequency map is inpainted on the sources detected in that map and on the second map (if any) used to construct the template. Then the maps are smoothed to a common resolution (the first channel in the subtraction is smoothed with the beam of the second map and viceversa). For the 857 GHz template, we simply filter the inpainted map with the 545 GHz beam.<br />
<br />
The coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance outside the analysis mask, that covers the 1 per cent brightest emission of the sky as well as point sources detected at all frequency channels. Once the maps are cleaned, each of them is inpainted on the point sources positions detected at that (raw) channel. Then, the MHW algorithm is run again, now on the clean maps. A relatively small number of new sources are found and are also inpainted at each channel. The resolution of the clean map is the same as that of the original data. Our final CMB map is then constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
In addition, the clean CMB maps produced at 100, 143 and 217 GHz frequencies are also provided. The resolution of these maps is the same as that of the uncleaned frequency channels and have been constructed at Nside=2048. They have been inpainted at the position of the detected point sources. Note that these three clean maps should be close to independent, although some level of correlation will be present since the same templates have been used to clean the maps.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask is produced by studying the differences between several SEVEM CMB reconstructions, which correspond to maps cleaned at different frequencies or using different analysis masks. The obtained mask leaves a useful sky fraction of approximately 85 per cent.<br />
<br />
;Polarization<br />
<br />
To clean the polarization maps, a procedure similar to the one used for intensity data is applied to the Q and U maps independently. However, given that a narrower frequency coverage is available for polarization, the selected templates and maps to be cleaned are different. In particular, we clean the 70, 100 and 143 GHz using three templates for each channel. The first step of the pipeline is to inpaint the positions of the point sources using the MHW, in those channels which are going to be used in the construction of templates, following the same procedure as for the intensity case. The inpainting is performed in the frequency maps at their native resolution. These inpainted maps are then used to construct a total of four templates. To trace the synchrotron emission, we construct a template as the subtraction of the 30 GHz minus the 44 GHz <br />
map, after being convolved with the beam of each other. For the dust emission, the following templates are considered: 353-217 GHz (smoothed at 10' resolution), 217-143 GHz (used <br />
to clean 70 and 100 GHz) and 217-100 GHz (to clean 143 GHz). These two last templates are constructed at 1 degree resolution since an additional smoothing becomes necessary in<br />
order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the template. Conversely to the <br />
intensity case and due to the lower availability of frequency channels, it becomes necessary to use the maps to be cleaned as part of one of the templates. In this way, the 100 GHz <br />
map is used to clean the 143 GHz frequency channel and viceversa, making the clean maps less independent between them than in the intensity case.<br />
<br />
These templates are then used to clean the non-inpainted 70 (at its native resolution), 100 (at 10' resolution) and 143 GHz maps (also at 10'). The corresponding linear coefficients are estimated independently for Q and U by minimising the variance of the clean maps outside a mask, that covers point sources and the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission. Once the maps have been cleaned, inpainting of the point sources detected at the corresponding raw maps is carried out. The size of the holes to be inpainted takes<br />
into account the additional smoothing of the 100 and 143 GHz maps. The 100 and 143 GHz clean maps are then combined in harmonic space, using E and B decomposition, to produce the final CMB maps for the Q and U components at a resolution of 10' (Gaussian beam) for a HEALPix parameter Nside=1024. Each map is weighted taking into account its <br />
corresponding noise level at each multipole. Finally, before applying the post-processing HPF to the clean polarization data, the region with the brightest Galactic residuals is inpainted (5 per cent of the sky) to avoid the introduction of ringing around the Galactic centre in the filtering process.<br />
<br />
The clean CMB maps at individual frequency channels produced as intermediate steps of SEVEM are also provided for Q and U, constructed at Nside=1024. The clean 70 GHz map is provided at its native resolution, while the clean maps at 100 and 143 GHz frequencies have a resolution of 10 arcminutes (Gaussian beam). The three maps have been inpainted in the positions of the detected point sources. Note that, due to the availability of a smaller number of templates for polarization than for intensity, these maps are less independent than for the temperature case, since, for instance, the 100 GHz map is used to clean the 143 GHz one and viceversa.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask includes all the pixels above a given threshold in a smoothed version of the clean CMB map, the regions more contaminated by the CO emission and those pixels more affected by the high-pass filtering, leaving a useful sky fraction of approximately 80 per cent.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''SMICA'''<br />
<br />
A) Production of the intensity map.<br />
<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: Before computing spherical harmonic coefficients, all input maps undergo a pre-processing step to deal with regions of very strong emission (such as the Galactic center) and point sources. The point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue are fitted in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole is filled in by a simple diffusive process to ensure a smooth transition and mitigate spectral leakage. The diffusive inpainting process is also applied to some regions of very strong emissions. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, here all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and filled-in similarly.<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHz are harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> and co-added with multipole-dependent weights as shown in the figure.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: A confidence mask is determined (see the Planck paper) and all regions which have been masked in the pre-processing step are added to it.<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filter_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input intensity maps (after they are re-beamed to 5 arc-minutes and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), as a function of multipole.''']]--><br />
<br />
B) Production of the Q and U polarisation maps.<br />
<br />
The SMICA pipeline for polarization uses all the 7 polarized Planck channels. The production of the Q and U maps is similar to the production of the intensity map. However, there is no input point source pre-processing of the input maps. The regions of very strong emission are masked out using an apodized mask before computing the E and B modes of the input maps and combining them to produce the E and B modes of the CMB map. Those modes are then used to synthesize the U and Q CMB maps. The E and B parts of the input frequency maps being processed jointly, there are, at each multipole, 2*7=14 coefficients (weights) defined to produce the E modes of the CMB map and as many to produce the B part. The weights are displayed in the figure below. The Q and U maps were originally produced at Nside=2048 with a 5-arc-minute resolution, but were downgraded to Nside=1024 with a 10 arc-minute resolution for this release.<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filterEB_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input E and B modes (after they are re-beamed to 5 arcmin and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), in order to produce the E and B modes of the CMB map. A given frequency channel is encoded in a given color. Solid lines are for E modes and dashed lines are for B modes. The thick lines are for the EE or BB weights; the thin lines are for the EB or BE weights. See the paper for more details.''']]--><br />
<br />
'''Masks'''<br />
<br />
Summary table with the different masks that have been used by the component separation methods to pre-process and to process the frequency maps and the CMB maps.<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Commander 2015 (PR2) || Used for diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps || Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description<br />
|-<br />
|T_MASK || NO || NO || T_MASK (the equivalent to PR1 VALMASK) is the confidence mask in temperature that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-commander-field-Int_2048_R2.01_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-commander-field-Int_2048_R2.01_full.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|P_MASK || NO || NO || P_MASK is the confidence mask in polarization that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-commander_1024_R2.02_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-commander_1024_R2.02_full.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|INP_MASK_T || NO || YES || Three masks have been used for inpaiting of CMB maps for specific <math>\ell</math> ranges: three different angular resolution maps (40 arcmin, 7.5 arcmin and full resolution), are produced using different data combinations and foreground models. Each of these are inpainted with their own masks with a constrained Gaussian realization before coadding the three maps in harmonic space.<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_commander_dx11d2_temp_n0256_lmax200_0256_R2.03.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_commander_dx11d2_temp_n0256_lmax200_0256_R2.03.fits}}<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_commander_dx11d2_temp_lmax1000_2048_R2.03.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_commander_dx11d2_temp_lmax1000_2048_R2.03.fits}}<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_commander_dx11d2_temp_fullres_2048_R2.03.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_commander_dx11d2_temp_fullres_2048_R2.03.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
|INP_MASK_P || NO || YES || Mask used for inpainting of the CMB map in polarization.<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_commander_dx11d2_pol_fullres_1024_R2.02.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_commander_dx11d2_pol_fullres_1024_R2.02.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="800000"<br />
|<br />
! ||<br />
|<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! SEVEM 2015 (PR2) || Used for Diffuse Inpainting of foregorund subtracted CMB maps (fgsub-sevem) || Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description<br />
|-<br />
|T_MASK || NO || NO || T_MASK (the equivalent to PR1 VALMASK) is the confidence mask in temperature that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-sevem-field-Int_2048_R2.01_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-sevem-field-Int_2048_R2.01_full.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|P_MASK || NO || NO || P_MASK is the confidence mask in polarization that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-sevem_1024_R2.02_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-sevem_1024_R2.02_full.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|INP_MASK_T || YES || NO || Point source mask for temperature. This mask is the combination of the 143 and 217 T point source masks used for the inpainting of the foreground subtracted CMB maps at those two frequencies. These two maps have been combined to produce the final CMB map. <br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_extended143x217_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_extended143x217_2048_R2.00.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
|INP_MASK_P || YES || NO || Point source mask for polarization. This mask is the combination of the 100 and 143 point source masks used for the inpainting of the foreground subtracted CMB maps at those two frequencies. These two maps have been combined to produce the final CMB map.<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_extended100x143_fw10_1024_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_extended100x143_fw10_1024_R2.00.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
|INP_MASK_T for the cleaned 100, 143 and 217 GHz CMB || YES || NO || Three temperature point source masks used for the inpainting of the foreground subtracted CMB maps at the considered frequencies: <br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_ps100_extended_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_ps100_extended_2048_R2.00.fits}} (clean 100 GHz)<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_ps143_extended_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_ps143_extended_2048_R2.00.fits}} (clean 143 GHz)<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_ps217_extended_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_ps217_extended_2048_R2.00.fits}} (clean 217 GHz)<br />
|-<br />
|INP_MASK_P for the cleaned 70, 100 and 143 GHz CMB|| YES || NO || Three polarization point source masks used for the inpainting of the foreground subtracted CMB maps at the considered frequencies:<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_dx11d_70_pol_varhole_full_99p90_1024_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_dx11d_70_pol_varhole_full_99p90_1024_R2.00.fits}} (clean 70 GHz);<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_dx11d_100_pol_99.97pc_radius_3sigma_10arcmin_1024_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_dx11d_100_pol_99.97pc_radius_3sigma_10arcmin_1024_R2.00.fits}} (clean 100 GHz)<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_dx11d_143_pol_99.97pc_radius_3sigma_10arcmin_1024_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_dx11d_143_pol_99.97pc_radius_3sigma_10arcmin_1024_R2.00.fits}} (clean 143 GHz)<br />
|- bgcolor="800000"<br />
|<br />
! ||<br />
|<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! NILC 2015 (PR2) || Used for diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps || Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description<br />
|-<br />
|T_MASK || NO || NO || T_MASK (the equivalent to PR1 VALMASK) is the confidence mask in temperature that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-nilc-field-Int_2048_R2.01_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-nilc-field-Int_2048_R2.01_full.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|P_MASK || NO || NO || P_MASK is the confidence mask in polarization that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-nilc_1024_R2.02_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-nilc_1024_R2.02_full.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|INP_MASK || YES || NO || The pre-processing involves inpainting of the holes in INP_MASK in the frequency maps prior to applying NILC on them. The first mask (nside 2048) has been used for the pre-processing of sky maps for HFI channels and second one for LFI channels (nside 1024). They can downloaded here:<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_nilc_dx11_preproc_1024_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_nilc_dx11_preproc_1024_R2.00.fits}}<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_nilc_dx11_preproc_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_nilc_dx11_preproc_2048_R2.00.fits}} <br />
|- bgcolor="800000"<br />
|<br />
! ||<br />
|<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! SMICA 2015 (PR2) || Used for diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps || Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description<br />
|-<br />
|T_MASK || NO || YES || T_MASK (the equivalent to PR1 VALMASK) is the confidence mask in temperature that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-smica-field-Int_2048_R2.01_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-smica-field-Int_2048_R2.01_full.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|P_MASK || NO || YES || P_MASK is the confidence mask in polarization that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-smica_1024_R2.02_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-smica_1024_R2.02_full.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|I_MASK || YES || NO || I_MASK, as in PR1, defines the regions over which CMB is not built. It is a combination of point source masks, Galactic plane mask and other bright regions like LMC, SMC, etc. It can downloaded here: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_smica_harmonic_mask_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_smica_harmonic_mask_2048_R2.00.fits}}<br />
|- <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
'''Inputs'''<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. SMICA and SEVEM use all the maps between 30 and 857 GHz; NILC uses the ones between 44 and 857 GHz. Commander-Ruler uses frequency channel maps from 30 to 353 GHz. <br />
<br />
'''File names and structure'''<br />
<br />
Three sets of files FITS files containing the CMB products are available. In the first set all maps (i.e., covering different parts of the mission) and all characterisation products for a given method and a given Stokes parameter are grouped into a single extension, and there are two files per ''method'' (smica, nilc, sevem, and commander), one for the high resolution data (I only, Nside=2048) and one for low resolution data (Q and U only, Nside=1024). Each file also contains the associated confidence mask(s) and beam transfer function. '''These are the R2.00 files''' which have names like<br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}-field-{Int,Pol}_Nside_R2.00.fits''<br />
There are 7 coverage periods:''full'', ''halfyear-1,2'', ''halfmission-1,2'', or ''ringhalf-1,2'', and 4 characterisation products: ''half-sum'' and half-difference'' for the year and the half-mission periods.<br />
<br />
In the second second set the different coverages are split into different files which in most cases have a single extension with I only (Nside=1024) and I, Q, and U (Nside=1024). This second set was built in order to allow users to use standard codes like ''spice'' or ''anafast'' on them, directly. So this set contains the I maps at Nside=1024, which are not contained in the R2.00; on the other hand this set does not contain the half-sum and half-difference maps. '''These are the 2.01 files''' which have names like <br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}{-field-Int|Pol}_Nside_R2.01_{coverage}.fits'' for the regular CMB maps, and <br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-{fff}-{fgsub-sevem}{-field-Int|Pol}_Nside_R2.01_{coverage}.fits'' for the sevem frequency-dependent, foregrounds-subtracted maps,<br />
where ''field-Int|Pol'' is used to indicate that only Int or only Pol data are contained (at present only ''field-Int'' is used for the high-res data), and is not included in the low-res data which contains all three Stokes parameters, and ''coverage'' is one of ''full'', ''halfyear-1,2'', ''halfmission-1,2'', or ''ringhalf-1,2''. Also, the coverage=''full'' files contain also the confidence mask(s) and beam transfer function(s) which are valid for all products of the same method (one for Int and one for Pol when both are available). <br />
<br />
The third set has the same structure as the Nside=1024 products of R2.01, but '''the Q and U maps have been high-pass filtered to remove modes at l < 30 for the reasons indicated earlier. These are the default products for use in polarisation studies. They are the R2.02 files''' which have names like:<br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}_1024_R2.02_{coverage}.fits'' <br />
<br />
'''Version 2.00 files'''<br />
<br />
These have names like <br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}-field-{Int,Pol}_Nside_R2.00.fits'', <br />
as indicated above. They contain:<br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data;<br />
* one or two ''BINTABLE'' data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 14 columns in which the first 13 columns is a CMB maps produced from the full or a subset of the data, as described in the table below, and the last column in a confidence mask. There is a single extension for ''Int'' files, and two, for Q and U, for ''Pol'' files. <br />
* a ''BINTABLE'' extension containing the beam transfer function (mistakenly called window function in the files).<br />
<br />
If Nside=1024 the files contain I, Q and U maps, whereas if Nside=2048 only the I map is given.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB R2.00 map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I or Q or U || Real*4 || uK_cmb || I or Q or U map <br />
|- <br />
|HM1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HM2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 2 <br />
|-<br />
|YR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 1 <br />
|-<br />
|YR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HMHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HMHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|YRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|YRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|HRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half diff <br />
|-<br />
|MASK || BYTE || || Confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (smica/nilc/sevem/commander)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE) . See Note 1<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAMWF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam transfer function, including the pixel window function. See Note 2.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam TF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Last multipole of beam TF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Notes:<br />
# Actually this is a beam ''transfer'' function, so BEAM_TF would have been more appropriate.<br />
# The beam transfer function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>. The beam ''Window'' function is given by <math>W_\ell = B_\ell^2</math><br />
<br />
<br />
'''Version 2.01 files'''<br />
<br />
These files have names like:<br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}{-field-Int|Pol}_Nside_R2.01_{coverage}.fits'' for the regular CMB maps, and <br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-{fff}-{fgsub-sevem}{-field-Int|Pol}_Nside_R2.01_{coverage}.fits'' for the sevem frequency-dependent, foregrounds-subtracted maps,<br />
as indicated above. They contain:<br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data, but with a NUMEXT keyword giving the number of extensions contained.<br />
* one or two ''BINTABLE'' data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 1-5 columns depending on the file, as described above: the minimum begin I only, the maximum begin I, Q, U, and confidence masks for I and P. <br />
* a ''BINTABLE'' extension containing the beam transfer function(s): one for I, and a second one that applies to both Q and U, if Nslde=1024.<br />
<br />
If Nside=1024 the files contain I, Q and U maps, whereas if Nside=2048 only the I map is given. The basic structure, including information on the most important keywords, is given in the table below. For full details, see the FITS header.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB R2.01 map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_Stokes || Real*4 || uK_cmb || I map (Nside=1024,2048) <br />
|- <br />
|Q_Stokes || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Q map (Nside=1024) <br />
|-<br />
|U_Stokes || Real*4 || uK_cmb || U map (Nside=2048) <br />
|-<br />
|TMASK || Int || none || optional Temperature confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
|PMASK || Int || none || optional Polarisation confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Optional Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_TF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|INT_BEAM || Real*4 || none || Effective beam transfer function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|POL_BEAM || Real*4 || none || Effective beam transfer function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX_I || Int || value || Last multipole for Int beam TF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX_P || Int || value || Last multipole for Pol beam TF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method <br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
Notes:<br />
# The beam transfer function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>. The beam ''Window'' function is given by <math>W_\ell = B_\ell^2</math><br />
<br />
'''Version 2.02 files'''<br />
<br />
'''For polarisation work, this is the default set of files to be used for cosmological analysis. Their content is identical to the "R2.01" files, except that angular scales above l < 30 have been filtered out of the Q and U maps. '''<br />
<br />
These files have names like:<br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}_1024_R2.02_{coverage}.fits'' <br />
as indicated above. They contain:<br />
The files contain <br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data, but with a NUMEXT keyword giving the number of extensions contained.<br />
* one or two ''BINTABLE'' data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 1-5 columns depending on the file, as described above: the minimum begin I only, the maximum begin I, Q, U, and confidence masks for I and P. <br />
* a ''BINTABLE'' extension containing 2 beam transfer functions: one for I and one that applies to both Q and U.<br />
<br />
If Nside=1024 the files contain I, Q and U maps, whereas if Nside=2048 only the I map is given. The basic structure, including information on the most important keywords, is given in the table below. For full details, see the FITS header.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB R2.02 map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_Stokes || Real*4 || uK_cmb || I map (Nside=1024) <br />
|- <br />
|Q_Stokes || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Q map (Nside=1024) <br />
|-<br />
|U_Stokes || Real*4 || uK_cmb || U map (Nside=2048) <br />
|-<br />
|TMASK || Int || none || optional Temperature confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
|PMASK || Int || none || optional Polarisation confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Optional Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_TF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|INT_BEAM || Real*4 || none || Effective beam transfer function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|POL_BEAM || Real*4 || none || Effective beam transfer function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX_I || Int || value || Last multipole for Int beam TF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX_P || Int || value || Last multipole for Pol beam TF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method <br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
Notes:<br />
# The beam transfer function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>. The beam ''Window'' function is given by <math>W_\ell = B_\ell^2</math><br />
<br />
'''Common masks'''<br />
<br />
The common masks are stored into two different files for Temperature and Polarisation respectively:<br />
* ''COM_CMB_IQU-common-field-MaskInt_2048_R2.nn.fits'' with the UT78 and UTA76 masks<br />
* ''COM_CMB_IQU-common-field-MaskPol_1024_R2.nn.fits'' with the UP78, UPA77, and UPB77 masks<br />
Both files contain also a map of the missing pixels for the half mission and year coverage periods. The 2 (for Temp) or 3 (for Pol) masks and the missing pixels maps are stored in 4 or 5 column a ''BINTABLE'' extension 1 of each file, named ''MASK-INT'' and ''MASK-POL'', respectively. See the FITS file headers for details.<br />
<br />
'''Quadrupole residual maps'''<br />
<br />
The quadrupole residual maps are stored in files called:<br />
* ''COM_CMB_IQU-kq-resid-{method}-field-Int_2048_R2.02.fits''<br />
<br />
They contain:<br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data, but with a NUMEXT keyword giving the number of extensions contained.<br />
* a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with a single column of Npix lines containing the HEALPIX map indicated<br />
<br />
The basic structure of the data extension is shown below. For full details see the extension header. <br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Kinetic quadrupole residual map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|INTENSITY || Real*4 || K_cmb || the residual map <br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || KQ-RESID || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
</div><br />
</div><br />
<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="background-color: #EEE8AA;width:80%"><br />
'''2013 Release of CMB maps'''<br />
<div class="mw-collapsible-content"><br />
<br />
'''CMB Maps'''<br />
<br />
CMB maps have been produced by the SMICA, NILC, SEVEM and COMMANDER-Ruler pipelines. Of these, the SMICA product is considered the preferred one overall and is labelled ''Main product'' in the Planck Legacy Archive, while the other two are labeled as ''Additional product''.<br />
<br />
SMICA and NILC also produce ''inpainted'' maps, in which the Galactic Plane, some bright regions and masked point sources are replaced with a constrained CMB realization such that the whole map has the same statistical distribution as the observed CMB. <br />
<br />
The results of SMICA, NILC and SEVEM pipeline are distributed as a FITS file containing 4 extensions:<br />
# CMB maps and ancillary products (3 or 6 maps)<br />
# CMB-cleaned foreground maps from LFI (3 maps)<br />
# CMB-cleaned foreground maps from HFI (6 maps)<br />
# Effective beam of the CMB maps (1 vector)<br />
<br />
The results of COMMANDER-Ruler are distributed as two FITS files (the high and low resolution) containing the following extensions: <br />
High resolution N$_\rm{side}$=2048 (note that we don't provide the CMB-cleaned foregrounds maps for LFI and HFI because the Ruler resolution (~7.4') is lower than the HFI highest channel and and downgrading it will introduce noise correlation). <br />
# CMB maps and ancillary products (4 maps)<br />
# Effective beam of the CMB maps (1 vector)<br />
<br />
Low resolution N$_\rm{side}$=256<br />
# CMB maps and ancillary products (3 maps)<br />
# 10 example CMB maps used in the montecarlo realization (10 maps)<br />
# Effective beam of the CMB maps (1 vector)<br />
<br />
For a complete description of the data structure, see the [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center" style="background:#efefef;"<br />
|+ style="background:#eeeeee;" | '''The maps (CMB, noise, masks) contained in the first extension'''<br />
|-<br />
!width=40px | Col name<br />
!width=200px| SMICA<br />
!width=200px| NILC<br />
!width=200px| SEVEM <br />
!width=200px| COMMANDER-Ruler H<br />
!width=200px| COMMANDER-Ruler L <br />
!width=300px| Description / notes<br />
|-<br />
| align="left" | 1: I<br />
| [[File: CMB-smica.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMB-nilc.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMB-sevem.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMB-CR_h.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMB-CR_l.png|200px]]<br />
| Raw CMB anisotropy map. These are the maps used in the component separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}.<br />
|-<br />
| 2: NOISE<br />
| [[File: CMBnoise-smica.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMBnoise-nilc.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMBnoise-sevem.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMBnoise-CR_h.png|200px]]<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| Noise map. Obtained by propagating the half-ring noise through the CMB cleaning pipelines.<br />
|-<br />
| 3: VALMASK<br />
| [[File: valmask-smica.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: valmask-nilc.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: valmask-sevem.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: valmask-cr_h.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: valmask-cr_l.png|200px]]<br />
| Confidence map. Pixels with an expected low level of foreground contamination. These maps are only indicative and obtained by different ad hoc methods. They cannot be used to rank the CMB maps.<br />
|-<br />
| 4: I_MASK<br />
| [[File: cmbmask-smica.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: cmbmask-nilc.png|200px]]<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| Some areas are masked for the production of the raw CMB maps (for NILC: point sources from 44 GHz to 857 GHz; for SMICA: point sources from 30 GHz to 857 GHz, Galatic region and additional bright regions).<br />
|-<br />
| 5: INP_CMB<br />
| [[File: CMBinp-smica.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMBinp-nilc.png|200px]]<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| Inpainted CMB map. The raw CMB maps with some regions (as indicated by INP_MASK) replaced by a constrained Gaussian realization. The inpainted SMICA map was used for PR.<br />
|-<br />
| 6: INP_MASK<br />
| [[File: inpmask-smica.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: inpmask-nilc.png|200px]]<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| Mask of the inpainted regions. For SMICA, this is identical to I_MASK. For NILC, it is not.<br />
|}<br />
<br />
The component separation pipelines are described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation|CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Section 3 and Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}} and references therein.<br />
<br />
The union (or common) mask is defined as the union of the confidence masks from the four component separation pipelines, the three listed above and Commander-Ruler. It leaves 73% of the sky available, and so it is denoted as U73.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''Product description '''<br />
<br />
'''SMICA'''<br />
<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces a CMB map by linearly combining all Planck input channels (from 30 to 857 GHz) with weights which vary with the multipole. It includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math> '''and deconvolved from the pixel window'''. It means that, ideally, one would have <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) * B_\ell(5')^2</math>, where <math>C_\ell(map)</math> is the angular spectrum of the map, where <math>C_\ell(sky)</math> is the angular spectrum of the CMB and <math>B_\ell(5')</math> is a 5-arcminute Gaussian beam function. Note however that, by convention, the effective beam window function <math>B_\ell(fits)</math> provided in the FITS file does include a pixel window function. Therefore, it is equal to <math>B_\ell(fits) = B_\ell(5') / p_\ell(2048)</math> where <math>p_\ell(2048)</math> denotes the pixel window function for an Nside=2048 pixelization.<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. <br />
; Masks and inpainting<br />
: The raw SMICA CMB map has valid pixels except at the location of masked areas: point sources, Galactic plane, some other bright regions. Those invalid pixels are indicated with the mask named 'I_MASK'. The raw SMICA map has been inpainted, producing the map named "INP_CMB". Inpainting consists in replacing some pixels (as indicated by the mask named INP_MASK) by the values of a constrained Gaussian realization which is computed to ensure good statistical properties of the whole map (technically, the inpainted pixels are a sample realisation drawn under the posterior distribution given the un-masked pixels.<br />
<br />
'''NILC'''<br />
<br />
; Principle<br />
: The Needlet-ILC (hereafter NILC) CMB map is constructed from all Planck channels from 44 to 857 GHz and includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 3200</math>. It is obtained by applying the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) technique in needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: As in the SMICA product except that there is no abrupt truncation at <math>\ell_{max}= 3200</math> but a smooth transition to <math>0</math> over the range <math>2700\leq\ell\leq 3200</math>.<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. The threshold is somewhat arbitrary.<br />
; Masks and inpainting<br />
: The raw NILC map has valid pixels except at the location of masked point sources. This is indicated with the mask named 'I_MASK'. The raw NILC map has been inpainted, producing the map named "INP_CMB". The inpainting consists in replacing some pixels (as indicated by the mask named INP_MASK) by the values of a constrained Gaussian realization which is computed to ensure good statistical properties of the whole map (technically, the inpainted pixels are a sample realisation drawn under the posterior distribution given the un-masked pixels.<br />
<br />
'''SEVEM'''<br />
<br />
The aim of SEVEM is to produce clean CMB maps at one or several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting. The templates are internal, i.e., they are constructed from Planck data, avoiding the need for external data sets, which usually complicates the analyses and may introduce inconsistencies. The method has been successfully applied to Planck simulations{{BibCite|leach2008}} and to WMAP polarisation data{{BibCite|fernandezcobos2012}}. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. Note that unlike the other products, SEVEM does not provide the mask of regions not used in the productions of the CMB ma (''I_MASK'') nor an inpainted version of the map and its associated mask. On the other hand, it provides ''channel maps'' and 100, 143, and 217 GHz which are used as the building blocks of the final map.<br />
<br />
'''COMMANDER-Ruler'''<br />
<br />
COMMANDER-Ruler is the Planck software implementing a pixel based parametric component separation. Amplitude of CMB and the main diffuse foregrounds along with the relevant spectral parameters for those (see below in the Astrophysical Foreground Section for the latter) are parametrized and fitted in single MCMC chains conducted at $N_\rm{side}$=256 using COMMANDER, implementing a Gibbs Sampling. The CMB amplitude which <br />
is obtained in these runs corresponds to the delivered low resolution CMB component from COMMANDER-Ruler which has a FWHM of 40 arcminutes. The sampling of the foreground parameters is applied to the data at full resolution for obtaining the high resolution CMB component from Ruler which is available on the PLA. In the {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06|1|Planck Component Separation paper}} additional material is discussed, specifically concerning the sky region where the solutions are reliable, in terms of chi2 maps. The products mainly consist of: <br />
<br />
* Maps of the Amplitudes of the CMB at low resolution, $N_\rm{side}$=256, along with the standard deviations of the outputs, beam profiles derived from the production process. <br />
* Maps of the CMB amplitude, along with the standard deviations, at high resolution, $N_\rm{side}$=2048, beam profiles derived from the production process. <br />
* Mask obtained on the basis of the precision in the fitting procedure; the thresholding is evaluated through the COMMANDER-Ruler likelihood analysis and excludes 13% of the sky, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}.<br />
<br />
'''Production process'''<br />
<br />
'''SMICA'''<br />
<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: All input maps undergo a pre-processing step to deal with point sources. The point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue are fitted in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole is filled in by a simple diffusive process to ensure a smooth transition and mitigate spectral leakage. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, here all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and filled-in similarly.<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHzare harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> and co-added with multipole-dependent weights as shown in the figure.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: The areas masked in the pre-processing step are replaced by a constrained Gaussian realization.<br />
<br />
Note: The visible power deficit in the raw CMB map around the galactic plane is due to the smooth fill-in of the masked areas in the input maps (the result of the pre-processing). It is not to be confused with the post-processing step of inpainting of the CMB map with a constrained Gaussian realization.<br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:smica.jpg|thumb|center|500px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input maps (after they are re-beamed to 5 arcmin and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), as a function of multipole.''']]<br />
<br />
'''NILC'''<br />
<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: Same pre-processing as SMICA (except the 30 GHz channel is not used).<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 44 to 857 GHz are linearly combined with weights which depend on location on the sky and on the multipole range up to <math>\ell = 3200</math>. This is achieved using a needlet (redundant spherical wavelet) decomposition. For more details, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: The areas masked in the pre-processing plus other bright regions step are replaced by a constrained Gaussian realization as in the SMICA post-processing step.<br />
<br />
'''SEVEM'''<br />
<br />
The templates are internal, i.e., they are constructed from Planck data, avoiding the need for external data sets, which usually complicates the analyses and may introduce inconsistencies. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. The fitting can be done in real or wavelet space (using a fast wavelet adapted to the HEALPix pixelization{{BibCite|casaponsa2011}}) to properly deal with incomplete sky coverage. By expediency, however, we fill in the small number of unobserved pixels at each channel with the mean value of its neighbouring pixels before applying SEVEM.<br />
<br />
We construct our templates by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMB map at that frequency. This is done either in real or in wavelet space (i.e., scale by scale) at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. If the cleaning is performed in real space, the <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. When working in wavelet space, the cleaning is done in the same way at each wavelet scale independently (i.e., the linear coefficients depend on the scale). Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).<br />
<br />
An additional level of flexibility can also be considered: the linear coefficients can be the same for all the sky, or several regions with different sets of coefficients can be considered. The regions are then combined in a smooth way, by weighting the pixels at the boundaries, to avoid discontinuities in the clean maps.<br />
Since the method is linear, we may easily propagate the noise properties to the final CMB map. Moreover, it is very fast and permits the generation of thousands of simulations to character- ize the statistical properties of the outputs, a critical need for many cosmological applications. The final CMB map retains the angular resolution of the original frequency map.<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of clean maps at different frequencies is of great interest in order to test the robustness of the results. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned independently and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
In particular, we have cleaned the 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps using four templates constructed as the difference of the following Planck channels (smoothed to a common resolution): (30-44), (44-70), (545-353) and (857-545). For simplicity, the three maps have been cleaned in real space, since there was not a significant improvement when using wavelets (especially at high latitude). In order to take into account the different spectral behaviour of the foregrounds at low and high galactic latitudes, we have considered two independent regions of the sky, for which we have used a different set of coefficients. The first region corresponds to the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission, whereas the second region is defined by the remaining 97 per cent of the sky. For the first region, the coefficients are actually estimated over the whole sky (we find that this is more optimal than perform the minimisation only on the 3 per cent brightest region, where the CMB emission is very sub-dominant) while for the second region, we exclude the 3 per cent brightest region of the sky, point sources detected at any frequency and those pixels which have not been observed at all channels.<br />
Our final CMB map has then been constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
Moreover, additional CMB clean maps (at frequencies between 44 and 353 GHz) have also been produced using different combinations of templates for some of the analyses carried out in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p09}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p14}}. In particular, clean maps from 44 to 353 GHz have been used for the stacking analysis presented in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p14}}, while frequencies from 70 to 217 GHz were used for consistency tests in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p09}}.<br />
<br />
'''COMMANDER-Ruler'''<br />
<br />
The production process consist in low and high resolution runs according to the description above. <br />
; Low Resolution Runs: Same as the Astrophysics Foregrounds Section below; The CMB amplitude is fitted along with the other foreground parameters and constitutes the CMB Low Resolution Rendering which is in the PLA. <br />
; Ruler Runs: the sampling at high resolution is used to infer the probability distribution of spectral parameters which is exploited at full resolution in order to obtain the High Resolution CMB Rendering which is in the PLA. <br />
<br />
''' Masks '''<br />
<br />
Summary table with the different masks that have been used by the component separation methods to pre-process and to process the frequency maps and the CMB maps.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Commander 2013 (PR1) || Used for diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps || Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK || NO || NO || VALMASK is the confidence mask that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside <br />
<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits}} and {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits}} for low resolution analyses.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="800000"<br />
|<br />
! ||<br />
|<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! SEVEM 2013 (PR1) || Used diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps || Used for Constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK || NO || NO || VALMASK is the confidence mask that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside <br />
<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-sevem_2048_R1.12.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-sevem_2048_R1.12.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="800000"<br />
|<br />
! ||<br />
|<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! NILC 2013 (PR1) || Used for diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps || Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK || NO || NO || VALMASK is the confidence mask that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|I_MASK || NO || NO || I_MASK defines the regions over which CMB is not built. It is a combination of point source masks, Galactic plane mask and other bright regions like LMC, SMC, etc. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits}}.<br />
|- <br />
|INP_MASK || NO || YES || It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="800000"<br />
|<br />
! ||<br />
|<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! SMICA 2013 (PR1) || Used for diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps || Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK || NO || NO || VALMASK is the confidence mask that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside <br />
<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|I_MASK || YES || YES || I_MASK defines the regions over which CMB is not built. It is a combination of point source masks, Galactic plane mask and other bright regions like LMC, SMC, etc. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits}}.<br />
|- <br />
|INP_MASK || YES || YES || INP_MASK for SMICA 2013 release is identical to I_MASK above. <br />
|-<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
'''Inputs'''<br />
<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. SMICA and SEVEM use all the maps between 30 and 857 GHz; NILC uses the ones between 44 and 857 GHz. Commander-Ruler uses frequency channel maps from 30 to 353 GHz. <br />
<br />
'''File names and structure'''<br />
<br />
The FITS files corresponding to the three CMB products are the following:<br />
<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-sevem_2048_R1.12.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-sevem_2048_R1.12.fits}}<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits}}<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits}}<br />
<br />
<br />
The files contain a minimal primary extension with no data and four ''BINTABLE'' data extensions. Each column of the ''BINTABLE'' is a (Healpix) map; the column names and the most important keywords of each extension are described in the table below; for the remaining keywords, please see the FITS files directly. <br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK_cmb || CMB temperature map<br />
|-<br />
|NOISE || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Estimated noise map (note 1)<br />
|-<br />
|I_STDEV|| Real*4 || uK_cmb || Standard deviation, ONLY on COMMANDER-Ruler products<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Confidence mask (note 2)<br />
|-<br />
|I_MASK|| Byte || none || Mask of regions over which CMB map is not built (Optional - see note 3)<br />
|-<br />
|INP_CMB || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Inpainted CMB temperature map (Optional - see note 3)<br />
|-<br />
