https://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/api.php?action=feedcontributions&user=Mlopezca&feedformat=atomPlanck Legacy Archive Wiki - User contributions [en-gb]2022-12-01T11:15:30ZUser contributionsMediaWiki 1.31.6https://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=Simulation_data&diff=14595Simulation data2022-02-21T09:49:52Z<p>Mlopezca: /* Other Releases: 2020-NPIPE, 2015 and 2013 simulated maps */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{DISPLAYTITLE: Simulations}}<br />
<br />
== Introduction ==<br />
<br />
While PR2-2015 simulations ({{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14||FFP8}}) were focused on the reproduction of the flight data Gaussian noise power spectra and their time variations, this new PR3-2018 simulation (FFP10) brings for the first time the realistic simulation of instrumental effects for both HFI and LFI. Moreover these simulated systematic effects are processed in the timelines with the same algorithms (and when possible, codes) as for the flight data.<br />
<br />
The FFP10 dataset is made of several full-sky map sets in FITS format:<br />
<br />
* 1000 realizations of lensed scalar CMB convolved with effective beams per HFI frequency,<br />
* separated input sky components per HFI bolometer and LFI radiometer<br />
* 300 realizations of noise and systematic effect residuals per frequency,<br />
* one fiducial simulation with full sky signal components: lensed scalar CMB, foregrounds, noise and systematic effect residuals, for all frequencies,<br />
<br />
== The end-to-end simulation pipeline ==<br />
<br />
The end-to-end simulation pipeline uses several software components which are described below in the order they are used, as seen in the following schematic. Note that while this schematic is specific to HFI, the main components in the block diagram are similar for both instruments. <br />
<br />
<center><br />
[[File:Simflow2.png]]<br />
</center><br />
<br />
Please note that most of what is written here comes from {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l03}}, which reading is highly recommended for more precisions on technical details and plots, particularly about the characterization of the negligible effects and systematics.<br />
<br />
=== CMB ===<br />
<br />
The FFP10 lensed CMB maps are generated in the same way as for the previous FFP8 release and described in detail in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}. FFP10 simulations only contain the scalar part lensed with independent lensing potential realizations.<br />
<br />
One "fiducial" realization is used as input CMB for the full end-to-end pipeline, and 1000 other realizations are convolved with FEBeCoP{{BibCite|mitra2010}} effective beams to be combined with the 300 noise and systematic residuals maps.<br />
<br />
The cosmological parameters used are:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="8" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left"<br />
|-<br />
! Parameter<br />
! Symbol<br />
! FFP8.1<br />
! FFP10<br />
|-<br />
| Baryon density<br />
| style="text-align:center;" | <math>\omega_b=\Omega_bh^2</math><br />
| <math>0.0223</math><br />
| <math>0.02216571</math><br />
|-<br />
| Cold dark matter density<br />
| style="text-align:center;" | <math>\omega_c=\Omega_ch^2</math><br />
| <math>0.1184</math><br />
| <math>0.1202944</math><br />
|-<br />
| Neutrino energy density<br />
| style="text-align:center;" | <math>\omega_{\nu}=\Omega_{\nu}h^2</math><br />
| <math>0.00065</math><br />
| <math>0.0006451439</math><br />
|-<br />
| Hubble parameter, <math>H_0=100h \mbox{ kms}^{-1} \mbox{ Mpc}^{-1}</math><br />
| style="text-align:center;" | <math>h</math><br />
| <math>0.6712</math><br />
| <math>0.6701904</math><br />
|-<br />
| Thomson optical depth through reionization<br />
| style="text-align:center;" | <math>\tau</math><br />
| <math>0.067</math><br />
| <math>0.06018107</math><br />
|-<br />
| colspan="4" | Primordial curvature perturbation spectrum:<br />
|-<br />
| &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;amplitude<br />
| style="text-align:center;" | <math>A_s</math><br />
| <math>2.14×10^{-9}</math><br />
| <math>2.119631×10^{-9}</math><br />
|-<br />
| &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;spectral index<br />
| style="text-align:center;" | <math>n_s</math><br />
| <math>0.97</math><br />
| <math>0.9636852</math><br />
|}<br />
<br />
=== The Planck Sky Model ===<br />
<br />
The FFP10 simulation input sky is the coaddition of the following sky components generated using the Planck Sky Model (PSM) package (Delabrouille et al. 2013 {{BibCite|delabrouille2012}}). Each of these components is convovled with each HFI bolometer spectral response by the PSM software, using the same spectral responses as in 2015 FFP8. Please note that one important difference with FFP8 is that FFP10 PSM maps are '''not''' smoothed with any beam, while in FFP8 PSM maps were smoothed with a 5’ Gaussian beam.<br />
<br />
==== Diffuse Galactic components ====<br />
<br />
* '''Dust'''<br />
The dust model maps are built as follows. The Stokes I map at 353 GHz is the dust total intensity Planck map obtained by applying the Generalized Needlet Internal Linear Combination (GNILC) method of Remazeilles et al. (2011){{BibCite|remazeilles2011}} to the PR2-2015 release of Planck HFI maps, as described in {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-XLVIII}}, and subtracting the monopole of the Cosmic Infrared Background ({{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a09}}). For the Stokes Q and U maps at 353 GHz, we started with one realization of the statistical model of Vansyngel et al. (2017){{BibCite|vansyngel2017}}. The portions of the simulated Stokes Q and U maps near Galactic plane were replaced by the Planck 353-GHz PR2 data. The transition between data and simulation was made using a Galactic mask with a 5° apodization, which leaves 68% of the sky unmasked at high latitude. Furthermore, on the full sky, the large angular scales in the simulated Stokes Q and U maps were replaced by the Planck data. Specifically, the first ten multipoles came from the Planck 353-GHz PR2 data, while over the <math>\ell=10-20</math> range, the simulations were introduced smoothly using the function <math>(1+{\sin}[\pi(15-\ell)/10])/2</math>.<br />
<br />
To scale the dust Stokes maps from the 353-GHz templates to other Planck frequencies, we follow the FFP8 prescription ({{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}). A different modified blackbody emission law is used for each of the <math>N_{side}=2048</math> HEALPix pixels. The dust spectral index used for scaling in frequency is different for frequencies above and below 353 GHz. For frequencies above 353 GHz, the parameters come from the modified blackbody fit of the dust spectral energy distribution (SED) for total intensity obtained by applying the GNILC method to the PR2 HFI maps ({{PlanckPapers|planck2016-XLVIII}}). These parameter maps have a variable angular resolution that decreases towards high Galactic latitudes. Below 353 GHz, we also use the dust temperature map from {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-XLVIII}}, but with a distinct map of spectral indices from {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06b}}, which has an angular resolution of 30’. These maps introduce significant spectral variations over the sky at high Galactic latitudes, and between the dust SEDs for total intensity and polarization. The spatial variations of the dust SED for polarization in the FFP10 sky model are quantified in {{PlanckPapers|planck2018-LIV}}.<br />
<br />
* '''Synchrotron'''<br />
Synchrotron intensity is modelled by scaling in frequency the 408-MHz template map from Haslam et al. (1982){{BibCite|haslam1982}}, as reprocessed by Remazeilles et al. (2015){{BibCite|remazeilles2015}} using a single power law per pixel. The pixel-dependent spectral index is derived from an analysis of WMAP data by Miville-Deschênes et al. (2008){{BibCite|Miville2008}}. The generation of synchrotron polarization follows the prescription of Delabrouille et al. (2013){{BibCite|delabrouille2012}}.<br />
<br />
* '''Other components'''<br />
Free-free, spinning dust models, and Galactic CO emissions are essentially the same as those used for the FFP8 sky model ({{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}), but the actual synchrotron and free-free maps used for FFP10 are obtained with a different realization of small-scale fluctuations of the intensity. CO maps do not include small-scale fluctuations, and are generated from the spectroscopic survey of Dame et al. (2001){{BibCite|dame2001}}. None of these three components is polarized in the FFP10 simulations.<br />
<br />
==== Unresolved point sources and cosmic infrared background ====<br />
<br />
Catalogues of individual radio and low-redshift infrared sources are generated in the same way as for FFP8 simulations ({{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}), but use a different seed for random number generation. Number counts for three types of galaxies (early-type proto-spheroids, and more recent spiral and starburst galaxies) are based on the model of Cai et al. (2013){{BibCite|cai2013}}. The entire Hubble volume out to redshift <math>z=6</math> is cut into 64 spherical shells, and for each shell we generate a map of density contrast integrated along the line of sight between <math>z_{min}</math> and <math>z_{max}</math>, such that the statistics of these density contrast maps (i.e., power spectrum of linear density fluctuations, and cross-spectra between adjacent shells, as well as with the CMB lensing potential), obey statistics computed using the Cosmic Linear Anisotropy Solving System (CLASS) code (Blas et al. 2011{{BibCite|blas2011}}; Di Dio et al. 2013{{BibCite|didio2013}}). For each type of galaxy, a catalogue of randomly-generated galaxies is generated for each shell, following the appropriate number counts. These galaxies are then distributed in the shell to generate a single intensity map at a given reference frequency, which is scaled across frequencies using the prototype galaxy SED at the appropriate redshift.<br />
<br />
==== Galaxy clusters ====<br />
<br />
A full-sky catalogue of galaxy clusters is generated based on number counts following the method of Delabrouille et al. (2002){{BibCite|Delabrouille2002}}. The mass function of Tinker et al. (2008){{BibCite|Tinker2008}} is used to predict number counts. Clusters are distributed in redshift shells, proportionally to the density contrast in each pixel with a bias <math>b(z, M)</math>, in agreement with the linear bias model of Mo & White (1996){{BibCite|mowhite1996}}. For each cluster, we assign a universal profile based on XMM observations, as described in Arnaud et al. (2010){{BibCite|arnaud2010}}. Relativistic corrections are included to first order following the expansion of Nozawa et al. (1998){{BibCite|Nozawa1998}}. To assign an SZ flux to each cluster, we use a mass bias of <math>M_{Xray}/M_{true}=0.63</math> to match actual cluster number counts observed by Planck for the best-fit cosmological model coming from CMB observations. We use the specific value <math>\sigma_8=0.8159</math>.<br />
<br />
The kinematic SZ effect is computed by assigning to each cluster a radial velocity that is randomly drawn from a centred Gaussian distribution, with a redshift-dependent standard deviation that is computed from the power spectrum of density fluctuations. This neglects correlations between cluster motions, such as bulk flows or pairwise velocities of nearby clusters.<br />
<br />
=== Input sky maps to timelines ===<br />
<br />
The LevelS software package (Reinecke et al. 2006 {{BibCite|reinecke2006}}) is used to convert the input sky maps to timelines for each bolometer.<br />
<br />
* Using '''conviqtv3''', the maps are convolved with the same scanning beams as for FFP8, which were produced by stacking intensity-only observations of planets ({{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}}, appendix B), and to which a fake polarization has been added using a simple model based on each bolometer polarization angle and leakage.<br />
<br />
* The convolved maps are then scanned to timelines with '''multimod''', using the same scanning strategy as the 2018 flight data release. The only difference between the 2018 scanning strategy and the 2015 one is that about 1000 stable pointing periods at the end of the mission are omitted in 2018, because it has been found that the data quality was significantly lower in this interval.<br />
<br />
=== Instrument-specific simulations ===<br />
<br />
The main new aspect of FFP10 is the production of End-to-end (E2E) detector simulations, which include all significant systematic effects, and are used to produce realistic maps of noise and systematic effect residuals. <br />
<br />
==== HFI E2E simulations ====<br />
<br />
The pipeline adds the modelled instrumental systematic effects at the timeline level. It includes noise only up to the time response convolution step, after which the signal is added and the systematics simulated. It was shown in appendix B.3.1 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-XLVI}} that, including the CMB map in the inputs or adding it after mapmaking, leads to differences for the power spectra in CMB channels below the <math>10^{-4}\mu{K}^2</math> level. This justifies the use of CMB swapping even when non-Gaussian systematic effects dominate over the TOI detector noise.<br />
<br />
Here are the main effects included in the FFP10 simulation:<br />
<br />
* '''White noise:''' the noise is based on a physical model composed of photon, phonon, and electronic noises. The time-transfer functions are different for these three noise sources. A timeline of noise only is created, with the level adjusted to agree with the observed TOI white noise after removal of the sky signal averaged per ring.<br />
<br />
* '''Bolometer signal time-response convolution:''' the photon white noise is convolved with the bolometer time response using the same code and same parameters as in the 2015 processing. A second white noise contribution is added to the convolved photon white noise to simulate the electronics noise.<br />
<br />
* '''Noise auto-correlation due to deglitching:''' the deglitching step in the data processing creates noise auto-correlation by flagging samples that are synchronous with the sky. Since we do not simulate the cosmic-ray glitches, we mimic this behaviour by adjusting the noise of samples above a given threshold to simulate their flagging.<br />
<br />
* '''Time response deconvolution:''' the timeline containing the photon and electronic noise contributions is then deconvolved with the bolometer time response and low-pass filtered to limit the amplification of the high-frequency noise, using the same parameters as in the 2015 data processing.<br />
<br />
: The input sky signal timeline is added to the convolved/deconvolved noise timeline and is then put through the instrument simulation. Note that the sky signal is not convolved/deconvolved with the bolometer time response, since it is already convolved with the scanning beam extracted from the 2015 TOI processing output which already contains the low-pass filter and residuals associated with the time-response deconvolution.<br />
<br />
* '''Simulation of the signal non-linearity:''' the first step of electronics simulation is the conversion of the input sky plus noise signal from K<sub>CMB</sub> units to analog-to-digital units (ADU) using the detector response measured on the ground and assumed to be stable in time. The ADU signal is then fed through a simulator of a non-linear analogue-to-digital converter (ADCNL). This step is the one introducing complexity into the signal, inducing time variation of the response, and causing gain differences with respect to the ground-based measurements. This corresponds to specific new correction steps in the mapmaking.<br />
<br />
: The ADCNL transfer-function simulation is based on the TOI processing, with correction from the ground measurements, combined with in-flight measurements. A reference simulation is built for each bolometer, which minimizes the difference between the simulation and the data gain variations, measured in a first run of the mapmaking. Realizations of the ADCNL are then drawn to mimic the variable behaviour of the gains seen in the 2018 data.<br />
<br />
* '''Compression/decompression:''' the simulated signal is compressed by the algorithm required by the telemetry rate allocated to the HFI instrument, with a slight accuracy loss. While very close to the compression algorithm used on-board, the one used in the simulation pipeline differs slightly, due to the non-simulation of the cosmic-ray glitches, together with the use of the average of the signal in the compression slice.<br />
: The same number of compression steps as in flight data, the signal mean of each compression slice and the step value for each sample are then used by the decompression algorithm to reconstruct the modulated signal.<br />