|INP_MASK || Byte || none || mask of inpainted pixels (Optional - see note 3)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. EXTNAME = ''FGDS-LFI'' (BINTABLE) - Note 4<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LFI_030 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 30 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|LFI_044 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 44 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|LFI_070 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 70 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 3. EXTNAME = ''FGDS-HFI'' (BINTABLE) - Note 4<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|HFI_100 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 100 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|HFI_143 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 143 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|HFI_217 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 217 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|HFI_353 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 353 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|HFI_545 || Real*4 || MJy/sr || 545 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|HFI_857 || Real*4 || MJy/sr || 857 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function. See Note 5.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Notes:<br />
# The half-ring half-difference (HRHD) map is made by passing the half-ring frequency maps independently through the component separation pipeline, then computing half their difference. It approximates a noise realisation, and gives an indication of the uncertainties due to instrumental noise in the corresponding CMB map. <br />
# The confidence mask indicates where the CMB map is considered valid. <br />
# This column is not present in the SEVEM and COMMANDER-Ruler product file. For SEVEM these three columns give the CMB channel maps at 100, 143, and 217 GHz (columns ''C100'', ''C143'', and ''C217'', in units of K_cmb.<br />
# The subtraction of the CMB from the sky maps in order to produce the foregrounds map is done after convolving the CMB map to the resolution of the given frequency. Those columns are not present in the COMMANDER-Ruler product file.<br />
# The beam window function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>.<br />
<br />
The low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler CMB product is organized in the following way:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK_cmb || CMB temperature map obtained as average over 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Corresponding Standard deviation amongst the 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Confidence mask<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. EXTNAME = ''CMB-Sample'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM01 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM02 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM03 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM04 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM05 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM06 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM07 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM08 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM09 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM10 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
The FITS files containing the ''union'' (or common) maks is:<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-union_2048_R1.10.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common}}<br />
which contains a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with a single column (named ''U73'') for the mask, which is boolean (FITS ''TFORM = B''), in GALACTIC coordinates, NESTED ordering, and Nside=2048.<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for a small file containing the SMICA cmb map with no additional information (noise or masks) we provide such a file here<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
This file contains a single extension with a single column containing the SMICA cmb temperature map.<br />
<br />
'''Cautionary notes'''<br />
<br />
# The half-ring CMB maps are produced by the pipelines with parameters/weights fixed to the values obtained from the full maps. Therefore the CMB HRHD maps do not capture all of the uncertainties due to foreground modelling on large angular scales.<br />
# The HRHD maps for the HFI frequency channels underestimate the noise power spectrum at high l by typically a few percent. This is caused by correlations induced in the pre-processing to remove cosmic ray hits. The CMB is mostly constrained by the HFI channels at high l, and so the CMB HRHD maps will inherit this deficiency in power.<br />
# The beam transfer functions do not account for uncertainties in the beams of the frequency channel maps.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
</div><br />
</div><br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
</div><br />
</div><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|007]]</div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=CMB_maps&diff=14600CMB maps2022-12-14T11:59:28Z<p>Mlopezca: /* Previous Releases: (2022-NPIPE), (2015) and (2013) CMB Maps */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{DISPLAYTITLE:2018 CMB maps}}<br />
<br />
== Overview ==<br />
This section describes the CMB maps produced from the Planck data. These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of each product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITS file containing the data and associated information.<br />
All the details can be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l04}} and, for earlier releases, in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}}.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
==2018 CMB maps==<br />
CMB maps have been produced using four different methods: COMMANDER, NILC, SEVEM, and SMICA, as described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation | CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l04}} and references therein.<br />
<br />
For each method we provide the following:<br />
* Full-mission CMB intensity map, with corresponding confidence mask and effective beam transfer function.<br />
* Full-mission CMB polarisation map, with corresponding confidence mask and effective beam transfer function. <br />
* In-painted CMB intensity and polarisation maps, intended for PR purposes.<br />
In addition, and for characterisation purposes, we include four other sets of maps from two data splits: odd/even ring and first/second half-mission. Half-difference maps can be used to provide an approximate noise estimates for the full mission, but they should be used with caution. Each split has caveats in this regard: there are noise correlations between the odd/even split maps, and unobserved pixels in both splits. Masks flagging unobserved pixels are provided for each split, and we strongly encourage use of these when analysing split maps. <br />
<br />
In addition, for SMICA, we also provide a CMB map from which Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources have been projected out, while SEVEM provides cleaned single-frequency maps at 70, 100, 143 and 217 GHz for both intensity and polarization.<br />
<br />
All CMB products are provided at an approximate angular resolution of 5 arcmin FWHM, and HEALPix resolution <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048. Explicit effective beam profiles are provided for each foreground reduced CMB map.<br />
<br />
For a complete description of the above data structures, see [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
The gallery below shows the inpainted full-mission CMB maps (T, Q and U) from each pipeline. The temperature maps are shown at 5 arcmin FWHM resolution, while the polarization maps are shown at 80 arcmin FWHM resolution, in order to suppress instrumental noise. <br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=300px heights=180> <br />
File:cmb_inpaint_T_commander_v1.png | '''Commander temperature'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_Q_commander_v1.png | '''Commander Stokes Q'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_U_commander_v1.png | '''Commander Stokes U'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_T_nilc_v1.png | '''NILC temperature'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_Q_nilc_v1.png | '''NILC Stokes Q'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_U_nilc_v1.png | '''NILC Stokes U'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_T_sevem_v2.png | '''SEVEM temperature'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_Q_sevem_v2.png | '''SEVEM Stokes Q'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_U_sevem_v2.png | '''SEVEM Stokes U'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_T_smica_v1.png | '''SMICA temperature'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_Q_smica_v1.png | '''SMICA Stokes Q'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_U_smica_v1.png | '''SMICA Stokes U'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
===Product description ===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: COMMANDER is a Planck software code implementing Bayesian parametric component separation. Each astrophysical signal component is modelled in terms of a small number of free parameters per pixel, typically in terms of an amplitude at a given reference frequency and a small set of spectral parameters, and these are fitted to the data with an MCMC Gibbs sampling algorithm. A new feature in the Planck 2018 analysis is support for multi-resolution analysis, allowing reconstruction of both CMB and foreground maps at full angular resolution. Only CMB products are provided from Commander in the Planck 2018 release (see {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l04}} for details), while for polarization both CMB and foreground products are provided. For temperature, a dedicated low-resolution CMB map is also provided as part of the Planck likelihood package.<br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The Commander sky maps have different angular resolutions depending on data products:<br />
:* CMB temperature and polarization and thermal dust polarization maps are provided at 5 arcmin FWHM resolution<br />
:* Synchrotron polarization maps are provided at 40 arcmin FWHM resolution<br />
:* The low-resolution CMB likelihood map is provided at an angular resolution of 40 arcmin FWHM.<br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The Commander temperature confidence mask is produced by thresholding the chi-square map characterizing the global fits, combined with direct CO amplitude thresholding to eliminate known leakage effects. In addition, we exclude all pixels brighter than 10mK in the 30GHz map, in order to remove particularly bright radio sources. Finally, we remove by hand the Virgo and Coma clusters, as well as the Crab nebula. A total of 88% of the sky is admitted for analysis.<br />
<br />
: The Commander polarization mask is produced in a similar manner, starting by thresholding the chi-squared map. In addition, we exclude all pixels for which the thermal dust polarization amplitude is brighter than 20µK<sub>RJ</sub> at 353GHz, as well as particularly bright objects in the PCCS2 source catalog. Finally, we remove a small region that is particularly contaminated by cosmic ray glitches. A total of 86% of the sky is admitted for analysis.<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing and data selection<br />
<br />
: The primary Commander 2018 analysis is carried out at full angular resolution, and no smoothing to a common resolution is applied to the maps, in constrast to the procedure employed in previous releases. The temperature analysis employs all nine Planck frequency maps between 30 and 857 GHz, while the polarization analysis employs the seven frequency maps between 30 and 353 GHz. No external data are used in the 2018 Commander analysis.<br />
<br />
; Priors<br />
<br />
: The following priors are enforced in the Commander analysis:<br />
* The 30 GHz zero-level is fixed to zero, while the 44 and 70 GHz zero-levels are fitted freely with uniform priors. HFI zero-levels are fitted with a strong CIB prior.<br />
* Dipoles are fitted only at 70 and 100 GHz; all other are fixed to zero.<br />
* Gaussian priors are enforced on spectral parameters, with values informed by the values derived in the high signal-to-noise areas of the sky<br />
* The Jeffreys ignorance prior is enforced on spectral parameters in addition to the informative Gaussian priors<br />
<br />
; Fitting procedure<br />
<br />
: Given data and priors, Commander either maximizes, or samples from, the Bayesian posterior, P(theta|data). Because this is a highly non-Gaussian and correlated distribution, involving millions of parameters, these operations are performed by means of the Gibbs sampling algorithm, in which joint samples from the full distributions are generated by iteratively sampling from the corresponding conditional posterior distributions, P(theta_i| data, theta_{j/=i}). All parameters are optimized jointly.<br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: Needlet Internal Linear Combination (or NILC in short) is a blind component separation method for the measurement of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from the multi-frequency observations of sky. It is an implementation of an Internal Linear Combination (ILC) of the frequency channels under consideration with minimum error variance on a frame of spherical wavelets called needlets, allowing localized filtering in both pixel space and harmonic space. The method includes multipoles up to 4000. Temperature and, E-mode and B-mode of polarization maps are produced independently. The Q and U maps of CMB polarization have been reconstructed from the corresponding E-mode and B-mode maps.<br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The effective beam is equivalent to a Gaussian circular beam with FWHM=5 arcminutes. <br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: For each needlet scale, we identify the frequency channel that contributes the most to the final reconstruction of CMB for that band. Then we scale the sky maps for 30GHz and 353GHz to that frequency channel to obtain the scaled-sky map and compute the root mean square (RMS) of full mission CMB map. The mask is obtained by setting a cut-off at each needlet scale. The cutoff values are 500 times the RMS value of CMB for temperature and 1500 times the RMS value of CMB for polarization for each scale. The final mask is reconstructed from the union of all the masks obtained at different needlet scales. The confidence masks cover the most contaminated regions of the sky, leaving approximately 78.6 per cent of useful sky for temperature and 82 per cent for polarization.<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky maps are convolved/deconvolved in harmonic space, to a common beam resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of 5 arc-minutes FWHM. A very small preprocessing mask has been used on the temperature sky maps. Prior to implement the pipeline on the sky maps, the masked regions are filled using PSM tools which uses an increasing number of neighboring pixels to fill regions deeper in the hole. At each iteration it uses pixels at up to twice the diameter of the pixel times number of iteration. No preprocessing has been done on polarization sky maps.<br />
<br />
; Linear combination<br />
<br />
: Needlet ILC weights are computed for each of T, E and B, for each scale and for each pixel of the needlet representation at that scale. For each of T, E and B, a full-sky CMB map, at 5 arc-minutes beam resolution, is synthesized from the NILC needlet coefficients.<br />
<br />
; Post-processing<br />
<br />
: E and B maps are re-combined into Q and U products using standard HEALPix tools.<br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
<br />
; Principle<br />
<br />
: SEVEM produces cleaned CMB maps at several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting in real space. The templates used in the SEVEM pipeline are typically constructed by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a cleaned CMB map at that frequency. This is done in real space at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. The <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the cleaned map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. Note that the same expression applies for I, Q and U. Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although foreground residuals are expected to be particularly large in those areas excluded by the minimisation). In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. A subset of the cleaned single frequency maps are then combined to obtain the final CMB map.<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of cleaned maps at different frequencies is of great interest by itself in order to test the robustness of the results, and these intermediate products (cleaned maps at individual frequencies for intensity and polarization) are also provided in the archive. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
;Intensity<br />
<br />
For the CMB intensity case, we have cleaned the 70, 100, 143 and 217 GHz maps using a total of five templates. In particular, three templates constructed as the difference of two consecutive Planck channels smoothed to a common resolution [30GHz &ndash; 44GHz], [44GHz &ndash; 70GHz] and [543GHz &ndash; 535GHz] as well as a fourth template given by the 857 GHz channel are used to clean the 100, 143 and 217 GHz maps. Before constructing the templates, the six frequency channels involved in the templates are inpainted at the corresponding point source positions detected at each frequency using the Mexican Hat Wavelet algorithm (these positions are given in the provided point sources masks). The size of the holes to be inpainted is determined taking into account the beam size of the channel as well as the flux of each source. The inpainting algorithm is based on simple diffuse inpainting, which fills one pixel with the mean value of the neighbouring pixels in an iterative way. To avoid inconsistencies when subtracting two channels, each frequency map is inpainted on the sources detected in that map and on the second map (if any) used to construct the template. Then the maps are smoothed to a common resolution, by convolving the first map with the beam of the second one and viceversa. For the fourth template, we simply filter the inpainted 857 GHz map with the 545 GHz beam. The cleaned 70 GHz map is produced similarly by considering two templates, the [30GHz &ndash; 44GHz] map and a second template obtained as [353GHz &ndash; 143GHz] constructed at the original resolution of the 70 GHz map.<br />
<br />
The coefficients to clean the frequency maps are obtained by minimising the variance outside the analysis mask, that covers the 1 per cent brightest emission of the sky as well as point sources detected at all frequency channels. Once the maps are cleaned, each of them is inpainted on the point sources positions detected at that (raw) channel. Then, the Mexican Hat Wavelet algorithm is run again, now on the cleaned maps. A number of new sources are found and are also inpainted at each channel. The resolution of the cleaned map is the same as that of the original data. Our final CMB map is then constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes and <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048 and the maximum considered multipole is <math>\ell=4000</math>. The monopole and dipole over the full-sky have been subtracted from the final CMB map.<br />
<br />
In addition, the cleaned CMB maps produced at 70, 100, 143 and 217 GHz frequencies are also provided. The resolution of these maps is the same as that of the uncleaned frequency channels and have been constructed at <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=1024 for 70 GHz and <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048 for the rest of the maps. They have been inpainted at the position of the point sources detected in the raw and cleaned maps (these positions are given in the corresponding inpainting masks). The monopole and dipole over the full-sky have also been removed from each of the cleaned maps.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask is produced by studying the differences between several SEVEM CMB reconstructions, which correspond to maps cleaned at different frequencies or using different analysis masks. The obtained mask leaves a useful sky fraction of approximately 84 per cent.<br />
<br />
;Polarization<br />
<br />
To clean the polarization maps, a procedure similar to the one used for intensity data is applied to the Q and U maps independently. Cleaned maps at 70, 100, 143 and 217 GHz are also produced but, given that a smaller number of frequency channels is available for polarization, the templates selected to clean the maps are different. In particular, we clean the 70 GHz map using two templates and the rest of the channels using different combinations of three templates. <br />
<br />
Following the same procedure as for the intensity case, those channels involved in the construction of the templates are inpainted in the position of the sources detected in the raw frequency maps. The sources are selected from a non-blind search, based on the Filtered Fusion technique, using as candidates those sources detected in intensity. These inpainted maps are then used to construct a total of six templates, one of them at two different resolutions. To trace the synchrotron emission, we construct a template as the subtraction of the 30 GHz minus the 44 GHz map, after being convolved with the beam of each other. For the dust emission, the following templates are considered: [217GHz &ndash; 143GHz], [217GHz &ndash; 100GHz] and [143GHz &ndash; 100GHz] at 1 degree resolution, [353GHz &ndash; 217GHz] and [353GHz &ndash; 143GHz] at 10 arcminutes resolution. The last template is also constructed at the resolution of the 70 GHz channel, in order to clean that map. <br />
<br />
Different combinations of these templates (see Table C.3 in {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l04}} for details) are then used to clean the raw 70, 100, 143 and 217 GHz channels (at its native resolution). The corresponding linear coefficients are estimated independently for Q and U by minimising the variance of the cleaned maps outside a mask, that covers the point sources detected in polarization and the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission. Once the maps have been cleaned, inpainting of the point sources detected at the corresponding raw maps is carried out. Then the non-blind search for point sources is run again on the cleaned maps and the new identified sources are also inpainted. The 100, 143 and 217 GHz cleaned maps are then combined in harmonic space, using E and B decomposition, to produce the final CMB maps for the Q and U components at a resolution of 5' (Gaussian beam) for a HEALPix parameter <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048. The maximum considered multipole is <math>\ell=3000</math>. Each map is weighted taking into account its noise and resolution. In addition, the lowest multipoles of the 217 GHz cleaned map are down-weighting, since they are expected to be more contaminated by the presence of residual systematics.<br />
<br />
The cleaned CMB maps at individual frequency channels produced as intermediate steps of SEVEM are also provided for Q and U, at their native resolution. The four pairs of Q/U maps have been inpainted in the positions of the detected point sources (given by the corresponding inpainting masks).<br />
<br />
The confidence mask is constructed as the product of two different masks. One of them is obtained from the 353 GHz data channel and excludes those regions more contaminated by thermal dust. The second mask is constructed by thresholding a map of the ratio between the locally estimated RMS of P in the cleaned CMB map, over the same quantity expected for a map containg CMB plus noise. The combination of these two masks leaves a useful sky fraction of approximately 80 per cent.<br />
<br />
;Resolution<br />
<br />
: The cleaned CMB maps for intensity and polarization are constructed at <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048 and at the standard resolution of 5 arcminutes (Gaussian beam). The maximum considered multipole is <math>\ell=4000</math> for intensity and <math>\ell=3000</math> for polarization.<br />
<br />
; Confidence masks<br />
<br />
: The confidence masks cover the most contaminated regions of the sky, leaving approximately 84 per cent of useful sky for intensity, and 80 per cent for polarization.<br />
<br />
; Point source masks<br />
<br />
: The point source masks contain the holes corresponding to the point sources detected at each raw Planck frequency channel in intensity and polarization. The number of sources detected are given in the upper part of Table C.1 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l04}}. There is one mask for intensity and another one for polarization per frequency channel. When using the Planck channels in the construction of the templates, these have been inpainted in the positions of the point sources given in these masks, to reduce the emission from this contaminant in the templates and its propagation to the final cleaned CMB maps.<br />
<br />
; Inpainting masks<br />
: The inpainting masks include the positions of the point sources that have been inpainted in the cleaned single-frequency maps. They contain point sources detected at the original raw data at those frequencies plus the sources detected in the cleaned frequency maps (see Table C.1 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l04}}). There is a mask for intensity and another one for polarization for each of the cleaned frequency maps (70, 100, 143 and 217 GHz) as well as the corresponding masks for the combined map. The latter are constructed as the product of the individual frequency masks of those cleaned channels that are combined in the final CMB map (i.e., the product of 143 and 217 GHz masks for intensity and of 100, 143 and 217 GHz for polarization). Note that the inpainted positions are not excluded by default by the SEVEM confidence mask, but only if they are considered unreliable with the general procedure used to construct the SEVEM confidence mask.<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Foreground-subtracted maps=====<br />
<br />
In addition to the regular CMB maps, SEVEM provides maps cleaned of the foregrounds for selected frequency channels (categorized as fgsub-sevem in the archive). In particular, for both intensity and polarization there are cleaned CMB maps available at 70, 100, 143 and 217 GHz, provided at the original resolution and <i>N</i><sub>side</sub> of the uncleaned channel (1024 for 70 GHz and 2048 for the rest of the maps).<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces CMB maps by linearly combining Planck input channels with multipole-dependent weights, including multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>. Temperature and polarization maps are produced independently. In temperature, two distinct CMB renderings are produced and then merged (hybridized) together into a single CMB intensity map. In polarization, the E and B modes are processed independently and the results are combined to produce Q and U maps.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA intensity map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes which is truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math>.<br />
: The SMICA Q and U maps are obtained similarly but are produced at <math>N_{side}</math>=1024 with an effective beam of 10 arc-minutes.<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel.<br />
<br />
; Intensity.<br />
<br />
SMICA operation starts with a pre-processing step to deal with regions of very strong emission<br />
(such as the Galactic center) and point sources. <br />
The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHz are then masked<br />
and harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> to form spectral statistics (all auto- and cross- angular spectra). Two different masks are used to compute the spectral statistics. The first one preserves most of the sky while the second preserves CMB-dominated areas. These two sets of spectral statistics are used to determine two sets of harmonic weights which are thus adapted to two different levels of contamination. <br />
Two CMB intensity maps are produced and then merged into a single intensity product.<br />
The merging process is devised so that the information at high Galactic latitude and medium-to-high multipole<br />
is provided by the CMB map computed from high Galatic latitude statistics<br />
(note that this map does not include the LFI channels)<br />
while the remaining information is provided by the other CMB map (which does include all Planck channels).<br />
See {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l04}} for more details.<br />
<br />
; Polarisation.<br />
<br />
The SMICA pipeline for polarization uses all the 7 polarized Planck channels.<br />
The E and B modes of the frequency maps are processed independently by SMICA<br />
to produce E and B modes of the CMB map from which Q and U maps are derived.<br />
The foreground model fitted by SMICA is 6-dimensional which is the maximal dimension<br />
supported by SMICA when operating in blind mode, that is, assuming nothing about the<br />
foregrounds except that they can be represented by a superposition of 6 components<br />
with unconstrained emission laws, unconstrained angular spectra and unconstrained angular correlation.<br />
See {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l04}} for more details.<br />
<br />
Note: in general, any I, Q and U CMB map can be transformed into a T, E and B CMB map using the HEALpix routines "anafast" and "synfast"(See the links below for the details). The "anafast" routine generates harmonic coefficients of T, E and B maps from the full sky I, Q and U maps. Finally, the full sky T, E and B maps in real space are generated using "synfast" routine separately from the corresponding harmonic coefficients obtained using "anafast". Further details about the spherical harmonic transform from HEALPix can be found in https://healpix.jpl.nasa.gov/html/intro.htm, https://healpix.jpl.nasa.gov/html/idlnode25.htm, and https://healpix.jpl.nasa.gov/html/idlnode27.htm". In the particular case of NILC, that works in needlet space, the IQU maps are converted into TEB maps using anafast and synfast, while in the case of SMICA, that works in harmonic space, the IQU maps are converted into TEB harmonic coefficents (alms) using anafast only.<br />
<br />
====Common Masks====<br />
<br />
Common masks have been defined for analysis of the CMB temperature and polarization maps. In previous releases, these were constructed simply as the union of the individual pipeline confidence masks. In the 2018 release, a more direct approach has been adopted, by thresholding the standard deviation map evaluated between each of the four cleaned CMB maps. This standard deviation mask is then augmented with the Commander and SEVEM confidence masks, as well as with the SEVEM and SMICA in-painting masks.<br />
<br />
In addition, we provide masks for unobserved pixels for the half-mission and odd-even data splits, as well as an in-painting mask. The latter is not intended for scientific analysis, but for producing visually acceptable CMB representation for PR purposes.<br />
<br />
In total, we provide the following masks:<br />
<br />
* COM_Mask_CMB-common-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits -- Temperature confidence mask with f<sub>sky</sub> = 77.9%. This is the preferred mask for temperature science analysis.<br />
* COM_Mask_CMB-common-Mask-Pol_2048_R3.00.fits -- Polarization confidence mask with f<sub>sky</sub> = 78.1%. This is the preferred mask for polarization science analysis.<br />
* COM_Mask_CMB-HM-Misspix-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits -- Temperature half-mission missing pixels mask with f<sub>sky</sub> = 96.0%. This should be applied in analyses of the half-mission split temperature maps.<br />
* COM_Mask_CMB-HM-Misspix-Mask-Pol_2048_R3.00.fits -- Polarization half-mission missing pixels mask with f<sub>sky</sub> = 96.1%. This should be applied in analyses of the half-mission split polarization maps.<br />
* COM_Mask_CMB-HM-Misspix-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits -- Temperature half-mission missing pixels mask with f<sub>sky</sub> = 98.1%. This should be applied in analyses of the half-mission split temperature maps.<br />
* COM_Mask_CMB-HM-Misspix-Mask-Pol_2048_R3.00.fits -- Polarization half-mission missing pixels mask with f<sub>sky</sub> = 98.1%. This should be applied in analyses of the half-mission split polarization maps.<br />
* COM_Mask_CMB-Inpainting-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits -- Temperature CMB in-painting mask with f<sub>sky</sub> = 97.9%.<br />
<br />
====CMB-subtracted frequency maps ("Foreground maps")====<br />
<br />
These are the full-sky, full-mission frequency maps in intensity and polarization from which the CMB has been subtracted. The maps contain foregrounds and noise. They are provided for each frequency channel and for each component separation method. They are grouped into 8 files, two for each method of which there is one for each instrument. The maps are are at N<sub>side</sub> = 1024 for the three LFI channels and at N<sub>side</sub> = 2048 for the six HFI channels. The filenames are:<br />
<br />
* ''LFI_Foregrounds-{method}_1024_Rn.nn.fits'' (145 MB each)<br />
* ''HFI_Foregrounds-{method}_2048_Rn.nn.fits'' (1.2 GB each)<br />
<br />
To remove the CMB, the respective CMB map was first deconvolved with the 5 arcmin beam, then convolved with the beam of the frequency channel, and finally subtracted from the frequency map. This was done using the <math>B_\rm{l}</math> in harmonic space, assuming a symmetric beam.<br />
<br />
The CMB-subtracted maps have complicated noise properties. The CMB maps contain a noise contribution from each of the frequency maps, depending on the weights with which they were combined. Therefore subtracting the CMB map from a frequency channel contributes additional noise from the other frequency channels. This caveat is particularly important for polarization, for which the noise in the cleaned CMB maps is large. After subtraction this noise term is perfectly correlated between frequency channels, with a perfect blackbody spectrum with T=2.7255K. Caution is therefore warranted when using these maps for scientific analysis.<br />
<br />
The frequency maps from which the CMB have been subtracted are:<br />
<br />
* ''LFI_SkyMap_0nn_1024_R3.00_full.fits''<br />
* ''HFI_SkyMap_nnn_2048_R3.00_full.fits''<br />
<br />
Note that the zodiacal light correction described [https://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php/Map-making#Zodiacal_light_correction here] was applied to the HFI temperature maps before the CMB subtraction.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====Masks====<br />
Summary table with the various masks that have been either been used or produced by the component separation methods to pre- or post-process the CMB maps.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left"<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Common mask filename || Field || Description || <br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-common-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits}} || TMASK || Common temperature confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-common-Mask-Pol_2048_R3.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common-Mask-Pol_2048_R3.00.fits}} || PMASK || Common polarization confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-HM-Misspix-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-HM-Misspix-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits}} || TMASK || Missing pixels temperature mask for the half-mission data split.<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-HM-Misspix-Mask-Pol_2048_R3.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-HM-Misspix-Mask-Pol_2048_R3.00.fits}} || PMASK || Missing pixels polarization mask for the half-mission data split.<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-OE-Misspix-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-OE-Misspix-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits}} || TMASK || Missing pixels temperature mask for the odd-even data split.<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-OE-Misspix-Mask-Pol_2048_R3.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-OE-Misspix-Mask-Pol_2048_R3.00.fits}} || PMASK || Missing pixels polarization mask for the odd-even data split.<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-Inpainting-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-Inpainting-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits}} || TMASK || Temperature inpainting mask.<br />
|- bgcolor="800000"<br />
|<br />
! ||<br />
|<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Pipeline specific mask filename || Field || Description<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-commander_2048_R3.00_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-commander_2048_R3.00_full.fits}} || TMASK || Commander temperature confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
| || PMASK || Commander polarization confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-nilc_2048_R3.00_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-nilc_2048_R3.00_full.fits}} || TMASK || NILC temperature confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
| || PMASK || NILC polarization confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-sevem_2048_R3.00_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-sevem_2048_R3.00_full.fits}} || TMASK || SEVEM temperature confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
| || PMASK || SEVEM polarization confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
| || TMASKINP || SEVEM polarization (pre-processing) in-painting mask.<br />
|-<br />
| || PMASKINP || SEVEM polarization (pre-processing) in-painting mask.<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-smica_2048_R3.00_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-smica_2048_R3.00_full.fits}} || TMASK || SMICA temperature confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
| || PMASK || SMICA polarization confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
| || TMASKINP || SMICA polarization (pre-processing) in-painting mask.<br />
|-<br />
| || PMASKINP || SMICA polarization (pre-processing) in-painting mask.<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. All pipelines use all maps between 30 and 857 GHz in temperature, and all maps between 30 and 353 GHz in polarization.<br />
<br />
===CMB file names===<br />
<br />
The CMB products are provided as a set of five files per pipeline, one file covering some part of the entire mission (full mission; first half-mission; second half-mission; odd rings; and even rings), with a filename structure on the form<br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}-2048-R3.00_{full,hm1,hm2,oe1,oe2}.fits''<br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-SEVEM-2048-R3.01_{full,hm1,hm2,oe1,oe2}.fits''. <br />
<br />
<span style="color:#FF0000>UPDATE 17 January 2019</span>: version R3.00 of the SEVEM CMB map has been replaced with version R3.01 because in version R3.00 the temperatue and polarization effective beams were missing. <br />
<br />
The first extension contains the full-sky CMB maps in the fields called I_STOKES, Q_STOKES, U_STOKES. The full-mission files additionally contains an ASCII table with the effective beam transfer function in the second extension. The structure of each file is given as follows:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB R3.00 map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb || I map <br />
|- <br />
|Q_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb || Q map <br />
|-<br />
|U_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb || U map <br />
|-<br />
|TMASK || Int || none || Temperature confidence mask (full-mission only) <br />
|-<br />
|PMASK || Int || none || Polarisation confidence mask (full-mission only) <br />
|-<br />
|I_STOKES_INP || Real*4 || K_cmb || I inpainted map <br />
|- <br />
|Q_STOKES_INP || Real*4 || K_cmb || Q inpainted map <br />
|-<br />
|U_STOKES_INP || Real*4 || K_cmb || U inpainted map <br />
|-<br />
|TMASKINP || Int || none || Temperature confidence mask (full-mission SEVEM, SMICA only) <br />
|-<br />
|PMASKINP || Int || none || Polarisation confidence mask (full-mission SEVEM, SMICA only) <br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (COMMANDER/NILC/SEVEM/SMICA)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Optional Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_TF'' (BINTABLE). ONLY FULL-MISSION DATA FILES<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|INT_BEAM || Real*4 || none || Effective beam transfer function. <br />
|-<br />
|POL_BEAM || Real*4 || none || Effective beam transfer function.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX_I || Int || value || Last multipole for Int beam TF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX_P || Int || value || Last multipole for Pol beam TF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method <br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
All maps are provided in thermodynamic units (K<sub>cmb</cmb>), with Nside=2048 and a nominal angular resolution of 5' FWHM.<br />
<br />
===CMB simulations===<br />
<br />
End-to-end simulations corresponding to each of the CMB data products are provided in terms of 999 CMB realization and 300 noise realizations individually propagated through each pipeline. These files are called <br />
*''dx12_v3_{method}_{cmb,noise,noise_hm1,noise_hm2,noise_oe1,noise_oe2}_mc_?????_raw.fits''<br />
*''dx12_v3_sevem_{freq}_{cmb,noise,noise_hm1,noise_hm2,noise_oe1,noise_oe2}_mc_?????_raw.fits'' for SEVEM cleaned cmb maps at single frequencies.<br />
*''dx12_v3_smica_nosz_{cmb,noise,noise_hm1,noise_hm2,noise_oe1,noise_oe2}_mc_?????_raw.fits'' for SMICA SZ-free cmb maps.<br />
<br />
Note that only 999 CMB realizations are available, as one realization was corrupted during processing.<br />
<br />
== Previous Releases: (2022-NPIPE), (2015) and (2013) CMB Maps ==<br />
<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="background-color: #9ef542;width:80%"><br />
'''2020 - NPIPE'''<br />
<div class="mw-collapsible-content"><br />
The NPIPE flight data maps include several subsets and differ from earlier Planck releases.<br />
<br />
'''CMB maps'''<br />
<br />
The full-frequency and A/B maps were component separated using Commander and SEVEM. At the moment only the "full" versions are provided.<br />
<br />
The Commander temperature map is now provided at <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=4096, making it incompatible with the <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048 polarization maps. To fit temperature and polarization into the same FITS file, two separate header data units (HDUs) are employed. HDU 1 contains the single temperature map and HDU 2 contains the <i>Q</i> and <i>U</i> polarization maps.<br />
<br />
SEVEM products include the jointly-fitted CMB map and foreground-subtracted frequency maps at 70-217GHz. Unlike Commander, SEVEM temperature maps do not contain the CMB dipole.<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align"left" border="1" cellpadding="15" cellspacing="20" width=880px<br />
|+ '''CMB map FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Component-separation code, coverage || Filename <br />
|-<br />
| SEVEM CMB map || COM_CMB_IQU-sevem_2048_R4.??.fits<br />
|-<br />
| SEVEM foreground-subtracted frequency map || COM_CMB_IQU-fff-fgsub-sevem_2048_R4.??.fits<br />
|-<br />
<br />
|}<br />
<br />
'''FITS file structure'''<br />
<br />
The FITS files for the sky maps contain a minimal primary header with no data, and a ''BINTABLE'' extension (EXTENSION 1, EXTNAME = ''FREQ-MAP'') containing the data. The structure is shown schematically in the figure below. The ''FREQ-MAP'' extension contains a 3- or 10-column table that includes the signal, hit-count, and variance maps, all in HEALPix format. The 3-column case is for intensity-only maps, while the 10-column case is for polarization. The number of rows is the number of map pixels, which is <i>N</i><sub>pix</sub> = 12 <i>N</i><sub>side</sub><sup>2</sup> for HEALPix maps, where <i>N</i><sub>side</sub> = 1024 or 2048 for most of the maps presented in this section.<br />
<br />
[[File:FITS_FreqMap.png | 550px | center | thumb | '''FITS file structure.''']]<br />
<br />
Note that file sizes are approximately 0.6 GB for <i>I</i>-only maps and 1.9 GB for <i>IQU</i> maps at <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048, but about 0.14 GB for <i>I</i>-only maps and 0.45 GB for <i>IQU</i> maps at <i>N</i><sub>pix</sub>=1024 .<br />
<br />
Keywords indicate the coordinate system ("GALACTIC"), the HEALPix ordering scheme ("NESTED"), the units (K<sub>CMB</sub> of each column, and of course the frequency channel ("FREQ"). Where polarization <i>Q</i> and <i>U</i> maps are provided, the "COSMO" polarization convention (used in HEALPix) is adopted, and it is specified in the "POLCCONV" keyword. The original filename is also given in the "FILENAME" keyword. The "BAD_DATA" keyword gives the value used by HEALPix to indicate pixels for which no signal is present (these will also have a hit-count value of 0). The main parameters are summarized in the table below.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Sky map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column name || Data type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_STOKES || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub> || Stokes <i>I</i> map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STOKES || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub> || Stokes <i>Q</i> map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|U_STOKES || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub> || Stokes <i>U</i> map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|HITS || Int*4 || none || The hit-count map<br />
|-<br />
|II_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> || <i>II</i> variance map<br />
|-<br />
|IQ_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> || <i>IQ</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|IU_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> || <i>IQ</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QQ_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> || <i>QQ</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QU_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> || <i>QU</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|UU_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> || <i>UU</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || HEALPix <i>N</i><sub>side</sub> <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12 <i>N</i><sub>side</sub><sup>2</sup> – 1 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ || String || nnn || Frequency channel <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
The same structure applies to all "SkyMap" products, independent of whether they are full channel, survey of half-ring. The distinction between the types of map is present in the FITS filename (and in the traceability comment fields).<br />
<br />
</div><br />
<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="background-color: #FFDAB9;width:80%"><br />
'''2015 Release of CMB maps'''<br />
<div class="mw-collapsible-content"><br />
<br />
'''CMB maps'''<br />
<br />
CMB maps have been produced using four different methods: COMMANDER, NILC, SEVEM, and SMICA, as described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation | CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and references therein.<br />
<br />
'''As discussed extensively in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a01}}, {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a07}}, {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a09}}, and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}}, the residual systematics in the Planck 2015 polarization maps have been dramatically reduced compared to 2013, by as much as two orders of magnitude on large angular scales. Nevertheless, on angular scales greater than 10 degrees, correponding to l < 20, systematics are still non-negligible compared to the expected cosmological signal.'''<br />
<br />
'''It was not possible, for this data release, to fully characterize the large-scale residuals from the data or from simulations. Therefore all results published by the Planck Collaboration in 2015 which are based on CMB polarization have used maps which have been high-pass filtered to remove the large angular scales. We warn all users of the CMB polarization maps that they cannot yet be used for cosmological studies at large angular scales.'''<br />
<br />
'''For convenience, we provide as default polarized CMB maps from which all angular scales at l < 30 have been filtered out. '''<br />
<br />
For each method we provide the following:<br />
* Full-mission CMB intensity map, confidence mask and beam transfer function.<br />
* Full-mission CMB polarisation map, <br />
* A confidence mask.<br />
* A beam transfer function.<br />
In addition, and for characterisation purposes, we include six other sets of maps from three data splits: first/second half-ring, odd/even years and first/second half-mission. For the year-1,2 and half-mission-1,2 data splits we provide half-sum and half-difference maps which are produced by running the corresponding sums and differences inputs through the pipelines. The half-difference maps can be used to provide an approximate noise estimates for the full mission, but they should be used with caution. Each split has caveats in this regard: there are noise correlations between the half-ring maps, and missing pixels in the other splits. The Intensity maps are provided at Nside = 2048, at 5 arcmin resolution, while the Polarisation ones are provided at Nside = 1024, at 10 arcmin resolution. All maps are in units of K<sub>cmb</sub>.<br />
<br />
In addition, for each method we provide three sets of files, each categorized by the "R2.0X" label as follows:<br />
<br />
; ''R2.02''<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre-wrap; <br />
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white-space: -o-pre-wrap; <br />
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This set of intensity and polarisation maps are provided at a resolution of Nside=1024. The Stokes Q and U maps are high-pass filtered to contain only modes above l > 30, as explained above and as used for analysis by the Planck Collaboration; THESE ARE THE POLARISATION MAPS WHICH SHOULD BE USED FOR COSMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS. Each type of map is packaged into a separate fits file (as for "R2.01"), resulting in file sizes which are easier to download (as opposed to the "R2.00" files), and more convenient to use with commonly used analysis software.<br />
</pre><br />
<br />
; ''R2.01''<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre-wrap; <br />
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word-wrap: break-word;"><br />
This is the most complete set of 2015 CMB maps, containing Intensity products at a resolution of Nside=2048, and both Intensity and Polarisation at resolution of Nside=1024. For polarisation (Q and U), they contain all angular resolution modes. WE CAUTION USERS ONCE AGAIN THAT THE STOKES Q AND U MAPS ARE NOT CONSIDERED USEABLE FOR COSMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS AT l < 30. The structure of these files is the same as for "R2.02".<br />
</pre><br />
<br />
; ''R2.00''<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre-wrap; <br />
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white-space: -o-pre-wrap; <br />
word-wrap: break-word;"><br />
This set of files is equivalent to the "R2.01" set, but are packaged into only two large files. Warning: downloading these files could be very lengthy...<br />
</pre><br />
<br />
For a complete description of the above data structures, see [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
<br />
The gallery below shows the Intensity, noise from half-mission, half-difference, and confidence mask for the four pipelines, in the order COMMANDER, NILC, SEVEM and SMICA, from top to bottom. The Intensity maps' scale is [–500.+500] μK, and the noise spans [–25,+25] μK. We do not show the Q and U maps since they have no significant visible structure to contemplate.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=300px heights=180> <br />
File:CMB_commander_tsig.png | '''commander temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tnoi.png | '''commander noise'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tmask.png | '''commander mask'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tsig.png | '''nilc temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tnoi.png | '''nilc noise'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tmask.png | '''nilc mask'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tsig.png | '''sevem temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tnoi.png | '''sevem noise'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tmask.png | '''sevem mask'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tsig.png | '''smica temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tnoi.png | '''smica noise'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tmask.png | '''smica mask'''</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
'''Product description '''<br />
<br />
'''COMMANDER'''<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: COMMANDER is a Planck software code implementing pixel based Bayesian parametric component separation. Each astrophysical signal component is modelled in terms of a small number of free parameters per pixel, typically in terms of an amplitude at a given reference frequency and a small set of spectral parameters, and these are fitted to the data with an MCMC Gibbs sampling algorithm. Instrumental parameters, including calibration, bandpass corrections, monopole and dipoles, are fitted jointly with the astrophysical components. A new feature in the Planck 2015 analysis is that the astrophysical model is derived from a combination of Planck, WMAP and a 408 MHz (Haslam et al. 1982) survey, providing sufficient frequency support to resolve the low-frequency components into synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust. For full details, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The Commander sky maps have different angular resolutions depending on data products:<br />
* The components of the full astrophysical sky model derived from the complete data combination (Planck, WMAP, 408 MHz) have a 1 degree FWHM resolution, and are pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=256. The corresponding CMB map defines the input map for the low-l Planck 2015 temperature likelihood. <br />
* The Commander CMB temperature map derived from Planck-only observations has an angular resolution of ~5 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=2048. This map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-857 GHz data), 7.5 arcmin (using 143-857 GHz data), and 5 arcmin (using 217-857 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
* The Commander CMB polarization map has an angular resolution of 10 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=1024. As for the temperature case, this map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-353 GHz data) and 10 arcmin (using 100-353 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The Commander confidence masks are produced by thresholding the chi-square map characterizing the global fits, combined with direct CO amplitude thresholding to eliminate known leakage effects. In addition, we exclude the 9-year WMAP point source mask in the temperature mask. For full details, see Sections 5 and 6 in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}. A total of 81% of the sky is admitted for high-resolution temperature analysis, and 83% for polarization analysis. For low-resolution temperature analysis, for which the additional WMAP and 408 MHz observations improve foreground constraints, a total of 93% of the sky is admitted. <br />
<br />
'''NILC'''<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: The Needlet-ILC (hereafter NILC) CMB map is constructed both in total intensity as well as polarization: Q and U Stokes parameters. For total intensity, all Planck frequency channels are included. For polarization, all polarization sensitive frequency channels are included, from 30 to 353 GHz. The solution, for T, Q and U is obtained by applying the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) technique in needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range. <br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The spectral analysis, and estimation of the NILC coefficients, is performed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math>. The effective beam is equivalent to a Gaussian circular beam with FWHM=5 arcminutes. <br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The same procedure is followed by SMICA and NILC for producing confidence masks, though with different parametrizations. A low resolution smoothed version of the NILC map, noise subtracted, is thresholded to 73.5 squared micro-K for T, and 6.75 squared micro-K for Q and U.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''SEVEM'''<br />
; Principle<br />
<br />
: SEVEM produces clean CMB maps at several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting in real space. The templates are typically constructed from the lowest and highest Planck frequencies and then subtracted from the CMB-dominated channels, with coefficients that are chosen to minimize the variance of the clean map outside a considered mask. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. Two single frequency clean maps are then combined to obtain the final CMB map.<br />
<br />
;Resolution<br />
<br />
: For intensity the clean CMB map is constructed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math> at Nside=2048 and at the standard resolution of 5 arcminutes (Gaussian beam).<br />
: For polarization the clean CMB map is produced at Nside=1024 with a resolution of 10 arcminutes (Gaussian beam) and a maximum <math>\ell=3071</math>.<br />
<br />
; Confidence masks<br />
<br />
: The confidence masks cover the most contaminated regions of the sky, leaving approximately 85 per cent of useful sky for intensity, and 80 per cent for polarization.<br />
<br />
'''Foregrounds-subtracted maps'''<br />
<br />
In addition to the regular CMB maps, SEVEM provides maps cleaned of the foregrounds for selected frequency channels (categorized as fgsub-sevem in the archive). In particular, for intensity there are clean CMB maps available at 100, 143 and 217 GHz, provided at the original resolution of the uncleaned channel and at Nside=2048. For polarization, there are Q/U clean CMB maps for the 70, 100 and 143 GHz (at Nside=1024). The 70 GHz clean map is provided at its original resolution, whereas the 100 and 143 GHz maps have a resolution given by a Gaussian beam with fwhm=10 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
'''SMICA'''<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces CMB maps by linearly combining all Planck input channels with multipole-dependent weights. It includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>. Temperature and polarization maps are produced independently.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA intensity map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes which is truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math> and is '''not''' deconvolved from the pixel window function. Thus the delivered beam window function is the product of a Gaussian beam at 5 arcminutes and the pixel window function for <math>N_{side}</math>=2048.<br />
: The SMICA Q and U maps are obtained similarly but are produced at <math>N_{side}</math>=1024 with an effective beam of 10 arc-minutes (to be multiplied by the pixel window function, as for the intensity map).<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. See section below detailing the production process.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''Common Masks'''<br />
<br />
A number of common masks have been defined for analysis of the CMB temperature and polarization maps. They are based on the confidence masks provided by the component separation methods. One mask for temperature and one mask for polarization have been chosen as the preferred masks based on subsequent analyses.<br />
<br />
The common masks for the CMB temperature maps are:<br />
<br />
* UT78: union of the Commander, SEVEM, and SMICA temperature confidence masks (the NILC mask was not included since it masks much less of the sky). It has f<sub>sky</sub> = 77.6%. This is the preferred mask for temperature.<br />
<br />
* UTA76: in addition to the UT78 mask, it masks pixels where standard deviation between the four CMB maps is greater than 10 &mu;K. It has f<sub>sky</sub> = 76.1%.<br />
<br />
The common masks for the CMB polarization maps are:<br />
<br />
* UP78: the union of the Commander, SEVEM and SMICA polarization confidence masks (the NILC mask was not included since it masks much less of the sky). It has f<sub>sky</sub> = 77.6%.<br />
<br />
* UPA77: In addition to the UP78 mask, it masks pixels where the standard deviation between the four CMB maps, averaged in Q and U, is greater than 4 &mu;K. It has f<sub>sky</sub> = 76.7%.<br />
<br />
* UPB77: in addition to the UP78 mask, it masks polarized point sources detected in the frequency channel maps. It has f<sub>sky</sub> = 77.4%. This is the preferred mask for polarization.<br />
<br />
Additional pre-processing masks used mainly for inpainting of the frequency and/or cmb maps is show below in [https://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=CMB_maps#Masks Masks]<br />
<br />
'''CMB-subtracted frequency maps ("Foreground maps")'''<br />
<br />
These are the full-sky, full-mission frequency maps in intensity from which the CMB has been subtracted. The maps contain foregrounds and noise. They are provided for each frequency channel and for each component separation method. They are grouped into 8 files, two for each method of which there is one for each instrument. The maps are are at N<sub>side</sub> = 1024 for the three LFI channels and at N<sub>side</sub> = 2048 for the six HFI channels. The filenames are:<br />
<br />
* ''LFI_Foregrounds-{method}_1024_Rn.nn.fits'' (145 MB each)<br />
* ''HFI_Foregrounds-{method}_2048_Rn.nn.fits'' (1.2 GB each)<br />
<br />
To remove the CMB, the respective CMB map was first deconvolved with the 5 arcmin beam, then convolved with the beam of the frequency channel, and finally subtracted from the frequency map. This was done using the <math>B_\rm{l}</math> in harmonic space, assuming a symmetric beam.<br />
<br />
The CMB-subtracted maps have complicated noise properties. The CMB maps contain a noise contribution from each of the frequency maps, depending on the weights with which they were combined. Therefore subtracting the CMB map from a frequency channel contributes additional noise from the other frequency channels.<br />
<br />
'''Quadrupole Residual Maps'''<br />
<br />
The second-order (kinematic) quadrupole is a frequency-dependent effect. During the production of the frequency maps the frequency-independent part was subtracted, which leaves a frequency-dependent residual quadrupole. The residuals in the component-separated CMB temperature maps have been estimated by simulating the effect in the frequency maps and propagating it through the component separation pipelines. The residuals have an amplitude of around 2 &mu;K peak-to-peak. The maps of the estimated residuals can be used to remove the effect by subtracting them from the CMB maps.<br />
<br />
'''Production process'''<br />
<br />
'''COMMANDER'''<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky maps are first convolved to a common resolution that is larger than the largest beam of any frequency channel. For the combined Planck, WMAP and 408 MHz temperature analysis, the common resolution is 1 degree FWHM; for the Planck-only, all-frequency analysis it is 40 arcmin FWHM; and for the intermediate-resolution analysis it is 7.5 arcmin; while for the full-resolution analysis, we assume all frequencies between 217 and 857 GHz have a common resolution, and no additional convolution is performed. For polarization, only two smoothing scales are employed, 40 and 10 arcmin, respectively. The instrumental noise rms maps are convolved correspondingly, properly accouting for their matrix-like nature. <br />
<br />
; Priors<br />
<br />
: The following priors are enforced in the Commander analysis:<br />
* All foreground amplitudes are enforced to be positive definite in the low-resolution analysis, while no amplitude priors are enforced in the high-resolution analyses<br />
* Monopoles and dipoles are fixed to nominal values for a small set of reference frequencies<br />
* Gaussian priors are enforced on spectral parameters, with values informed by the values derived in the high signal-to-noise areas of the sky<br />
* The Jeffreys ignorance prior is enforced on spectral parameters in addition to the informative Gaussian priors<br />
<br />
; Fitting procedure<br />
<br />
: Given data and priors, Commander either maximizes, or samples from, the Bayesian posterior, P(theta|data). Because this is a highly non-Gaussian and correlated distribution, involving millions of parameters, these operations are performed by means of the Gibbs sampling algorithm, in which joint samples from the full distributions are generated by iteratively sampling from the corresponding conditional posterior distributions, P(theta_i| data, theta_{j/=i}). For the low-resolution analysis, all parameters are optimized jointly, while in the high-resolution analyses, which employs fewer frequency channels, low signal-to-noise parameters are fixed to those derived at low resolution. Examples of such parameters include monopoles and dipoles, calibration and bandpass parameters, thermal dust temperature etc.<br />
<br />
'''NILC'''<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky frequency maps are deconvolved using the DPC beam transfer function provided, and re-convolved with a 5 arcminutes FWHM circular Gaussian beam. In polarization, prior to the smoothing process, all sky E and B maps are derived from Q and U using standard HEALPix tools from each individual frequency channels <br />
<br />
; Linear combination<br />
<br />
: Pre-processed input frequency maps are decomposed in needlet coefficients, specified in the Appendix B of the Planck A11 paper, with shape given by Table B.1. Minimum variance coefficients are then obtained, using all channels for T, from 30 to 353 for E and B. <br />
<br />
; Post-processing<br />
<br />
: E and B maps are re-combined into Q and U products using standard HEALPix tools. <br />
<br />
'''SEVEM'''<br />
<br />
The templates used in the SEVEM pipeline are typically constructed by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMB map at that frequency. This is done in real space at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. The <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. Note that the same expression applies for I, Q and U. Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of clean maps at different frequencies is of great interest in order to test the robustness of the results, and these intermediate products (clean maps at individual frequencies for intensity and polarization) are also provided in the archive. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned independently and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
;Intensity<br />
<br />
For the CMB intensity map, we have cleaned the 100 GHz, 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps using a total of four templates. Three of them are constructed as the difference of two consecutive Planck channels smoothed to a common resolution (30-44, 44-70 and 545-353) while the 857 GHz channel is chosen as the fourth template. First of all, the six frequency channels which are going to be part of the templates are inpainted at the point source positions detected using the Mexican Hat Wavelet algorithm. The size of the holes to be inpainted is determined taking into account the beam size of the channel as well as the flux of each source. The inpainting algorithm is based on simple diffuse inpainting, which fills one pixel with the mean value of the neighbouring pixels in an iterative way. To avoid inconsistencies when subtracting two channels, each frequency map is inpainted on the sources detected in that map and on the second map (if any) used to construct the template. Then the maps are smoothed to a common resolution (the first channel in the subtraction is smoothed with the beam of the second map and viceversa). For the 857 GHz template, we simply filter the inpainted map with the 545 GHz beam.<br />
<br />
The coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance outside the analysis mask, that covers the 1 per cent brightest emission of the sky as well as point sources detected at all frequency channels. Once the maps are cleaned, each of them is inpainted on the point sources positions detected at that (raw) channel. Then, the MHW algorithm is run again, now on the clean maps. A relatively small number of new sources are found and are also inpainted at each channel. The resolution of the clean map is the same as that of the original data. Our final CMB map is then constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
In addition, the clean CMB maps produced at 100, 143 and 217 GHz frequencies are also provided. The resolution of these maps is the same as that of the uncleaned frequency channels and have been constructed at Nside=2048. They have been inpainted at the position of the detected point sources. Note that these three clean maps should be close to independent, although some level of correlation will be present since the same templates have been used to clean the maps.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask is produced by studying the differences between several SEVEM CMB reconstructions, which correspond to maps cleaned at different frequencies or using different analysis masks. The obtained mask leaves a useful sky fraction of approximately 85 per cent.<br />
<br />
;Polarization<br />
<br />
To clean the polarization maps, a procedure similar to the one used for intensity data is applied to the Q and U maps independently. However, given that a narrower frequency coverage is available for polarization, the selected templates and maps to be cleaned are different. In particular, we clean the 70, 100 and 143 GHz using three templates for each channel. The first step of the pipeline is to inpaint the positions of the point sources using the MHW, in those channels which are going to be used in the construction of templates, following the same procedure as for the intensity case. The inpainting is performed in the frequency maps at their native resolution. These inpainted maps are then used to construct a total of four templates. To trace the synchrotron emission, we construct a template as the subtraction of the 30 GHz minus the 44 GHz <br />
map, after being convolved with the beam of each other. For the dust emission, the following templates are considered: 353-217 GHz (smoothed at 10' resolution), 217-143 GHz (used <br />
to clean 70 and 100 GHz) and 217-100 GHz (to clean 143 GHz). These two last templates are constructed at 1 degree resolution since an additional smoothing becomes necessary in<br />
order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the template. Conversely to the <br />
intensity case and due to the lower availability of frequency channels, it becomes necessary to use the maps to be cleaned as part of one of the templates. In this way, the 100 GHz <br />
map is used to clean the 143 GHz frequency channel and viceversa, making the clean maps less independent between them than in the intensity case.<br />
<br />
These templates are then used to clean the non-inpainted 70 (at its native resolution), 100 (at 10' resolution) and 143 GHz maps (also at 10'). The corresponding linear coefficients are estimated independently for Q and U by minimising the variance of the clean maps outside a mask, that covers point sources and the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission. Once the maps have been cleaned, inpainting of the point sources detected at the corresponding raw maps is carried out. The size of the holes to be inpainted takes<br />
into account the additional smoothing of the 100 and 143 GHz maps. The 100 and 143 GHz clean maps are then combined in harmonic space, using E and B decomposition, to produce the final CMB maps for the Q and U components at a resolution of 10' (Gaussian beam) for a HEALPix parameter Nside=1024. Each map is weighted taking into account its <br />
corresponding noise level at each multipole. Finally, before applying the post-processing HPF to the clean polarization data, the region with the brightest Galactic residuals is inpainted (5 per cent of the sky) to avoid the introduction of ringing around the Galactic centre in the filtering process.<br />
<br />
The clean CMB maps at individual frequency channels produced as intermediate steps of SEVEM are also provided for Q and U, constructed at Nside=1024. The clean 70 GHz map is provided at its native resolution, while the clean maps at 100 and 143 GHz frequencies have a resolution of 10 arcminutes (Gaussian beam). The three maps have been inpainted in the positions of the detected point sources. Note that, due to the availability of a smaller number of templates for polarization than for intensity, these maps are less independent than for the temperature case, since, for instance, the 100 GHz map is used to clean the 143 GHz one and viceversa.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask includes all the pixels above a given threshold in a smoothed version of the clean CMB map, the regions more contaminated by the CO emission and those pixels more affected by the high-pass filtering, leaving a useful sky fraction of approximately 80 per cent.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''SMICA'''<br />
<br />
A) Production of the intensity map.<br />
<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: Before computing spherical harmonic coefficients, all input maps undergo a pre-processing step to deal with regions of very strong emission (such as the Galactic center) and point sources. The point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue are fitted in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole is filled in by a simple diffusive process to ensure a smooth transition and mitigate spectral leakage. The diffusive inpainting process is also applied to some regions of very strong emissions. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, here all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and filled-in similarly.<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHz are harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> and co-added with multipole-dependent weights as shown in the figure.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: A confidence mask is determined (see the Planck paper) and all regions which have been masked in the pre-processing step are added to it.<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filter_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input intensity maps (after they are re-beamed to 5 arc-minutes and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), as a function of multipole.''']]--><br />
<br />
B) Production of the Q and U polarisation maps.<br />
<br />
The SMICA pipeline for polarization uses all the 7 polarized Planck channels. The production of the Q and U maps is similar to the production of the intensity map. However, there is no input point source pre-processing of the input maps. The regions of very strong emission are masked out using an apodized mask before computing the E and B modes of the input maps and combining them to produce the E and B modes of the CMB map. Those modes are then used to synthesize the U and Q CMB maps. The E and B parts of the input frequency maps being processed jointly, there are, at each multipole, 2*7=14 coefficients (weights) defined to produce the E modes of the CMB map and as many to produce the B part. The weights are displayed in the figure below. The Q and U maps were originally produced at Nside=2048 with a 5-arc-minute resolution, but were downgraded to Nside=1024 with a 10 arc-minute resolution for this release.<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filterEB_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input E and B modes (after they are re-beamed to 5 arcmin and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), in order to produce the E and B modes of the CMB map. A given frequency channel is encoded in a given color. Solid lines are for E modes and dashed lines are for B modes. The thick lines are for the EE or BB weights; the thin lines are for the EB or BE weights. See the paper for more details.''']]--><br />
<br />
'''Masks'''<br />
<br />
Summary table with the different masks that have been used by the component separation methods to pre-process and to process the frequency maps and the CMB maps.<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Commander 2015 (PR2) || Used for diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps || Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description<br />
|-<br />
|T_MASK || NO || NO || T_MASK (the equivalent to PR1 VALMASK) is the confidence mask in temperature that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-commander-field-Int_2048_R2.01_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-commander-field-Int_2048_R2.01_full.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|P_MASK || NO || NO || P_MASK is the confidence mask in polarization that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-commander_1024_R2.02_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-commander_1024_R2.02_full.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|INP_MASK_T || NO || YES || Three masks have been used for inpaiting of CMB maps for specific <math>\ell</math> ranges: three different angular resolution maps (40 arcmin, 7.5 arcmin and full resolution), are produced using different data combinations and foreground models. Each of these are inpainted with their own masks with a constrained Gaussian realization before coadding the three maps in harmonic space.<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_commander_dx11d2_temp_n0256_lmax200_0256_R2.03.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_commander_dx11d2_temp_n0256_lmax200_0256_R2.03.fits}}<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_commander_dx11d2_temp_lmax1000_2048_R2.03.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_commander_dx11d2_temp_lmax1000_2048_R2.03.fits}}<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_commander_dx11d2_temp_fullres_2048_R2.03.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_commander_dx11d2_temp_fullres_2048_R2.03.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
|INP_MASK_P || NO || YES || Mask used for inpainting of the CMB map in polarization.<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_commander_dx11d2_pol_fullres_1024_R2.02.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_commander_dx11d2_pol_fullres_1024_R2.02.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="800000"<br />
|<br />
! ||<br />
|<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! SEVEM 2015 (PR2) || Used for Diffuse Inpainting of foregorund subtracted CMB maps (fgsub-sevem) || Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description<br />
|-<br />
|T_MASK || NO || NO || T_MASK (the equivalent to PR1 VALMASK) is the confidence mask in temperature that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-sevem-field-Int_2048_R2.01_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-sevem-field-Int_2048_R2.01_full.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|P_MASK || NO || NO || P_MASK is the confidence mask in polarization that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-sevem_1024_R2.02_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-sevem_1024_R2.02_full.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|INP_MASK_T || YES || NO || Point source mask for temperature. This mask is the combination of the 143 and 217 T point source masks used for the inpainting of the foreground subtracted CMB maps at those two frequencies. These two maps have been combined to produce the final CMB map. <br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_extended143x217_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_extended143x217_2048_R2.00.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
|INP_MASK_P || YES || NO || Point source mask for polarization. This mask is the combination of the 100 and 143 point source masks used for the inpainting of the foreground subtracted CMB maps at those two frequencies. These two maps have been combined to produce the final CMB map.<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_extended100x143_fw10_1024_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_extended100x143_fw10_1024_R2.00.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
|INP_MASK_T for the cleaned 100, 143 and 217 GHz CMB || YES || NO || Three temperature point source masks used for the inpainting of the foreground subtracted CMB maps at the considered frequencies: <br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_ps100_extended_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_ps100_extended_2048_R2.00.fits}} (clean 100 GHz)<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_ps143_extended_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_ps143_extended_2048_R2.00.fits}} (clean 143 GHz)<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_ps217_extended_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_ps217_extended_2048_R2.00.fits}} (clean 217 GHz)<br />
|-<br />
|INP_MASK_P for the cleaned 70, 100 and 143 GHz CMB|| YES || NO || Three polarization point source masks used for the inpainting of the foreground subtracted CMB maps at the considered frequencies:<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_dx11d_70_pol_varhole_full_99p90_1024_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_dx11d_70_pol_varhole_full_99p90_1024_R2.00.fits}} (clean 70 GHz);<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_dx11d_100_pol_99.97pc_radius_3sigma_10arcmin_1024_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_dx11d_100_pol_99.97pc_radius_3sigma_10arcmin_1024_R2.00.fits}} (clean 100 GHz)<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_dx11d_143_pol_99.97pc_radius_3sigma_10arcmin_1024_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_dx11d_143_pol_99.97pc_radius_3sigma_10arcmin_1024_R2.00.fits}} (clean 143 GHz)<br />
|- bgcolor="800000"<br />
|<br />
! ||<br />
|<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! NILC 2015 (PR2) || Used for diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps || Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description<br />
|-<br />
|T_MASK || NO || NO || T_MASK (the equivalent to PR1 VALMASK) is the confidence mask in temperature that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-nilc-field-Int_2048_R2.01_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-nilc-field-Int_2048_R2.01_full.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|P_MASK || NO || NO || P_MASK is the confidence mask in polarization that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-nilc_1024_R2.02_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-nilc_1024_R2.02_full.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|INP_MASK || YES || NO || The pre-processing involves inpainting of the holes in INP_MASK in the frequency maps prior to applying NILC on them. The first mask (nside 2048) has been used for the pre-processing of sky maps for HFI channels and second one for LFI channels (nside 1024). They can downloaded here:<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_nilc_dx11_preproc_1024_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_nilc_dx11_preproc_1024_R2.00.fits}}<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_nilc_dx11_preproc_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_nilc_dx11_preproc_2048_R2.00.fits}} <br />
|- bgcolor="800000"<br />
|<br />
! ||<br />
|<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! SMICA 2015 (PR2) || Used for diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps || Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description<br />
|-<br />
|T_MASK || NO || YES || T_MASK (the equivalent to PR1 VALMASK) is the confidence mask in temperature that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-smica-field-Int_2048_R2.01_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-smica-field-Int_2048_R2.01_full.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|P_MASK || NO || YES || P_MASK is the confidence mask in polarization that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-smica_1024_R2.02_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-smica_1024_R2.02_full.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|I_MASK || YES || NO || I_MASK, as in PR1, defines the regions over which CMB is not built. It is a combination of point source masks, Galactic plane mask and other bright regions like LMC, SMC, etc. It can downloaded here: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_smica_harmonic_mask_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_smica_harmonic_mask_2048_R2.00.fits}}<br />
|- <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
'''Inputs'''<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. SMICA and SEVEM use all the maps between 30 and 857 GHz; NILC uses the ones between 44 and 857 GHz. Commander-Ruler uses frequency channel maps from 30 to 353 GHz. <br />
<br />
'''File names and structure'''<br />
<br />
Three sets of files FITS files containing the CMB products are available. In the first set all maps (i.e., covering different parts of the mission) and all characterisation products for a given method and a given Stokes parameter are grouped into a single extension, and there are two files per ''method'' (smica, nilc, sevem, and commander), one for the high resolution data (I only, Nside=2048) and one for low resolution data (Q and U only, Nside=1024). Each file also contains the associated confidence mask(s) and beam transfer function. '''These are the R2.00 files''' which have names like<br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}-field-{Int,Pol}_Nside_R2.00.fits''<br />
There are 7 coverage periods:''full'', ''halfyear-1,2'', ''halfmission-1,2'', or ''ringhalf-1,2'', and 4 characterisation products: ''half-sum'' and half-difference'' for the year and the half-mission periods.<br />
<br />
In the second second set the different coverages are split into different files which in most cases have a single extension with I only (Nside=1024) and I, Q, and U (Nside=1024). This second set was built in order to allow users to use standard codes like ''spice'' or ''anafast'' on them, directly. So this set contains the I maps at Nside=1024, which are not contained in the R2.00; on the other hand this set does not contain the half-sum and half-difference maps. '''These are the 2.01 files''' which have names like <br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}{-field-Int|Pol}_Nside_R2.01_{coverage}.fits'' for the regular CMB maps, and <br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-{fff}-{fgsub-sevem}{-field-Int|Pol}_Nside_R2.01_{coverage}.fits'' for the sevem frequency-dependent, foregrounds-subtracted maps,<br />
where ''field-Int|Pol'' is used to indicate that only Int or only Pol data are contained (at present only ''field-Int'' is used for the high-res data), and is not included in the low-res data which contains all three Stokes parameters, and ''coverage'' is one of ''full'', ''halfyear-1,2'', ''halfmission-1,2'', or ''ringhalf-1,2''. Also, the coverage=''full'' files contain also the confidence mask(s) and beam transfer function(s) which are valid for all products of the same method (one for Int and one for Pol when both are available). <br />
<br />
The third set has the same structure as the Nside=1024 products of R2.01, but '''the Q and U maps have been high-pass filtered to remove modes at l < 30 for the reasons indicated earlier. These are the default products for use in polarisation studies. They are the R2.02 files''' which have names like:<br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}_1024_R2.02_{coverage}.fits'' <br />
<br />
'''Version 2.00 files'''<br />
<br />
These have names like <br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}-field-{Int,Pol}_Nside_R2.00.fits'', <br />
as indicated above. They contain:<br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data;<br />
* one or two ''BINTABLE'' data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 14 columns in which the first 13 columns is a CMB maps produced from the full or a subset of the data, as described in the table below, and the last column in a confidence mask. There is a single extension for ''Int'' files, and two, for Q and U, for ''Pol'' files. <br />
* a ''BINTABLE'' extension containing the beam transfer function (mistakenly called window function in the files).<br />
<br />
If Nside=1024 the files contain I, Q and U maps, whereas if Nside=2048 only the I map is given.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB R2.00 map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I or Q or U || Real*4 || uK_cmb || I or Q or U map <br />
|- <br />
|HM1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HM2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 2 <br />
|-<br />
|YR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 1 <br />
|-<br />
|YR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HMHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HMHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|YRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|YRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|HRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half diff <br />
|-<br />
|MASK || BYTE || || Confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (smica/nilc/sevem/commander)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE) . See Note 1<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAMWF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam transfer function, including the pixel window function. See Note 2.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam TF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Last multipole of beam TF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Notes:<br />
# Actually this is a beam ''transfer'' function, so BEAM_TF would have been more appropriate.<br />
# The beam transfer function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>. The beam ''Window'' function is given by <math>W_\ell = B_\ell^2</math><br />
<br />
<br />
'''Version 2.01 files'''<br />
<br />
These files have names like:<br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}{-field-Int|Pol}_Nside_R2.01_{coverage}.fits'' for the regular CMB maps, and <br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-{fff}-{fgsub-sevem}{-field-Int|Pol}_Nside_R2.01_{coverage}.fits'' for the sevem frequency-dependent, foregrounds-subtracted maps,<br />
as indicated above. They contain:<br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data, but with a NUMEXT keyword giving the number of extensions contained.<br />
* one or two ''BINTABLE'' data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 1-5 columns depending on the file, as described above: the minimum begin I only, the maximum begin I, Q, U, and confidence masks for I and P. <br />
* a ''BINTABLE'' extension containing the beam transfer function(s): one for I, and a second one that applies to both Q and U, if Nslde=1024.<br />
<br />
If Nside=1024 the files contain I, Q and U maps, whereas if Nside=2048 only the I map is given. The basic structure, including information on the most important keywords, is given in the table below. For full details, see the FITS header.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB R2.01 map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_Stokes || Real*4 || uK_cmb || I map (Nside=1024,2048) <br />
|- <br />
|Q_Stokes || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Q map (Nside=1024) <br />
|-<br />
|U_Stokes || Real*4 || uK_cmb || U map (Nside=2048) <br />
|-<br />
|TMASK || Int || none || optional Temperature confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
|PMASK || Int || none || optional Polarisation confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Optional Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_TF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|INT_BEAM || Real*4 || none || Effective beam transfer function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|POL_BEAM || Real*4 || none || Effective beam transfer function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX_I || Int || value || Last multipole for Int beam TF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX_P || Int || value || Last multipole for Pol beam TF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method <br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
Notes:<br />
# The beam transfer function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>. The beam ''Window'' function is given by <math>W_\ell = B_\ell^2</math><br />
<br />
'''Version 2.02 files'''<br />
<br />
'''For polarisation work, this is the default set of files to be used for cosmological analysis. Their content is identical to the "R2.01" files, except that angular scales above l < 30 have been filtered out of the Q and U maps. '''<br />
<br />
These files have names like:<br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}_1024_R2.02_{coverage}.fits'' <br />
as indicated above. They contain:<br />
The files contain <br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data, but with a NUMEXT keyword giving the number of extensions contained.<br />
* one or two ''BINTABLE'' data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 1-5 columns depending on the file, as described above: the minimum begin I only, the maximum begin I, Q, U, and confidence masks for I and P. <br />
* a ''BINTABLE'' extension containing 2 beam transfer functions: one for I and one that applies to both Q and U.<br />
<br />
If Nside=1024 the files contain I, Q and U maps, whereas if Nside=2048 only the I map is given. The basic structure, including information on the most important keywords, is given in the table below. For full details, see the FITS header.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB R2.02 map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_Stokes || Real*4 || uK_cmb || I map (Nside=1024) <br />
|- <br />
|Q_Stokes || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Q map (Nside=1024) <br />
|-<br />
|U_Stokes || Real*4 || uK_cmb || U map (Nside=2048) <br />
|-<br />
|TMASK || Int || none || optional Temperature confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
|PMASK || Int || none || optional Polarisation confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Optional Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_TF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|INT_BEAM || Real*4 || none || Effective beam transfer function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|POL_BEAM || Real*4 || none || Effective beam transfer function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX_I || Int || value || Last multipole for Int beam TF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX_P || Int || value || Last multipole for Pol beam TF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method <br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
Notes:<br />
# The beam transfer function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>. The beam ''Window'' function is given by <math>W_\ell = B_\ell^2</math><br />
<br />
'''Common masks'''<br />
<br />
The common masks are stored into two different files for Temperature and Polarisation respectively:<br />
* ''COM_CMB_IQU-common-field-MaskInt_2048_R2.nn.fits'' with the UT78 and UTA76 masks<br />
* ''COM_CMB_IQU-common-field-MaskPol_1024_R2.nn.fits'' with the UP78, UPA77, and UPB77 masks<br />
Both files contain also a map of the missing pixels for the half mission and year coverage periods. The 2 (for Temp) or 3 (for Pol) masks and the missing pixels maps are stored in 4 or 5 column a ''BINTABLE'' extension 1 of each file, named ''MASK-INT'' and ''MASK-POL'', respectively. See the FITS file headers for details.<br />
<br />
'''Quadrupole residual maps'''<br />
<br />
The quadrupole residual maps are stored in files called:<br />
* ''COM_CMB_IQU-kq-resid-{method}-field-Int_2048_R2.02.fits''<br />
<br />
They contain:<br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data, but with a NUMEXT keyword giving the number of extensions contained.<br />
* a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with a single column of Npix lines containing the HEALPIX map indicated<br />
<br />
The basic structure of the data extension is shown below. For full details see the extension header. <br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Kinetic quadrupole residual map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|INTENSITY || Real*4 || K_cmb || the residual map <br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || KQ-RESID || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
</div><br />
</div><br />
<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="background-color: #EEE8AA;width:80%"><br />
'''2013 Release of CMB maps'''<br />
<div class="mw-collapsible-content"><br />
<br />
'''CMB Maps'''<br />
<br />
CMB maps have been produced by the SMICA, NILC, SEVEM and COMMANDER-Ruler pipelines. Of these, the SMICA product is considered the preferred one overall and is labelled ''Main product'' in the Planck Legacy Archive, while the other two are labeled as ''Additional product''.<br />
<br />
SMICA and NILC also produce ''inpainted'' maps, in which the Galactic Plane, some bright regions and masked point sources are replaced with a constrained CMB realization such that the whole map has the same statistical distribution as the observed CMB. <br />
<br />
The results of SMICA, NILC and SEVEM pipeline are distributed as a FITS file containing 4 extensions:<br />
# CMB maps and ancillary products (3 or 6 maps)<br />
# CMB-cleaned foreground maps from LFI (3 maps)<br />
# CMB-cleaned foreground maps from HFI (6 maps)<br />
# Effective beam of the CMB maps (1 vector)<br />
<br />
The results of COMMANDER-Ruler are distributed as two FITS files (the high and low resolution) containing the following extensions: <br />
High resolution N$_\rm{side}$=2048 (note that we don't provide the CMB-cleaned foregrounds maps for LFI and HFI because the Ruler resolution (~7.4') is lower than the HFI highest channel and and downgrading it will introduce noise correlation). <br />
# CMB maps and ancillary products (4 maps)<br />
# Effective beam of the CMB maps (1 vector)<br />
<br />
Low resolution N$_\rm{side}$=256<br />
# CMB maps and ancillary products (3 maps)<br />
# 10 example CMB maps used in the montecarlo realization (10 maps)<br />
# Effective beam of the CMB maps (1 vector)<br />
<br />
For a complete description of the data structure, see the [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center" style="background:#efefef;"<br />
|+ style="background:#eeeeee;" | '''The maps (CMB, noise, masks) contained in the first extension'''<br />
|-<br />
!width=40px | Col name<br />
!width=200px| SMICA<br />
!width=200px| NILC<br />
!width=200px| SEVEM <br />
!width=200px| COMMANDER-Ruler H<br />
!width=200px| COMMANDER-Ruler L <br />
!width=300px| Description / notes<br />
|-<br />
| align="left" | 1: I<br />
| [[File: CMB-smica.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMB-nilc.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMB-sevem.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMB-CR_h.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMB-CR_l.png|200px]]<br />
| Raw CMB anisotropy map. These are the maps used in the component separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}.<br />
|-<br />
| 2: NOISE<br />
| [[File: CMBnoise-smica.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMBnoise-nilc.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMBnoise-sevem.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMBnoise-CR_h.png|200px]]<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| Noise map. Obtained by propagating the half-ring noise through the CMB cleaning pipelines.<br />
|-<br />
| 3: VALMASK<br />
| [[File: valmask-smica.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: valmask-nilc.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: valmask-sevem.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: valmask-cr_h.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: valmask-cr_l.png|200px]]<br />
| Confidence map. Pixels with an expected low level of foreground contamination. These maps are only indicative and obtained by different ad hoc methods. They cannot be used to rank the CMB maps.<br />