<br />
===== TOI processing =====<br />
<br />
The TOIs issued from the steps above are then processed in the same way as the flight data. Because of the granularity needed and the computational performance required to produce hundreds of realizations, the TOI processing pipeline applied to the simulated data is highly optimized and slightly different from the one used for the data. The specific steps are the following:<br />
<br />
* '''ADCNL correction:''' the ADCNL correction is carried out with the same parameters as the 2015 data TOI processing, and with the same algorithm. The difference between the realizations of ADC transfer function used for simulation and the constant one used for TOI processing is tuned to reproduce the gain variations found in 2015 processed TOI.<br />
<br />
* '''Demodulation:''' signal demodulation is also performed in the same way as the flight TOI processing. First, the signal is converted from ADU to volts. Next, the signal is demodulated by subtracting from each sample the average of the modulated signal over 1 hour and then taking the opposite value for "negative" parity samples.<br />
<br />
* '''Conversion to watts and thermal baseline subtraction:''' the demodulated signal is converted from volts to watts (neglecting the conversion non-linearity of the bolometers and amplifiers, which has been shown to be negligible). Eventually, the flight data thermal baseline, derived from the deglitched signals of the two dark bolometers smoothed over 1 minute, is subtracted.<br />
<br />
* '''1/f noise:''' a 1/f type noise component is added to the signal for each stable pointing period, with parameters (slope and knee frequency) adjusted on the flight data.<br />
<br />
* '''Projection to HPR:''' the signal timeline is then projected and binned to HEALPix pixels for each stable pointing period (HEALPix rings, or HPR) after removal of flight-flagged data (unstable pointing periods, glitches, Solar system objects, planets, etc.).<br />
<br />
* '''4-K line residuals:''' a HPR of the 4-K line residuals for each bolometer, built by stacking the 2015 TOI, is added to the simulation output HPR.<br />
<br />
===== Effects and processings not simulated =====<br />
<br />
* no discrete point sources,<br />
* no glitching/deglitching, only deglitching-induced noise auto-correlation,<br />
* no 4-K line simulation and removal, only addition of their residuals,<br />
* no bolometer volts-to-watts conversion non-linearity from the bolometers and amplifiers,<br />
* no far sidelobes (FSLs),<br />
* reduced simulation pipeline at 545 GHz and 857 GHz<br />
<br />
To be more specific about this last item, the submillimetre channels simulation uses a pipeline without electronics simulation. It only contains photon and electronic noises, deglitching noise auto-correlation, time-response convolution/deconvolution, and 1/f noise. Bolometer by bolometer baseline addition and thermal baseline subtraction, compression/decompression, and 4-K line residuals are not included.<br />
<br />
===== Mapmaking =====<br />
<br />
The next stage is to use the SRoll mapmaking on the stim HPR. The following mapmaking inputs are all the same for simulation as for flight data:<br />
<br />
* thermal dust, CO, and free-free map templates,<br />
* detector NEP and polarization parameters,<br />
* detector pointings,<br />
* bad ring lists and sample flagging<br />
<br />
The FSL removal performed in the mapmaking destriper is not activated (since no FSL contribution is included in the input). The total dipole removed by the mapmaking is the same as the input in the sky TOIs generated by LevelS (given in section 4.2. of {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l03}}).<br />
<br />
===== Post-processing =====<br />
<br />
* '''Noise alignment:''' an additional noise component is added to more accurately align the noise levels of the simulations with the noise estimates built from the 2018 odd minus even ring maps. Of course, this adjustment of the noise level may not satisfy all the other noise null tests. This alignment is different for temperature and for polarization maps, in order to simulate the effect of the noise correlation between detectors within a PSB.<br />
<br />
* '''Monopole adjustment:''' a constant value is added to each simulated map to bring its monopole to the same value as the corresponding 2018 map, which is described in section 3.1.1. of {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l03}}.<br />
<br />
* '''Signal subtraction:''' from each map, the input sky (CMB and foregrounds) is subtracted to build the “noise and residual systematics frequency maps.” These systematics include additional noise and residuals induced by sky-signal distortion. These maps are part of the FFP10 data set.<br />
<br />
==== LFI E2E simulations ====<br />
<br />
As described in {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l02}}, the LFI systematic effect simulations are done partially at time- line and partially at ring-set level, with the goal of being as modular as possible, in order to create a reusable set of simulations. From the input sky model and according to the pointing information, we create single-channel ring-sets of the pure sky convolved with a suitable instrumental beam. To these we add pure noise (white and 1/ f ) ring-sets generated from the noise power spectrum distributions measured from real data one day at a time. The overall scheme is given in the Figure below:<br />
<br />
[[File:Screen Shot 2018-07-13 at 13.58.58.png|thumb|400px|center]]<br />
<br />
In the same manner, we create ring-sets for each of the specific systematic effects we would like to measure. We add together signal, noise, and systematic ring-sets, and, given models for straylight (based on the GRASP beams) and the orbital dipole, we create “perfectly-calibrated” ring-sets (i.e., calibration constant = 1). We use the gains estimate from the 2018 data release to “de-calibrate” these timelines, i.e., to convert them from kelvins to volts. At this point the calibration pipeline starts, and produces the reconstructed gains that will be different from the ones used in the de-calibration process due to the presence of simulated systematic effects. The calibration pipeline is algorithmically exactly the same as that used at the DPC for product creation, but with a different implementation (based principally on python). The gain-smoothing algorithm is the same as used for the data, and has been tuned to the actual data. This means that there will be cases where reconstructed gains from simulations differ significantly from the input ones. We have verified that this indeed happens, but only for very few pointing periods, and we therefore decided not to consider them in the following analysis. The overall process for estimating gains is given in the figure below:<br />
<br />
[[File:Screen Shot 2018-07-13 at 13.59.17.png|400px|thumb|center]]<br />
<br />
At this point we are able to generate maps for full mission, half-ring, and odd-even-year splits) that include the effects of systematic errors on calibration. In the final step, we produce timelines (which are never stored) starting from the same fiducial sky map, using the same model for straylight and the orbital dipole as in the previous steps, and from generated noise-only timelines created with the same seeds and noise model used before. We then apply the official gains to “de-calibrate” the timelines, which are immediately calibrated with the reconstructed gains in the previous step. The nominal destriping mapmaking algorithm is then used to create final maps. The complete data flow is given in the figure below:<br />
<br />
[[File:Screen Shot 2018-07-13 at 14.03.40.png|400px|thumb|center]]<br />
<br />
<br />
== Delivered Products ==<br />
<br />
=== Input sky components ===<br />
<br />
The separated input sky components generated by the Planck Sky Model are available for all frequencies, at HEALPix <math>N_{side}=1024</math> or <math>2048</math> or <math>4096</math>, depending on frequency:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left"<br />
!<br />
! 100GHz<br />
! 143GHz<br />
! 217GHz<br />
! 353GHz<br />
! 545GHz<br />
! 857GHz<br />
|-<br />