|-<br />
| 4: I_MASK<br />
| [[File: cmbmask-smica.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: cmbmask-nilc.png|200px]]<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| Some areas are masked for the production of the raw CMB maps (for NILC: point sources from 44 GHz to 857 GHz; for SMICA: point sources from 30 GHz to 857 GHz, Galatic region and additional bright regions).<br />
|-<br />
| 5: INP_CMB<br />
| [[File: CMBinp-smica.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMBinp-nilc.png|200px]]<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| Inpainted CMB map. The raw CMB maps with some regions (as indicated by INP_MASK) replaced by a constrained Gaussian realization. The inpainted SMICA map was used for PR.<br />
|-<br />
| 6: INP_MASK<br />
| [[File: inpmask-smica.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: inpmask-nilc.png|200px]]<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| Mask of the inpainted regions. For SMICA, this is identical to I_MASK. For NILC, it is not.<br />
|}<br />
<br />
The component separation pipelines are described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation|CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Section 3 and Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}} and references therein.<br />
<br />
The union (or common) mask is defined as the union of the confidence masks from the four component separation pipelines, the three listed above and Commander-Ruler. It leaves 73% of the sky available, and so it is denoted as U73.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''Product description '''<br />
<br />
'''SMICA'''<br />
<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces a CMB map by linearly combining all Planck input channels (from 30 to 857 GHz) with weights which vary with the multipole. It includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math> '''and deconvolved from the pixel window'''. It means that, ideally, one would have <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) * B_\ell(5')^2</math>, where <math>C_\ell(map)</math> is the angular spectrum of the map, where <math>C_\ell(sky)</math> is the angular spectrum of the CMB and <math>B_\ell(5')</math> is a 5-arcminute Gaussian beam function. Note however that, by convention, the effective beam window function <math>B_\ell(fits)</math> provided in the FITS file does include a pixel window function. Therefore, it is equal to <math>B_\ell(fits) = B_\ell(5') / p_\ell(2048)</math> where <math>p_\ell(2048)</math> denotes the pixel window function for an Nside=2048 pixelization.<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. <br />
; Masks and inpainting<br />
: The raw SMICA CMB map has valid pixels except at the location of masked areas: point sources, Galactic plane, some other bright regions. Those invalid pixels are indicated with the mask named 'I_MASK'. The raw SMICA map has been inpainted, producing the map named "INP_CMB". Inpainting consists in replacing some pixels (as indicated by the mask named INP_MASK) by the values of a constrained Gaussian realization which is computed to ensure good statistical properties of the whole map (technically, the inpainted pixels are a sample realisation drawn under the posterior distribution given the un-masked pixels.<br />
<br />
'''NILC'''<br />
<br />
; Principle<br />
: The Needlet-ILC (hereafter NILC) CMB map is constructed from all Planck channels from 44 to 857 GHz and includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 3200</math>. It is obtained by applying the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) technique in needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: As in the SMICA product except that there is no abrupt truncation at <math>\ell_{max}= 3200</math> but a smooth transition to <math>0</math> over the range <math>2700\leq\ell\leq 3200</math>.<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. The threshold is somewhat arbitrary.<br />
; Masks and inpainting<br />
: The raw NILC map has valid pixels except at the location of masked point sources. This is indicated with the mask named 'I_MASK'. The raw NILC map has been inpainted, producing the map named "INP_CMB". The inpainting consists in replacing some pixels (as indicated by the mask named INP_MASK) by the values of a constrained Gaussian realization which is computed to ensure good statistical properties of the whole map (technically, the inpainted pixels are a sample realisation drawn under the posterior distribution given the un-masked pixels.<br />
<br />
'''SEVEM'''<br />
<br />
The aim of SEVEM is to produce clean CMB maps at one or several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting. The templates are internal, i.e., they are constructed from Planck data, avoiding the need for external data sets, which usually complicates the analyses and may introduce inconsistencies. The method has been successfully applied to Planck simulations{{BibCite|leach2008}} and to WMAP polarisation data{{BibCite|fernandezcobos2012}}. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. Note that unlike the other products, SEVEM does not provide the mask of regions not used in the productions of the CMB ma (''I_MASK'') nor an inpainted version of the map and its associated mask. On the other hand, it provides ''channel maps'' and 100, 143, and 217 GHz which are used as the building blocks of the final map.<br />
<br />
'''COMMANDER-Ruler'''<br />
<br />
COMMANDER-Ruler is the Planck software implementing a pixel based parametric component separation. Amplitude of CMB and the main diffuse foregrounds along with the relevant spectral parameters for those (see below in the Astrophysical Foreground Section for the latter) are parametrized and fitted in single MCMC chains conducted at $N_\rm{side}$=256 using COMMANDER, implementing a Gibbs Sampling. The CMB amplitude which <br />
is obtained in these runs corresponds to the delivered low resolution CMB component from COMMANDER-Ruler which has a FWHM of 40 arcminutes. The sampling of the foreground parameters is applied to the data at full resolution for obtaining the high resolution CMB component from Ruler which is available on the PLA. In the {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06|1|Planck Component Separation paper}} additional material is discussed, specifically concerning the sky region where the solutions are reliable, in terms of chi2 maps. The products mainly consist of: <br />
<br />
* Maps of the Amplitudes of the CMB at low resolution, $N_\rm{side}$=256, along with the standard deviations of the outputs, beam profiles derived from the production process. <br />
* Maps of the CMB amplitude, along with the standard deviations, at high resolution, $N_\rm{side}$=2048, beam profiles derived from the production process. <br />
* Mask obtained on the basis of the precision in the fitting procedure; the thresholding is evaluated through the COMMANDER-Ruler likelihood analysis and excludes 13% of the sky, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}.<br />
<br />
'''Production process'''<br />
<br />
'''SMICA'''<br />
<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: All input maps undergo a pre-processing step to deal with point sources. The point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue are fitted in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole is filled in by a simple diffusive process to ensure a smooth transition and mitigate spectral leakage. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, here all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and filled-in similarly.<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHzare harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> and co-added with multipole-dependent weights as shown in the figure.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: The areas masked in the pre-processing step are replaced by a constrained Gaussian realization.<br />
<br />
Note: The visible power deficit in the raw CMB map around the galactic plane is due to the smooth fill-in of the masked areas in the input maps (the result of the pre-processing). It is not to be confused with the post-processing step of inpainting of the CMB map with a constrained Gaussian realization.<br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:smica.jpg|thumb|center|500px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input maps (after they are re-beamed to 5 arcmin and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), as a function of multipole.''']]<br />
<br />
'''NILC'''<br />
<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: Same pre-processing as SMICA (except the 30 GHz channel is not used).<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 44 to 857 GHz are linearly combined with weights which depend on location on the sky and on the multipole range up to <math>\ell = 3200</math>. This is achieved using a needlet (redundant spherical wavelet) decomposition. For more details, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: The areas masked in the pre-processing plus other bright regions step are replaced by a constrained Gaussian realization as in the SMICA post-processing step.<br />
<br />
'''SEVEM'''<br />
<br />
The templates are internal, i.e., they are constructed from Planck data, avoiding the need for external data sets, which usually complicates the analyses and may introduce inconsistencies. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. The fitting can be done in real or wavelet space (using a fast wavelet adapted to the HEALPix pixelization{{BibCite|casaponsa2011}}) to properly deal with incomplete sky coverage. By expediency, however, we fill in the small number of unobserved pixels at each channel with the mean value of its neighbouring pixels before applying SEVEM.<br />
<br />
We construct our templates by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMB map at that frequency. This is done either in real or in wavelet space (i.e., scale by scale) at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. If the cleaning is performed in real space, the <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. When working in wavelet space, the cleaning is done in the same way at each wavelet scale independently (i.e., the linear coefficients depend on the scale). Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).<br />
<br />
An additional level of flexibility can also be considered: the linear coefficients can be the same for all the sky, or several regions with different sets of coefficients can be considered. The regions are then combined in a smooth way, by weighting the pixels at the boundaries, to avoid discontinuities in the clean maps.<br />
Since the method is linear, we may easily propagate the noise properties to the final CMB map. Moreover, it is very fast and permits the generation of thousands of simulations to character- ize the statistical properties of the outputs, a critical need for many cosmological applications. The final CMB map retains the angular resolution of the original frequency map.<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of clean maps at different frequencies is of great interest in order to test the robustness of the results. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned independently and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
In particular, we have cleaned the 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps using four templates constructed as the difference of the following Planck channels (smoothed to a common resolution): (30-44), (44-70), (545-353) and (857-545). For simplicity, the three maps have been cleaned in real space, since there was not a significant improvement when using wavelets (especially at high latitude). In order to take into account the different spectral behaviour of the foregrounds at low and high galactic latitudes, we have considered two independent regions of the sky, for which we have used a different set of coefficients. The first region corresponds to the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission, whereas the second region is defined by the remaining 97 per cent of the sky. For the first region, the coefficients are actually estimated over the whole sky (we find that this is more optimal than perform the minimisation only on the 3 per cent brightest region, where the CMB emission is very sub-dominant) while for the second region, we exclude the 3 per cent brightest region of the sky, point sources detected at any frequency and those pixels which have not been observed at all channels.<br />
Our final CMB map has then been constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
Moreover, additional CMB clean maps (at frequencies between 44 and 353 GHz) have also been produced using different combinations of templates for some of the analyses carried out in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p09}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p14}}. In particular, clean maps from 44 to 353 GHz have been used for the stacking analysis presented in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p14}}, while frequencies from 70 to 217 GHz were used for consistency tests in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p09}}.<br />
<br />
'''COMMANDER-Ruler'''<br />
<br />
The production process consist in low and high resolution runs according to the description above. <br />
; Low Resolution Runs: Same as the Astrophysics Foregrounds Section below; The CMB amplitude is fitted along with the other foreground parameters and constitutes the CMB Low Resolution Rendering which is in the PLA. <br />
; Ruler Runs: the sampling at high resolution is used to infer the probability distribution of spectral parameters which is exploited at full resolution in order to obtain the High Resolution CMB Rendering which is in the PLA. <br />
<br />
''' Masks '''<br />
<br />
Summary table with the different masks that have been used by the component separation methods to pre-process and to process the frequency maps and the CMB maps.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Commander 2013 (PR1) || Used for diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps || Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK || NO || NO || VALMASK is the confidence mask that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside <br />
<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits}} and {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits}} for low resolution analyses.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="800000"<br />
|<br />
! ||<br />
|<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! SEVEM 2013 (PR1) || Used diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps || Used for Constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK || NO || NO || VALMASK is the confidence mask that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside <br />
<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-sevem_2048_R1.12.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-sevem_2048_R1.12.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="800000"<br />
|<br />
! ||<br />
|<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! NILC 2013 (PR1) || Used for diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps || Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK || NO || NO || VALMASK is the confidence mask that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|I_MASK || NO || NO || I_MASK defines the regions over which CMB is not built. It is a combination of point source masks, Galactic plane mask and other bright regions like LMC, SMC, etc. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits}}.<br />
|- <br />
|INP_MASK || NO || YES || It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="800000"<br />
|<br />
! ||<br />
|<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! SMICA 2013 (PR1) || Used for diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps || Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK || NO || NO || VALMASK is the confidence mask that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside <br />
<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|I_MASK || YES || YES || I_MASK defines the regions over which CMB is not built. It is a combination of point source masks, Galactic plane mask and other bright regions like LMC, SMC, etc. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits}}.<br />
|- <br />
|INP_MASK || YES || YES || INP_MASK for SMICA 2013 release is identical to I_MASK above. <br />
|-<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
'''Inputs'''<br />
<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. SMICA and SEVEM use all the maps between 30 and 857 GHz; NILC uses the ones between 44 and 857 GHz. Commander-Ruler uses frequency channel maps from 30 to 353 GHz. <br />
<br />
'''File names and structure'''<br />
<br />
The FITS files corresponding to the three CMB products are the following:<br />
<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-sevem_2048_R1.12.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-sevem_2048_R1.12.fits}}<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits}}<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits}}<br />
<br />
<br />
The files contain a minimal primary extension with no data and four ''BINTABLE'' data extensions. Each column of the ''BINTABLE'' is a (Healpix) map; the column names and the most important keywords of each extension are described in the table below; for the remaining keywords, please see the FITS files directly. <br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK_cmb || CMB temperature map<br />
|-<br />
|NOISE || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Estimated noise map (note 1)<br />
|-<br />
|I_STDEV|| Real*4 || uK_cmb || Standard deviation, ONLY on COMMANDER-Ruler products<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Confidence mask (note 2)<br />
|-<br />
|I_MASK|| Byte || none || Mask of regions over which CMB map is not built (Optional - see note 3)<br />
|-<br />
|INP_CMB || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Inpainted CMB temperature map (Optional - see note 3)<br />
|-<br />
|INP_MASK || Byte || none || mask of inpainted pixels (Optional - see note 3)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. EXTNAME = ''FGDS-LFI'' (BINTABLE) - Note 4<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LFI_030 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 30 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|LFI_044 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 44 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|LFI_070 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 70 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 3. EXTNAME = ''FGDS-HFI'' (BINTABLE) - Note 4<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|HFI_100 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 100 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|HFI_143 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 143 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|HFI_217 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 217 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|HFI_353 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 353 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|HFI_545 || Real*4 || MJy/sr || 545 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|HFI_857 || Real*4 || MJy/sr || 857 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function. See Note 5.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Notes:<br />
# The half-ring half-difference (HRHD) map is made by passing the half-ring frequency maps independently through the component separation pipeline, then computing half their difference. It approximates a noise realisation, and gives an indication of the uncertainties due to instrumental noise in the corresponding CMB map. <br />
# The confidence mask indicates where the CMB map is considered valid. <br />
# This column is not present in the SEVEM and COMMANDER-Ruler product file. For SEVEM these three columns give the CMB channel maps at 100, 143, and 217 GHz (columns ''C100'', ''C143'', and ''C217'', in units of K_cmb.<br />
# The subtraction of the CMB from the sky maps in order to produce the foregrounds map is done after convolving the CMB map to the resolution of the given frequency. Those columns are not present in the COMMANDER-Ruler product file.<br />
# The beam window function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>.<br />
<br />
The low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler CMB product is organized in the following way:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK_cmb || CMB temperature map obtained as average over 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Corresponding Standard deviation amongst the 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Confidence mask<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. EXTNAME = ''CMB-Sample'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM01 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM02 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM03 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM04 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM05 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM06 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM07 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM08 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM09 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM10 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
The FITS files containing the ''union'' (or common) maks is:<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-union_2048_R1.10.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common}}<br />
which contains a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with a single column (named ''U73'') for the mask, which is boolean (FITS ''TFORM = B''), in GALACTIC coordinates, NESTED ordering, and Nside=2048.<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for a small file containing the SMICA cmb map with no additional information (noise or masks) we provide such a file here<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
This file contains a single extension with a single column containing the SMICA cmb temperature map.<br />
<br />
'''Cautionary notes'''<br />
<br />
# The half-ring CMB maps are produced by the pipelines with parameters/weights fixed to the values obtained from the full maps. Therefore the CMB HRHD maps do not capture all of the uncertainties due to foreground modelling on large angular scales.<br />
# The HRHD maps for the HFI frequency channels underestimate the noise power spectrum at high l by typically a few percent. This is caused by correlations induced in the pre-processing to remove cosmic ray hits. The CMB is mostly constrained by the HFI channels at high l, and so the CMB HRHD maps will inherit this deficiency in power.<br />
# The beam transfer functions do not account for uncertainties in the beams of the frequency channel maps.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
</div><br />
</div><br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
</div><br />
</div><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|007]]</div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=CMB_maps&diff=14599CMB maps2022-12-14T11:59:05Z<p>Mlopezca: /* Previous Releases: NIPE (2022), (2015) and (2013) CMB Maps */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{DISPLAYTITLE:2018 CMB maps}}<br />
<br />
== Overview ==<br />
This section describes the CMB maps produced from the Planck data. These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of each product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITS file containing the data and associated information.<br />
All the details can be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l04}} and, for earlier releases, in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}}.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
==2018 CMB maps==<br />
CMB maps have been produced using four different methods: COMMANDER, NILC, SEVEM, and SMICA, as described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation | CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l04}} and references therein.<br />
<br />
For each method we provide the following:<br />
* Full-mission CMB intensity map, with corresponding confidence mask and effective beam transfer function.<br />
* Full-mission CMB polarisation map, with corresponding confidence mask and effective beam transfer function. <br />
* In-painted CMB intensity and polarisation maps, intended for PR purposes.<br />
In addition, and for characterisation purposes, we include four other sets of maps from two data splits: odd/even ring and first/second half-mission. Half-difference maps can be used to provide an approximate noise estimates for the full mission, but they should be used with caution. Each split has caveats in this regard: there are noise correlations between the odd/even split maps, and unobserved pixels in both splits. Masks flagging unobserved pixels are provided for each split, and we strongly encourage use of these when analysing split maps. <br />
<br />
In addition, for SMICA, we also provide a CMB map from which Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources have been projected out, while SEVEM provides cleaned single-frequency maps at 70, 100, 143 and 217 GHz for both intensity and polarization.<br />
<br />
All CMB products are provided at an approximate angular resolution of 5 arcmin FWHM, and HEALPix resolution <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048. Explicit effective beam profiles are provided for each foreground reduced CMB map.<br />
<br />
For a complete description of the above data structures, see [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
The gallery below shows the inpainted full-mission CMB maps (T, Q and U) from each pipeline. The temperature maps are shown at 5 arcmin FWHM resolution, while the polarization maps are shown at 80 arcmin FWHM resolution, in order to suppress instrumental noise. <br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=300px heights=180> <br />
File:cmb_inpaint_T_commander_v1.png | '''Commander temperature'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_Q_commander_v1.png | '''Commander Stokes Q'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_U_commander_v1.png | '''Commander Stokes U'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_T_nilc_v1.png | '''NILC temperature'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_Q_nilc_v1.png | '''NILC Stokes Q'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_U_nilc_v1.png | '''NILC Stokes U'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_T_sevem_v2.png | '''SEVEM temperature'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_Q_sevem_v2.png | '''SEVEM Stokes Q'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_U_sevem_v2.png | '''SEVEM Stokes U'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_T_smica_v1.png | '''SMICA temperature'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_Q_smica_v1.png | '''SMICA Stokes Q'''<br />
File:cmb_inpaint_U_smica_v1.png | '''SMICA Stokes U'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
===Product description ===<br />
<br />
====COMMANDER====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: COMMANDER is a Planck software code implementing Bayesian parametric component separation. Each astrophysical signal component is modelled in terms of a small number of free parameters per pixel, typically in terms of an amplitude at a given reference frequency and a small set of spectral parameters, and these are fitted to the data with an MCMC Gibbs sampling algorithm. A new feature in the Planck 2018 analysis is support for multi-resolution analysis, allowing reconstruction of both CMB and foreground maps at full angular resolution. Only CMB products are provided from Commander in the Planck 2018 release (see {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l04}} for details), while for polarization both CMB and foreground products are provided. For temperature, a dedicated low-resolution CMB map is also provided as part of the Planck likelihood package.<br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The Commander sky maps have different angular resolutions depending on data products:<br />
:* CMB temperature and polarization and thermal dust polarization maps are provided at 5 arcmin FWHM resolution<br />
:* Synchrotron polarization maps are provided at 40 arcmin FWHM resolution<br />
:* The low-resolution CMB likelihood map is provided at an angular resolution of 40 arcmin FWHM.<br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The Commander temperature confidence mask is produced by thresholding the chi-square map characterizing the global fits, combined with direct CO amplitude thresholding to eliminate known leakage effects. In addition, we exclude all pixels brighter than 10mK in the 30GHz map, in order to remove particularly bright radio sources. Finally, we remove by hand the Virgo and Coma clusters, as well as the Crab nebula. A total of 88% of the sky is admitted for analysis.<br />
<br />
: The Commander polarization mask is produced in a similar manner, starting by thresholding the chi-squared map. In addition, we exclude all pixels for which the thermal dust polarization amplitude is brighter than 20µK<sub>RJ</sub> at 353GHz, as well as particularly bright objects in the PCCS2 source catalog. Finally, we remove a small region that is particularly contaminated by cosmic ray glitches. A total of 86% of the sky is admitted for analysis.<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing and data selection<br />
<br />
: The primary Commander 2018 analysis is carried out at full angular resolution, and no smoothing to a common resolution is applied to the maps, in constrast to the procedure employed in previous releases. The temperature analysis employs all nine Planck frequency maps between 30 and 857 GHz, while the polarization analysis employs the seven frequency maps between 30 and 353 GHz. No external data are used in the 2018 Commander analysis.<br />
<br />
; Priors<br />
<br />
: The following priors are enforced in the Commander analysis:<br />
* The 30 GHz zero-level is fixed to zero, while the 44 and 70 GHz zero-levels are fitted freely with uniform priors. HFI zero-levels are fitted with a strong CIB prior.<br />
* Dipoles are fitted only at 70 and 100 GHz; all other are fixed to zero.<br />
* Gaussian priors are enforced on spectral parameters, with values informed by the values derived in the high signal-to-noise areas of the sky<br />
* The Jeffreys ignorance prior is enforced on spectral parameters in addition to the informative Gaussian priors<br />
<br />
; Fitting procedure<br />
<br />
: Given data and priors, Commander either maximizes, or samples from, the Bayesian posterior, P(theta|data). Because this is a highly non-Gaussian and correlated distribution, involving millions of parameters, these operations are performed by means of the Gibbs sampling algorithm, in which joint samples from the full distributions are generated by iteratively sampling from the corresponding conditional posterior distributions, P(theta_i| data, theta_{j/=i}). All parameters are optimized jointly.<br />
<br />
====NILC====<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: Needlet Internal Linear Combination (or NILC in short) is a blind component separation method for the measurement of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from the multi-frequency observations of sky. It is an implementation of an Internal Linear Combination (ILC) of the frequency channels under consideration with minimum error variance on a frame of spherical wavelets called needlets, allowing localized filtering in both pixel space and harmonic space. The method includes multipoles up to 4000. Temperature and, E-mode and B-mode of polarization maps are produced independently. The Q and U maps of CMB polarization have been reconstructed from the corresponding E-mode and B-mode maps.<br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The effective beam is equivalent to a Gaussian circular beam with FWHM=5 arcminutes. <br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: For each needlet scale, we identify the frequency channel that contributes the most to the final reconstruction of CMB for that band. Then we scale the sky maps for 30GHz and 353GHz to that frequency channel to obtain the scaled-sky map and compute the root mean square (RMS) of full mission CMB map. The mask is obtained by setting a cut-off at each needlet scale. The cutoff values are 500 times the RMS value of CMB for temperature and 1500 times the RMS value of CMB for polarization for each scale. The final mask is reconstructed from the union of all the masks obtained at different needlet scales. The confidence masks cover the most contaminated regions of the sky, leaving approximately 78.6 per cent of useful sky for temperature and 82 per cent for polarization.<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky maps are convolved/deconvolved in harmonic space, to a common beam resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of 5 arc-minutes FWHM. A very small preprocessing mask has been used on the temperature sky maps. Prior to implement the pipeline on the sky maps, the masked regions are filled using PSM tools which uses an increasing number of neighboring pixels to fill regions deeper in the hole. At each iteration it uses pixels at up to twice the diameter of the pixel times number of iteration. No preprocessing has been done on polarization sky maps.<br />
<br />
; Linear combination<br />
<br />
: Needlet ILC weights are computed for each of T, E and B, for each scale and for each pixel of the needlet representation at that scale. For each of T, E and B, a full-sky CMB map, at 5 arc-minutes beam resolution, is synthesized from the NILC needlet coefficients.<br />
<br />
; Post-processing<br />
<br />
: E and B maps are re-combined into Q and U products using standard HEALPix tools.<br />
<br />
====SEVEM====<br />
<br />
; Principle<br />
<br />
: SEVEM produces cleaned CMB maps at several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting in real space. The templates used in the SEVEM pipeline are typically constructed by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a cleaned CMB map at that frequency. This is done in real space at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. The <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the cleaned map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. Note that the same expression applies for I, Q and U. Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although foreground residuals are expected to be particularly large in those areas excluded by the minimisation). In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. A subset of the cleaned single frequency maps are then combined to obtain the final CMB map.<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of cleaned maps at different frequencies is of great interest by itself in order to test the robustness of the results, and these intermediate products (cleaned maps at individual frequencies for intensity and polarization) are also provided in the archive. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
;Intensity<br />
<br />
For the CMB intensity case, we have cleaned the 70, 100, 143 and 217 GHz maps using a total of five templates. In particular, three templates constructed as the difference of two consecutive Planck channels smoothed to a common resolution [30GHz &ndash; 44GHz], [44GHz &ndash; 70GHz] and [543GHz &ndash; 535GHz] as well as a fourth template given by the 857 GHz channel are used to clean the 100, 143 and 217 GHz maps. Before constructing the templates, the six frequency channels involved in the templates are inpainted at the corresponding point source positions detected at each frequency using the Mexican Hat Wavelet algorithm (these positions are given in the provided point sources masks). The size of the holes to be inpainted is determined taking into account the beam size of the channel as well as the flux of each source. The inpainting algorithm is based on simple diffuse inpainting, which fills one pixel with the mean value of the neighbouring pixels in an iterative way. To avoid inconsistencies when subtracting two channels, each frequency map is inpainted on the sources detected in that map and on the second map (if any) used to construct the template. Then the maps are smoothed to a common resolution, by convolving the first map with the beam of the second one and viceversa. For the fourth template, we simply filter the inpainted 857 GHz map with the 545 GHz beam. The cleaned 70 GHz map is produced similarly by considering two templates, the [30GHz &ndash; 44GHz] map and a second template obtained as [353GHz &ndash; 143GHz] constructed at the original resolution of the 70 GHz map.<br />
<br />
The coefficients to clean the frequency maps are obtained by minimising the variance outside the analysis mask, that covers the 1 per cent brightest emission of the sky as well as point sources detected at all frequency channels. Once the maps are cleaned, each of them is inpainted on the point sources positions detected at that (raw) channel. Then, the Mexican Hat Wavelet algorithm is run again, now on the cleaned maps. A number of new sources are found and are also inpainted at each channel. The resolution of the cleaned map is the same as that of the original data. Our final CMB map is then constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes and <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048 and the maximum considered multipole is <math>\ell=4000</math>. The monopole and dipole over the full-sky have been subtracted from the final CMB map.<br />
<br />
In addition, the cleaned CMB maps produced at 70, 100, 143 and 217 GHz frequencies are also provided. The resolution of these maps is the same as that of the uncleaned frequency channels and have been constructed at <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=1024 for 70 GHz and <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048 for the rest of the maps. They have been inpainted at the position of the point sources detected in the raw and cleaned maps (these positions are given in the corresponding inpainting masks). The monopole and dipole over the full-sky have also been removed from each of the cleaned maps.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask is produced by studying the differences between several SEVEM CMB reconstructions, which correspond to maps cleaned at different frequencies or using different analysis masks. The obtained mask leaves a useful sky fraction of approximately 84 per cent.<br />
<br />
;Polarization<br />
<br />
To clean the polarization maps, a procedure similar to the one used for intensity data is applied to the Q and U maps independently. Cleaned maps at 70, 100, 143 and 217 GHz are also produced but, given that a smaller number of frequency channels is available for polarization, the templates selected to clean the maps are different. In particular, we clean the 70 GHz map using two templates and the rest of the channels using different combinations of three templates. <br />
<br />
Following the same procedure as for the intensity case, those channels involved in the construction of the templates are inpainted in the position of the sources detected in the raw frequency maps. The sources are selected from a non-blind search, based on the Filtered Fusion technique, using as candidates those sources detected in intensity. These inpainted maps are then used to construct a total of six templates, one of them at two different resolutions. To trace the synchrotron emission, we construct a template as the subtraction of the 30 GHz minus the 44 GHz map, after being convolved with the beam of each other. For the dust emission, the following templates are considered: [217GHz &ndash; 143GHz], [217GHz &ndash; 100GHz] and [143GHz &ndash; 100GHz] at 1 degree resolution, [353GHz &ndash; 217GHz] and [353GHz &ndash; 143GHz] at 10 arcminutes resolution. The last template is also constructed at the resolution of the 70 GHz channel, in order to clean that map. <br />
<br />
Different combinations of these templates (see Table C.3 in {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l04}} for details) are then used to clean the raw 70, 100, 143 and 217 GHz channels (at its native resolution). The corresponding linear coefficients are estimated independently for Q and U by minimising the variance of the cleaned maps outside a mask, that covers the point sources detected in polarization and the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission. Once the maps have been cleaned, inpainting of the point sources detected at the corresponding raw maps is carried out. Then the non-blind search for point sources is run again on the cleaned maps and the new identified sources are also inpainted. The 100, 143 and 217 GHz cleaned maps are then combined in harmonic space, using E and B decomposition, to produce the final CMB maps for the Q and U components at a resolution of 5' (Gaussian beam) for a HEALPix parameter <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048. The maximum considered multipole is <math>\ell=3000</math>. Each map is weighted taking into account its noise and resolution. In addition, the lowest multipoles of the 217 GHz cleaned map are down-weighting, since they are expected to be more contaminated by the presence of residual systematics.<br />
<br />
The cleaned CMB maps at individual frequency channels produced as intermediate steps of SEVEM are also provided for Q and U, at their native resolution. The four pairs of Q/U maps have been inpainted in the positions of the detected point sources (given by the corresponding inpainting masks).<br />
<br />
The confidence mask is constructed as the product of two different masks. One of them is obtained from the 353 GHz data channel and excludes those regions more contaminated by thermal dust. The second mask is constructed by thresholding a map of the ratio between the locally estimated RMS of P in the cleaned CMB map, over the same quantity expected for a map containg CMB plus noise. The combination of these two masks leaves a useful sky fraction of approximately 80 per cent.<br />
<br />
;Resolution<br />
<br />
: The cleaned CMB maps for intensity and polarization are constructed at <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048 and at the standard resolution of 5 arcminutes (Gaussian beam). The maximum considered multipole is <math>\ell=4000</math> for intensity and <math>\ell=3000</math> for polarization.<br />
<br />
; Confidence masks<br />
<br />
: The confidence masks cover the most contaminated regions of the sky, leaving approximately 84 per cent of useful sky for intensity, and 80 per cent for polarization.<br />
<br />
; Point source masks<br />
<br />
: The point source masks contain the holes corresponding to the point sources detected at each raw Planck frequency channel in intensity and polarization. The number of sources detected are given in the upper part of Table C.1 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l04}}. There is one mask for intensity and another one for polarization per frequency channel. When using the Planck channels in the construction of the templates, these have been inpainted in the positions of the point sources given in these masks, to reduce the emission from this contaminant in the templates and its propagation to the final cleaned CMB maps.<br />
<br />
; Inpainting masks<br />
: The inpainting masks include the positions of the point sources that have been inpainted in the cleaned single-frequency maps. They contain point sources detected at the original raw data at those frequencies plus the sources detected in the cleaned frequency maps (see Table C.1 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l04}}). There is a mask for intensity and another one for polarization for each of the cleaned frequency maps (70, 100, 143 and 217 GHz) as well as the corresponding masks for the combined map. The latter are constructed as the product of the individual frequency masks of those cleaned channels that are combined in the final CMB map (i.e., the product of 143 and 217 GHz masks for intensity and of 100, 143 and 217 GHz for polarization). Note that the inpainted positions are not excluded by default by the SEVEM confidence mask, but only if they are considered unreliable with the general procedure used to construct the SEVEM confidence mask.<br />
<br />
<br />
=====Foreground-subtracted maps=====<br />
<br />
In addition to the regular CMB maps, SEVEM provides maps cleaned of the foregrounds for selected frequency channels (categorized as fgsub-sevem in the archive). In particular, for both intensity and polarization there are cleaned CMB maps available at 70, 100, 143 and 217 GHz, provided at the original resolution and <i>N</i><sub>side</sub> of the uncleaned channel (1024 for 70 GHz and 2048 for the rest of the maps).<br />
<br />
====SMICA====<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces CMB maps by linearly combining Planck input channels with multipole-dependent weights, including multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>. Temperature and polarization maps are produced independently. In temperature, two distinct CMB renderings are produced and then merged (hybridized) together into a single CMB intensity map. In polarization, the E and B modes are processed independently and the results are combined to produce Q and U maps.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA intensity map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes which is truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math>.<br />
: The SMICA Q and U maps are obtained similarly but are produced at <math>N_{side}</math>=1024 with an effective beam of 10 arc-minutes.<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel.<br />
<br />
; Intensity.<br />
<br />
SMICA operation starts with a pre-processing step to deal with regions of very strong emission<br />
(such as the Galactic center) and point sources. <br />
The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHz are then masked<br />
and harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> to form spectral statistics (all auto- and cross- angular spectra). Two different masks are used to compute the spectral statistics. The first one preserves most of the sky while the second preserves CMB-dominated areas. These two sets of spectral statistics are used to determine two sets of harmonic weights which are thus adapted to two different levels of contamination. <br />
Two CMB intensity maps are produced and then merged into a single intensity product.<br />
The merging process is devised so that the information at high Galactic latitude and medium-to-high multipole<br />
is provided by the CMB map computed from high Galatic latitude statistics<br />
(note that this map does not include the LFI channels)<br />
while the remaining information is provided by the other CMB map (which does include all Planck channels).<br />
See {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l04}} for more details.<br />
<br />
; Polarisation.<br />
<br />
The SMICA pipeline for polarization uses all the 7 polarized Planck channels.<br />
The E and B modes of the frequency maps are processed independently by SMICA<br />
to produce E and B modes of the CMB map from which Q and U maps are derived.<br />
The foreground model fitted by SMICA is 6-dimensional which is the maximal dimension<br />
supported by SMICA when operating in blind mode, that is, assuming nothing about the<br />
foregrounds except that they can be represented by a superposition of 6 components<br />
with unconstrained emission laws, unconstrained angular spectra and unconstrained angular correlation.<br />
See {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l04}} for more details.<br />
<br />
Note: in general, any I, Q and U CMB map can be transformed into a T, E and B CMB map using the HEALpix routines "anafast" and "synfast"(See the links below for the details). The "anafast" routine generates harmonic coefficients of T, E and B maps from the full sky I, Q and U maps. Finally, the full sky T, E and B maps in real space are generated using "synfast" routine separately from the corresponding harmonic coefficients obtained using "anafast". Further details about the spherical harmonic transform from HEALPix can be found in https://healpix.jpl.nasa.gov/html/intro.htm, https://healpix.jpl.nasa.gov/html/idlnode25.htm, and https://healpix.jpl.nasa.gov/html/idlnode27.htm". In the particular case of NILC, that works in needlet space, the IQU maps are converted into TEB maps using anafast and synfast, while in the case of SMICA, that works in harmonic space, the IQU maps are converted into TEB harmonic coefficents (alms) using anafast only.<br />
<br />
====Common Masks====<br />
<br />
Common masks have been defined for analysis of the CMB temperature and polarization maps. In previous releases, these were constructed simply as the union of the individual pipeline confidence masks. In the 2018 release, a more direct approach has been adopted, by thresholding the standard deviation map evaluated between each of the four cleaned CMB maps. This standard deviation mask is then augmented with the Commander and SEVEM confidence masks, as well as with the SEVEM and SMICA in-painting masks.<br />
<br />
In addition, we provide masks for unobserved pixels for the half-mission and odd-even data splits, as well as an in-painting mask. The latter is not intended for scientific analysis, but for producing visually acceptable CMB representation for PR purposes.<br />
<br />
In total, we provide the following masks:<br />
<br />
* COM_Mask_CMB-common-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits -- Temperature confidence mask with f<sub>sky</sub> = 77.9%. This is the preferred mask for temperature science analysis.<br />
* COM_Mask_CMB-common-Mask-Pol_2048_R3.00.fits -- Polarization confidence mask with f<sub>sky</sub> = 78.1%. This is the preferred mask for polarization science analysis.<br />
* COM_Mask_CMB-HM-Misspix-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits -- Temperature half-mission missing pixels mask with f<sub>sky</sub> = 96.0%. This should be applied in analyses of the half-mission split temperature maps.<br />
* COM_Mask_CMB-HM-Misspix-Mask-Pol_2048_R3.00.fits -- Polarization half-mission missing pixels mask with f<sub>sky</sub> = 96.1%. This should be applied in analyses of the half-mission split polarization maps.<br />
* COM_Mask_CMB-HM-Misspix-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits -- Temperature half-mission missing pixels mask with f<sub>sky</sub> = 98.1%. This should be applied in analyses of the half-mission split temperature maps.<br />
* COM_Mask_CMB-HM-Misspix-Mask-Pol_2048_R3.00.fits -- Polarization half-mission missing pixels mask with f<sub>sky</sub> = 98.1%. This should be applied in analyses of the half-mission split polarization maps.<br />
* COM_Mask_CMB-Inpainting-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits -- Temperature CMB in-painting mask with f<sub>sky</sub> = 97.9%.<br />
<br />
====CMB-subtracted frequency maps ("Foreground maps")====<br />
<br />
These are the full-sky, full-mission frequency maps in intensity and polarization from which the CMB has been subtracted. The maps contain foregrounds and noise. They are provided for each frequency channel and for each component separation method. They are grouped into 8 files, two for each method of which there is one for each instrument. The maps are are at N<sub>side</sub> = 1024 for the three LFI channels and at N<sub>side</sub> = 2048 for the six HFI channels. The filenames are:<br />
<br />
* ''LFI_Foregrounds-{method}_1024_Rn.nn.fits'' (145 MB each)<br />
* ''HFI_Foregrounds-{method}_2048_Rn.nn.fits'' (1.2 GB each)<br />
<br />
To remove the CMB, the respective CMB map was first deconvolved with the 5 arcmin beam, then convolved with the beam of the frequency channel, and finally subtracted from the frequency map. This was done using the <math>B_\rm{l}</math> in harmonic space, assuming a symmetric beam.<br />
<br />
The CMB-subtracted maps have complicated noise properties. The CMB maps contain a noise contribution from each of the frequency maps, depending on the weights with which they were combined. Therefore subtracting the CMB map from a frequency channel contributes additional noise from the other frequency channels. This caveat is particularly important for polarization, for which the noise in the cleaned CMB maps is large. After subtraction this noise term is perfectly correlated between frequency channels, with a perfect blackbody spectrum with T=2.7255K. Caution is therefore warranted when using these maps for scientific analysis.<br />
<br />
The frequency maps from which the CMB have been subtracted are:<br />
<br />
* ''LFI_SkyMap_0nn_1024_R3.00_full.fits''<br />
* ''HFI_SkyMap_nnn_2048_R3.00_full.fits''<br />
<br />
Note that the zodiacal light correction described [https://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planckpla2015/index.php/Map-making#Zodiacal_light_correction here] was applied to the HFI temperature maps before the CMB subtraction.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
====Masks====<br />
Summary table with the various masks that have been either been used or produced by the component separation methods to pre- or post-process the CMB maps.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left"<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Common mask filename || Field || Description || <br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-common-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits}} || TMASK || Common temperature confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-common-Mask-Pol_2048_R3.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common-Mask-Pol_2048_R3.00.fits}} || PMASK || Common polarization confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-HM-Misspix-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-HM-Misspix-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits}} || TMASK || Missing pixels temperature mask for the half-mission data split.<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-HM-Misspix-Mask-Pol_2048_R3.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-HM-Misspix-Mask-Pol_2048_R3.00.fits}} || PMASK || Missing pixels polarization mask for the half-mission data split.<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-OE-Misspix-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-OE-Misspix-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits}} || TMASK || Missing pixels temperature mask for the odd-even data split.<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-OE-Misspix-Mask-Pol_2048_R3.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-OE-Misspix-Mask-Pol_2048_R3.00.fits}} || PMASK || Missing pixels polarization mask for the odd-even data split.<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-Inpainting-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-Inpainting-Mask-Int_2048_R3.00.fits}} || TMASK || Temperature inpainting mask.<br />
|- bgcolor="800000"<br />
|<br />
! ||<br />
|<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Pipeline specific mask filename || Field || Description<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-commander_2048_R3.00_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-commander_2048_R3.00_full.fits}} || TMASK || Commander temperature confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
| || PMASK || Commander polarization confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-nilc_2048_R3.00_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-nilc_2048_R3.00_full.fits}} || TMASK || NILC temperature confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
| || PMASK || NILC polarization confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-sevem_2048_R3.00_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-sevem_2048_R3.00_full.fits}} || TMASK || SEVEM temperature confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
| || PMASK || SEVEM polarization confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
| || TMASKINP || SEVEM polarization (pre-processing) in-painting mask.<br />
|-<br />
| || PMASKINP || SEVEM polarization (pre-processing) in-painting mask.<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-smica_2048_R3.00_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-smica_2048_R3.00_full.fits}} || TMASK || SMICA temperature confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
| || PMASK || SMICA polarization confidence mask.<br />
|-<br />
| || TMASKINP || SMICA polarization (pre-processing) in-painting mask.<br />
|-<br />
| || PMASKINP || SMICA polarization (pre-processing) in-painting mask.<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Inputs===<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. All pipelines use all maps between 30 and 857 GHz in temperature, and all maps between 30 and 353 GHz in polarization.<br />
<br />
===CMB file names===<br />
<br />
The CMB products are provided as a set of five files per pipeline, one file covering some part of the entire mission (full mission; first half-mission; second half-mission; odd rings; and even rings), with a filename structure on the form<br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}-2048-R3.00_{full,hm1,hm2,oe1,oe2}.fits''<br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-SEVEM-2048-R3.01_{full,hm1,hm2,oe1,oe2}.fits''. <br />
<br />
<span style="color:#FF0000>UPDATE 17 January 2019</span>: version R3.00 of the SEVEM CMB map has been replaced with version R3.01 because in version R3.00 the temperatue and polarization effective beams were missing. <br />
<br />
The first extension contains the full-sky CMB maps in the fields called I_STOKES, Q_STOKES, U_STOKES. The full-mission files additionally contains an ASCII table with the effective beam transfer function in the second extension. The structure of each file is given as follows:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB R3.00 map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb || I map <br />
|- <br />
|Q_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb || Q map <br />
|-<br />
|U_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb || U map <br />
|-<br />
|TMASK || Int || none || Temperature confidence mask (full-mission only) <br />
|-<br />
|PMASK || Int || none || Polarisation confidence mask (full-mission only) <br />
|-<br />
|I_STOKES_INP || Real*4 || K_cmb || I inpainted map <br />
|- <br />
|Q_STOKES_INP || Real*4 || K_cmb || Q inpainted map <br />
|-<br />
|U_STOKES_INP || Real*4 || K_cmb || U inpainted map <br />
|-<br />
|TMASKINP || Int || none || Temperature confidence mask (full-mission SEVEM, SMICA only) <br />
|-<br />
|PMASKINP || Int || none || Polarisation confidence mask (full-mission SEVEM, SMICA only) <br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (COMMANDER/NILC/SEVEM/SMICA)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Optional Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_TF'' (BINTABLE). ONLY FULL-MISSION DATA FILES<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|INT_BEAM || Real*4 || none || Effective beam transfer function. <br />
|-<br />
|POL_BEAM || Real*4 || none || Effective beam transfer function.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX_I || Int || value || Last multipole for Int beam TF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX_P || Int || value || Last multipole for Pol beam TF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method <br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
All maps are provided in thermodynamic units (K<sub>cmb</cmb>), with Nside=2048 and a nominal angular resolution of 5' FWHM.<br />
<br />
===CMB simulations===<br />
<br />
End-to-end simulations corresponding to each of the CMB data products are provided in terms of 999 CMB realization and 300 noise realizations individually propagated through each pipeline. These files are called <br />
*''dx12_v3_{method}_{cmb,noise,noise_hm1,noise_hm2,noise_oe1,noise_oe2}_mc_?????_raw.fits''<br />
*''dx12_v3_sevem_{freq}_{cmb,noise,noise_hm1,noise_hm2,noise_oe1,noise_oe2}_mc_?????_raw.fits'' for SEVEM cleaned cmb maps at single frequencies.<br />
*''dx12_v3_smica_nosz_{cmb,noise,noise_hm1,noise_hm2,noise_oe1,noise_oe2}_mc_?????_raw.fits'' for SMICA SZ-free cmb maps.<br />
<br />
Note that only 999 CMB realizations are available, as one realization was corrupted during processing.<br />
<br />
== Previous Releases: (2022-NPIPE), (2015) and (2013) CMB Maps ==<br />
<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="background-color: #9ef542;width:80%"><br />
'''2020 - NPIPE'''<br />
<div class="mw-collapsible-content"><br />
The NPIPE flight data maps include several subsets and differ from earlier Planck releases.<br />
<br />
'''CMB maps'''<br />
<br />
The full-frequency and A/B maps were component separated using Commander and SEVEM. At the moment only the "full" versions are provided.<br />
<br />
The Commander temperature map is now provided at <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=4096, making it incompatible with the <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048 polarization maps. To fit temperature and polarization into the same FITS file, two separate header data units (HDUs) are employed. HDU 1 contains the single temperature map and HDU 2 contains the <i>Q</i> and <i>U</i> polarization maps.<br />
<br />
SEVEM products include the jointly-fitted CMB map and foreground-subtracted frequency maps at 70-217GHz. Unlike Commander, SEVEM temperature maps do not contain the CMB dipole.<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align"left" border="1" cellpadding="15" cellspacing="20" width=880px<br />
|+ '''CMB map FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Component-separation code, coverage || Filename <br />
|-<br />
| SEVEM CMB map || COM_CMB_IQU-sevem_2048_R4.??.fits<br />
|-<br />
| SEVEM foreground-subtracted frequency map || COM_CMB_IQU-fff-fgsub-sevem_2048_R4.??.fits<br />
|-<br />
<br />
|}<br />
<br />
'''FITS file structure'''<br />
<br />
The FITS files for the sky maps contain a minimal primary header with no data, and a ''BINTABLE'' extension (EXTENSION 1, EXTNAME = ''FREQ-MAP'') containing the data. The structure is shown schematically in the figure below. The ''FREQ-MAP'' extension contains a 3- or 10-column table that includes the signal, hit-count, and variance maps, all in HEALPix format. The 3-column case is for intensity-only maps, while the 10-column case is for polarization. The number of rows is the number of map pixels, which is <i>N</i><sub>pix</sub> = 12 <i>N</i><sub>side</sub><sup>2</sup> for HEALPix maps, where <i>N</i><sub>side</sub> = 1024 or 2048 for most of the maps presented in this section.<br />
<br />
[[File:FITS_FreqMap.png | 550px | center | thumb | '''FITS file structure.''']]<br />
<br />
Note that file sizes are approximately 0.6 GB for <i>I</i>-only maps and 1.9 GB for <i>IQU</i> maps at <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048, but about 0.14 GB for <i>I</i>-only maps and 0.45 GB for <i>IQU</i> maps at <i>N</i><sub>pix</sub>=1024 .<br />
<br />
Keywords indicate the coordinate system ("GALACTIC"), the HEALPix ordering scheme ("NESTED"), the units (K<sub>CMB</sub> of each column, and of course the frequency channel ("FREQ"). Where polarization <i>Q</i> and <i>U</i> maps are provided, the "COSMO" polarization convention (used in HEALPix) is adopted, and it is specified in the "POLCCONV" keyword. The original filename is also given in the "FILENAME" keyword. The "BAD_DATA" keyword gives the value used by HEALPix to indicate pixels for which no signal is present (these will also have a hit-count value of 0). The main parameters are summarized in the table below.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Sky map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column name || Data type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_STOKES || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub> || Stokes <i>I</i> map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STOKES || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub> || Stokes <i>Q</i> map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|U_STOKES || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub> || Stokes <i>U</i> map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|HITS || Int*4 || none || The hit-count map<br />
|-<br />
|II_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> || <i>II</i> variance map<br />
|-<br />
|IQ_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> || <i>IQ</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|IU_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> || <i>IQ</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QQ_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> || <i>QQ</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QU_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> || <i>QU</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|UU_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> || <i>UU</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || HEALPix <i>N</i><sub>side</sub> <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12 <i>N</i><sub>side</sub><sup>2</sup> – 1 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ || String || nnn || Frequency channel <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
The same structure applies to all "SkyMap" products, independent of whether they are full channel, survey of half-ring. The distinction between the types of map is present in the FITS filename (and in the traceability comment fields).<br />
<br />
<br />
</div><br />
</div><br />
<br />
<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="background-color: #FFDAB9;width:80%"><br />
'''2015 Release of CMB maps'''<br />
<div class="mw-collapsible-content"><br />
<br />
'''CMB maps'''<br />
<br />
CMB maps have been produced using four different methods: COMMANDER, NILC, SEVEM, and SMICA, as described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation | CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}} and references therein.<br />
<br />
'''As discussed extensively in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a01}}, {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a07}}, {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a09}}, and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}}, the residual systematics in the Planck 2015 polarization maps have been dramatically reduced compared to 2013, by as much as two orders of magnitude on large angular scales. Nevertheless, on angular scales greater than 10 degrees, correponding to l < 20, systematics are still non-negligible compared to the expected cosmological signal.'''<br />
<br />
'''It was not possible, for this data release, to fully characterize the large-scale residuals from the data or from simulations. Therefore all results published by the Planck Collaboration in 2015 which are based on CMB polarization have used maps which have been high-pass filtered to remove the large angular scales. We warn all users of the CMB polarization maps that they cannot yet be used for cosmological studies at large angular scales.'''<br />
<br />
'''For convenience, we provide as default polarized CMB maps from which all angular scales at l < 30 have been filtered out. '''<br />
<br />
For each method we provide the following:<br />
* Full-mission CMB intensity map, confidence mask and beam transfer function.<br />
* Full-mission CMB polarisation map, <br />
* A confidence mask.<br />
* A beam transfer function.<br />
In addition, and for characterisation purposes, we include six other sets of maps from three data splits: first/second half-ring, odd/even years and first/second half-mission. For the year-1,2 and half-mission-1,2 data splits we provide half-sum and half-difference maps which are produced by running the corresponding sums and differences inputs through the pipelines. The half-difference maps can be used to provide an approximate noise estimates for the full mission, but they should be used with caution. Each split has caveats in this regard: there are noise correlations between the half-ring maps, and missing pixels in the other splits. The Intensity maps are provided at Nside = 2048, at 5 arcmin resolution, while the Polarisation ones are provided at Nside = 1024, at 10 arcmin resolution. All maps are in units of K<sub>cmb</sub>.<br />
<br />
In addition, for each method we provide three sets of files, each categorized by the "R2.0X" label as follows:<br />
<br />
; ''R2.02''<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre-wrap; <br />
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This set of intensity and polarisation maps are provided at a resolution of Nside=1024. The Stokes Q and U maps are high-pass filtered to contain only modes above l > 30, as explained above and as used for analysis by the Planck Collaboration; THESE ARE THE POLARISATION MAPS WHICH SHOULD BE USED FOR COSMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS. Each type of map is packaged into a separate fits file (as for "R2.01"), resulting in file sizes which are easier to download (as opposed to the "R2.00" files), and more convenient to use with commonly used analysis software.<br />
</pre><br />
<br />
; ''R2.01''<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre-wrap; <br />
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This is the most complete set of 2015 CMB maps, containing Intensity products at a resolution of Nside=2048, and both Intensity and Polarisation at resolution of Nside=1024. For polarisation (Q and U), they contain all angular resolution modes. WE CAUTION USERS ONCE AGAIN THAT THE STOKES Q AND U MAPS ARE NOT CONSIDERED USEABLE FOR COSMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS AT l < 30. The structure of these files is the same as for "R2.02".<br />
</pre><br />
<br />
; ''R2.00''<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre-wrap; <br />
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white-space: -pre-wrap; <br />
white-space: -o-pre-wrap; <br />
word-wrap: break-word;"><br />
This set of files is equivalent to the "R2.01" set, but are packaged into only two large files. Warning: downloading these files could be very lengthy...<br />
</pre><br />
<br />
For a complete description of the above data structures, see [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
<br />
The gallery below shows the Intensity, noise from half-mission, half-difference, and confidence mask for the four pipelines, in the order COMMANDER, NILC, SEVEM and SMICA, from top to bottom. The Intensity maps' scale is [–500.+500] μK, and the noise spans [–25,+25] μK. We do not show the Q and U maps since they have no significant visible structure to contemplate.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=300px heights=180> <br />
File:CMB_commander_tsig.png | '''commander temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tnoi.png | '''commander noise'''<br />
File:CMB_commander_tmask.png | '''commander mask'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tsig.png | '''nilc temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tnoi.png | '''nilc noise'''<br />
File:CMB_nilc_tmask.png | '''nilc mask'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tsig.png | '''sevem temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tnoi.png | '''sevem noise'''<br />
File:CMB_sevem_tmask.png | '''sevem mask'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tsig.png | '''smica temperature'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tnoi.png | '''smica noise'''<br />
File:CMB_smica_tmask.png | '''smica mask'''</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
'''Product description '''<br />
<br />
'''COMMANDER'''<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: COMMANDER is a Planck software code implementing pixel based Bayesian parametric component separation. Each astrophysical signal component is modelled in terms of a small number of free parameters per pixel, typically in terms of an amplitude at a given reference frequency and a small set of spectral parameters, and these are fitted to the data with an MCMC Gibbs sampling algorithm. Instrumental parameters, including calibration, bandpass corrections, monopole and dipoles, are fitted jointly with the astrophysical components. A new feature in the Planck 2015 analysis is that the astrophysical model is derived from a combination of Planck, WMAP and a 408 MHz (Haslam et al. 1982) survey, providing sufficient frequency support to resolve the low-frequency components into synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust. For full details, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The Commander sky maps have different angular resolutions depending on data products:<br />
* The components of the full astrophysical sky model derived from the complete data combination (Planck, WMAP, 408 MHz) have a 1 degree FWHM resolution, and are pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=256. The corresponding CMB map defines the input map for the low-l Planck 2015 temperature likelihood. <br />
* The Commander CMB temperature map derived from Planck-only observations has an angular resolution of ~5 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=2048. This map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-857 GHz data), 7.5 arcmin (using 143-857 GHz data), and 5 arcmin (using 217-857 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
* The Commander CMB polarization map has an angular resolution of 10 arcmin and is pixelized at N<sub>side</sub>=1024. As for the temperature case, this map is produced by harmonic space hybridiziation, in which independent solutions derived at 40 arcmin (using 30-353 GHz data) and 10 arcmin (using 100-353 GHz data) are coadded into a single map.<br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The Commander confidence masks are produced by thresholding the chi-square map characterizing the global fits, combined with direct CO amplitude thresholding to eliminate known leakage effects. In addition, we exclude the 9-year WMAP point source mask in the temperature mask. For full details, see Sections 5 and 6 in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}. A total of 81% of the sky is admitted for high-resolution temperature analysis, and 83% for polarization analysis. For low-resolution temperature analysis, for which the additional WMAP and 408 MHz observations improve foreground constraints, a total of 93% of the sky is admitted. <br />
<br />
'''NILC'''<br />
<br />
;Principle<br />
<br />
: The Needlet-ILC (hereafter NILC) CMB map is constructed both in total intensity as well as polarization: Q and U Stokes parameters. For total intensity, all Planck frequency channels are included. For polarization, all polarization sensitive frequency channels are included, from 30 to 353 GHz. The solution, for T, Q and U is obtained by applying the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) technique in needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range. <br />
<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
<br />
: The spectral analysis, and estimation of the NILC coefficients, is performed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math>. The effective beam is equivalent to a Gaussian circular beam with FWHM=5 arcminutes. <br />
<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
<br />
: The same procedure is followed by SMICA and NILC for producing confidence masks, though with different parametrizations. A low resolution smoothed version of the NILC map, noise subtracted, is thresholded to 73.5 squared micro-K for T, and 6.75 squared micro-K for Q and U.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''SEVEM'''<br />
; Principle<br />
<br />
: SEVEM produces clean CMB maps at several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting in real space. The templates are typically constructed from the lowest and highest Planck frequencies and then subtracted from the CMB-dominated channels, with coefficients that are chosen to minimize the variance of the clean map outside a considered mask. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. Two single frequency clean maps are then combined to obtain the final CMB map.<br />
<br />
;Resolution<br />
<br />
: For intensity the clean CMB map is constructed up to a maximum <math>\ell=4000</math> at Nside=2048 and at the standard resolution of 5 arcminutes (Gaussian beam).<br />
: For polarization the clean CMB map is produced at Nside=1024 with a resolution of 10 arcminutes (Gaussian beam) and a maximum <math>\ell=3071</math>.<br />
<br />
; Confidence masks<br />
<br />
: The confidence masks cover the most contaminated regions of the sky, leaving approximately 85 per cent of useful sky for intensity, and 80 per cent for polarization.<br />
<br />
'''Foregrounds-subtracted maps'''<br />
<br />
In addition to the regular CMB maps, SEVEM provides maps cleaned of the foregrounds for selected frequency channels (categorized as fgsub-sevem in the archive). In particular, for intensity there are clean CMB maps available at 100, 143 and 217 GHz, provided at the original resolution of the uncleaned channel and at Nside=2048. For polarization, there are Q/U clean CMB maps for the 70, 100 and 143 GHz (at Nside=1024). The 70 GHz clean map is provided at its original resolution, whereas the 100 and 143 GHz maps have a resolution given by a Gaussian beam with fwhm=10 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
'''SMICA'''<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces CMB maps by linearly combining all Planck input channels with multipole-dependent weights. It includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>. Temperature and polarization maps are produced independently.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA intensity map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes which is truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math> and is '''not''' deconvolved from the pixel window function. Thus the delivered beam window function is the product of a Gaussian beam at 5 arcminutes and the pixel window function for <math>N_{side}</math>=2048.<br />
: The SMICA Q and U maps are obtained similarly but are produced at <math>N_{side}</math>=1024 with an effective beam of 10 arc-minutes (to be multiplied by the pixel window function, as for the intensity map).<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. See section below detailing the production process.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''Common Masks'''<br />
<br />
A number of common masks have been defined for analysis of the CMB temperature and polarization maps. They are based on the confidence masks provided by the component separation methods. One mask for temperature and one mask for polarization have been chosen as the preferred masks based on subsequent analyses.<br />
<br />
The common masks for the CMB temperature maps are:<br />
<br />
* UT78: union of the Commander, SEVEM, and SMICA temperature confidence masks (the NILC mask was not included since it masks much less of the sky). It has f<sub>sky</sub> = 77.6%. This is the preferred mask for temperature.<br />
<br />
* UTA76: in addition to the UT78 mask, it masks pixels where standard deviation between the four CMB maps is greater than 10 &mu;K. It has f<sub>sky</sub> = 76.1%.<br />
<br />
The common masks for the CMB polarization maps are:<br />
<br />
* UP78: the union of the Commander, SEVEM and SMICA polarization confidence masks (the NILC mask was not included since it masks much less of the sky). It has f<sub>sky</sub> = 77.6%.<br />
<br />
* UPA77: In addition to the UP78 mask, it masks pixels where the standard deviation between the four CMB maps, averaged in Q and U, is greater than 4 &mu;K. It has f<sub>sky</sub> = 76.7%.<br />
<br />
* UPB77: in addition to the UP78 mask, it masks polarized point sources detected in the frequency channel maps. It has f<sub>sky</sub> = 77.4%. This is the preferred mask for polarization.<br />
<br />
Additional pre-processing masks used mainly for inpainting of the frequency and/or cmb maps is show below in [https://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=CMB_maps#Masks Masks]<br />
<br />
'''CMB-subtracted frequency maps ("Foreground maps")'''<br />
<br />
These are the full-sky, full-mission frequency maps in intensity from which the CMB has been subtracted. The maps contain foregrounds and noise. They are provided for each frequency channel and for each component separation method. They are grouped into 8 files, two for each method of which there is one for each instrument. The maps are are at N<sub>side</sub> = 1024 for the three LFI channels and at N<sub>side</sub> = 2048 for the six HFI channels. The filenames are:<br />
<br />
* ''LFI_Foregrounds-{method}_1024_Rn.nn.fits'' (145 MB each)<br />
* ''HFI_Foregrounds-{method}_2048_Rn.nn.fits'' (1.2 GB each)<br />
<br />
To remove the CMB, the respective CMB map was first deconvolved with the 5 arcmin beam, then convolved with the beam of the frequency channel, and finally subtracted from the frequency map. This was done using the <math>B_\rm{l}</math> in harmonic space, assuming a symmetric beam.<br />
<br />
The CMB-subtracted maps have complicated noise properties. The CMB maps contain a noise contribution from each of the frequency maps, depending on the weights with which they were combined. Therefore subtracting the CMB map from a frequency channel contributes additional noise from the other frequency channels.<br />
<br />
'''Quadrupole Residual Maps'''<br />
<br />
The second-order (kinematic) quadrupole is a frequency-dependent effect. During the production of the frequency maps the frequency-independent part was subtracted, which leaves a frequency-dependent residual quadrupole. The residuals in the component-separated CMB temperature maps have been estimated by simulating the effect in the frequency maps and propagating it through the component separation pipelines. The residuals have an amplitude of around 2 &mu;K peak-to-peak. The maps of the estimated residuals can be used to remove the effect by subtracting them from the CMB maps.<br />
<br />
'''Production process'''<br />
<br />
'''COMMANDER'''<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky maps are first convolved to a common resolution that is larger than the largest beam of any frequency channel. For the combined Planck, WMAP and 408 MHz temperature analysis, the common resolution is 1 degree FWHM; for the Planck-only, all-frequency analysis it is 40 arcmin FWHM; and for the intermediate-resolution analysis it is 7.5 arcmin; while for the full-resolution analysis, we assume all frequencies between 217 and 857 GHz have a common resolution, and no additional convolution is performed. For polarization, only two smoothing scales are employed, 40 and 10 arcmin, respectively. The instrumental noise rms maps are convolved correspondingly, properly accouting for their matrix-like nature. <br />
<br />
; Priors<br />
<br />
: The following priors are enforced in the Commander analysis:<br />
* All foreground amplitudes are enforced to be positive definite in the low-resolution analysis, while no amplitude priors are enforced in the high-resolution analyses<br />
* Monopoles and dipoles are fixed to nominal values for a small set of reference frequencies<br />
* Gaussian priors are enforced on spectral parameters, with values informed by the values derived in the high signal-to-noise areas of the sky<br />
* The Jeffreys ignorance prior is enforced on spectral parameters in addition to the informative Gaussian priors<br />
<br />
; Fitting procedure<br />
<br />
: Given data and priors, Commander either maximizes, or samples from, the Bayesian posterior, P(theta|data). Because this is a highly non-Gaussian and correlated distribution, involving millions of parameters, these operations are performed by means of the Gibbs sampling algorithm, in which joint samples from the full distributions are generated by iteratively sampling from the corresponding conditional posterior distributions, P(theta_i| data, theta_{j/=i}). For the low-resolution analysis, all parameters are optimized jointly, while in the high-resolution analyses, which employs fewer frequency channels, low signal-to-noise parameters are fixed to those derived at low resolution. Examples of such parameters include monopoles and dipoles, calibration and bandpass parameters, thermal dust temperature etc.<br />
<br />
'''NILC'''<br />
<br />
; Pre-processing<br />
<br />
: All sky frequency maps are deconvolved using the DPC beam transfer function provided, and re-convolved with a 5 arcminutes FWHM circular Gaussian beam. In polarization, prior to the smoothing process, all sky E and B maps are derived from Q and U using standard HEALPix tools from each individual frequency channels <br />
<br />
; Linear combination<br />
<br />
: Pre-processed input frequency maps are decomposed in needlet coefficients, specified in the Appendix B of the Planck A11 paper, with shape given by Table B.1. Minimum variance coefficients are then obtained, using all channels for T, from 30 to 353 for E and B. <br />
<br />
; Post-processing<br />
<br />
: E and B maps are re-combined into Q and U products using standard HEALPix tools. <br />
<br />
'''SEVEM'''<br />
<br />
The templates used in the SEVEM pipeline are typically constructed by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMB map at that frequency. This is done in real space at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. The <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. Note that the same expression applies for I, Q and U. Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of clean maps at different frequencies is of great interest in order to test the robustness of the results, and these intermediate products (clean maps at individual frequencies for intensity and polarization) are also provided in the archive. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned independently and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
;Intensity<br />
<br />
For the CMB intensity map, we have cleaned the 100 GHz, 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps using a total of four templates. Three of them are constructed as the difference of two consecutive Planck channels smoothed to a common resolution (30-44, 44-70 and 545-353) while the 857 GHz channel is chosen as the fourth template. First of all, the six frequency channels which are going to be part of the templates are inpainted at the point source positions detected using the Mexican Hat Wavelet algorithm. The size of the holes to be inpainted is determined taking into account the beam size of the channel as well as the flux of each source. The inpainting algorithm is based on simple diffuse inpainting, which fills one pixel with the mean value of the neighbouring pixels in an iterative way. To avoid inconsistencies when subtracting two channels, each frequency map is inpainted on the sources detected in that map and on the second map (if any) used to construct the template. Then the maps are smoothed to a common resolution (the first channel in the subtraction is smoothed with the beam of the second map and viceversa). For the 857 GHz template, we simply filter the inpainted map with the 545 GHz beam.<br />
<br />
The coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance outside the analysis mask, that covers the 1 per cent brightest emission of the sky as well as point sources detected at all frequency channels. Once the maps are cleaned, each of them is inpainted on the point sources positions detected at that (raw) channel. Then, the MHW algorithm is run again, now on the clean maps. A relatively small number of new sources are found and are also inpainted at each channel. The resolution of the clean map is the same as that of the original data. Our final CMB map is then constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
In addition, the clean CMB maps produced at 100, 143 and 217 GHz frequencies are also provided. The resolution of these maps is the same as that of the uncleaned frequency channels and have been constructed at Nside=2048. They have been inpainted at the position of the detected point sources. Note that these three clean maps should be close to independent, although some level of correlation will be present since the same templates have been used to clean the maps.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask is produced by studying the differences between several SEVEM CMB reconstructions, which correspond to maps cleaned at different frequencies or using different analysis masks. The obtained mask leaves a useful sky fraction of approximately 85 per cent.<br />
<br />
;Polarization<br />
<br />
To clean the polarization maps, a procedure similar to the one used for intensity data is applied to the Q and U maps independently. However, given that a narrower frequency coverage is available for polarization, the selected templates and maps to be cleaned are different. In particular, we clean the 70, 100 and 143 GHz using three templates for each channel. The first step of the pipeline is to inpaint the positions of the point sources using the MHW, in those channels which are going to be used in the construction of templates, following the same procedure as for the intensity case. The inpainting is performed in the frequency maps at their native resolution. These inpainted maps are then used to construct a total of four templates. To trace the synchrotron emission, we construct a template as the subtraction of the 30 GHz minus the 44 GHz <br />
map, after being convolved with the beam of each other. For the dust emission, the following templates are considered: 353-217 GHz (smoothed at 10' resolution), 217-143 GHz (used <br />
to clean 70 and 100 GHz) and 217-100 GHz (to clean 143 GHz). These two last templates are constructed at 1 degree resolution since an additional smoothing becomes necessary in<br />
order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the template. Conversely to the <br />
intensity case and due to the lower availability of frequency channels, it becomes necessary to use the maps to be cleaned as part of one of the templates. In this way, the 100 GHz <br />
map is used to clean the 143 GHz frequency channel and viceversa, making the clean maps less independent between them than in the intensity case.<br />
<br />
These templates are then used to clean the non-inpainted 70 (at its native resolution), 100 (at 10' resolution) and 143 GHz maps (also at 10'). The corresponding linear coefficients are estimated independently for Q and U by minimising the variance of the clean maps outside a mask, that covers point sources and the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission. Once the maps have been cleaned, inpainting of the point sources detected at the corresponding raw maps is carried out. The size of the holes to be inpainted takes<br />
into account the additional smoothing of the 100 and 143 GHz maps. The 100 and 143 GHz clean maps are then combined in harmonic space, using E and B decomposition, to produce the final CMB maps for the Q and U components at a resolution of 10' (Gaussian beam) for a HEALPix parameter Nside=1024. Each map is weighted taking into account its <br />
corresponding noise level at each multipole. Finally, before applying the post-processing HPF to the clean polarization data, the region with the brightest Galactic residuals is inpainted (5 per cent of the sky) to avoid the introduction of ringing around the Galactic centre in the filtering process.<br />
<br />
The clean CMB maps at individual frequency channels produced as intermediate steps of SEVEM are also provided for Q and U, constructed at Nside=1024. The clean 70 GHz map is provided at its native resolution, while the clean maps at 100 and 143 GHz frequencies have a resolution of 10 arcminutes (Gaussian beam). The three maps have been inpainted in the positions of the detected point sources. Note that, due to the availability of a smaller number of templates for polarization than for intensity, these maps are less independent than for the temperature case, since, for instance, the 100 GHz map is used to clean the 143 GHz one and viceversa.<br />
<br />
The confidence mask includes all the pixels above a given threshold in a smoothed version of the clean CMB map, the regions more contaminated by the CO emission and those pixels more affected by the high-pass filtering, leaving a useful sky fraction of approximately 80 per cent.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''SMICA'''<br />
<br />
A) Production of the intensity map.<br />
<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: Before computing spherical harmonic coefficients, all input maps undergo a pre-processing step to deal with regions of very strong emission (such as the Galactic center) and point sources. The point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue are fitted in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole is filled in by a simple diffusive process to ensure a smooth transition and mitigate spectral leakage. The diffusive inpainting process is also applied to some regions of very strong emissions. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, here all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and filled-in similarly.<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHz are harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> and co-added with multipole-dependent weights as shown in the figure.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: A confidence mask is determined (see the Planck paper) and all regions which have been masked in the pre-processing step are added to it.<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filter_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input intensity maps (after they are re-beamed to 5 arc-minutes and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), as a function of multipole.''']]--><br />
<br />
B) Production of the Q and U polarisation maps.<br />
<br />
The SMICA pipeline for polarization uses all the 7 polarized Planck channels. The production of the Q and U maps is similar to the production of the intensity map. However, there is no input point source pre-processing of the input maps. The regions of very strong emission are masked out using an apodized mask before computing the E and B modes of the input maps and combining them to produce the E and B modes of the CMB map. Those modes are then used to synthesize the U and Q CMB maps. The E and B parts of the input frequency maps being processed jointly, there are, at each multipole, 2*7=14 coefficients (weights) defined to produce the E modes of the CMB map and as many to produce the B part. The weights are displayed in the figure below. The Q and U maps were originally produced at Nside=2048 with a 5-arc-minute resolution, but were downgraded to Nside=1024 with a 10 arc-minute resolution for this release.<br />
<br />
<!--[[File:Smica_filterEB_dx11.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input E and B modes (after they are re-beamed to 5 arcmin and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), in order to produce the E and B modes of the CMB map. A given frequency channel is encoded in a given color. Solid lines are for E modes and dashed lines are for B modes. The thick lines are for the EE or BB weights; the thin lines are for the EB or BE weights. See the paper for more details.''']]--><br />
<br />
'''Masks'''<br />
<br />
Summary table with the different masks that have been used by the component separation methods to pre-process and to process the frequency maps and the CMB maps.<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Commander 2015 (PR2) || Used for diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps || Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description<br />
|-<br />
|T_MASK || NO || NO || T_MASK (the equivalent to PR1 VALMASK) is the confidence mask in temperature that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-commander-field-Int_2048_R2.01_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-commander-field-Int_2048_R2.01_full.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|P_MASK || NO || NO || P_MASK is the confidence mask in polarization that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-commander_1024_R2.02_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-commander_1024_R2.02_full.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|INP_MASK_T || NO || YES || Three masks have been used for inpaiting of CMB maps for specific <math>\ell</math> ranges: three different angular resolution maps (40 arcmin, 7.5 arcmin and full resolution), are produced using different data combinations and foreground models. Each of these are inpainted with their own masks with a constrained Gaussian realization before coadding the three maps in harmonic space.<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_commander_dx11d2_temp_n0256_lmax200_0256_R2.03.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_commander_dx11d2_temp_n0256_lmax200_0256_R2.03.fits}}<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_commander_dx11d2_temp_lmax1000_2048_R2.03.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_commander_dx11d2_temp_lmax1000_2048_R2.03.fits}}<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_commander_dx11d2_temp_fullres_2048_R2.03.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_commander_dx11d2_temp_fullres_2048_R2.03.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
|INP_MASK_P || NO || YES || Mask used for inpainting of the CMB map in polarization.<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_commander_dx11d2_pol_fullres_1024_R2.02.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_commander_dx11d2_pol_fullres_1024_R2.02.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="800000"<br />
|<br />
! ||<br />
|<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! SEVEM 2015 (PR2) || Used for Diffuse Inpainting of foregorund subtracted CMB maps (fgsub-sevem) || Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description<br />
|-<br />
|T_MASK || NO || NO || T_MASK (the equivalent to PR1 VALMASK) is the confidence mask in temperature that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-sevem-field-Int_2048_R2.01_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-sevem-field-Int_2048_R2.01_full.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|P_MASK || NO || NO || P_MASK is the confidence mask in polarization that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-sevem_1024_R2.02_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-sevem_1024_R2.02_full.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|INP_MASK_T || YES || NO || Point source mask for temperature. This mask is the combination of the 143 and 217 T point source masks used for the inpainting of the foreground subtracted CMB maps at those two frequencies. These two maps have been combined to produce the final CMB map. <br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_extended143x217_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_extended143x217_2048_R2.00.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
|INP_MASK_P || YES || NO || Point source mask for polarization. This mask is the combination of the 100 and 143 point source masks used for the inpainting of the foreground subtracted CMB maps at those two frequencies. These two maps have been combined to produce the final CMB map.<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_extended100x143_fw10_1024_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_extended100x143_fw10_1024_R2.00.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
|INP_MASK_T for the cleaned 100, 143 and 217 GHz CMB || YES || NO || Three temperature point source masks used for the inpainting of the foreground subtracted CMB maps at the considered frequencies: <br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_ps100_extended_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_ps100_extended_2048_R2.00.fits}} (clean 100 GHz)<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_ps143_extended_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_ps143_extended_2048_R2.00.fits}} (clean 143 GHz)<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_ps217_extended_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_ps217_extended_2048_R2.00.fits}} (clean 217 GHz)<br />
|-<br />
|INP_MASK_P for the cleaned 70, 100 and 143 GHz CMB|| YES || NO || Three polarization point source masks used for the inpainting of the foreground subtracted CMB maps at the considered frequencies:<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_dx11d_70_pol_varhole_full_99p90_1024_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_dx11d_70_pol_varhole_full_99p90_1024_R2.00.fits}} (clean 70 GHz);<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_dx11d_100_pol_99.97pc_radius_3sigma_10arcmin_1024_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_dx11d_100_pol_99.97pc_radius_3sigma_10arcmin_1024_R2.00.fits}} (clean 100 GHz)<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_dx11d_143_pol_99.97pc_radius_3sigma_10arcmin_1024_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrc_sevem_dx11d_143_pol_99.97pc_radius_3sigma_10arcmin_1024_R2.00.fits}} (clean 143 GHz)<br />
|- bgcolor="800000"<br />
|<br />
! ||<br />
|<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! NILC 2015 (PR2) || Used for diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps || Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description<br />