! fiducial lensed scalar CMB<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! CO<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! free-free<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! synchrotron<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! far infrared background<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! kinetic SZ<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_kineticsz-ffp10-skyinbands-100_2048_R3.00_full.fits 100GHz&nbsp;kineticsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_kineticsz-ffp10-skyinbands-143_2048_R3.00_full.fits 143GHz&nbsp;kineticsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_kineticsz-ffp10-skyinbands-217_2048_R3.00_full.fits 217GHz&nbsp;kineticsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_kineticsz-ffp10-skyinbands-353_2048_R3.00_full.fits 353GHz&nbsp;kineticsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_kineticsz-ffp10-skyinbands-545_2048_R3.00_full.fits 545GHz&nbsp;kineticsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_kineticsz-ffp10-skyinbands-857_2048_R3.00_full.fits 857GHz&nbsp;kineticsz]<br />
|-<br />
! Thermal SZ<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_thermalsz-ffp10-skyinbands-100_2048_R3.00_full.fits 100GHz&nbsp;thermalsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_thermalsz-ffp10-skyinbands-143_2048_R3.00_full.fits 143GHz&nbsp;thermalsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_thermalsz-ffp10-skyinbands-217_2048_R3.00_full.fits 217GHz&nbsp;thermalsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_thermalsz-ffp10-skyinbands-353_2048_R3.00_full.fits 353GHz&nbsp;thermalsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_thermalsz-ffp10-skyinbands-545_2048_R3.00_full.fits 545GHz&nbsp;thermalsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_thermalsz-ffp10-skyinbands-857_2048_R3.00_full.fits 857GHz&nbsp;thermalsz]<br />
|-<br />
! faint&nbsp;infrared&nbsp;point&nbsp;sources<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintirps-ffp10-skyinbands-100_4096_R3.00_full.fits 100GHz&nbsp;faintirps]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintirps-ffp10-skyinbands-143_4096_R3.00_full.fits 143GHz&nbsp;faintirps]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintirps-ffp10-skyinbands-217_4096_R3.00_full.fits 217GHz&nbsp;faintirps]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintirps-ffp10-skyinbands-353_4096_R3.00_full.fits 353GHz&nbsp;faintirps]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintirps-ffp10-skyinbands-545_4096_R3.00_full.fits 545GHz&nbsp;faintirps]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintirps-ffp10-skyinbands-857_4096_R3.00_full.fits 857GHz&nbsp;faintirps]<br />
|-<br />
! faint radio point sources<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintradiops-ffp10-skyinbands-100_4096_R3.00_full.fits 100GHz&nbsp;faintradiops]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintradiops-ffp10-skyinbands-143_4096_R3.00_full.fits 143GHz&nbsp;faintradiops]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintradiops-ffp10-skyinbands-217_4096_R3.00_full.fits 217GHz&nbsp;faintradiops]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintradiops-ffp10-skyinbands-353_4096_R3.00_full.fits 353GHz&nbsp;faintradiops]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintradiops-ffp10-skyinbands-545_4096_R3.00_full.fits 545GHz&nbsp;faintradiops]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintradiops-ffp10-skyinbands-857_4096_R3.00_full.fits 857GHz&nbsp;faintradiops]<br />
|-<br />
! thermal dust<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=== CMB realizations ===<br />
<br />
The 1000 lensed scalar CMB map realizations are convolved with the FEBeCoP effective beams computed using the 2015 scanning beams ({{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}}, appendix B), and the updated scanning strategy described in the [[#PSM maps to timelines]] section above. Each CMB realization is available for the full-mission span only, at each frequency, which means 1000 realizations x 9 frequencies = 9000 CMB maps, which can be retrieved using the following link template:<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=febecop_ffp10_lensed_scl_cmb_{frequency}_mc_{realization}.fits</pre><br />
<br />
where:<br />
* '''{frequency}''' is any of frequency: 30, 44, 70, 100, 143, 217, 353, 545 or 857,<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realisation number, between 0000 and 0999, padded to four digits with leading zeros<br />
<br />
For example: http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=febecop_ffp10_lensed_scl_cmb_100_mc_0000.fits<br />
<br />
<br />
=== Noise and instrumental effect residual maps ===<br />
<br />
==== HFI E2E maps ====<br />
<br />
As described above, 300 realizations of full end-to-end simulations have been produced, to which the full sky signal part (CMB+foregrounds) have been subtracted in post-processing, to give maps of noise and systematic residuals only. For each realization and frequency, five data cuts are provided:<br />
<br />
* full-mission,<br />
* first and second half-missions,<br />
* odd and even stable pointing periods (rings)<br />
<br />
In addition to all 6 HFI frequencies, a special detector set made of only 353 GHz polarized bolometers (a.k.a 353_psb) is also published, to match the 2018 flight data set, for a total of 300 realizations x 5 data cuts x 7 HFI detector sets = 10,500 maps.<br />
<br />
The noise maps can be retrieved from PLA using the following naming convention:<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=ffp10_noise_{frequency}_{ring_cut}_map_mc_{realization}.fits</pre><br />
<br />
where:<br />
* '''{frequency}''' is any of HFI frequency: 100, 143, 217, 353, 353_psb, 545 or 857,<br />
* '''{ring_cut}''' is the ring selection scheme, one of: full, hm1, hm2, oe1, oe2<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realisation number, between 00000 and 00299, padded to five digits with leading zeros<br />
<br />
For example: http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=ffp10_noise_100_full_map_mc_00000.fits<br />
<br />
Please note that due to the specific polarization orientation of 100GHz bolometers, odd and even ring maps are badly conditionned for HEALPix <math>N_{side}=2048</math> and are therefore also available at <math>N_{side}=1024</math> by just replacing "_map_mc_" with "_map_1024_mc_" in the file link name.<br />
<br />
<br />
==== LFI E2E maps ====<br />
<br />
For LFI, a similar approach is followed as for HFI in terms of number and formatting of the E2E noise+systematics simulations.<br />
<br />
=== Fiducial simulation ===<br />
<br />
A separate full end-to-end simulation with a different CMB realization is also provided, with the full sky signal included and the same data cuts and detector sets as the 300 noise and systematic residual maps, to serve as a reference for whatever you would need it to. Please don't overlook the important warning below about thermal dust.<br />
<br />
'''TODO: fiducial naming scheme'''<br />
<br />
== Two important warnings about noise and thermal dust ==<br />
<br />
=== Noise ===<br />
<br />
As stated in the introduction, FFP10 focus is on the simulation and correction of the main instrumental effects and systematics. It uses a noise model which doesn't vary in time, contrary to FFP8 simulations which used realizations of one noise power spectrum per stable pointing period and per detector. Doing so, all systematic residuals in FFP8 are considered as Gaussian noise, which time variations should follow the flight data.<br />
<br />
If interested in Gaussian noise variations following flight data rather than non-Gaussian instrumental effects and systematic residuals, the user may want to check whether FFP8 noise maps better suit their needs. This is particularly true for 545 GHz and 857 GHz, for which FFP10 doesn't contain all instrumental effects and systematics and in which detectors' time response deconvolution is simulated at the noise-alignment post-processing step.<br />
<br />
=== Thermal dust ===<br />
<br />
After the production of the 300 realizations of noise and systematic residual simulations, a bug has been found in the PSM thermal dust template used as input, which led to a 10% intensity mismatch in temperature at 353 GHz due to a missing color correction. The same dust template has been correctly used for the simulations and for the sky subtraction post-processing, so the produced and published residual maps are not affected.<br />
<br />
Note however, that the thermal dust maps provided as PSM input sky and the one used in the fiducial simulation are the fixed version of the PSM thermal dust, which slightly differs from the one used (and removed) in the 300 noise and systematic residual simulations.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<br />