|-<br />
|T_MASK || NO || NO || T_MASK (the equivalent to PR1 VALMASK) is the confidence mask in temperature that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-nilc-field-Int_2048_R2.01_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-nilc-field-Int_2048_R2.01_full.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|P_MASK || NO || NO || P_MASK is the confidence mask in polarization that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-nilc_1024_R2.02_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-nilc_1024_R2.02_full.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|INP_MASK || YES || NO || The pre-processing involves inpainting of the holes in INP_MASK in the frequency maps prior to applying NILC on them. The first mask (nside 2048) has been used for the pre-processing of sky maps for HFI channels and second one for LFI channels (nside 1024). They can downloaded here:<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_nilc_dx11_preproc_1024_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_nilc_dx11_preproc_1024_R2.00.fits}}<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_nilc_dx11_preproc_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_nilc_dx11_preproc_2048_R2.00.fits}} <br />
|- bgcolor="800000"<br />
|<br />
! ||<br />
|<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! SMICA 2015 (PR2) || Used for diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps || Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description<br />
|-<br />
|T_MASK || NO || YES || T_MASK (the equivalent to PR1 VALMASK) is the confidence mask in temperature that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-smica-field-Int_2048_R2.01_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-smica-field-Int_2048_R2.01_full.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|P_MASK || NO || YES || P_MASK is the confidence mask in polarization that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CMB_IQU-smica_1024_R2.02_full.fits|link=COM_CMB_IQU-smica_1024_R2.02_full.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|I_MASK || YES || NO || I_MASK, as in PR1, defines the regions over which CMB is not built. It is a combination of point source masks, Galactic plane mask and other bright regions like LMC, SMC, etc. It can downloaded here: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_smica_harmonic_mask_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_Mask_PointSrcGalplane_smica_harmonic_mask_2048_R2.00.fits}}<br />
|- <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
'''Inputs'''<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. SMICA and SEVEM use all the maps between 30 and 857 GHz; NILC uses the ones between 44 and 857 GHz. Commander-Ruler uses frequency channel maps from 30 to 353 GHz. <br />
<br />
'''File names and structure'''<br />
<br />
Three sets of files FITS files containing the CMB products are available. In the first set all maps (i.e., covering different parts of the mission) and all characterisation products for a given method and a given Stokes parameter are grouped into a single extension, and there are two files per ''method'' (smica, nilc, sevem, and commander), one for the high resolution data (I only, Nside=2048) and one for low resolution data (Q and U only, Nside=1024). Each file also contains the associated confidence mask(s) and beam transfer function. '''These are the R2.00 files''' which have names like<br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}-field-{Int,Pol}_Nside_R2.00.fits''<br />
There are 7 coverage periods:''full'', ''halfyear-1,2'', ''halfmission-1,2'', or ''ringhalf-1,2'', and 4 characterisation products: ''half-sum'' and half-difference'' for the year and the half-mission periods.<br />
<br />
In the second second set the different coverages are split into different files which in most cases have a single extension with I only (Nside=1024) and I, Q, and U (Nside=1024). This second set was built in order to allow users to use standard codes like ''spice'' or ''anafast'' on them, directly. So this set contains the I maps at Nside=1024, which are not contained in the R2.00; on the other hand this set does not contain the half-sum and half-difference maps. '''These are the 2.01 files''' which have names like <br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}{-field-Int|Pol}_Nside_R2.01_{coverage}.fits'' for the regular CMB maps, and <br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-{fff}-{fgsub-sevem}{-field-Int|Pol}_Nside_R2.01_{coverage}.fits'' for the sevem frequency-dependent, foregrounds-subtracted maps,<br />
where ''field-Int|Pol'' is used to indicate that only Int or only Pol data are contained (at present only ''field-Int'' is used for the high-res data), and is not included in the low-res data which contains all three Stokes parameters, and ''coverage'' is one of ''full'', ''halfyear-1,2'', ''halfmission-1,2'', or ''ringhalf-1,2''. Also, the coverage=''full'' files contain also the confidence mask(s) and beam transfer function(s) which are valid for all products of the same method (one for Int and one for Pol when both are available). <br />
<br />
The third set has the same structure as the Nside=1024 products of R2.01, but '''the Q and U maps have been high-pass filtered to remove modes at l < 30 for the reasons indicated earlier. These are the default products for use in polarisation studies. They are the R2.02 files''' which have names like:<br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}_1024_R2.02_{coverage}.fits'' <br />
<br />
'''Version 2.00 files'''<br />
<br />
These have names like <br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}-field-{Int,Pol}_Nside_R2.00.fits'', <br />
as indicated above. They contain:<br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data;<br />
* one or two ''BINTABLE'' data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 14 columns in which the first 13 columns is a CMB maps produced from the full or a subset of the data, as described in the table below, and the last column in a confidence mask. There is a single extension for ''Int'' files, and two, for Q and U, for ''Pol'' files. <br />
* a ''BINTABLE'' extension containing the beam transfer function (mistakenly called window function in the files).<br />
<br />
If Nside=1024 the files contain I, Q and U maps, whereas if Nside=2048 only the I map is given.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB R2.00 map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I or Q or U || Real*4 || uK_cmb || I or Q or U map <br />
|- <br />
|HM1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HM2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss 2 <br />
|-<br />
|YR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 1 <br />
|-<br />
|YR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HR1 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|HR2 || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring 2 <br />
|-<br />
|HMHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HMHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-miss, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|YRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half sum <br />
|-<br />
|YRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Year, half diff <br />
|-<br />
|HRHS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half sum <br />
|-<br />
|HRHD || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Half-ring half diff <br />
|-<br />
|MASK || BYTE || || Confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (smica/nilc/sevem/commander)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE) . See Note 1<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAMWF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam transfer function, including the pixel window function. See Note 2.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam TF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Last multipole of beam TF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Notes:<br />
# Actually this is a beam ''transfer'' function, so BEAM_TF would have been more appropriate.<br />
# The beam transfer function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>. The beam ''Window'' function is given by <math>W_\ell = B_\ell^2</math><br />
<br />
<br />
'''Version 2.01 files'''<br />
<br />
These files have names like:<br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}{-field-Int|Pol}_Nside_R2.01_{coverage}.fits'' for the regular CMB maps, and <br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-{fff}-{fgsub-sevem}{-field-Int|Pol}_Nside_R2.01_{coverage}.fits'' for the sevem frequency-dependent, foregrounds-subtracted maps,<br />
as indicated above. They contain:<br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data, but with a NUMEXT keyword giving the number of extensions contained.<br />
* one or two ''BINTABLE'' data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 1-5 columns depending on the file, as described above: the minimum begin I only, the maximum begin I, Q, U, and confidence masks for I and P. <br />
* a ''BINTABLE'' extension containing the beam transfer function(s): one for I, and a second one that applies to both Q and U, if Nslde=1024.<br />
<br />
If Nside=1024 the files contain I, Q and U maps, whereas if Nside=2048 only the I map is given. The basic structure, including information on the most important keywords, is given in the table below. For full details, see the FITS header.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB R2.01 map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_Stokes || Real*4 || uK_cmb || I map (Nside=1024,2048) <br />
|- <br />
|Q_Stokes || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Q map (Nside=1024) <br />
|-<br />
|U_Stokes || Real*4 || uK_cmb || U map (Nside=2048) <br />
|-<br />
|TMASK || Int || none || optional Temperature confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
|PMASK || Int || none || optional Polarisation confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Optional Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_TF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|INT_BEAM || Real*4 || none || Effective beam transfer function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|POL_BEAM || Real*4 || none || Effective beam transfer function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX_I || Int || value || Last multipole for Int beam TF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX_P || Int || value || Last multipole for Pol beam TF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method <br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
Notes:<br />
# The beam transfer function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>. The beam ''Window'' function is given by <math>W_\ell = B_\ell^2</math><br />
<br />
'''Version 2.02 files'''<br />
<br />
'''For polarisation work, this is the default set of files to be used for cosmological analysis. Their content is identical to the "R2.01" files, except that angular scales above l < 30 have been filtered out of the Q and U maps. '''<br />
<br />
These files have names like:<br />
*''COM_CMB_IQU-{method}_1024_R2.02_{coverage}.fits'' <br />
as indicated above. They contain:<br />
The files contain <br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data, but with a NUMEXT keyword giving the number of extensions contained.<br />
* one or two ''BINTABLE'' data extensions with a table of Npix lines by 1-5 columns depending on the file, as described above: the minimum begin I only, the maximum begin I, Q, U, and confidence masks for I and P. <br />
* a ''BINTABLE'' extension containing 2 beam transfer functions: one for I and one that applies to both Q and U.<br />
<br />
If Nside=1024 the files contain I, Q and U maps, whereas if Nside=2048 only the I map is given. The basic structure, including information on the most important keywords, is given in the table below. For full details, see the FITS header.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB R2.02 map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. or 2. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_Stokes || Real*4 || uK_cmb || I map (Nside=1024) <br />
|- <br />
|Q_Stokes || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Q map (Nside=1024) <br />
|-<br />
|U_Stokes || Real*4 || uK_cmb || U map (Nside=2048) <br />
|-<br />
|TMASK || Int || none || optional Temperature confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
|PMASK || Int || none || optional Polarisation confidence mask <br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Optional Ext. 2. or 3. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_TF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|INT_BEAM || Real*4 || none || Effective beam transfer function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|POL_BEAM || Real*4 || none || Effective beam transfer function. See Note 1.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX_I || Int || value || Last multipole for Int beam TF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX_P || Int || value || Last multipole for Pol beam TF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method <br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
Notes:<br />
# The beam transfer function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>. The beam ''Window'' function is given by <math>W_\ell = B_\ell^2</math><br />
<br />
'''Common masks'''<br />
<br />
The common masks are stored into two different files for Temperature and Polarisation respectively:<br />
* ''COM_CMB_IQU-common-field-MaskInt_2048_R2.nn.fits'' with the UT78 and UTA76 masks<br />
* ''COM_CMB_IQU-common-field-MaskPol_1024_R2.nn.fits'' with the UP78, UPA77, and UPB77 masks<br />
Both files contain also a map of the missing pixels for the half mission and year coverage periods. The 2 (for Temp) or 3 (for Pol) masks and the missing pixels maps are stored in 4 or 5 column a ''BINTABLE'' extension 1 of each file, named ''MASK-INT'' and ''MASK-POL'', respectively. See the FITS file headers for details.<br />
<br />
'''Quadrupole residual maps'''<br />
<br />
The quadrupole residual maps are stored in files called:<br />
* ''COM_CMB_IQU-kq-resid-{method}-field-Int_2048_R2.02.fits''<br />
<br />
They contain:<br />
* a minimal primary extension with no data, but with a NUMEXT keyword giving the number of extensions contained.<br />
* a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with a single column of Npix lines containing the HEALPIX map indicated<br />
<br />
The basic structure of the data extension is shown below. For full details see the extension header. <br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Kinetic quadrupole residual map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|INTENSITY || Real*4 || K_cmb || the residual map <br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || KQ-RESID || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
</div><br />
</div><br />
<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="background-color: #EEE8AA;width:80%"><br />
'''2013 Release of CMB maps'''<br />
<div class="mw-collapsible-content"><br />
<br />
'''CMB Maps'''<br />
<br />
CMB maps have been produced by the SMICA, NILC, SEVEM and COMMANDER-Ruler pipelines. Of these, the SMICA product is considered the preferred one overall and is labelled ''Main product'' in the Planck Legacy Archive, while the other two are labeled as ''Additional product''.<br />
<br />
SMICA and NILC also produce ''inpainted'' maps, in which the Galactic Plane, some bright regions and masked point sources are replaced with a constrained CMB realization such that the whole map has the same statistical distribution as the observed CMB. <br />
<br />
The results of SMICA, NILC and SEVEM pipeline are distributed as a FITS file containing 4 extensions:<br />
# CMB maps and ancillary products (3 or 6 maps)<br />
# CMB-cleaned foreground maps from LFI (3 maps)<br />
# CMB-cleaned foreground maps from HFI (6 maps)<br />
# Effective beam of the CMB maps (1 vector)<br />
<br />
The results of COMMANDER-Ruler are distributed as two FITS files (the high and low resolution) containing the following extensions: <br />
High resolution N$_\rm{side}$=2048 (note that we don't provide the CMB-cleaned foregrounds maps for LFI and HFI because the Ruler resolution (~7.4') is lower than the HFI highest channel and and downgrading it will introduce noise correlation). <br />
# CMB maps and ancillary products (4 maps)<br />
# Effective beam of the CMB maps (1 vector)<br />
<br />
Low resolution N$_\rm{side}$=256<br />
# CMB maps and ancillary products (3 maps)<br />
# 10 example CMB maps used in the montecarlo realization (10 maps)<br />
# Effective beam of the CMB maps (1 vector)<br />
<br />
For a complete description of the data structure, see the [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center" style="background:#efefef;"<br />
|+ style="background:#eeeeee;" | '''The maps (CMB, noise, masks) contained in the first extension'''<br />
|-<br />
!width=40px | Col name<br />
!width=200px| SMICA<br />
!width=200px| NILC<br />
!width=200px| SEVEM <br />
!width=200px| COMMANDER-Ruler H<br />
!width=200px| COMMANDER-Ruler L <br />
!width=300px| Description / notes<br />
|-<br />
| align="left" | 1: I<br />
| [[File: CMB-smica.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMB-nilc.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMB-sevem.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMB-CR_h.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMB-CR_l.png|200px]]<br />
| Raw CMB anisotropy map. These are the maps used in the component separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}.<br />
|-<br />
| 2: NOISE<br />
| [[File: CMBnoise-smica.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMBnoise-nilc.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMBnoise-sevem.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMBnoise-CR_h.png|200px]]<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| Noise map. Obtained by propagating the half-ring noise through the CMB cleaning pipelines.<br />
|-<br />
| 3: VALMASK<br />
| [[File: valmask-smica.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: valmask-nilc.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: valmask-sevem.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: valmask-cr_h.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: valmask-cr_l.png|200px]]<br />
| Confidence map. Pixels with an expected low level of foreground contamination. These maps are only indicative and obtained by different ad hoc methods. They cannot be used to rank the CMB maps.<br />
|-<br />
| 4: I_MASK<br />
| [[File: cmbmask-smica.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: cmbmask-nilc.png|200px]]<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| Some areas are masked for the production of the raw CMB maps (for NILC: point sources from 44 GHz to 857 GHz; for SMICA: point sources from 30 GHz to 857 GHz, Galatic region and additional bright regions).<br />
|-<br />
| 5: INP_CMB<br />
| [[File: CMBinp-smica.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMBinp-nilc.png|200px]]<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| Inpainted CMB map. The raw CMB maps with some regions (as indicated by INP_MASK) replaced by a constrained Gaussian realization. The inpainted SMICA map was used for PR.<br />
|-<br />
| 6: INP_MASK<br />
| [[File: inpmask-smica.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: inpmask-nilc.png|200px]]<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| Mask of the inpainted regions. For SMICA, this is identical to I_MASK. For NILC, it is not.<br />
|}<br />
<br />
The component separation pipelines are described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation|CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Section 3 and Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}} and references therein.<br />
<br />
The union (or common) mask is defined as the union of the confidence masks from the four component separation pipelines, the three listed above and Commander-Ruler. It leaves 73% of the sky available, and so it is denoted as U73.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''Product description '''<br />
<br />
'''SMICA'''<br />
<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces a CMB map by linearly combining all Planck input channels (from 30 to 857 GHz) with weights which vary with the multipole. It includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math> '''and deconvolved from the pixel window'''. It means that, ideally, one would have <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) * B_\ell(5')^2</math>, where <math>C_\ell(map)</math> is the angular spectrum of the map, where <math>C_\ell(sky)</math> is the angular spectrum of the CMB and <math>B_\ell(5')</math> is a 5-arcminute Gaussian beam function. Note however that, by convention, the effective beam window function <math>B_\ell(fits)</math> provided in the FITS file does include a pixel window function. Therefore, it is equal to <math>B_\ell(fits) = B_\ell(5') / p_\ell(2048)</math> where <math>p_\ell(2048)</math> denotes the pixel window function for an Nside=2048 pixelization.<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. <br />
; Masks and inpainting<br />
: The raw SMICA CMB map has valid pixels except at the location of masked areas: point sources, Galactic plane, some other bright regions. Those invalid pixels are indicated with the mask named 'I_MASK'. The raw SMICA map has been inpainted, producing the map named "INP_CMB". Inpainting consists in replacing some pixels (as indicated by the mask named INP_MASK) by the values of a constrained Gaussian realization which is computed to ensure good statistical properties of the whole map (technically, the inpainted pixels are a sample realisation drawn under the posterior distribution given the un-masked pixels.<br />
<br />
'''NILC'''<br />
<br />
; Principle<br />
: The Needlet-ILC (hereafter NILC) CMB map is constructed from all Planck channels from 44 to 857 GHz and includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 3200</math>. It is obtained by applying the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) technique in needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: As in the SMICA product except that there is no abrupt truncation at <math>\ell_{max}= 3200</math> but a smooth transition to <math>0</math> over the range <math>2700\leq\ell\leq 3200</math>.<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. The threshold is somewhat arbitrary.<br />
; Masks and inpainting<br />
: The raw NILC map has valid pixels except at the location of masked point sources. This is indicated with the mask named 'I_MASK'. The raw NILC map has been inpainted, producing the map named "INP_CMB". The inpainting consists in replacing some pixels (as indicated by the mask named INP_MASK) by the values of a constrained Gaussian realization which is computed to ensure good statistical properties of the whole map (technically, the inpainted pixels are a sample realisation drawn under the posterior distribution given the un-masked pixels.<br />
<br />
'''SEVEM'''<br />
<br />
The aim of SEVEM is to produce clean CMB maps at one or several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting. The templates are internal, i.e., they are constructed from Planck data, avoiding the need for external data sets, which usually complicates the analyses and may introduce inconsistencies. The method has been successfully applied to Planck simulations{{BibCite|leach2008}} and to WMAP polarisation data{{BibCite|fernandezcobos2012}}. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. Note that unlike the other products, SEVEM does not provide the mask of regions not used in the productions of the CMB ma (''I_MASK'') nor an inpainted version of the map and its associated mask. On the other hand, it provides ''channel maps'' and 100, 143, and 217 GHz which are used as the building blocks of the final map.<br />
<br />
'''COMMANDER-Ruler'''<br />
<br />
COMMANDER-Ruler is the Planck software implementing a pixel based parametric component separation. Amplitude of CMB and the main diffuse foregrounds along with the relevant spectral parameters for those (see below in the Astrophysical Foreground Section for the latter) are parametrized and fitted in single MCMC chains conducted at $N_\rm{side}$=256 using COMMANDER, implementing a Gibbs Sampling. The CMB amplitude which <br />
is obtained in these runs corresponds to the delivered low resolution CMB component from COMMANDER-Ruler which has a FWHM of 40 arcminutes. The sampling of the foreground parameters is applied to the data at full resolution for obtaining the high resolution CMB component from Ruler which is available on the PLA. In the {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06|1|Planck Component Separation paper}} additional material is discussed, specifically concerning the sky region where the solutions are reliable, in terms of chi2 maps. The products mainly consist of: <br />
<br />
* Maps of the Amplitudes of the CMB at low resolution, $N_\rm{side}$=256, along with the standard deviations of the outputs, beam profiles derived from the production process. <br />
* Maps of the CMB amplitude, along with the standard deviations, at high resolution, $N_\rm{side}$=2048, beam profiles derived from the production process. <br />
* Mask obtained on the basis of the precision in the fitting procedure; the thresholding is evaluated through the COMMANDER-Ruler likelihood analysis and excludes 13% of the sky, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}.<br />
<br />
'''Production process'''<br />
<br />
'''SMICA'''<br />
<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: All input maps undergo a pre-processing step to deal with point sources. The point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue are fitted in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole is filled in by a simple diffusive process to ensure a smooth transition and mitigate spectral leakage. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, here all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and filled-in similarly.<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHzare harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> and co-added with multipole-dependent weights as shown in the figure.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: The areas masked in the pre-processing step are replaced by a constrained Gaussian realization.<br />
<br />
Note: The visible power deficit in the raw CMB map around the galactic plane is due to the smooth fill-in of the masked areas in the input maps (the result of the pre-processing). It is not to be confused with the post-processing step of inpainting of the CMB map with a constrained Gaussian realization.<br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:smica.jpg|thumb|center|500px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input maps (after they are re-beamed to 5 arcmin and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), as a function of multipole.''']]<br />
<br />
'''NILC'''<br />
<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: Same pre-processing as SMICA (except the 30 GHz channel is not used).<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 44 to 857 GHz are linearly combined with weights which depend on location on the sky and on the multipole range up to <math>\ell = 3200</math>. This is achieved using a needlet (redundant spherical wavelet) decomposition. For more details, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: The areas masked in the pre-processing plus other bright regions step are replaced by a constrained Gaussian realization as in the SMICA post-processing step.<br />
<br />
'''SEVEM'''<br />
<br />
The templates are internal, i.e., they are constructed from Planck data, avoiding the need for external data sets, which usually complicates the analyses and may introduce inconsistencies. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. The fitting can be done in real or wavelet space (using a fast wavelet adapted to the HEALPix pixelization{{BibCite|casaponsa2011}}) to properly deal with incomplete sky coverage. By expediency, however, we fill in the small number of unobserved pixels at each channel with the mean value of its neighbouring pixels before applying SEVEM.<br />
<br />
We construct our templates by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMB map at that frequency. This is done either in real or in wavelet space (i.e., scale by scale) at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. If the cleaning is performed in real space, the <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. When working in wavelet space, the cleaning is done in the same way at each wavelet scale independently (i.e., the linear coefficients depend on the scale). Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).<br />
<br />
An additional level of flexibility can also be considered: the linear coefficients can be the same for all the sky, or several regions with different sets of coefficients can be considered. The regions are then combined in a smooth way, by weighting the pixels at the boundaries, to avoid discontinuities in the clean maps.<br />
Since the method is linear, we may easily propagate the noise properties to the final CMB map. Moreover, it is very fast and permits the generation of thousands of simulations to character- ize the statistical properties of the outputs, a critical need for many cosmological applications. The final CMB map retains the angular resolution of the original frequency map.<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of clean maps at different frequencies is of great interest in order to test the robustness of the results. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned independently and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
In particular, we have cleaned the 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps using four templates constructed as the difference of the following Planck channels (smoothed to a common resolution): (30-44), (44-70), (545-353) and (857-545). For simplicity, the three maps have been cleaned in real space, since there was not a significant improvement when using wavelets (especially at high latitude). In order to take into account the different spectral behaviour of the foregrounds at low and high galactic latitudes, we have considered two independent regions of the sky, for which we have used a different set of coefficients. The first region corresponds to the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission, whereas the second region is defined by the remaining 97 per cent of the sky. For the first region, the coefficients are actually estimated over the whole sky (we find that this is more optimal than perform the minimisation only on the 3 per cent brightest region, where the CMB emission is very sub-dominant) while for the second region, we exclude the 3 per cent brightest region of the sky, point sources detected at any frequency and those pixels which have not been observed at all channels.<br />
Our final CMB map has then been constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
Moreover, additional CMB clean maps (at frequencies between 44 and 353 GHz) have also been produced using different combinations of templates for some of the analyses carried out in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p09}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p14}}. In particular, clean maps from 44 to 353 GHz have been used for the stacking analysis presented in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p14}}, while frequencies from 70 to 217 GHz were used for consistency tests in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p09}}.<br />
<br />
'''COMMANDER-Ruler'''<br />
<br />
The production process consist in low and high resolution runs according to the description above. <br />
; Low Resolution Runs: Same as the Astrophysics Foregrounds Section below; The CMB amplitude is fitted along with the other foreground parameters and constitutes the CMB Low Resolution Rendering which is in the PLA. <br />
; Ruler Runs: the sampling at high resolution is used to infer the probability distribution of spectral parameters which is exploited at full resolution in order to obtain the High Resolution CMB Rendering which is in the PLA. <br />
<br />
''' Masks '''<br />
<br />
Summary table with the different masks that have been used by the component separation methods to pre-process and to process the frequency maps and the CMB maps.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Commander 2013 (PR1) || Used for diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps || Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK || NO || NO || VALMASK is the confidence mask that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside <br />
<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits}} and {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits}} for low resolution analyses.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="800000"<br />
|<br />
! ||<br />
|<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! SEVEM 2013 (PR1) || Used diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps || Used for Constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK || NO || NO || VALMASK is the confidence mask that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside <br />
<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-sevem_2048_R1.12.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-sevem_2048_R1.12.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="800000"<br />
|<br />
! ||<br />
|<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! NILC 2013 (PR1) || Used for diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps || Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK || NO || NO || VALMASK is the confidence mask that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|I_MASK || NO || NO || I_MASK defines the regions over which CMB is not built. It is a combination of point source masks, Galactic plane mask and other bright regions like LMC, SMC, etc. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits}}.<br />
|- <br />
|INP_MASK || NO || YES || It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="800000"<br />
|<br />
! ||<br />
|<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! SMICA 2013 (PR1) || Used for diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps || Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK || NO || NO || VALMASK is the confidence mask that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside <br />
<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|I_MASK || YES || YES || I_MASK defines the regions over which CMB is not built. It is a combination of point source masks, Galactic plane mask and other bright regions like LMC, SMC, etc. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits}}.<br />
|- <br />
|INP_MASK || YES || YES || INP_MASK for SMICA 2013 release is identical to I_MASK above. <br />
|-<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
'''Inputs'''<br />
<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. SMICA and SEVEM use all the maps between 30 and 857 GHz; NILC uses the ones between 44 and 857 GHz. Commander-Ruler uses frequency channel maps from 30 to 353 GHz. <br />
<br />
'''File names and structure'''<br />
<br />
The FITS files corresponding to the three CMB products are the following:<br />
<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-sevem_2048_R1.12.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-sevem_2048_R1.12.fits}}<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits}}<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits}}<br />
<br />
<br />
The files contain a minimal primary extension with no data and four ''BINTABLE'' data extensions. Each column of the ''BINTABLE'' is a (Healpix) map; the column names and the most important keywords of each extension are described in the table below; for the remaining keywords, please see the FITS files directly. <br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK_cmb || CMB temperature map<br />
|-<br />
|NOISE || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Estimated noise map (note 1)<br />
|-<br />
|I_STDEV|| Real*4 || uK_cmb || Standard deviation, ONLY on COMMANDER-Ruler products<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Confidence mask (note 2)<br />
|-<br />
|I_MASK|| Byte || none || Mask of regions over which CMB map is not built (Optional - see note 3)<br />
|-<br />
|INP_CMB || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Inpainted CMB temperature map (Optional - see note 3)<br />
|-<br />
|INP_MASK || Byte || none || mask of inpainted pixels (Optional - see note 3)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. EXTNAME = ''FGDS-LFI'' (BINTABLE) - Note 4<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LFI_030 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 30 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|LFI_044 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 44 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|LFI_070 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 70 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 3. EXTNAME = ''FGDS-HFI'' (BINTABLE) - Note 4<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|HFI_100 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 100 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|HFI_143 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 143 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|HFI_217 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 217 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|HFI_353 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 353 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|HFI_545 || Real*4 || MJy/sr || 545 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|HFI_857 || Real*4 || MJy/sr || 857 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function. See Note 5.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Notes:<br />
# The half-ring half-difference (HRHD) map is made by passing the half-ring frequency maps independently through the component separation pipeline, then computing half their difference. It approximates a noise realisation, and gives an indication of the uncertainties due to instrumental noise in the corresponding CMB map. <br />
# The confidence mask indicates where the CMB map is considered valid. <br />
# This column is not present in the SEVEM and COMMANDER-Ruler product file. For SEVEM these three columns give the CMB channel maps at 100, 143, and 217 GHz (columns ''C100'', ''C143'', and ''C217'', in units of K_cmb.<br />
# The subtraction of the CMB from the sky maps in order to produce the foregrounds map is done after convolving the CMB map to the resolution of the given frequency. Those columns are not present in the COMMANDER-Ruler product file.<br />
# The beam window function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>.<br />
<br />
The low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler CMB product is organized in the following way:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK_cmb || CMB temperature map obtained as average over 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Corresponding Standard deviation amongst the 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Confidence mask<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. EXTNAME = ''CMB-Sample'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM01 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM02 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM03 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM04 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM05 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM06 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM07 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM08 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM09 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM10 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
The FITS files containing the ''union'' (or common) maks is:<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-union_2048_R1.10.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common}}<br />
which contains a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with a single column (named ''U73'') for the mask, which is boolean (FITS ''TFORM = B''), in GALACTIC coordinates, NESTED ordering, and Nside=2048.<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for a small file containing the SMICA cmb map with no additional information (noise or masks) we provide such a file here<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
This file contains a single extension with a single column containing the SMICA cmb temperature map.<br />
<br />
'''Cautionary notes'''<br />
<br />
# The half-ring CMB maps are produced by the pipelines with parameters/weights fixed to the values obtained from the full maps. Therefore the CMB HRHD maps do not capture all of the uncertainties due to foreground modelling on large angular scales.<br />
# The HRHD maps for the HFI frequency channels underestimate the noise power spectrum at high l by typically a few percent. This is caused by correlations induced in the pre-processing to remove cosmic ray hits. The CMB is mostly constrained by the HFI channels at high l, and so the CMB HRHD maps will inherit this deficiency in power.<br />
# The beam transfer functions do not account for uncertainties in the beams of the frequency channel maps.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
</div><br />
</div><br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
</div><br />
</div><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|007]]</div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=Frequency_maps&diff=14598Frequency maps2022-12-14T11:57:08Z<p>Mlopezca: /* Other releases: 2020-NPIPE, 2015 and 2013 */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{DISPLAYTITLE:Frequency maps in Temperature and Polarization}}<br />
==General description==<br />
<br />
Sky maps give the best estimate of the intensity and polarization (Stokes <i>Q</i> and <i>U</i> components), if available, of the signal from the sky after removal, as far as possible, of known systematic effects (mostly instrumental, but including also the solar and Earth-motion dipoles, Galactic stray light, and the zodiacal light). The Planck Collaboration has made three releases of maps, in 2013, 2015 and 2018. This section describes the 2018 release. For descriptions of the other two releases, please go to the sections at the end of this chapter related to 2013 and 2015.<br />
<br />
In the 2013, 2015 and 2018 releases, sky maps are provided for the full Planck mission using all valid detectors in each frequency channel, and also for various subsets obtained by splitting the mission into various time ranges or into subsets of the detectors in a given channel, or by considering only odd or even pointing periods. These products are especially interesting for characterization purposes (see also the [[HFI-Validation | data validation]] section), though some are also useful for the study of source variability. The details of the start and end of the time ranges are given in the table below. <br />
<br />
For this (2018) release, HFI is providing a more limited subset of maps that include the full channel maps, the half-mission and the odd-even ring splits. Also, note that for the 353 GHz band, both full channel and PSBs only maps are provided, and that by default it is the PBS-only maps that are served.<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Ranges for mission and surveys'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Range || ODs || HFI rings || pointing-IDs || Comment<br />
|-<br />
|Nominal mission || 91 - 563 || 240 - 14723 || 00004200 - 03180200 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Full mission || 91 - 974 || 240 - 27005 || 00004200 - 05322620 || For HFI<br />
|-<br />
|Full mission || 91 - 1543 || n/a || 00004200 - 06511160 || For LFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 1 || 91 - 270 || 240 - 5720 || 00004200 - 01059820 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 2 || 270 - 456 || 5721 - 11194 || 01059830 - 02114520 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 3 || 456 - 636 || 11195 - 16691 || 02114530 - 03193660 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 4 || 636 - 807 || 16692 - 21720 || 03193670 - 04243900 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 5 || 807 - 974 || 21721 - 26050 || 05267180 - 05322590 || End of mission for HFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 5 || 807 - 993 || n/a || 05267180 - 06344800 || End of survey for LFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 6 || 993 - 1177 || n/a || 06344810 - 06398120 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|Survey 7 || 1177 - 1358 || n/a || 06398130 - 06456410 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|Survey 8 || 1358 - 1543 || n/a || 06456420 - 06511160 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|HFI mission-half-1 || 91 - 531 || 240 - 13471 || 00004200 - 03155580 ||<br />
|-<br />
|HFI mission-half-2 || 531 - 974 || 13472 - 27005 || 03155590 - 05322590 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 1 || 91 - 456 || n/a || 00004200 - 02114520 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 2 || 456 - 807 || n/a || 02114530 - 04243900 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 3 || 807 - 1177 || n/a || 05267180 - 06398120 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 4 || 1177 - 1543 || n/a || 06398130 - 06511160 ||<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
To help in further processing, there are also masks of the Galactic plane and of point sources, each provided for several different depths. <br />
<br />
All sky maps are in HEALPix format, with <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=1024 (for LFI 30, 44, and 70GHz) and 2048 (for LFI 70GHz and HFI), in Galactic coordinates, and with nested ordering. <br />
<br />
'''WARNING''': The HEALPix convention for polarization is <b>not</b> the same as the IAU convention ([[#Polarization convention used in the Planck project|Section 8 on this page]]).<br />
<br />
The signal is given in units of K<sub>CMB</sub> for 30 to 353 GHz, and of MJy.sr<sup>-1</sup> (for a constant &nu;<i>I</i><sub>&nu;</sub> energy distribution) for 545 and 857 GHz. For each frequency channel, the intensity and polarization maps are packaged into a "BINTABLE" extension of a FITS file together with a hit-counts map (or "hits map", for short, giving the number of observation samples that are accumulated in a pixel, all detectors combined) and with the variance and covariance maps. Additional information is given in the FITS file header. The structure of the FITS file is given in the [[#FITS_file_structure | FITS file structure]] section below.<br />
<br />
==Production process==<br />
<br />
Sky maps are produced by appropriately combining the data from all working detectors in a frequency channel over some period of the mission. They give the best estimate of the signal from the sky (unpolarized) after removal, as far as possible, of known systematic effects and of the dipole signals induced by the motion of the solar system in the CMB and of the Planck satellite in the solar system. In particular, they include the zodiacal light emission ("zodi" for short) and also the scattering from the far sidelobes of the beams (FSL). More on this below.<br />
<br />
=== HFI processing ===<br />
<br />
The mapmaking and calibration process is described in detail in the [[Map-making_LFI | mapmaking]] section and in the {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-XLVI}} paper, where detailed references can be found. In brief, the timelines are cleaned and calibrated and converted into HealPix rings (HPRs), then ''SRoll'' is applied to destripe them in polarised space (removal of very low frequency noise by minimising differences at ring crossing points), to remove knows systematic effects (including the flux calibration), and to project them onto a HealPix map.<br />
<br />
The processing yields maps of the signal, hit counts and auto- and cross-variance maps for the 6 full channel and for a pseudo-channel built from the 353 PSBs only. For each channel HFI provides <br />
* a map for the full mission<br />
* two maps for each half-mission<br />
* two maps for built from odd or even rings only<br />
<br />
for a total of 35 maps. <br />
<br />
==== PR3 HFI products ====<br />
<br />
===== Healpix Pixel Rings (HPRs) =====<br />
''SRoll'' main products are the HFI frequency maps. Nevertheless, we also make available the Healpix Pixel Rings (HPRs) of those maps, ie. the data before projection. See [[Healpix_Rings_HFI| description of those files]].<br />
<br />
===== Frequency maps =====<br />
<br />
The 35 HFI frequency maps of the PR3 Legacy Release are the followings:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''PR3 HFI frequency maps'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
!<br />
!100 GHz<br />
!143 GHz<br />
!217 GHz<br />
!353 GHz<br />
!353_PSB GHz<br />
!545 GHz<br />
!857 GHz<br />
|-<br />
| Full mission<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I<br />
| I<br />
|-<br />
| Half mission 1<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I<br />
| I<br />
|-<br />
| Half mission 2<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I<br />
| I<br />
|-<br />
| Odd rings<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I<br />
| I<br />
|-<br />
| Even rings<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I<br />
| I<br />
|}<br />
<br />
See [[Frequency_maps|description of those files]]. These maps are available on the [[https://www.cosmos.esa.int/web/planck/pla| Planck Legacy Archive]].<br />
<br />
<br />
=== LFI processing ===<br />
LFI maps were constructed with the MADAM mapmaking code, version 3.7.4. The code is based on a generalized destriping technique, where the correlated noise component is modelled as a sequence of constant offsets, called "baselines". A noise filter was used to constrain the baseline solution, allowing the use of 0.25-s and 1-s baselines for the 30 and 44GHz, and 70 GHz channels, respectively. See section 6 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l02}}.<br />
<br />
<br />
Radiometers were combined according to the horn-uniform weighting scheme to minimize systematics. The flagged samples were excluded from the analysis by setting their weights to <i>C</i><sub>w</sub><sup>-1</sup> = 0. The Galaxy region was masked out in the destriping phase, to reduce errors arising from strong signal gradients. The polarization component was included in the analysis. <br />
<br />
; Dipole and Far Side Lobe correction: Input timelines are cleaned by the 4&pi;-convolved dipole and Galactic stray light, obtained as a convolution of the 4&pi; in-band far sidelobes and Galactic simulations, as explained in {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l02}}. <br />
<br />
Scaling of the maps due to beam effects is taken into account in the LFI's beam functions (as provided in [[The_RIMO|the RIMO]]) which should be used for analysis of diffuse components.<br />
<br />
; Bandpass leakage correction :LFI high-resolution maps have been reseleased corrected for bandpass leakage or uncorrected. Further details about the procedure used to generate the bandpass correction maps can be found in section 7 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l02}}.<br />
<br />
; Map zero-level : The 30, 44 and 70 GHz, maps are corrected for a zero-level monopole by applying an offset correction (see the LFI Calibration paper, {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a06}}). Note that the offset applied is indicated in the header as a comment keyword.<br />
<br />
A detailed description of the mapmaking procedure is given in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p02}}, {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a03}}, {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a07}} and in the [[Map-making LFI#Map-making|Mapmaking]] section here, in {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l02}} only a summary is reported.<br />
<br />
==Types of map ==<br />
<br />
=== Full-mission, full-channel maps (7 HFI, 4 LFI)===<br />
<br />
Full channel maps are built using all the valid detectors of a frequency channel and cover either the full or the nominal mission. For HFI, the 143-8 and 545-3 bolometers are rejected entirely, since they are seriously affected by RTS noise. HFI provides the Q and U components for the 100, 143, 217 and 353 GHz channels only. LFI provides the <i>I</i>, <i>Q</i>, and <i>U</i> maps for all the channels. Note that the HFI and LFI <i>Q</i> and <i>U</i> maps are corrected for bandpass leakage, version without correction for LFi is also provided. The <i>I</i>, <i>Q</i>, and <i>U</i> maps are displayed in the figures below. The colour range here is set using a histogram equalization scheme (from HEALPix) that is useful for these non-Gaussian data fields. For visualization purposes, the <i>Q</i> and <i>U</i> maps shown here have been smoothed with a 1&deg; Gaussian kernel, otherwise they look like noise to the naked eye. The 70 GHz full map is also available at <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048.<br />
<br />
The high dynamic range colour scheme of the Planck maps is described [https://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php/Planck_high_dynamic_range_colour_palette here].<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=260px heights=160px> <br />
File: LFI_030GHz_dx12_I.png| '''Full mission <i>I</i>, 30 GHz.'''<br />
File: LFI_044GHz_dx12_I.png| '''Full mission <i>I</i>, 44 GHz.'''<br />
File: LFI_070GHz_dx12_I.png| '''Full mission <i>I</i>, 70 GHz.'''<br />
File: HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R3.00_full_T.png| '''Full mission <i>I</i>, 100 GHz.'''<br />
File: HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R3.00_full_T.png| '''Full mission <i>I</i>, 143 GHz.'''<br />
File: HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R3.00_full_T.png| '''Full mission <i>I</i>, 217 GHz.'''<br />
File: HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_R3.00_full_T.png| '''Full mission <i>I</i>, 353 GHz.'''<br />
File: HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R3.00_full_T.png| '''Full mission <i>I</i>, 545 GHz.'''<br />
File: HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R3.00_full_T.png| '''Full mission <i>I</i>, 857 GHz.'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br><br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=260px heights=160px> <br />
File: LFI_030GHz_dx12_Q.png| '''Full mission <i>Q</i>, 30 GHz.'''<br />
File: LFI_044GHz_dx12_Q.png | '''Full mission <i>Q</i>, 44 GHz.'''<br />
File: LFI_070GHz_dx12_Q.png | '''Full mission <i>Q</i>, 70 GHz.'''<br />
File: HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R3.00_full_Q_sm30arcmin.png | '''Full mission <i>Q</i>, 100 GHz.'''<br />
File: HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R3.00_full_Q_sm30arcmin.png | '''Full mission <i>Q</i>, 143 GHz.'''<br />
File: HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R3.00_full_Q_sm30arcmin.png | '''Full mission <i>Q</i>, 217 GHz.'''<br />
File: HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_R3.00_full_Q_sm30arcmin.png | '''Full mission <i>Q</i>, 353 GHz.'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br><br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=260px heights=160px> <br />
File: LFI_030GHz_dx12_U.png| '''Full mission <i>U</i>, 30 GHz.'''<br />
File: LFI_044GHz_dx12_U.png | '''Full mission <i>U</i>, 44 GHz.'''<br />
File: LFI_070GHz_dx12_U.png | '''Full mission <i>U</i>, 70 GHz.'''<br />
File: HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R3.00_full_U_sm30arcmin.png | '''Full mission <i>U</i>, 100 GHz.'''<br />
File: HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R3.00_full_U_sm30arcmin.png | '''Full mission <i>U</i>, 143 GHz.'''<br />
File: HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R3.00_full_U_sm30arcmin.png | '''Full mission <i>U</i>, 217 GHz.'''<br />
File: HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_R3.00_full_U_sm30arcmin.png | '''Full mission <i>U</i>, 353 GHz.'''<br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
</center><br />
<br />
=== Full mission light maps, full channel maps (7 HFI, 7 LFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are based on the Full mission maps but contain fewer columns, IQU from 30 to 353 GHz, and I only at 545 and 857 GHz. These maps have been produced to reduce the transfer time of the most downloaded frequency full mission maps.<br />
<br />
=== Single-survey, full-channel maps (35 LFI)===<br />
<br />
Single-survey maps are built using all valid detectors of a frequency channel; they separately cover the different sky surveys. The surveys are defined as the times over which the satellite spin axis rotates by 180&deg;, which, due to the position of the detectors in the focal plane does not cover the full sky, but a fraction between about 80% and 90%, depending on detector position. During adjacent surveys the sky is scanned in opposite directions (more precisely it is the ecliptic equator that is scanned in opposite directions). While these are useful to investigate variable sources, they are also used to study the systematics of the time-response of the detectors as they scan bright sources, like the Galactic Plane, in different directions during different survey. Note that the HFI and LFI missions cover five and eight surveys, respectively, and in the case of HFI the last survey in incomplete.<br />
The 70 GHz survey maps are available also at <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048. Note that LFI provides a special survey-map combination used in the low-&#8467; analysis; this maps, available at the three LFI frequencies, 30, 44, and 70 GHz, was built using the combination of Surveys 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, and 8.<br />
<br />
=== Year maps, full-channel maps (16 LFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are built using the data of Surveys 1+2, Surveys 3+4, and so forth. They are used to study long-term systematic effects. The 70 GHz years maps are available also at <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048.<br />
<br />
===Half-mission maps, full-channel maps (14 HFI, 12 LFI)===<br />
<br />
For HFI, the half mission is defined after eliminating those rings that are discarded for all bolometers, many of which occurred during the 5th survey when the "End-of-Life" tests were performed. The remaining rings are divided in half to define the two halves of the mission. This exercise is done for the full mission only.<br />
<br />
For LFI, instead of the half-mission maps, the following year combinations have been created: Year 1+2, Year 1+3, Year 2+4, Year 3+4,<br />
<br />
===Full mission, single-detector maps (22 LFI)===<br />
<br />
For LFI, all the 22 Radiometers maps are available, and (obviously) only in Stokes <i>I</i>.<br />
<br />
===Full-mission, detector-set or detector-pairs maps (8 LFI)===<br />
<br />
The objective here is to build independent temperature (<i>I</i>) and polarization (<i>Q</i> and <i>U</i>) maps using the two pairs of polarization-sensitive detectors of each channel where they are available, i.e., for the 44-353 GHz channels. The table below indicates which detectors were used to build each detector set (detset).<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=600px<br />
|+ '''Definition of LFI detector pairs'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!Frequency || Horn pair || Comment <br />
|-<br />
|44 GHz || 24 || This map is only in temperature<br />
|-<br />
|44 GHz || 25 and 26 || <br />
|-<br />
|70 GHz || 18 and 23 || Available also at <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048<br />
|-<br />
|70 GHz || 19 and 22 || Available also at <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048<br />
|-<br />
|70 GHz || 20 and 21 || Available also at <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Half-ring maps (62 LFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are similar to the ones described above, but are built using only the first or the second halves of each ring (or pointing period). The HFI provides half-ring maps for the full mission only, as well as for the full channel, the detsets, and the single bolometers. The LFI provides half-ring maps for the full mission in each channel (70 GHz also at <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048), for the full-mission radiometers, and for the full-mission horn pairs.<br />
<br />
=== Odd and even rings maps (14 HFI)<br />
<br />
As the name indicates, these are generated by using only the odd or only the even rings.<br />
<br />
=== Caveats and known issues ===<br />
<br />
==== HFI frequency maps ====<br />
Some imperfections have shown up in the tests of the HFI PR3 maps that were previously hidden by higher-level systematics in the previous PR2 data. These lead to guidelines for the proper use of the HFI PR3 data. See {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l03}} for a detailed description of all these issues.<br />
<br />
<span style="color:#ff0000"> Update 12 Sep 2018:</span> Covariance matrices in PR3.00 frequency maps FITS files were not correctly computed and contained wrong values. They must not be used for any purpose. These maps have been removed from the PLA. Version 3.01 must be used instead. Intensity, polarization and hit count maps have not changed.<br />
<br />
===== Monopoles =====<br />
Monopoles, which cannot be extracted from Planck data alone, are adjusted at each frequency (as was done in the previous PR2 release). For component separation, this provides maps that can be used directly in combination with other tracers. See {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l03}} for a detailed discussion.<br />
In the 2018 maps, three monopoles have been adjusted:<br />
* during production of the HFI frequency maps, an HI correlation analysis is carried out to adjust the overall monopole of the map to be consistent with the intensity of the Galactic dust foreground at high galactic latitudes (this adjustment was also done in the 2016 maps)<br />
* a monopole corresponding to the zero-level of the CIB (Cosmic Infrared Background) estimated from a galaxy evolution model has been added to the maps (as for the 2016 maps)<br />
* a monopole corresponding to the zero-level of zodiacal emission, representative of the high ecliptic latitude emission regions, has been added to the maps (note that this was not done in the 2016 maps).<br />
It is recommended that for work separating CMB and diffuse Galactic components from HFI frequency maps, the CIB and Zodiacal emission monopoles should first be removed. Furthermore, especially for applications at low intensity, it is critical to appreciate that there are significant uncertainties in the zero levels in the Galactic maps. It is therefore also recommended that the maps be correlated with the HI map at high latitude, following the detailed methodology set out in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p03b}} and {{PlanckPapers||planck2013-p06}}. Consideration should also be given to the possible effect of dust in the warm ionized medium, as discussed and quantified in {{PlanckPapers||planck2016-l12}}.<br />
<br />
===== Solar dipole residual===== <br />
The ''Planck'' 2015 Solar dipole is removed from the PR3 HFI maps to be consistent with LFI maps and to facilitate comparison with the previous PR2 ones. The best Solar dipole determination from HFI PR3 data shows a small shift in direction of about 1', but a 1.8 &mu;K lower amplitude. Removal of the ''Planck'' 2015 Solar dipole thus leaves a small but non-negligible dipole residual in the HFI PR3 maps. To correct for this, and adjust maps at the best photometric calibration, users of the HFI PR3 maps should:<br />
# put back into the maps the ''Planck'' 2015 Solar dipole (d,l,b)= (3364.5 &plusmn; 2.0 &mu;K, 264.00 &plusmn; 0.03&deg;, 48.24 &plusmn; 0.02&deg;),<br />
# include the [[#Calibration accuracy|absolute calibration frequency bias]], i.e., multiply by 1 minus the calibration bias,<br />
# lastly, remove the [[#HFI 2018 Solar dipole|HFI 2018 Solar dipole]].<br />
<br />
=====Use of the 353 GHz SWBs ===== <br />
In 2018, two types of maps at 353 GHz are provided, one including only PSBs and one including both PSBs and SWBs. For reasons detailed in {{planckPapers|planck2016-l03}}, it is recommended to use the former (i.e. only including PSBs). The alternative one including the 353 GHz SWBs should be used only for specific uses such as, for example, increasing the signal to noise level at high multipoles.<br />
<br />
===== Color correction and component separation=====<br />
In 2018 the SRoll algorithm has been used to produce the frequency maps. This algorithms adjusts by construction all single bolometer maps to the band average response. For this reason, it becomes impossible to use the different individual bolometer responses to extract foreground component maps, and the individual bolometer maps are not provided as part of the release. See {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l03}} for a detailed description. Note also that for the same reason, the effective bandpass response of the 2018 maps is not the same as for the 2015 maps. The new bandpass response is established in the 2018 RIMO.<br />
<br />
===== Sub-pixel effects in very bright regions===== <br />
The bandpass corrections have been optimized for high latitude regions which implied to reduce the noise of the CO and dust bandpass templates to avoid the introduction of significant correlated noise. The effect is negligible for dust but not for CO in very bright regions. As a consequence, some systematic effects (which appear as striping) appear in some of the maps in the brightest galactic emission regions. See [[subpixel_HFI|detailed description]].<br />
<br />
==== LFI Frequency maps ====<br />
<br />
'''TBD'''<br />
<br />
==Inputs==<br />
=== HFI inputs ===<br />
<br />
The HFI mapmaking takes as input:<br />
* the cleaned TOIs of the signal from each detector, together with their flags, produced by the [[TOI processing|TOI processing]] pipeline;<br />
* the TOIs of pointing (quaternions), described in [[Detector_pointing|Detector pointing]];<br />
* bolometer-level characterization data, from the DPC's internal IMO (not distributed);<br />
* Planck orbit data, used to compute and remove the Earth's dipole;<br />
* Planck solar dipole information, used to calibrate the CMB channels;<br />
* planet models used to calibrate the Galactic channels.<br />
<br />
=== LFI inputs ===<br />
<br />
The MADAM mapmaker takes as input:<br />
* the calibrated timelines (for details see [[TOI processing LFI|TOI Processing]]);<br />
* the detector pointings (for details see [[Detector_pointing|Detector pointing]]);<br />
* the noise information in the form of 3-parameter (white noise level &sigma;, slope, and knee frequency <i>f</i><sub>knee</sub>) noise model (for details see [[The RIMO|RIMO]]).<br />
<br />
==Related products==<br />
=== Masks ===<br />
This section presents the "general purpose" masks. Other masks specific to certain products are packaged with those products.<br />
<br />
Note that for this release, HFI has not produced any new masks. <br />
<br />
====Point source masks ====<br />
<br />
For HFI and LFI two sets of point-source masks are provided. <br />
* Intensity masks, which remove sources detected with S/N > 5. <br />
* Polarisation masks, which remove sources that have polarization detection significance levels of 99.97 % or greater at the position of a source detected in intensity. They were derived from the polarization maps with dust foreground bandpass mismatch leakage corrections applied. The area excised around each source has a radius of 3σ (width) of the beam, i.e., 1.27 FWHM (for LFI the cut around each source has a radius of 32 arcmin at 30GHz, 27 arcmin at 44 GHz, and 13 arcmin at 70 GHz).<br />
<br />
Both sets of masks are found in the files ''HFI_Mask_PointSrc_2048_R2.00.fits'' and ''LFI_Mask_PointSrc_2048_R2.00.fits'', in which the first extension contains the intensity masks, and the second contains the polarization masks.<br />
<br />
====Galactic plane masks ====<br />
<br />
Eight Galactic emission masks are provided, giving 20, 40, 60, 70, 80, 90, 97, and 99% sky coverage, derived from the 353 GHz map after CMB subtraction. These are independent of frequency channel. Three versions are given: not apodized; and apodized by 2&deg; and 5&deg;. The filenames are ''HFI_Mask_GalPlane-apoN_2048_R2.00.fits'', where <i>N</i> = 0, 2, and 5.<br />
<br />
The masks are shown below. The eight "GalPlane" masks are combined (added together) and shown in a single figure for each of the three apodizations. While the result is quite clear for the case of no apodization, it is less so for the apodized case. The "PointSrc" masks are shown separately for the intensity case.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery perrow=3 widths=260px heights=160px ><br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo0.png | '''Galactic plane masks, no apodization.'''<br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo2.png | '''Galactic plane masks, apodized to 2&deg;.'''<br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo5.png | '''Galactic plane masks, apodized to 5&deg;.'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_100.png | '''Point source mask, 100 GHz.'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_143.png | '''Point source mask, 143 GHz.'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_217.png | '''Point source mask, 217 GHz.'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_353.png | '''Point source mask, 343 GHz.'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_545.png | '''Point source mask, 545 GHz.'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_857.png | '''Point source mask, 857 GHz.'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
== File names ==<br />
The FITS filenames are of the form ''{H|L}FI_SkyMap_fff{-tag}_Nside_R3.nn_{coverage}-{type}.fits'', where "fff" are three digits to indicate the Planck frequency band, "tag" indicates the single detector or the detset (no "tag" indicates full channel), "Nside" is the HEALPix <i>N</i><sub>side</sub> value of the map, "coverage" indicates which part of the mission is covered (full, half mission, survey, year, etc.), and the optional "type" indicates the subset of input data used. The table below lists the products by type, with the appropriate unix wildcards that form the full filename.<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align"left" border="1" cellpadding="15" cellspacing="20" width=880px<br />
|+ '''HFI FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Coverage || Filename <br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, full mission ||HFI_SkyMap_fff{-tag}_2048_R3.??_full.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, half mission || HFI_SkyMap_fff{-tag}_2048_R3.??_halfmission-{1/2}.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, full mission, odd/even ring || HFI_SkyMap_fff{-tag}_2048_R3.??_{odd/even}ring.fits <br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align"left" border="1" cellpadding="15" cellspacing="20" width=1600px<br />
|+ '''LFI FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Coverage || Filename || Half-ring filename || Comment<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, full mission ||LFI_SkyMap_???_1024_R3.??_full.fits ||LFI_SkyMap_???_1024_R3.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits || 70GHz is corrected for Template<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, full mission BandPass corrected ||LFI_SkyMap_???-BPassCorrected_1024_R3.??_full.fits ||LFI_SkyMap_???-BPassCorrected_???_1024_R3.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits || 70GHz is corrected for Template<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, single survey || LFI_SkyMap_???_1024_R3.??_survey-?.fits || n/a || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, survey combination || LFI_SkyMap_???_1024_R3.??_survey-1-3-5-6-7-8.fits || n/a || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, survey combination BandPass corrected|| LFI_SkyMap_???_1024_R3.??-BPassCorrected_survey-1-3-5-6-7-8.fits || n/a || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, single year || LFI_SkyMap_???_1024_R3.??_year-?.fits || n/a || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, single year BandPass corrected|| LFI_SkyMap_???-BPassCorrected_1024_R3.??_year-?.fits || n/a || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, year combination || LFI_SkyMap_???_1024_R3.??_year?-?.fits || n/a || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, year combination BandPass corrected|| LFI_SkyMap_???-BPassCorrected_1024_R3.??_year?-?.fits || n/a || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Horn pair, full mission || LFI_SkyMap_???-??-??_1024_R3.??_full.fits || LFI_SkyMap_???_??-??_1024_R3.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Single radiometer, full mission || LFI_SkyMap_???-???_1024_R3.??_full.fits || LFI_SkyMap_???-???_1024_R3.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits || n/a<br />
|}<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for the frequency maps with no additional information, we also provide a file combining the nine frequency maps as separate columns in a single extension. The nine columns in this file contain the intensity maps <i>only</i> and no other information (hits maps or variance maps) is provided.<br />
<br />
== FITS file structure ==<br />
<br />
The FITS files for the sky maps contain a minimal primary header with no data, and a ''BINTABLE'' extension (EXTENSION 1, EXTNAME = ''FREQ-MAP'') containing the data. The structure is shown schematically in the figure below. The ''FREQ-MAP'' extension contains a 3- or 10-column table that contain the signal, hit-count, and variance maps, all in HEALPix format. The 3-column case is for intensity only maps, while the 10-column case is for polarization. The number of rows is the number of map pixels, which is <i>N</i><sub>pix</sub> = 12 <i>N</i><sub>side</sub><sup>2</sup> for HEALPix maps, where <i>N</i><sub>side</sub> = 1024 or 2048 for most the maps presented in this section.<br />
<br />
[[File:FITS_FreqMap.png | 550px | center | thumb | '''FITS file structure.''']]<br />
<br />
Note that file sizes are approximately 0.6 GB for <i>I</i>-only maps and 1.9 GB for <i>IQU</i> maps at <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048, but about 0.14 GB for <i>I</i>-only maps and 0.45 GB for <i>IQU</i> maps at <i>N</i><sub>pix</sub>=1024 .<br />
<br />
Keywords indicate the coordinate system ("GALACTIC"), the HEALPix ordering scheme ("NESTED"), the units (K<sub>CMB</sub> or MJy.sr<sup>-1</sup>) of each column, and of course the frequency channel ("FREQ"). Where polarization <i>Q</i> and <i>U</i> maps are provided, the "COSMO" polarization convention (used in HEALPix) is adopted, and it is specified in the "POLCCONV" keyword (see [[Sky_temperature_maps#Polarization_convention_used_in_the_Planck_project|this section]]). The "COMMENT" fields give a one-line summary of the product, and some other information useful for traceability within the DPCs. The original filename is also given in the "FILENAME" keyword. The "BAD_DATA" keyword gives the value used by HEALPix to indicate pixels for which no signal is present (these will also have a hit-count value of 0). The main parameters are summarized in the table below.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Sky map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column name || Data type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_STOKES || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub> or MJy.sr<sup>-1</sup> || Stokes <i>I</i> map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STOKES || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub> or MJy.sr<sup>-1</sup> || Stokes <i>Q</i> map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|U_STOKES || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub> or MJy.sr<sup>-1</sup> || Stokes <i>U</i> map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|HITS || Int*4 || none || The hit-count map<br />
|-<br />
|II_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> or (MJy.sr<sup>-1</sup>)<sup>2</sup> || <i>II</i> variance map<br />
|-<br />
|IQ_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> or (MJy.sr<sup>-1</sup>)<sup>2</sup> || <i>IQ</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|IU_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> or (MJy.sr<sup>-1</sup>)<sup>2</sup> || <i>IQ</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QQ_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> or (MJy.sr<sup>-1</sup>)<sup>2</sup> || <i>QQ</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QU_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> or (MJy.sr<sup>-1</sup>)<sup>2</sup> || <i>QU</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|UU_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> or (MJy.sr<sup>-1</sup>)<sup>2</sup> || <i>UU</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || HEALPix <i>N</i><sub>side</sub> <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12 <i>N</i><sub>side</sub><sup>2</sup> – 1 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ || String || nnn || Frequency channel <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
The same structure applies to all "SkyMap" products, independent of whether they are full channel, survey of half-ring. The distinction between the types of maps is present in the FITS filename (and in the traceability comment fields).<br />
<br />
==Polarization convention used in the Planck project==<br />
<br />
The FITS keyword "POLCCONV" defines the polarization convention of the data within the file.<br />
The Planck collaboration used the COSMO convention for the polarization angle (as usually adopted in space-based and other CMB missions), whereas other subfields of astronomy usually adopt the IAU convention. The basic difference comes down to whether one thinks of the light rays being emitted from the origin (the usual mathematics/physics convention) or converging on the observer from the sky (the usual astronomy convention), and hence the "obvious" choice is different for a physicists and for an astronomer. Given that CMB results are of interest to a wide range of both physicists and astronomers, there is no single choice of convention that everyone would regard as self-evident. Hence one simply has to be aware of the convention being adopted. Because of this the Planck Collaboration has taken pains to point out which convention is being used in publications and in data releases. In the following we describe the difference between these two conventions, and the consequence if it is <i>not</i> taken into account correctly in the analysis.<br />
<br />
[[File:conventions.png|thumb|center|400px|'''Figure 1. Polarization conventions, showing the COSMO convention (left) and IAU convention (right). The vector <math>\hat{z}</math> points in the outward direction in COSMO, and inwards in IAU. The bottom panel refers to the plane tangent to the sphere.''']]<br />
<br />
Changing the orientation convention is equivalent to a transformation &psi;'=&pi;-&psi; of the polarization angle (Figure 1). The consequence of this transformation is the inversion of the Stokes parameter <i>U</i>.<br />
The components of the polarization tensor in the helicity basis <math>\epsilon^{\pm}=(\hat{x}\pm i\hat{y})/\sqrt{2}</math> are<br />
<br />
<math><br />
(Q+iU)(\hat{n}) = \sum _{\ell m}a_{2,lm}{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n}),<br />
\\(Q-iU)(\hat{n}) = \sum _{\ell m}a_{-2,lm}{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n}),<br />
</math><br />
<br />
where <math>{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})</math> are the spin-weighted spherical harmonic functions.<br />
The <i>E</i> and <i>B</i> modes can be defined as<br />
<br />
<math><br />
E(\hat{n}) = \sum_{\ell m}a_{E,\ell m}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n}),<br />
\\B(\hat{n}) = \sum_{\ell m}a_{B,\ell m}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n}),<br />
</math><br />
<br />
where the coefficients <i>a<sub>E,&#8467;m</sub></i> and <i>a<sub>B,&#8467;m</sub></i> are derived from linear combinations of the <i>a<sub>2,&#8467;m</sub></i>, <i>a<sub>-2,&#8467;m</sub></i>, defined implicitly in the first equation (<i>Q</i>&plusmn; i<i>U</i>).<br />
<br />
[[File:test_gradient.jpg|thumb|center|400px|]]<br />
[[File:test_curl.jpg|thumb|center|400px|'''Figure 2. Error on Planck-LFI 70 GHz <i>EE</i> (top) and <i>BB</i> (bottom) power spectra, in the case of an incorrect choice being made for the polarization coordinate system convention (IAU instead of COSMO).''']]<br />
<br />
The effect of the sign inversion of <i>U</i> on the polarization spectra is a non-trivial mixing of <i>E</i> and <i>B</i> modes. <br />
An example of the typical error on <i>EE</i> and <i>BB</i> auto-spectra in the case of the wrong choice for the polarization basis is shown in Figure 2.<br />
<br />
<i>One should be careful</i> to be aware of the polarization convention that is being adopted. If the IAU convention is used in computing the power spectra, then the sign of the <i>U</i> component of the Planck maps must be inverted before computing the <i>E</i> and <i>B</i> modes.<br />
<br />
In astronomical applications it is common to define a pseudo-vector <i>P</i> to show the amplitude and orientation of<br />
polarization on a map. When plotting these line segments to show the orientation of the plane of polarization (or the orthogonal direction, often considered to be the projection of the magnetic field), the results are the same for both the COSMO and IAU conventions. This because the appearance of <i>P</i> is a property of the radiation and hence not affected by the sign of <i>U</i>.<br />
<br />
=== Note on the convention used in the Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources (PCCS) ===<br />
Planck non-cosmology papers sometimes follow the IAU convention for internal analysis, for ease of comparison with other studies (e.g., comparison of Planck-derived thermal dust emission polarization with the optical polarization of starlight). Nevertheless, Planck data products, such as component-separated maps, still use the COSMO convention. The one exception is for the compact source catalogue. Because catalogues of astronomical objects found by Planck need to be compared directly with other source catalogues, the polarized sources described in the Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources follow the IAU convention, and the polarization angles are defined on an interval of [-90&deg;,90&deg;]. To switch to the COSMO convention, the polarization angles listed in the catalogue should be shifted by 90&deg; and multiplied by -1.<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<span style="background:green"><br />
<br />
<span style="background:green"><br />
== Other releases: 2020-NPIPE, 2015 and 2013 ==<br />
<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="background-color: #9ef542;width:80%"><br />
'''2020 - NPIPE'''<br />
<div class="mw-collapsible-content"><br />
The NPIPE flight data maps include several subsets and differ from earlier Planck releases.<br />
<br />
'''Frequency maps'''<br />
<br />
All NPIPE maps, even at 545 and 857GHz, are calibrated into CMB kelvins. The temperature maps include the solar system dipole. The monopole of the maps is arbitrary. Only the seasonally-varying part of zodiacal light is removed.<br />
<br />
Properties of the frequency maps are indicated in the following table:<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Nominal frequency [GHz] !! Eff. freq. [GHz] in T, alpha=-1<sup>a</sup> !! Eff. freq. [GHz] in P, alpha=-1<sup>b</sup> !! Eff. freq. [GHz] in T, alpha=4<sup>c</sup> !! Eff. freq. [GHz] in P, alpha=4 !! Approx. resolution [arc min]<sup>d</sup> !! Average T noise [uK-arcmin]<sup>e</sup> !! Average P noise [uK-arcmin]<sup>f</sup> !! Calibration uncertainty [%]<sup>g</sup><br />
|-<br />
| 30 || 28.27 ± 0.03 || same as T || 29.22 ± 0.04 || same as T || 31.5 || 179 || 354 || 0.045<br />
|-<br />
| 44 || 43.94 ± 0.04 || same as T || 44.69 ± 0.03 || same as T || 27.1 || 203 || 425 || 0.040<br />
|-<br />
| 70 || 69.97 ± 0.04 || same as T || 72.16 ± 0.03 || same as T || 12.8 || 182 || 363 || 0.030<br />
|-<br />
| 100 || 100.32 ± 0.09 || 100.31 ± 0.09|| 106.01 ± 0.06 || 106.01 ± 0.06 || 9.47 || 81.3 || 173 || 0.023<br />
|-<br />
| 143 || 141.41 ± 0.02 || 140.75 ± 0.02 || 149.30 ± 0.01 || 148.91 ± 0.02 || 7.15 || 32.2 || 93.7 || 0.018<br />
|-<br />
| 217 || 220.157 ± 0.005 || 219.222 ± 0.006 || 230.685 ± 0.005 || 230.060 ± 0.006 || 4.84 || 52.6 || 136 || 0.024<br />
|-<br />
| 353 || 358.291 ± 0.005 || 357.432 ± 0.005 || 372.702 ± 0.005 || 371.774 ± 0.005 || 4.76 || 283 || 556 || 0.053<br />
|-<br />
| 545 || 552.155 ± 0.006 || n/a || 576.660 ± 0.004 || n/a || 4.62 || 4680 || n/a || 0.571<br />
|-<br />
| 857 || 854.288 ± 0.006 || n/a || 891.617 ± 0.006|| n/a || 4.23 || 388000 || n/a || 5<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<sup>a</sup> Effective central frequency for a synchrotron-like emission. LFI uncertainties are based on a flat 30% uncertainty in each bandpass bin. HFI uncertainties use estimated statistical uncertainties in each bin.<br />
<br />
<sup>b</sup> Polarized central frequency differs from temperature for HFI because of the non-ideal polarization sensitivity.<br />
<br />
<sup>c</sup> Effective central frequency for a thermal dust-like emission.<br />
<br />
<sup>d</sup> Approximate resolution is measured by fitting a Gaussian beam model to the QuickPol beam window function for intensity.<br />
<br />
<sup>e</sup> Average noise depth is measured as the standard deviation of the simulated residual maps and includes statistical and systematic elements. Planck noise is not uniformly distributed: this value overestimates the depth near the Ecliptic poles and underestimates the depth at the Ecliptic equator. The noise is also scale-dependent, causing the depth to change in a non-trivial manner when downgrading or smoothing the maps.<br />
<br />
<sup>f</sup> Polarized noise depth is the length of the [''Q, U''] error vector, not the individual ''Q'' or ''U'' uncertainty.<br />
<br />
<sup>g</sup> Overall calibration uncertainty as reported in Table 7 of [https://www.aanda.org/articles/aa/abs/2020/11/aa38073-20/aa38073-20.html A&A 643, A42 (2020)]. 857GHz calibration uncertainty continues to be dominated by a 5% planetary emission model uncertainty.<br />
<br />
All effective frequencies are based on integrals of the ground-measured detector bandpasses and noise weights as they are recorded in the accompanying [[NPIPE RIMO|instrument model]]. Inverse variance noise weights in each horn are symmetrized: <br />
<br />
[[File:Symmetrized weight.png|300px|frameless|center|Symmetrized noise weights]]<br />
<br />
'''Half-ring maps'''<br />
<br />
Half-ring frequency maps can be used to gauge instrumental noise. The large-scale systematics residuals in this split are fully correlated and cancel in the difference. The half-ring split data were destriped independently with Madam to avoid correlated noise residuals.<br />
<br />
'''Single-detector maps'''<br />
<br />
We provide de-polarized single-detector maps for all polarized Planck frequencies. 545 and 857GHz single-detector maps are not actively corrected for polarization modulation, but the small level of unintentional polarization sensitivity in the detectors is suppressed using the destriping templates. Single-detector maps are not corrected for bandpass mismatch. 217-857GHz single-detector maps are binned at <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=4096 to better sample the narrow beam. 1/<i>f</i> noise in the detector maps is suppressed by destriping the single detector TOD with the Madam destriper code. As a result, 1/<i>f</i> noise residuals are not correlated between the maps. Large-scale calibration is based on full frequency data and the associated errors are correlated.<br />
<br />
<!--<br />
'''Single-horn maps'''<br />
<br />
De-polarizing single-detector data requires sampling a smoothed full-frequency polarization map to produce a polarization signal estimate. This estimate includes errors and noise that subsequently get injected into the single-detector maps. Those errors can be cancelled by co-adding polarization-orthogonal detectors in each Planck feedhorn. For optimal cancellation, the co-add weights must account for difference in polarization sensitivity between the detectors. Single-horn maps are provided for all Planck horns.<br />
--><br />
'''A/B split maps'''<br />
<br />
Earlier Planck releases included various data splits with different degrees of correlated systematics. Any time-domain split is vulnerable to detector mismatch (beam, bandpass, etc.) that is stable over time. Full-frequency gain and bandpass-mismatch corrections used in PR3 also introduced correlated errors in the split maps that were provided. NPIPE release includes one, maximally-independent split.<br />
<br />
<!---<br />
[[File:Subsets.png|600px|framess|none|NPIPE data splits]]<br />
---><br />
<br />
For frequencies with enough redundancy, the split is based on feedhorns. Since the Planck scan strategy does not allow polarized mapmaking with fewer than two non-redundant feedhorns, the 30 and 44 GHz data could not be split by horns. Instead, these frequency channels are split in time. A half-mission split would produce incomplete sky coverage for the second half of LFI, so we use alternating years instead. Since the NPIPE A/B split is not purely time or detector set, the maps in the PLA are assigned different identifiers, as summarized below.<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Frequency [GHz] !! Subset A !! Subset B<br />
|-<br />
| 30 || Years 1, 3 || Years 2, 4<br />
|-<br />
| 44 || Years 1, 3 || Years 2, 4<br />
|-<br />
| 70 || Feedhorns 18, 20, 23 || Feedhorns 19, 21, 22<br />
|-<br />
| 100 || Feedhorns 1, 4 (ds1) || Feedhorns 2, 3 (ds2)<br />
|-<br />
| 143 || Feedhorns 1, 3, 5, 7 (ds3)|| Feedhorns 2, 4, 6 (ds4)<br />
|-<br />
| 217 || Feedhorns 1, 3, 5, 7 (ds3)|| Feedhorns 2, 4, 6, 8 (ds4)<br />
|-<br />
| 353 || Feedhorns 1, 3, 5, 7 (ds3)|| Feedhorns 2, 4, 6, 8 (ds4)<br />
|-<br />
| 545 || Feedhorn 1 (ds2) || Feedhorns 2, 4 (ds3)<br />
|-<br />
| 857 || Feedhorns 1, 3 (ds3)|| Feedhorns 2, 4 (ds4)<br />
|}<br />
<br />
The locations of the feedhorns are indicated in the following Figure.<br />
<br />
[[File:FocalPlane.png|600px|framess|Planck feedhorn positions|Planck feedhorn positions]]<br />
<br />
Physical properties of the frequency maps are indicated in the following table:<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Nominal frequency [GHz] !! Eff. freq. [GHz] in T, alpha=-1<sup>a</sup> !! Eff. freq. [GHz] in P, alpha=-1<sup>b</sup> !! Eff. freq. [GHz] in T, alpha=4<sup>c</sup> !! Eff. freq. [GHz] in P, alpha=4 !! Approx. resolution [arc min]<sup>d</sup> !! Average T noise [uK-arcmin]<sup>e</sup> !! Average P noise [uK-arcmin]<sup>f</sup> !! Calibration uncertainty [%]<sup>g</sup><br />
|-<br />
| 30A || 28.27 ± 0.03 || same as T || 29.22 ± 0.04 || same as T || 31.5 || 256 || 511 || 0.064<br />
|-<br />
| 30B || 28.27 ± 0.03 || same as T || 29.22 ± 0.04 || same as T || 31.5 || 255 || 510 || 0.064<br />
|-<br />
| 44A || 43.94 ± 0.04 || same as T || 44.69 ± 0.03 || same as T || 27.1 || 292 || 611 || 0.057<br />
|-<br />
| 44B || 43.94 ± 0.04 || same as T || 44.69 ± 0.03 || same as T || 27.1 || 290 || 610 || 0.057<br />
|-<br />
| 70A || 70.09 ± 0.05 || same as T || 72.23 ± 0.05 || same as T || 13.0 || 259 || 540 || 0.043<br />
|-<br />
| 70B || 69.86 ± 0.05 || same as T || 72.10 ± 0.05 || same as T || 12.7 || 256 || 545 || 0.042<br />
|-<br />
| 100A || 100.41 ± 0.12 || 100.40 ± 0.12 || 106.16 ± 0.09 || 106.15 ± 0.09 || 9.50 || 137 || 294 || 0.039<br />
|-<br />
| 100B || 100.27 ± 0.61 || 100.27 ± 0.61 || 105.92 ± 0.67 || 105.91 ± 0.68 || 9.44 || 97.0 || 202 || 0.027<br />
|-<br />
| 143A || 141.65 ± 0.02 || 140.44 ± 0.02 || 149.56 ± 0.02 || 148.62 ± 0.02 || 7.17 || 42.8 || 140 || 0.024<br />
|-<br />
| 143B || 141.14 ± 0.02 || 140.99 ± 0.02 || 149.12 ± 0.02 || 149.03 ± 0.02 || 7.13 || 48.6 || 127 || 0.027<br />
|-<br />
| 217A || 220.248 ± 0.006 || 219.284 ± 0.008 || 230.848 ± 0.006 || 230.278 ± 0.008 || 4.83 || 73.2 || 186 || 0.033<br />
|-<br />
| 217B || 220.064 ± 0.006 || 219.160 ± 0.008 || 230.523 ± 0.006 || 229.850 ± 0.007 || 4.84 || 76.0 || 200 || 0.035<br />
|-<br />
| 353A || 357.571 ± 0.006 || 356.622 ± 0.007 || 371.950 ± 0.006 || 371.320 ± 0.006 || 4.75 || 322 || 751 || 0.060<br />
|-<br />
| 353B || 359.141 ± 0.006 || 358.517 ± 0.006 || 373.572 ± 0.007 || 372.357 ± 0.006 || 4.78 || 321 || 869 || 0.060<br />
|-<br />
| 545A || 554.398 ± 0.013 || n/a || 579.132 ± 0.004 || n/a || 4.75 || 5562 || n/a || 0.679<br />
|-<br />
| 545B || 551.162 ± 0.008 || n/a || 575.531 ± 0.005 || n/a || 4.56 || 4706 || n/a || 0.574<br />
|-<br />
| 857A || 857.886 ± 0.025 || n/a || 894.914 ± 0.032 || n/a || 4.22 || 394000 || n/a || 5<br />
|-<br />
| 857B || 850.364 ± 0.008 || n/a || 887.862 ± 0.009 || n/a || 4.25 || 417000 || n/a || 5<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<sup>a</sup> Effective central frequency for a synchrotron-like emission. LFI uncertainties are based on a flat 30% uncertainty in each bandpass bin. HFI uncertainties use estimated statistical uncertainties in each bin.<br />
<br />
<sup>b</sup> Polarized central frequency differs from temperature for HFI because of the non-ideal polarization sensitivity.<br />
<br />
<sup>c</sup> Effective central frequency for a thermal dust-like emission.<br />
<br />
<sup>d</sup> Approximate resolution is measured by fitting a Gaussian beam model to the QuickPol beam window function for intensity.<br />
<br />
<sup>e</sup> Average noise depth is measured as the standard deviation of the simulated residual maps and includes statistical and systematic elements. Planck noise is not uniformly distributed: this value overestimates the depth near the Ecliptic poles and underestimates the depth at the Ecliptic equator. The noise is also scale-dependent, causing the depth to change in a non-trivial manner when downgrading or smoothing the maps.<br />
<br />
<sup>f</sup> Polarized noise depth is the length of the [''Q, U''] error vector, not the individual ''Q'' or ''U'' uncertainty.<br />
<br />
<sup>g</sup> Overall calibration uncertainty is based on the full frequency results in Table 7 of [https://www.aanda.org/articles/aa/abs/2020/11/aa38073-20/aa38073-20.html A&A 643, A42 (2020)] and scaled to the subset map noise depth. 857GHz calibration uncertainty continues to be dominated by a 5% planetary emission model uncertainty.<br />
<br />
'''File names'''<br />
<br />
The FITS filenames are of the form ''{H|L}FI_SkyMap_fff{-tag}_Nside_R4.nn_{coverage}-{type}.fits'', where "fff" are three digits to indicate the Planck frequency band, "tag" indicates the single detector or the detset (no "tag" indicates full channel), "Nside" is the HEALPix <i>N</i><sub>side</sub> value of the map, "coverage" indicates which part of the mission is covered (full, half-mission, survey, year, etc.), and the optional "type" indicates the subset of input data used. The table below lists the products by type, with the appropriate unix wildcards that form the full filename.<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align"left" border="1" cellpadding="15" cellspacing="20" width=880px<br />
|+ '''Frequency map FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Coverage || Filename <br />
|-<br />
| Full-channel, full-mission || ?FI_SkyMap_fff{-tag}_????_R4.??_full.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Full-channel, full-mission, half-ring || ?FI_SkyMap_fff{-tag}_????_R4.??_full-ringhalf-{1|2}.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Subset A maps, 30 and 44GHz || ?FI_SkyMap_fff_1024_R4.??_year-1-3.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Subset B maps, 30 and 44GHz || ?FI_SkyMap_fff_1024_R4.??_year-2-4.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Subset A maps, 70GHz || LFI_SkyMap_070-18-20-23_1024_R4.??_full.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Subset B maps, 70GHz || LFI_SkyMap_070-19-21-22_1024_R4.??_full.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Subset A maps, 100GHz || HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_R4.??_full.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Subset B maps, 100GHz || HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_R4.??_full.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Subset A maps, 143GHz || HFI_SkyMap_143-ds3_2048_R4.??_full.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Subset B maps, 143GHz || HFI_SkyMap_143-ds4_2048_R4.??_full.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Subset A maps, 217GHz || HFI_SkyMap_217-ds3_2048_R4.??_full.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Subset B maps, 217GHz || HFI_SkyMap_217-ds4_2048_R4.??_full.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Subset A maps, 353GHz || HFI_SkyMap_353-ds3_2048_R4.??_full.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Subset B maps, 353GHz || HFI_SkyMap_353-ds4_????_R4.??_full.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Subset A maps, 545GHz || HFI_SkyMap_545-ds2_????_R4.??_full.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Subset B maps, 545GHz || HFI_SkyMap_545-ds3_????_R4.??_full.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Subset A maps, 857GHz || HFI_SkyMap_857-ds3_????_R4.??_full.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Subset B maps, 857GHz || HFI_SkyMap_857-ds4_????_R4.??_full.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Single-detector maps || ?FI_SkyMap_{detector}_????_R4.??_full.fits<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
'''FITS file structure'''<br />
<br />
The FITS files for the sky maps contain a minimal primary header with no data, and a ''BINTABLE'' extension (EXTENSION 1, EXTNAME = ''FREQ-MAP'') containing the data. The structure is shown schematically in the figure below. The ''FREQ-MAP'' extension contains a 3- or 10-column table that includes the signal, hit-count, and variance maps, all in HEALPix format. The 3-column case is for intensity-only maps, while the 10-column case is for polarization. The number of rows is the number of map pixels, which is <i>N</i><sub>pix</sub> = 12 <i>N</i><sub>side</sub><sup>2</sup> for HEALPix maps, where <i>N</i><sub>side</sub> = 1024 or 2048 for most of the maps presented in this section.<br />
<br />
[[File:FITS_FreqMap.png | 550px | center | thumb | '''FITS file structure.''']]<br />
<br />
Note that file sizes are approximately 0.6 GB for <i>I</i>-only maps and 1.9 GB for <i>IQU</i> maps at <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048, but about 0.14 GB for <i>I</i>-only maps and 0.45 GB for <i>IQU</i> maps at <i>N</i><sub>pix</sub>=1024 .<br />
<br />
Keywords indicate the coordinate system ("GALACTIC"), the HEALPix ordering scheme ("NESTED"), the units (K<sub>CMB</sub> of each column, and of course the frequency channel ("FREQ"). Where polarization <i>Q</i> and <i>U</i> maps are provided, the "COSMO" polarization convention (used in HEALPix) is adopted, and it is specified in the "POLCCONV" keyword. The original filename is also given in the "FILENAME" keyword. The "BAD_DATA" keyword gives the value used by HEALPix to indicate pixels for which no signal is present (these will also have a hit-count value of 0). The main parameters are summarized in the table below.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Sky map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column name || Data type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_STOKES || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub> || Stokes <i>I</i> map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STOKES || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub> || Stokes <i>Q</i> map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|U_STOKES || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub> || Stokes <i>U</i> map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|HITS || Int*4 || none || The hit-count map<br />
|-<br />
|II_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> || <i>II</i> variance map<br />
|-<br />
|IQ_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> || <i>IQ</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|IU_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> || <i>IQ</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QQ_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> || <i>QQ</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QU_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> || <i>QU</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|UU_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> || <i>UU</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || HEALPix <i>N</i><sub>side</sub> <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12 <i>N</i><sub>side</sub><sup>2</sup> – 1 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ || String || nnn || Frequency channel <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
The same structure applies to all "SkyMap" products, independent of whether they are full channel, survey of half-ring. The distinction between the types of map is present in the FITS filename (and in the traceability comment fields).<br />
<br />
<br />
</div><br />
</div><br />
<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="background-color: #FFDAB9;width:80%" ><br />