<References /><br />
= Other Releases: 2020-NPIPE, 2015 and 2013 simulated maps =<br />
<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="background-color: #9ef542;width:80%"><br />
'''2020 Release of simulated maps (NPIPE)'''<br />
<div class="mw-collapsible-content"><br />
The NPIPE release includes 600 simulated full-frequency and detector-set Monte Carlo realizations. 100 of those realizations include single-detector and half-ring maps. <br />
<br />
NPIPE simulations include all of the reprocessing steps, but only approximate the effects of preprocessing. The approximation is based on simulating the detector noise from a power spectral density (PSD) measured from preprocessed time-ordered data.<br />
<br />
The components of the full signal simulations are:<br />
* CMB signal, consisting of independent CMB realisations convolved on-the-fly with the asymmetric detector beams and including the solar system and orbital dipole;<br />
* foregrounds, consisting of a Commander sky model evaluated at each frequency;<br />
* zodiacal light, based on fits of the zodiacal templates on real data;<br />
* bandpass mismatch, based on real data fits of the mismatch templates;<br />
* LFI gain fluctuations, consisting of smoothed versions of the noisy fits of real data;<br />
* instrumental noise, based on measured noise in preprocessed data, including cross-detector correlated noise.<br />
<br />
In addition, fitting for the full suite of reprocessing templates adds all potential template degeneracies and pipeline transfer function effects.<br />
<br />
Each full signal simulation is accompanied with a symmetric beam-convolved CMB map, foreground map, and a residual (noise) map created by regressing out the input signals from the full map.<br />
<br />
Simulated NPIPE maps derive from a time-domain simulation that includes beam-convolved CMB, bandpass-mismatched foregrounds, and instrumental 1/<i>f</i> noise with realistic intra horn correlations. Seasonal gain fluctuations are added into the simulated LFI signal by smoothing the measured real data gain fluctuation. The data are processed with the same reprocessing module as the real data, introducing similar large-scale systematics and correlations.<br />
<br />
'''CMB'''<br />
<br />
The simulated CMB is the same as used in PR3 simulations. Instead of processing the CMB in the map-domain, NPIPE uses [https://github.com/hpc4cmb/libconviqt libconviqt] to convolve the CMB with individual detector beams at appropriate orientations. Simulating full time-domain processing allows the user to assess potential pipeline transfer function effects relevant to their analysis. This is in contrast to PR3 where the CMB simulations were performed in the map domain.<br />
<br />
The parameters of the simulated CMB are shown in the following table, reproduced from A&A 643, A42 (2020).<br />
<br />
[[File:Ffp10 params.png|400px|frameless|none|Simulated CMB parameters]]<br />
<br />
'''Foregrounds'''<br />
<br />
Unlike the CMB, there is only one realization of the foregrounds. They are based on the Commander sky model, evaluated at the nominal central frequency for each band. Sky-model component maps that are noise-dominated outside the Galactic plane are smoothed to remove unphysical levels of small-scale structure from the simulation. Without this smoothing the simulated 30-GHz maps showed a significant excess of extra-Galactic power when compared to the real data maps.<br />
<br />
Bandpass mismatch is simulated by adding bandpass-mismatch templates to the frequency map before sampling it into the map domain. The template amplitudes are based on real data fits.<br />
<br />
Since the Commander sky model used as input already includes beam smoothing, we do not convolve with the instrumental beam as we do with the CMB.<br />
<br />
'''Noise'''<br />
<br />
Instrumental noise is simulated from mission-averaged noise PSDs. We use the Fourier technique to create noise realizations that conform to the full PSD, not just a parametrized noise model. Correlated noise between detectors in a single horn reduces the horn's sensitivity to sky temperature but not polarization. We use the measured detector cross-spectra to account for this phenomenon. <br />
<br />
'''Simulated maps'''<br />
<br />
100 Monte Carlo realizations are available on the PLA. These include full-frequency maps, A/B splits, and single-detector maps. For convenience, we provide total signal and residual maps. Matching SEVEM-processed CMB and noise maps are also made available.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''CMB realizations'''<br />
<br />
Input CMB maps convolved with a symmetrized beam are available using the following link template:<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20_cmb_{frequency}_{coverage}_mc_{realization}.fits</pre><br />
<br />
Here:<br />
* '''{subset}''' is "", "A", or "B";<br />
* '''{frequency}''' is any of 030, 044, 070, 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, or 857;<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realization number, between 0200 and 0299, padded to four digits with leading zeros.<br />
<br />
For example: http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20_cmb_030_A_mc_00299.fits<br />
<br />
<!-- '''Foreground maps'''<br />
<br />
Foreground maps used in the simulation can be downloaded with<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20_foreground_input_{frequency}_map.fits</pre><br />
Here:<br />
* '''{frequency}''' is any of: 030, 044, 070, 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, or 857.<br />
<br />
'''Single-detector maps'''<br />
<br />
Simulated single-detector maps can be downloaded with this link template:<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20_total_{detector}_map_mc_{realization}.fits</pre><br />
<br />
Here:<br />
* '''{detector}''' is any valid Planck detector;<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realization number, between 0200 and 0299, padded to four digits with leading zeros.<br />
<br />
For example: http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20_total_LFI28M_map_mc_0200.fits<br />
<br />
'''Total-signal maps'''<br />
<br />
Simulated total-signal maps can be downloaded using the following link template:<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20{subset}_total_{frequency}_map_mc_{realization}.fits</pre><br />
<br />
Here:<br />
* '''{subset}''' is "", "A", or "B";<br />
* '''{frequency}''' is any of: 030, 044, 070, 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, or 857;<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realization number, between 0200 and 0299, padded to four digits with leading zeros.<br />
<br />
For example: http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20_total_143_map_mc_0200.fits<br />
--> <br />
<br />
'''Residual maps'''<br />
<br />
Simulated residual maps (output - input) can be downloaded with the following link template:<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20_noise_{frequency}_{coverage}_mc_{realization}.fits</pre><br />
<br />
Here:<br />
* '''{subset}''' is "", "A", or "B";<br />
* '''{frequency}''' is any of: 030, 044, 070, 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, or 857;<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realization number, between 0200 and 0299, padded to four digits with leading zeros.<br />
<br />
For example: http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20_noise_030_A_mc_00200.fits<br />
<br />
'''Commander maps'''<br />
<br />
Simulated Commander CMB maps are available at<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20_commander_cmb_{nside}_mc_{realization}_{resolition/optional}.fits</pre><br />
<br />
Here:<br />
* '''{subset}''' is "", "A", or "B";<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realization number, between 0200 and 0299, padded to four digits with leading zeros.<br />
<br />
Matching foreground-subtracted frequency maps can be retrieved with, for example:<br />
<br />
http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20_commander_cmb_2048_mc_0300_005a.fits<br />
<br />
Here:<br />
* '''{subset}''' is "", "A", or "B";<br />
* '''{frequency}''' is any of 070, 100, 143, or 217;<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realization number, between 0200 and 0299, padded to four digits with leading zeros.<br />
<br />
<br />
</div><br />
</div><br />
<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="background-color: #FFDAB9;width:80%"><br />
'''2015 Release of simulated maps'''<br />
<div class="mw-collapsible-content"><br />
<br />
''' Introduction '''<br />
<br />
The 2015 Planck data release is supported by a set of simulated maps of the sky, by astrophysical component, and of that sky as seen by Planck (fiducial mission realizations), together with separate sets of Monte Carlo realizations of the CMB and the instrument noise. <br />
<br />
Currently, only a subset of these simulations is available from the Planck Legacy Archive. In particular:<br />
* 18000 full mission CMB simulations: 1000 for each of the nine Planck frequencies, and for two different sets of cosmological parameters.<br />
* 9000 full mission noise simulations: 1000 for each of the nine Planck frequencies.<br />
* 18 full mission sky simulated maps: two sets of sky maps with and without bandpass corrections applied.<br />
<br />
The first two types of simulations, CMB and noise, that are only partially available in the PLA, and the sky simulated maps, have been highlighted in red in Table 1. <br />
<br />
The full set of Planck simulations can be found in the NERSC supercomputing center. Instructions on how to access and retrieve the data can be found in [http://crd.lbl.gov/departments/computational-science/c3/c3-research/cosmic-microwave-background/cmb-data-at-nersc/ HERE]. <br />
<br />
They contain the dominant instrumental (detector beam, bandpass, and correlated noise properties), scanning (pointing and flags), and analysis (map-making algorithm and implementation) effects. These simulations have been described in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}.<br />
<br />
In addition to the baseline maps made from the data from all detectors at a given frequency for the entire mission, there are a number of data cuts that are mapped both for systematics tests and to support cross-spectral analyses. These include:<br />
<br />
* '''detector subsets''' (“detsets”), comprising the individual unpolarized detectors and the polarized detector quadruplets corresponding to each leading trailing horn pair. Note that HFI sometimes refers to full channels as detset0; here detset only refers to subsets of detectors.<br />
* '''mission subsets''', comprising the surveys, years, and half-missions, with exact boundary definitions given in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a03}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}} for LFI and HFI, respectively.<br />
* '''half-ring subsets''', comprising the data from either the first or the second half of each pointing-period ring<br />
<br />
The various combinations of these data cuts then define 1134 maps, as enumerated in the top section of Table 1 from {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}. The different types of map are then named according to their included detectors (channel or detset), interval (mission, half-mission, year or survey), and ring-content (full or half-ring); for example the baseline maps are described as channel/mission/full, etc.<br />
<br />
The simulation process consists of <br />
* modelling each astrophysical component of the sky emission for each Planck detector, using Planck data and the relevant characteristics of the Planck instruments. <br />
* simulating each detector's observation of each sky component following the Planck scanning strategy and using the best estimates of the detector's beam and noise properties (obtained in flight), then combining these timelines into a single one per detector, and projecting these simulated timelines onto ''observed'' maps (the ''fiducial'' sky), as is done with the on-orbit data;<br />
* generating Monte Carlo realizations of the CMB and of the noise, again following the Planck scanning strategy and using our best estimates of the detector beams and noise properties respectively. <br />
The first step is performed by the ''Planck Sky Model'' (PSM), and the last two by the ''Planck Simulation Tools'' (PST), both of which are described in the sections below. <br />
<br />
The production of a full focal plane (FFP) simulation, and including the many MC realizations of the CMB and the noise, requires both HFI and LFI data and includes large, computationally challenging, MC realizations. They are too large to be generated on either of the DPC's own cluster. Instead the PST consists of three distinct tools, each designed to run on the largest available supercomputers, that are used to generate the fiducial sky realization, the CMB MC, and the noise MC respectively. The simulations delivered here are part of the 8th generation FFP simulations, known as FFP8. They were primarily generated on the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) in the USA and at CSC–IT Center for Science (CSC) in Finland.<br />
<br />
The fiducial realizations include instrument noise, astrophysical foregrounds, and the lensed scalar, tensor, and non-Gaussian CMB components, and are primarily designed to support the validation and verification of analysis codes. To test our ability to detect tensor modes and non-Gaussianity, we generate five CMB realizations with various cosmologically interesting &mdash; but undeclared &mdash; values of the tensor-to-scalar ratio '''r''' and non-Gaussianity parameter '''f<sub>NL</sub>'''. To investigate the impact of differences in the bandpasses of the detectors at any given frequency, the foreground sky is simulated using both the individual detector bandpasses and a common average bandpass, to include and exclude the effects of bandpass mismatch. To check that the PR2-2015 results are not sensitive to the exact cosmological parameters used in FFP8 we subsequently generated FFP8.1, exactly matching the PR2-2015 cosmology.<br />
<br />
Table 1 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}. The numbers of fiducial, MC noise and MC CMB maps at each frequency by detector subset, data interval, and data cut.<br />
<br />
[[File:A14_Table1_1_col.png|center|900px]]<br />
[[File:A14_Table1_2_col.png|center|900px]]<br />
[[File:A14_Table1_3_col.png|center|900px]]<br />
<br />
Since mapmaking is a linear operation, the easiest way to generate all of these different realizations is to build the full set of maps of each of six components:<br />
<br />
# the lensed scalar CMB (''cmb_scl'');<br />
# the tensor CMB (''cmb_ten'');<br />
# the non-Gaussian complement CMB (''cmb_ngc'');<br />
# the forgreounds including bandpass mismatch (''fg_bpm'');<br />
# the foregrounds excluding bandpass mismatch (''fg_nobpm'');<br />
# the noise.<br />
<br />
We then sum these, weighting the tensor and non-Gaussian complement maps with <math>\sqrt{r}</math> and f<sub>NL</sub>, respectively, and including one of the two foreground maps, to produce 10 total maps of each type. The complete fiducial data set then comprises 18,144 maps.<br />
<br />
While the full set of maps can be generated for the fiducial cases, for the 10<sup>4</sup>-realization MC sets this would result in some 10<sup>7</sup> maps and require about 6 PB of storage. Instead, therefore, the number of realizations generated for each type of map is chosen to balance the improved statistics it supports against the computational cost of its generation and storage. The remaining noise MCs sample broadly across all data cuts, while the additional CMB MCs are focused on the channel/half-mission/full maps and the subset of the detset/mission/full maps required by the "commander" component separation code {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
''' Mission and instrument characteristics '''<br />
The goal of FFP8 is to simulate the Planck mission as accurately as possible; however, there are a number of known systematic effects that are not included, either because they are removed in the pre-processing of the time-ordered data (TOD), or because they are insufficiently well-characterized to simulate reliably, or because their inclusion (simulation and removal) would be too computationally expensive. These systematic effects are discussed in detail in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a03}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}} and include:<br />
* cosmic ray glitches (HFI);<br />
* spurious spectral lines from the 4-K cooler electronics (HFI);<br />
* non-linearity in the analogue-to-digital converter (HFI);<br />
* imperfect reconstruction of the focal plane geometry.<br />
<br />
Note that if the residuals from the treatment of any of these effects could be mapped in isolation, then maps of such systematics could simply be added to the existing FFP8 maps to improve their correspondence to the real data.<br />