'''2015 Sky temperature and polarization maps'''<br />
<br />
<div class="mw-collapsible-content"><br />
<br />
<br />
'''General description'''<br />
<br />
Sky maps give the best estimate of the intensity and polarization (Stokes Q and U components), if available, of the signal from the sky after removal, as far as possible, of known systematic effects (mostly instrumental, but including also the solar and earth-motion dipole, Galactic strylight and the Zodiacal light). Sky maps are provided for the full Planck mission using all valid detectors in each frequency channel, and also for various subsets by splitting the mission in various time ranges or in subsets of the detectors in a given channel. These products are useful for the study of source variability, but they are especially interesting for characterisation purposes (see also the [[HFI-Validation | data validation]] section). The details of the start and end of the time ranges are given in the table below.<br />
<br />
To help in further processing, there are also masks of the Galactic Plane and of point sources, each provided for several different depths.<br />
<br />
All sky maps are in Healpix format, with Nside of 1024 (LFI 30, 44 and 70) and 2048 (LFI 70 and HFI), in Galactic coordinates, and Nested ordering. <br />
<br />
;WARNING: the Healpix convention for polarization is NOT the same as the IAU convention - see Section 8 in this page.<br />
<br />
The signal is given in units of K<sub>cmb</sub> for 30-353 GHz, and of MJy/sr (for a constant <math>\nu F_\nu</math> energy distribution ) for 545 and 857 GHz. For each frequency channel, the intensity and polarization maps are packaged into a ''BINTABLE'' extension of a FITS file together with a hit-count map (or hit map, for short, giving the number of observation samples that are cumulated in a pixel, all detectors combined) and with the variance and covariance maps. Additional information is given in the FITS file header. The structure of the FITS file is given in the [[#FITS_file_structure | FITS file structure]] section below. <br />
<br />
; R2.00 : this first release (Jan 2015) contains polarisation data for the 353 GHz channel only.<br />
; R2.01 : this second release (May 2015) adds polarisation data to the 100-217 GHz channels.<br />
; R2.02 : a full re-release to correct the Healpix bad pixel value in the maps which was altered during the preparation of the maps and not reset to the correct value (the valid pixels are unchanged). It also fixes some FITS keywords, and includes a full re-release of the Zodi correction maps, with the 100-217 GHz one now including the polarisation correction)<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Ranges for mission and surveys'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Range || ODs || HFI rings || pointing-IDs || Comment<br />
|-<br />
|nominal mission || 91 - 563 || 240 - 14723 || 00004200 - 03180200 ||<br />
|-<br />
|full mission || 91 - 974 || 240 - 27005 || 00004200 - 05322620 || for HFI<br />
|-<br />
|full mission || 91 - 1543 || n/a || 00004200 - 06511160 || for LFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 1 || 91 - 270 || 240 - 5720 || 00004200 - 01059820 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 2 || 270 - 456 || 5721 - 11194 || 01059830 - 02114520 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 3 || 456 - 636 || 11195 - 16691 || 02114530 - 03193660 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 4 || 636 - 807 || 16692 - 21720 || 03193670 - 04243900 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 5 || 807 - 974 || 21721 - 27005 || 05267180 - 05322590 || end of mission for HFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 5 || 807 - 993 || n/a || 05267180 - 06344800 || end of survey for LFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 6 || 993 - 1177 || n/a || 06344810 - 06398120 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|Survey 7 || 1177 - 1358 || n/a || 06398130 - 06456410 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|Survey 8 || 1358 - 1543 || n/a || 06456420 - 06511160 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|Survey 9 || 1543 - 1604 || n/a || 06511170 - 06533320 || LFI only Not in this delivery<br />
|-<br />
|HFI mission-half-1 || 91 - 531 || 240 - 13471 || 00004200 - 03155580 ||<br />
|-<br />
|HFI mission-half-2 || 531 - 974 || 13472 - 27005 || 03155590 - 05322590 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 1 || 91 - 456 || n/a || 00004200 - 02114520 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 2 || 456 - 807 || n/a || 02114530 - 04243900 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 3 || 807 - 1177 || n/a || 05267180 - 06398120 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 4 || 1177 - 1543 || n/a || 06398130 - 06511160 ||<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
'''Production process'''<br />
<br />
Sky maps are produced by combining appropriately the data of all working detectors in a frequency channel over some period of the mission. They give the best estimate of the signal from the sky (unpolarised) after removal, as far as possible, of known systematic effects and of the dipole signals induced by the motion of the solar system in the CMB and of the Planck satellite in the solar system. In particular, they include the Zodiacal light emission (Zodi for short) and also the scattering from the far-side lobes of the beams (FSL). More on this below.<br />
<br />
''' HFI processing '''<br />
<br />
The mapmaking and calibration process is described in detail in the [[Map-making_LFI | Map-making]] section and in the {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a09}} paper, where detailed references are found. In brief it consists of:<br />
<br />
; binning the TOI data onto ''rings'' : Healpix rings (HPRs) are used here, each ring containing the combined data of one pointing period. <br />
; flux calibration : at 100-353 GHz, the flux calibration factors are determined by correlating the signal with the orbital dipole, which is determined very accurately from the Planck satellite orbital parameters provided by Flight Dynamics. This provides a single gain factor per bolometer. At 545 and 857 GHz the gain is determined from the observation of Uranus and Neptune (but not Jupiter which is too bright) and comparison to recent models made explicitly for this mission. A single gain is applied to all rings at these frequencies.<br />
; destriping : in order to remove low-frequency noise, an offset per ring is determined by minimizing the differences between HPRs at their crossings, and removed.<br />
; Zodiacal light correction : a Zodiacal light model is used to build HPRs of the the Zodi emission, which is subtracted from the calibrated HPRs.<br />
; projection onto the map : the offset-corrected, flux-calibrated, and Zodi-cleaned HPRs are projected onto Healpix maps, with the data of each bolometer weighted by a factor of 1/NET of that bolometer.<br />
<br />
These steps are followed by some post-processing which is designed to prepare the maps for the component separation work. This post processing consists of: <br />
<br />
; Dust bandpass leakage correction : the Q and U maps are corrected for the intensity-to-polarisation leakage caused by the foregrounds having a non-CMB spectrum, and as a consequence of the non-identical bandpasses on the different detectors (bandpass mismatch, or BPM). This correction is determined using the ''ground'' method as described in Section 7.3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a09}}. These correction maps can be found in the Planck Legacy Archive as ''HFI_CorrMap_???-dustleak-ground_2048_R2.0?_{coverage}.fits''. The correction is applied by subtracting the correction map from the corresponding input map. This correction is not applied to the nominal mission maps in order to maintain compatibility with the PR1 products. ''In fact this correction was computed and applied only to the products used in component separation'', so they were not applied to the single survey maps and to the half-ring maps, which are considered characterisation products.<br />
; Far Side Lobe calibration correction : the 100-217 maps are multiplied by factors of 1.00087, 1.00046, and 1.00043, respectively, to compensate for the non-removal of the far-side lobes, and similarly the corresponding covariance maps have also been corrected by multiplication by the square of the factor.<br />
; Fill missing pixels : missing pixels are filled in with a value that is the mean of valid pixels within a given radius. A radius of 1 deg is used for the full channel maps, and 1.5 deg is used for the detset maps. This step is not applied to the single survey maps since they have large swaths of the sky that are not covered.<br />
<br />
; Map zero-level : for the 100 to 857 GHz maps, the zero levels are set to their optimal levels for Galactic and CIB studies. A procedure for adjusting them to astrophysical values is given in the HFI Mapmaking and Calibration paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a09}}.<br />
<br />
These maps provide the main mission products. Together with signal maps, hit count, variance, and variance maps are also produced. The hit maps give the (integer) number of valid TOI-level samples that contribute to the signal of each pixel. All valid samples are counted in the same way, i.e., there is no weighting factor applied. The variance maps project the white noise estimate, provided by the NETs, in the sky domain.<br />
<br />
Note that the nominal mission maps have not had the post-processing applied, which makes them more easily comparable to the PR1 products.<br />
<br />
''' LFI processing '''<br />
LFI maps were constructed with the Madam map-making code, version 3.7.4. The code is based on generalized destriping technique, where the correlated noise component is modeled as a sequence of constant offset, called baselines. A noise filter was used to constrain the baseline solution allowing the use of 0.25 s and 1 second baselines for the 30 and 44, 70 GHz respectively.<br />
<br />
Radiometers were combined according to the horn-uniform weighting scheme to minimize systematics. The used weights are listed in [[Map-making LFI#Map-making|Map-making]]. The flagged samples were excluded from the analysis by setting their weights to <math>C_{w}^{-1}</math> = 0. The galaxy region was masked out in the destriping phase, to reduce error arising from strong signal gradients. The polarization component was included in the analysis... <br />
<br />
; Dipole and Far Side Lobe correction : input timelines are cleaned by 4pi convolved dipole and Galactic Straylight obtained as convolution of the 4pi in band far sidelobes and Galactic Simulation as explained in Section 7.4 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a03}}. <br />
<br />
Beam effects on the LFI maps are described in Section 7.1 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a03}}. Scaling of the maps due to beam effects is taken into account in the LFI's beam functions (as provided in the RIMO, give reference) which should be used for analysis of diffuse components. To compute the flux densities of compact sources, correction must be made for beam effects (see Table 8 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a03}})."<br />
<br />
; Bandpass leakage correction : '''as opposed to the HFI, the LFI high resolution maps have not been corrected for bandpass leakage. Only low resolution (nside 256) maps are provided with the bandpass correction'''. The correction maps (LFI_CorrMap_0??-BPassCorr_*.fits) can be found in the Planck Legacy Archive. Further details about the procedure used to generate the bandpass correction maps can be found in Section 11 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a03}}.<br />
<br />
; Map zero-level : for the 30, 44 and 70 GHz, maps are corrected for zero level monopole by applying an offset correction, see LFI Calibration paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a06}}. Note that the offset applied is indicated in the header as a comment keyword.<br />
<br />
A detailed description of the map-making procedure is given in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p02}}, {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a03}}, {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a07}} and in section [[Map-making LFI#Map-making|Map-making]].<br />
<br />
'''Types of maps '''<br />
<br />
''' Full mission, full channel maps (6 HFI, 4 LFI)'''<br />
<br />
Full channel maps are built using all the valid detectors of a frequency channel and cover the either the full or the nominal mission. For HFI, the 143-8 and 545-3 bolometers are rejected entirely as they are seriously affected by RTS noise. HFI provides the Q and U components for the 100, 143, 217 and 353 GHz channels only. LFI provides the I, Q and U maps for all the channels. Reminder: HFI Q and U maps are corrected for bandpass leakage but LFI Q and U maps are not. The I, Q and U maps are displayed in the figures below. The color range is set using a histogram equalisation scheme (from HEALPIX) that is useful for these non-Gaussian data fields. For visualization purposes, the Q and U maps shown here have been smoothed with a 1 degree Gaussian kernel, otherwise they look like noise to the naked eye.<br />
The 70 GHz full map is available also at <math>N_{side}</math> 2048.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=260px heights=160px> <br />
File: SkyMap30e.png| '''Full mission I, 30 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap44e.png | '''Full mission I, 44 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap70e.png | '''Full mission I, 70 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap100e.png | '''Full mission I, 100 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap143e.png | '''Full mission I, 143 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap217e.png | '''Full mission I, 217 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap353e.png | '''Full mission I, 353 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap545e.png | '''Full mission I, 545 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap857e.png | '''Full mission I, 857 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br><br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=260px heights=160px> <br />
File: LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R2.01_full_Qb_sm1deg.png| '''Full mission Q, 30 GHz'''<br />
File: LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R2.01_full_Qb_sm1deg.png | '''Full mission Q, 44 GHz'''<br />
File: LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R2.01_full_Qb_sm1deg.png | '''Full mission Q, 70 GHz'''<br />
File: HFI_Skymap_100_full_bplcorrected_sm1deg_Qb.png | '''Full mission Q, 100 GHz'''<br />
File: HFI_Skymap_143_full_bplcorrected_sm1deg_Qb.png | '''Full mission Q, 143 GHz'''<br />
File: HFI_Skymap_217_full_bplcorrected_sm1deg_Qb.png | '''Full mission Q, 217 GHz'''<br />
File: HFI_Skymap_353_full_bplcorrected_sm1deg_Qb.png | '''Full mission Q, 353 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br><br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=260px heights=160px> <br />
File: LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R2.01_full_Ub_sm1deg.png| '''Full mission U, 30 GHz'''<br />
File: LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R2.01_full_Ub_sm1deg.png | '''Full mission U, 44 GHz'''<br />
File: LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R2.01_full_Ub_sm1deg.png | '''Full mission U, 70 GHz'''<br />
File: HFI_Skymap_100_full_bplcorrected_sm1deg_Ub.png | '''Full mission U, 100 GHz'''<br />
File: HFI_Skymap_143_full_bplcorrected_sm1deg_Ub.png | '''Full mission U, 143 GHz'''<br />
File: HFI_Skymap_217_full_bplcorrected_sm1deg_Ub.png | '''Full mission U, 217 GHz'''<br />
File: HFI_Skymap_353_full_bplcorrected_sm1deg_Ub.png | '''Full mission U, 353 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
</center><br />
<br />
''' Full mission light maps, full channel maps (6 HFI, 7 LFI) '''<br />
<br />
These maps are based on the Full mission maps but contain fewer columns, IQU from 30 to 353 GHz, and I only at 545 and 857 GHz. These maps have been produced to reduce the transfer time of the most downloaded frequency full mission maps.<br />
<br />
''' Nominal mission, full channel maps (6 HFI) '''<br />
<br />
These maps are similar to the ones above, but cover the nominal mission only. They are meant primarily to be compared to the PR1 products in order to see the level of improvements in the processing. Because of this, they are produced in Temperature only, and have not had the post-processing applied.<br />
<br />
''' Single survey, full channel maps (30 HFI, 35 LFI)'''<br />
<br />
Single survey maps are built using all valid detectors of a frequency channel; they cover separately the different sky surveys. The surveys are defined as the times over which the satellite spin axis rotates but 180 degrees, which, due to the position of the detectors in the focal plane does not cover the full sky, but a fraction between ~80 and 90% depending on detector position. During adjacent surveys the sky is scanned in opposite directions. More precisely it is the ecliptic equator that is scanned in opposite directions. While these are useful to investigate variable sources, they are also used to study the systematics of the time-response of the detectors as they scan bright sources, like the Galactic Plane, in different directions during different survey. Note that the HFI and LFI missions cover 5 and 8 surveys, respectively, and in case of HFI the last survey in incomplete.<br />
The 70 GHz surveys maps are available also at <math>N_{side}</math> 2048.<br />
Note LFI provide a special surveys maps combination used in the low l analysis. This maps, available at the three LFI frequency 30, 44 and 70 GHz, was built using the combination of survey 1, 3, 5, 6, 7 and 8. <br />
<br />
''' Year maps, full channel maps (12 HFI, 16 LFI)'''<br />
<br />
These maps are built using the data of surveys 1+2, surveys 3+4, and so forth. They are used to study long-term systematic effects.<br />
The 70 GHz years maps are available also at <math>N_{side}</math> 2048.<br />
<br />
'''Half-mission maps, full channel maps (12 HFI, 12 LFI)'''<br />
<br />
For HFI, the half mission is defined after eliminating those rings discarded for all bolometers. There are 347 such rings, may of which are during the 5th survey when the ''End-of-Life'' tests were performed. The remaining 26419 rings are divided in half (up to the odd ring) to define the two halves of the mission. This exercise is done for the full mission only.<br />
<br />
For LFI instead of the half-mission the following year combination has been created: Year 1+2, Year 1+3, Year 2+4, Year 3+4, <br />
<br />
'''Full mission, single detector maps (18 HFI, 22 LFI)'''<br />
<br />
IN case of HFI these maps are built only for the SWBs (non polarized) and contain only temperature data, of course. They are not built for the polarisation sensitive detectors because they are not fixed on the sky as the polarisation component depends on the position angle at the time of observation. Instead, we provide maps built by ''quads'' of polarisation-sensitive detectors (see next section), which have different polarisation angles and that can be used to built I, Q, and U maps<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=600px<br />
|+ '''HFI Temperature sensitive bolometers'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!Frequency || Detector names<br />
|-<br />
|143 GHz || 143-5, 6, 7<br />
|-<br />
|217 GHz || 217-1, 2, 3, 4<br />
|-<br />
|353 GHz || 353-1, 2, 7, 8<br />
|-<br />
|545 GHz || 545-1, 2, 4<br />
|-<br />
|857 GHz || 857-1, 2 , 3, 4<br />
|}<br />
<br />
The 143-8 and 353-3 bolometer data are affected by strong RTS (random telegraphic signal) noise. They have not been used in the data processing, and are not delivered. For a figure showing the focal plane layout, see [[Detector_pointing#Introduction_and_Summary | this Introduction]] of the Detector Pointing chapter.<br />
<br />
In case of LFI, all the 22 Radiometers maps are available, those, obviously, are only in temperature.<br />
<br />
'''Full mission, detector set or detector pairs maps (8 HFI, 8 LFI)'''<br />
<br />
The objective here is to build independent temperature (I) and polarisation (Q and U) maps with the two pairs of polarisation sensitive detectors of each channel where they are available, i.e. in the 44-353 GHz channels. The table below indicates which detectors were used to built each detector set (detset).<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=600px<br />
|+ '''Definition of HFI Detector Sets'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!Frequency || DetSet1 || DetSet2 <br />
|-<br />
|100 GHz || 100-1a/b & 100-4a/b || 100-2a/b & 100-3a/b<br />
|-<br />
|143 GHz || 143-1a/b 1 & 43-3a/b || 143-2a/b & 143-4a/b<br />
|-<br />
|217 GHz || 217-5a/b & 217-7a/b || 217-6a/b & 217-8a/b<br />
|-<br />
|353 GHz || 353-3a/b & 353-5a/b || 353-4a/b & 353-6a/b<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=600px<br />
|+ '''Definition of LFI Detector Pairs'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!Frequency || Horn Pair || Comment <br />
|-<br />
|44 GHz || 24 || This maps is only in temperature<br />
|-<br />
|44 GHz || 25 & 26 || <br />
|-<br />
|70 GHz || 18 & 23 || Available also at <math>N_{side}</math> = 2048<br />
|-<br />
|70 GHz || 19 & 22 || Available also at <math>N_{side}</math> = 2048<br />
|-<br />
|70 GHz || 20 & 21 || Available also at <math>N_{side}</math> = 2048<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
'''Half-ring maps (64 HFI, 62 LFI)'''<br />
<br />
These maps are similar to the ones above, but are built using only the first or the second half of each ring (or pointing period). The HFI provides half-ring maps for the full mission only, and for the full channel, the detsets, and the single bolometers. The LFI provides half-rings maps for the channel full mission (70 GHz also at <math>N_{side}</math> 2048), for the radiometer full mission and the horn pairs full mission.<br />
<!----<br />
'''Masks'''<br />
<br />
Masks are provided of the Galactic Plane and of the point sources. For the Galactic Plane, eight masks are given covering different fractions of the sky, and for the points sources two masks are given, at the 5 and 10 sigma level, for each Planck HFI and LFI frequency channel. These are generic masks, specific masks applicable to other products are delivered with the products themselves.<br />
---><br />
<br />
''' The Zodiacal light correction maps '''<br />
<br />
The Zodiacal light signal depends on the location of the observer relative to the Zodiacal light bands, and thus it is not a fixed pattern on the sky but depends on the period of observation. The maps presented here are the difference between the uncorrected (and not delivered) and the corrected maps. <br />
<br />
Note that while the Zodiacal light model that is subtracted at ring level (see [[Map-making#Zodiacal_light_correction | here]]) is not polarised, the corrections are not null and Q and U. This is suspected to come from some combination of leakage due to bandpass differences and beam mismatch, and maybe other effects. These leakages are typically of order a few %, at max, of the maximum zodi intensity at I for each channel. They range from ~150 nK at 100 GHz to ~5 uK at 353 GHz.<br />
<br />
''' Caveats and known issues '''<br />
<br />
; HFI polarization 100-217 GHz : at low multipoles, despite the progress that has been made to control the systematic effects present in the maps, polarization data between 100-217 GHz are still contaminated by systematic residuals. Figure 10 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a09}} shows the EE power spectra from the half-difference maps at 100, 143, and 217 GHz and compared to the noise power spectrum from FFP8 simulations. he half-ring differences are compatible with noise while, at multipoles typically lower than 50, detector-set and half-mission differences are dominated by excess power which is larger than the EE CMB signal. The Planck Collaboration has used the range ell>30 to carry out component separation ({{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}}), as data at ell<30 is not considered usable for cosmological analyses. The origin of the excess power will be explored in a forthcoming publication.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''Inputs'''<br />
''' HFI inputs '''<br />
<br />
The HFI mapmaking takes as input:<br />
* the cleaned TOIs of signal of each detector, together with their flags, produced by the [[TOI processing|TOI processing]] pipeline;<br />
* the TOIs of pointing (quaternions), described in [[Detector_pointing|Detector pointing]];<br />
* bolometer-level characterization data, from the DPC's internal IMO (not distributed);<br />
* Planck orbit data, used to compute and remove the Earth's dipole;<br />
* Planck solar dipole information, used to calibrate the CMB channels;<br />
* Planet models used to calibrate the Galactic channels.<br />
<br />
''' LFI inputs '''<br />
<br />
The Madam mapmaker takes as input:<br />
<br />
* the calibrated timelines (for details see [[TOI processing LFI|TOI Processing]]);<br />
* the detector pointings (for details see [[Detector_pointing|Detector pointing]]);<br />
* the noise information in the form of 3-parameter (white noise level, &sigma;, slope, and knee frequency, <i>f</i><sub>knee</sub>) noise model (for details see [[The RIMO|RIMO]])<br />
<br />
'''Related products'''<br />
''' Masks '''<br />
<br />
This section presents the masks of the point sources and of the Galactic plane. These are ''general purpose'' masks. Other masks specific to certain products are packaged with the products.<br />
<br />
'''Point source masks'''<br />
<br />
For HFI and LFI two sets of masks are provided: <br />
* Intensity masks, which removes sources detected with SNR > 5. <br />
* Polarisation masks, which remove sources which have polarisation detection significance of 99.97 % or greater at the position of a source detected in intensity. They were derived from the polarisation maps with dust ground bandpass mismatch leakage correction applied. The cut around each source has a radius of 3σ (width) of the beam ~ 1.27 FWHM (for LFI the cut around each source has a radius of 32 arcmin at 30GHz, 27 arcmin at 44 GHz and 13 arcmin at 70 GHz).<br />
<br />
Both sets are found in the files ''HFI_Mask_PointSrc_2048_R2.00.fits'' and ''LFI_Mask_PointSrc_2048_R2.00.fits'' in which the first extension contains the Intensity masks, and the second contains the Polarisation masks.<br />
<br />
'''Galactic plane masks'''<br />
<br />
Eight masks are provided giving 20, 40, 60, 70, 80, 90, 97, and 99% sky coverage derived from the 353 GHz map, after CMB subtraction. They are independent of frequency channel. Three versions of these are given: not apodized, and apodized by 2 and 5 deg. The filenames are ''HFI_Mask_GalPlane-apoN_2048_R2.00.fits'', where N = 0, 2, 5.<br />
<br />
The masks are shows below. The 8 GalPlane masks are combined (added together) and shown in a single figure for each of the three apodization. While the result is quite clear for the case of no apodization, it is less so for the apodized case. The point source masks are shown separately for the Intensity case.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery perrow=3 widths=260px heights=160px ><br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo0.png | '''Galactic Plane masks, no apod'''<br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo2.png | '''Galactic Plane masks, apod 2 deg'''<br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo5.png | '''Galactic Plane masks, apod 5 deg'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_100.png | '''PointSource mask 100 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_143.png | '''PointSource mask 143 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_217.png | '''PointSource mask 217 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_353.png | '''PointSource mask 343 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_545.png | '''PointSource mask 545 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_857.png | '''PointSource mask 857 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
''' File names '''<br />
The FITS filenames are of the form ''{H|L}FI_SkyMap_fff{-tag}_Nside_R2.nn_{coverage}-{type}.fits'', where ''fff'' are three digits to indicate the Planck frequency band, ''tag'' indicates the single detector or the detset, ''Nside'' is the Healpix Nside of the map, ''coverage'' indicates which part of the mission is covered (full, half mission, survey, year, ...) , and the optional ''type'' indicates the subset of input data used. The table below lists the products by type, with the appropriate unix wildcards that form the full filename.<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align"left" border="1" cellpadding="15" cellspacing="20" width=880px<br />
|+ '''HFI FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Coverage || filename || half-ring filename <br />
|-<br />
| Full chan, full mission ||HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_full.fits ||HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, nominal mission ||HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_nominal.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, single survey || HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_survey-?.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, single year || HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_year-?.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, half mission || HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_halfmission*-?.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Det-set, full mission || HFI_SkyMap_???-ds?_2048_R2.??_full.fits || HFI_SkyMap_???-ds?_2048_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits<br />
|-<br />
|Single SWB, full mission || HFI_SkyMap_???-?_2048_R2.??_full.fits || HFI_SkyMap_???-?_2048_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align"left" border="1" cellpadding="15" cellspacing="20" width=1000px<br />
|+ '''LFI FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Coverage || filename || half-ring filename || Comment<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, full mission ||LFI_SkyMap_???_1024_R2.??_full.fits ||LFI_SkyMap_???_1024_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits || Available also at Nside = 2048<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, single survey || LFI_SkyMap_???_1024_R2.??_survey-?.fits || n/a || Available also at Nside = 2048<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, survey combination || LFI_SkyMap_???_1024_R2.??_survey-1-3-5-6-7-8.fits || n/a || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, single year || LFI_SkyMap_???_1024_R2.??_year-?.fits || n/a || Available also at Nside = 2048<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, year combination || LFI_SkyMap_???_1024_R2.??_year?-?.fits || n/a || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Horn pair, full mission || LFI_SkyMap_???-??-??_1024_R2.??_full.fits || LFI_SkyMap_???_??-??_1024_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits || Available also at Nside = 2048<br />
|-<br />
| Single radiometer, full mission || LFI_SkyMap_???-???_1024_R2.??_full.fits || LFI_SkyMap_???-???_1024_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits || n/a<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for the frequency maps with no additional information, we also provide a file combining the 9 frequency maps as separate columns in a single extension. The 9 columns in this file contain the intensity maps ONLY and no other information (hit maps and variance maps) is provided.<br />
<br />
<!---<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align:center" border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" width=500px<br />
|+ '''FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Full channel maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''30GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''44GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Full channel, Zodi-corrected maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}} <br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Combined frequency maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''All''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=file|name=COM_MapSet_I-allFreqs_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=COM_MapSet_I-allFreqs_R1.10_nominal.fits}} <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align:center" border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" width=850px<br />
|+ '''FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Survey 1 maps || Survey 2 maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''30GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''44GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Survey 1 Zodi-corrected maps || Survey 2 Zodi-corrected maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Half-ring 1 maps ||Half-ring 2 maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''30GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''44GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|}<br />
---><br />
<br />
''' FITS file structure '''<br />
<br />
The FITS files for the sky maps contain a minimal primary header with no data, and a ''BINTABLE'' extension (EXTENSION 1, EXTNAME = ''FREQ-MAP'') containing the data. The structure is shows schematically in the figure below. The ''FREQ-MAP'' extension contains a 3- or a 10-column table that contain the signal, hit-count and variance maps, all in Healpix format. The 3-column case is for intensity only maps, the 10-column case is for polarisation. The number of rows is the number of map pixels, which is Npix = 12 <math>N_{side}</math><sup>2</sup> for Healpix maps, where <math>N_{side}</math> = 1024 or 2048 for most the maps presented in this chapter.<br />
<br />
[[File:FITS_FreqMap.png | 550px | center | thumb | '''FITS file structure''']]<br />
<br />
Note that file sizes are ~0.6 GB for I-only maps and ~1.9 GB for I,Q,U maps at <math>N_{side}</math> 2048 and ~0.14 GB for I-only maps and ~0.45 GB for I,Q,U maps at <math>N_{side}</math> 1024 .<br />
<br />
Keywords indicate the coordinate system (GALACTIC), the Healpix ordering scheme (NESTED), the units (K_cmb or MJy/sr) of each column, and of course the frequency channel (FREQ). Where polarisation Q and U maps are provided, the ''COSMO'' polarisation convention (used in HEALPIX) is adopted, and it is specified in the ''POLCCONV'' keyword (see [[Sky_temperature_maps#Polarization_convention_used_in_the_Planck_project|this section]]. The COMMENT fields give a one-line summary of the product, and some other information useful for traceability within the DPCs. The original filename is also given in the ''FILENAME'' keyword. The ''BAD_DATA'' keyword gives the value used by Healpix to indicate pixels for which no signal is present (these will also have a hit-count value of 0). The main parameters are summarised below:<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Sky map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb or MJy/sr || The Stokes I map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb or MJy/sr || The Stokes Q map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|U_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb or MJy/sr || The Stokes U map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|HITS || Int*4 || none || The hit-count map<br />
|-<br />
|II_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The II variance map<br />
|-<br />
|IQ_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The IQ variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|IU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The IQ variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QQ_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The QQ variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The QU variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|UU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The UU variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix <math>N_{side}</math> <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12 <math>N_{side}</math><sup>2</sup> – 1 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ || string || nnn || The frequency channel <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
The same structure applies to all ''SkyMap'' products, independent of whether they are full channel, survey of half-ring. The distinction between the types of maps is present in the FITS filename (and in the traceability comment fields).<br />
<br />
'''Polarization convention used in the Planck project'''<br />
<br />
The Planck collaboration used the COSMO convention for the polarization angle (as usually used in space based CMB missions), whereas other astronomical fields usually use the IAU convention. In the following document we report the difference between these two conventions, and the consequence if it is NOT taken into account correctly in the analysis.<br />
<br />
[[File:conventions.png|thumb|center|400px|'''Figure 1. COSMO convention (left) and IAU convention (right). The versor <math>\hat{z}</math> points outwards the pointing direction in COSMO, and inwards in IAU. The bottom panel refers to the plane tangent to the sphere.''']]<br />
<br />
Changing the orientation convention is equivalent to a transformation <math>\psi'=\pi-\psi</math> of the polarization angle (Figure 1). The consequence of this transformation is the inversion of the Stokes parameter <math>U</math>.<br />
The components of the polarization tensor in the helicity basis <math>\epsilon^{\pm}=1/\sqrt{2}(\hat{x}\pm i\hat{y})</math> are:<br />
<br />
<math><br />
(Q+iU)(\hat{n}) = \sum _{\ell m}a_{2,lm}{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
\\(Q-iU)(\hat{n}) = \sum _{\ell m}a_{-2,lm}{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
</math><br />
<br />
where <math>{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})</math> are the spin weighted spherical harmonic functions.<br />
The <math>E</math> and <math>B</math> modes can be defined as:<br />
<math><br />
E(\hat{n}) = \sum_{\ell m}a_{E,\ell m}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
\\B(\hat{n}) = \sum_{\ell m}a_{B,\ell m}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
</math><br />
<br />
where the coefficients <math>a_{E,\ell m}</math> and <math>a_{B,\ell m}</math> are derived from linear combinations of the <math>a_{2,\ell m}</math> , <math>a_{-2,\ell m}</math> defined implicitly in the first equation (<math>Q\pm iU</math>).<br />
<br />
[[File:test_gradient.jpg|thumb|center|400px|]]<br />
[[File:test_curl.jpg|thumb|center|400px|'''Figure 2. Error on Planck-LFI 70 GHz <math>EE</math> (top) and <math>BB</math> (bottom) spectra, in case of wrong choice of the coordinate system convention (IAU instead of COSMO).''']]<br />
<br />
The effect of the sign inversion of <math>U</math> on the polarization spectra is a non trivial mixing of <math>E</math> and <math>B</math> modes. <br />
<br />
An example of the typical error on <math>EE</math> and <math>BB</math> auto-spectra in case of a wrong choice of the polarization basis is shown in Figure 2.<br />
<br />
BE CAREFUL about the polarization convention you are using. If the IAU convention is used in computing the power spectra, the sign of the <math>U</math> component of the Planck maps must be inverted before computing <math>E</math> and <math>B</math> modes.<br />
<br />
''' Note on the convention used by the Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources (PCCS) '''<br />
For continuity with other compact sources catolgues, the Catalogue of Compact Sources provided by Planck follows the IAU convention, and the polarization angles are defined on an interval of [-90&deg;,90&deg;]. To switch to the COSMO convention, the polarization angles listed in the catalogue have to be shifted by 90&deg; and multiplied by -1.<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
</div><br />
</div><br />
<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="background-color: #EEE8AA;width:80%" ><br />
'''2013 Sky temperature maps'''<br />
<br />
<div class="mw-collapsible-content"><br />
<br />
'''General description'''<br />
<br />
<br />
Sky maps give the best estimate of the intensity of the signal from the sky after removal, as far as possible, of known systematic effects and of the dipole signals induced by the motion of the solar system in the CMB and of the Planck satellite in the solar system. Sky maps are provided for the nominal Planck mission and also, separately, for the first two single surveys, the third one being covered only for a small part during the nominal mission.The details of the start and end times of each are given in [[HFIpreprocessingstatics | this table]]. As a secondary product, maps with estimates of the Zodiacal light and Far-Side-Lobes contribution removed are also provided. <br />
<br />
For characterization purposes, are also provided maps covering the nominal survey but each one using only half of the available data. These are the ''ringhalf_{1|2}'' maps, which are built using the first and second half of the stable pointing part in each pointing period. These maps are used extensively to investigate the (high frequency) noise properties the maps themselves and of other products described elsewhere (see e.g., the [[HFI-Validation | data validation]] section).<br />
<br />
To help in further processing, there are also masks of the Galactic Plane and of point sources, each provided for several different depths.<br />
<br />
All sky maps are in Healpix format, with Nside of 2048 for HFI and of 1024 for LFI (note that the LFI 70 GHz has been delivered also at Nside of 2048 to be directly comparable with HFI maps), in Galactic coordinates, and Nested ordering. The signal is given in units of K<sub>cmb</sub> for 30-353 GHz, and of MJy/sr (for a constant $\nu F_\nu$ energy distribution ) for 545 and 857 GHz. Each sky map is packaged into a ''BINTABLE'' extension of a FITS file together with a hit-count map (or hit map, for short, giving the number of observation samples that are cumulated in a pixel, all detectors combined) and a variance map (determined from the half-ring maps), and additional information is given in the FITS file header. The structure of the FITS file is given in the [[#Format | FITS file structure]] section below.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''Types of maps '''<br />
<br />
; Full channel maps<br />
: Full channel maps are built using all the valid detectors of a frequency channel and cover the nominal mission. For HFI, the 143-8 and 545-3 bolometers are rejected entirely as they are seriously affected by RTS noise. The maps are displayed in the figures below. The range is the same from 30 - 143 GHz in order to show the CMB at the same level. At higher frequencies the range is increased in order to keep the Galactic Plane from invading the whole sky.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=260px heights=160px> <br />
File: SkyMap30.png| '''Nominal mission, 30 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap44.png | '''Nominal mission, 44 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap70.png | '''Nominal mission, 70 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap100.png | '''Nominal mission, 100 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap143.png | '''Nominal mission, 143 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap217.png | '''Nominal mission, 217 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap353.png | '''Nominal mission, 353 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap545.png | '''Nominal mission, 545 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap857.png | '''Nominal mission, 857 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
; Single survey maps <br />
: Single survey maps are built using all valid detectors of a frequency channel; they cover separately the different sky surveys. The surveys are defined as the times over which the satellite spin axis rotates but 180 degrees, which, due to the position of the detectors in the focal plane does not cover the full sky, but a fraction between ~80 and 90% depending on detector position.<br />
<br />
; Detector set or detector pairs maps<br />
: These are maps built from a subset of the detectors in a frequency channel, typically our of two PSB pairs (i.e., four poloarisation-sensitive bolometers with different orientation on the sky), for HFI in order to extract a single temperature map. While none of these maps are part of the first Planck data release, the concept of ''detset'' is used, and thus it is worth mentioning it here. In particular, information by detector set is available at the [[Frequency_maps_angular_power_spectra | sky power spectrum]] level and in the [[The RIMO | RIMO]].<br />
<br />
; Half-ring maps<br />
: Half-ring maps are built using only the first or the second half of the stable pointing period data. There are thus two half-ring maps per frequency channel named ''ringhalf_1'' and ''ringhalf_2'' respectively. These maps are built for characterization purposes in order to perform null tests. In particular, the difference between the two half-ring maps at a given frequency give a good estimate of the high frequency noise in the data (albeit biased low by ~0.5% for the HFI channels due to specifics of the TOI processing).<br />
<br />
; Masks<br />
: Masks are provided of the Galactic Plane and of the point sources. For the Galactic Plane, eight masks are given covering different fractions of the sky, and for the points sources two masks are given, at the 5 and 10 sigma level, for each Planck HFI frequency channel. These are generic masks, specific masks applicable to other products are delivered with the products themselves.<br />
<br />
''' Caveats and known issues'''<br />
<br />
The primary limitation of the HFI maps are<br />
* the absence of correction of the ADC non-linearities,<br />
* the far-side lobe contribution is not accounted for in the processing and in the calibration,<br />
* the dipole removal is based on the non-relativistic approximation which leaves a weak quadrupole component in the map.<br />
And thus the overall calibration accuracy is at the 0.2% level in 100-217 GHz channels<br />
<br />
The LFI 70 GHz maps at Nside=2048 should be considered as additional product, the default are the LFI maps at Nside=1024. No effective beam at Nside=2048 is provided, only at Nside=1024, for this reason the use of the effective beam with maps at Nside 2048 is discouraged.<br />
<br />
''' Map zero-level '''<br />
<br />
For the 100 to 857 GHz maps, the zero levels are set to their optimal levels for Galactic and CIB studies. A procedure for adjusting them to astrophysical values is given in the HFI Calibration paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p03b}}.<br />
<br />
For the 30, 44 and 70 GHz, maps are corrected for zero level monopole by applying an offset correction, see LFI Calibration paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p02b}} section 3.4 "Setting the zero levels in the maps". Note that the offset applied is indicated in the header as a comment keyword.<br />
<br />
''' The Zodiacal light and the Far-Side Lobes '''<br />
<br />
The figures below show the modeled Zodiacal light and Far Side Lobes projected onto the maps; they are simply the difference between the ''main product'' and the ''ZodiCorrected'' maps for the nominal mission. The units are given in the figures. The ''heat'' color table has been used in place of the standard Planck for clarity reasons. <br />
<center><br />
<gallery perrow=3 widths=260px heights=170px><br />
File: ZodiRes100.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 100 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes143.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 143 GHz''' <br />
File: ZodiRes217.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 217 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes353.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 353 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes545.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 545 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes857.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 857 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
The effects of the FSLs are seen most clearly at the highest frequencies, as structures roughly symmetric about the center of the image, which corresponds to the location of the Galactic Centre, which is in turn the source of most of the radiation that is scattered into the FSLs.<br />
<br />
''' Artifacts near caustics of the scanning strategy '''<br />
<br />
The [[Survey scanning and performance|scanning strategy]] is such that regions around the Ecliptic poles are surveyed very deeply and compared to the average, and the transition from the nominal depth to the high depth, as shows on hit-count maps is very rapid, namely a few pixels, for a contrast of ~30. These transitions, or caustics in the maps, occur at different positions on the sky for different detectors, as the positions depend on their location in the focal plane of the instrument. As a result, when data from different detectors are combined to build a full channel map, the the weights of different detectors in the mix changes rapidly across the caustic, and given the remaining errors in the relative calibration of the detectors, a visible effect can be introduced in the maps, especially when the SNR is very high, i.e. at the highest frequencies and near bright regions like the Galactic Plane. Some examples are shown below.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery perrow=3 heights=260px widths=260pix ><br />
File: causta857.png | '''857 GHz intensity map around (272.5, -27)'''<br />
File: caustb857.png | '''857 GHz intensity map around (264.5, -37.5)'''<br />
File: caustc857.png | '''857 GHz intensity map around (98.5, 43)'''<br />
File: hita857.png | '''857 GHz hit count map around (272.5, -27)'''<br />
File: hitb857.png | '''857 GHz hit count map around (264.5, -37.5)'''<br />
File: hitc857.png | '''857 GHz hit count map around (98.5, 43)'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
'''Production process'''<br />
<br />
<br />
Sky maps are produced by combining appropriately the data of all working detectors in a frequency channel over some period of the mission. They give the best estimate of the signal from the sky (unpolarised) after removal, as far as possible, of known systematic effects and of the dipole signals induced by the motion of the solar system in the CMB and of the Planck satellite in the solar system. In particular, they include the Zodiacal light emission (Zodi for short) and also the scattering from the far-side lobes of the beams (FSL). More on this below.<br />
<br />
''' HFI processing '''<br />
<br />
The inputs to the