<br />
''' Pointing '''<br />
The FFP8 detector pointing is calculated by interpolating the satellite attitude to the detector sample times and by applying a fixed rotation from the satellite frame into the detector frame. The fixed rotations are determined by the measured focal plane geometry as shown in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a05}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}}, while the satellite attitude is described in the Planck attitude history files (AHF). The FFP pointing expansion reproduces the DPC pointing to sub-arcsecond accuracy, except for three short and isolated instances during Surveys 6&mdash;8 where the LFI sampling frequency was out of specification. Pixelization of the information causes the pointing error to be quantized to either zero (majority of cases) or the distance between pixel centres (3.4' and 1.7' for LFI and HFI, respectively). Since we need a single reconstruction that will serve both instruments efficiently in a massively parallel environment, we use the pointing provided by the Time Ordered Astrophysics Scalable Tools (Toast) package.<br />
<br />
''' Noise '''<br />
We require simulated noise realizations that are representative of the noise in the flight data, including variations in the noise power spectral density (PSD) of each detector over time. To obtain these we developed a noise estimation pipeline complementary to those of the DPCs. The goal of DPC noise estimation is to monitor instrument health and to derive optimal noise weighting, whereas our estimation is optimized to feed into noise simulation. Key features are the use of full mission maps for signal subtraction, long (about 24 hour) realization length, and the use of auto-correlation functions in place of Fourier transforms to handle flagged and masked data (HFI).<br />
<br />
''' Beams '''<br />
The simulations use the so-called scanning beams (e.g., {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p03}}), which give the point-spread function of for a given detector including all temporal data processing effects: sample integration, demodulation, ADC non-linearity residuals, bolometric time constant residuals, etc. In the absence of significant residuals (LFI), the scanning beams may be estimated from the optical beams by smearing them in the scanning direction to match the finite integration time for each instrument sample. Where there are unknown residuals in the timelines (HFI), the scanning beam must be measured directly from observations of strong point-like sources, namely planets. If the residuals are present but understood, it is possible to simulate the beam measurement and predict the scanning beam shape starting from the optical beam.<br />
<br />
For FFP8, the scanning beams are expanded in terms of their spherical harmonic coefficients, <math>b_{\ell m}</math>, with the order of the expansion (maximum <math>\ell</math> and m considered) representing a trade-off between the accuracy of the representation and the computational cost of its convolution. The LFI horns have larger beams with larger sidelobes (due to their location on the outside of the focal plane), and we treat them as full <math>4\pi</math> beams divided into main (up to 1.9&deg;, 1.3&deg;, and 0.9&deg; for 30, 44, and 70 GHz, respectively), intermediate (up to 5&deg;), and sidelobe (above 5&deg;) components {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a05}}. This division allows us to tune the expansion orders of the three components separately. HFI horns are limited to the main beam component, measured out to 100 arc minutes {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}}. Since detector beams are characterized independently, the simulations naturally include differential beam and pointing systematics.<br />
<br />
''' Bandpasses '''<br />
Both the LFI and HFI detector bandpasses are based on ground measurements (see {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p03d}}, respectively), although flight data processing for LFI now uses in-flight top-hat approximations rather than the ground measurements that were found to contain systematic errors. Differences in the bandpasses of detectors nominally at the same frequency (the so-called bandpass mismatch) generate spurious signals in the maps, since each detector is seeing a slightly different sky while the mapmaking algorithms assume that the signal in a pixel is the same for all detectors. To quantify the effect of these residuals, in FFP8 we generate detector timelines from foreground maps in two ways, one that incorporates the individual detector bandpasses, the other using an average bandpass for all the detectors at a given frequency.<br />
<br />
This effect of the bandpass mismatch can be roughly measured from either flight or simulated data using so-called spurious component mapmaking, which provides noisy all-sky estimates of the observed sky differences (the spurious maps), excluding polarization, between individual detectors and the frequency average. We compare the amount of simulated bandpass mismatch to flight data. The spurious component approach is detailed in the Appendix of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}. Mismatch between FFP8 and flight data is driven by inaccurate bandpass description (LFI) and incomplete line emission simulation (HFI). The noisy pixels that align with the Planck scanning rings in the HFI maps are regions where the spurious map solution is degenerate with polarization due to insufficient observation orientations.<br />
<br />
''' The Planck Sky Model '''<br />
<br />
The Planck Sky Model, PSM, consists of a set of data and of code used to simulate sky emission at millimeter-wave frequencies; it is described in detail in Delabrouille et al., (2013){{BibCite|delabrouille2012}}, henceforth the PSM paper.<br />
<br />
The Planck Sky Model is available here:<br />
http://www.apc.univ-paris7.fr/~delabrou/PSM/psm.html<br />
<br />
The main simulations used to test and validate the Planck data analysis pipelines (and, in particular, component separation) makes use of simulations generated with version 1.9 of the PSM software. The total sky emission is built from the CMB plus ten foreground components, namely thermal dust, spinning dust, synchrotron, CO lines, free-free, thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect (with first order relativistic corrections), kinetic SZ effect, radio and infrared sources, Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB).<br />
<br />
The CMB is modelled using [http://camb.info CAMB]. It is based on adiabatic initial perturbations, with the following cosmological parameters as listed in Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}}<br />
<br />
[[File:A14_Table3_CosmoParams.png|center|800px]]<br />
<br />
''' Galactic and extragalactic components '''<br />
<br />
The '''Galactic ISM emission''' comprises five components: thermal dust, spinning dust, synchrotron, free-free, CO lines (the J=1->0, J=2->1, and J=3->2 lines at 115.27, 230.54, and 345.80 GHz, respectively), and plus the cosmic infrared background (CIB), emission from radio sources, and the thermal and kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effects.<br />
<br />
The '''thermal dust''' emission is modelled using single-frequency template maps of the intensity and polarization, together with a pixel-dependent emission law. For FFP8 the thermal dust emission templates are derived from the Planck 353 GHz observations. This update of the original PSM dust model is necessary to provide a better match to the emission observed by Planck. While one option would be simply to use the dust opacity map obtained in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06b}}, this map still suffers from significant contamination by CIB anisotropies and infrared point sources. Using it as a 353 GHz dust template in simulations would result in an excess of small scale power (from CIB and infrared sources) scaling exactly as thermal dust across frequencies. The resulting component represents correctly neither dust alone (because of an excess of small scale power) nor the sum of dust and infrared sources (because the frequency scaling of the CIB and infrared sources is wrong). For simulation purposes, the main objective is not to have an exact map of the dust, but instead a map that has the right statistical properties. Hence we produce a template dust map at 353 GHz by removing that fraction of the small-scale power that is due to CIB emission, infra-red sources, CMB, and noise.<br />
<br />
The '''spinning-dust''' map used for FFP8 simulations is a simple realization of the spinning dust model, post-processed to remove negative values occurring in a few pixels because of the generation of small-scale fluctuations on top of the spinning dust template extracted from WMAP data.<br />
<br />
The FFP8 '''synchrotron''' emission is modelled on the basis of the template emission map observed at 408 MHz by Haslam et al. (1982). This template synchrotron map is extrapolated in frequency using a spectral index map corresponding to a simple power law.<br />
<br />
The '''free-free''' spectral dependence is modelled in FFP8 by assuming a constant electron temperature <math>T_{e}</math> = 7000 K. Electron-ion interactions in the ionized phase of the ISM produce emission that is in general fainter than both the synchrotron and the thermal dust emission outside of the active star-forming regions in the Galactic plane. The free-free model uses a single template, which is scaled in frequency by a specific emission law. The free-free spectral index is a slowly varying function of frequency and depends only slightly on the local value of the electron temperature.<br />
<br />
The '''radio sources''' are modelled in FFP8 in a different way from the pre-launch versions of the PSM. <br />
<br />
For '''strong radio sources''' (<math>S_{30}</math> > 0.5 Jy), we use radio sources at 0.84, 1.4, or 4.85 GHz. For sources observed at two of these frequencies, we extrapolate or interpolate to the third frequency assuming the spectral index estimated from two observed. For sources observed at only one frequency, we use differential source counts to obtain the ratio of steep- to flat-spectrum sources in each interval of flux density considered. From this ratio, we assign spectral indices (randomly) to each source within each flux density interval. Fiducial Gaussian spectral index distributions as a function of spectral class are obtained from the literature. These are then adjusted slightly until there is reasonable agreement between the PSM differential counts and the predicted model counts predicted.<br />
<br />
For '''faint radio sources''' (<math>S_{30}</math> <= 0.5 Jy), the pre-launch PSM showed a deficit of sources resulting from inhomogeneities in surveys at different depths. We address this issue by constructing a simulated catalogue of sources at 1.4 GHz. We replace the simulated sources by the observed ones, wherever possible. If, however, in any particular pixel, we have a shortfall of observed sources, we make up the deficit with the simulated sources. Every source in this new catalogue is given a model-derived spectral class. We thus assign a spectral index to each source based on the spectral class, and model the spectrum of each source using four power laws. We also assume some steepening of the spectral index with frequency, with fiducial values of the steepening obtained from the literature.<br />
<br />
We combine the faint and strong radio source catalogues we constructed and compute the differential source counts on these sources between 0.005 Jy and 1 Jy. Finally we also model the polarization of these radio sources using the measured polarization fractions from the literature; for each simulated source we draw a polarization fraction at random from the list of real sources of the same spectral type.<br />
<br />
The '''SZ clusters''' are simulated following the model of Delabrouille, Melin, and Bartlett (DMB) as implemented in the PSM. A catalogue of halos is drawn from a Poisson distribution of the mass function with a limiting mass of M<sub>500,true</sub> > 2x10<sup>13</sup> <math>M_\odot</math>. We use the pressure profile from the literature to model the thermal SZ emission of each halo given its redshift and mass. We determine the cluster temperature and assume that the profiles are isothermal. These steps allow us to compute the first-order thermal relativistic correction and the kinetic SZ effect for each cluster, both of which are included in the simulation. Finally, we inject catalogued clusters following the same model, and remove from the simulation corresponding clusters in each redshift and mass range. Hence the SZ simulation features the majority of known X-ray and optical clusters, and is fully consistent with X-ray scaling laws and observed Planck SZ counts.<br />
<br />
The '''CIB''' model used to simulate FFP8 relies on the distribution of individual galaxies in template maps based on the distribution of dark matter at a range of relevant redshifts. We assume the CIB galaxies can be grouped into three different populations (proto-spheroid, spiral, starburst). Within each population, galaxies have the same SED, while the flux density is randomly distributed according to redshift-dependent number counts obtained from JCMT/SCUBA-2 observations and the Planck ERCSC, as well as observations from Herschel-SPIRE and AzTEC/ASTE. We use the Class software to generate dark matter maps at 17 different redshifts between 1 and 5.5. Since the galaxy distribution does not exactly follow the dark matter distribution, we modify the a<sub>lm</sub> coefficients of dark matter anisotropies given by Class. Template maps generated from the a<sub>lm</sub> coefficients are then exponentiated to avoid negative pixels. Galaxies are randomly distributed with a probability of presence proportional to the pixel values of the template maps. One map is generated for each population, at each redshift, and associated with a redshifted SED depending on the population. The emission of these maps (initially at a reference frequency) can be extrapolated to any frequency using the associated redshifted SED. By summing the emission of all maps, we can generate CIB maps at any frequency in the range of validity of our model. <br />
<br />
See {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}} and references therein for a very detailed explanation of the procedures to simulate each of the components.<br />
<br />
The sky model is simulated at a resolution common to all components by smoothing the maps with an ideal Gaussian beam of FWHM of 4 arcminute. The Healpix [http://healpix.sourceforge.net] pixelization in Galactic coordinates is used for all components, with Nside = 2048 and <math>\ell_{max}</math> = 6000. Sky emission maps are generated by numerically band-integrating the sky model maps (emission law of each component, in each pixel) over the frequency bands both of each detector in the focal plane and &mdash; using an average over the detectors at a given frequency &mdash; of each channel. The band-integrated maps are essentially observations of the model sky simulated by an ideal noiseless instrument with ideal Gaussian beams of FWHM equal to the resolution of the model sky.<br />
<br />
''' The CMB Sky '''<br />
<br />
The CMB sky is simulated in three distinct components, namely lensed scalar, tensor, and non-Gaussian complement. The total CMB sky is then the weighted sum with weights 1, <math>\sqrt{r}</math>, and f_<sub>NL</sub>, respectively. For FFP8, all CMB sky components are produced as spherical harmonic representations of the I, Q, and U skies.<br />
<br />
The FFP8 CMB sky is derived from our best estimate of the cosmological parameters available at the time of its generation, namely those from the first Planck data release {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p01}}, augmented with a judicious choice of reionization parameter <math>\tau</math>, as listed in Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}.<br />
<br />
''' The scalar CMB sky '''<br />
<br />
The scalar component of the CMB sky is generated including lensing, Rayleigh scattering, and Doppler boosting effects. <br />
<br />
* Using the Camb code, we first calculate fiducial unlensed CMB power spectra <math>C_{\ell}^{TT}</math>, <math>C_{\ell}^{EE}</math>, <math>C_{\ell}^{TE}</math>, the lensing potential power spectrum <math>C_{\ell}^{\phi\phi}</math>, and the cross-correlations <math>C_{\ell}^{T\phi}</math> and <math>C_{\ell}^{E\phi}</math>. We then generate Gaussian T, E, and <math>\phi</math> multipoles with the appropriate covariances and cross-correlations using a Cholesky decomposition and three streams of random Gaussian phases. These fields are simulated up to <math>\ell_{max}</math>=5120. <br />
<br />
* Add a dipole component to <math>\phi</math> to account for the Doppler aberration due to our motion with respect to the CMB. <span style="color:#ff0000">UPDATE: Note that although it was intended to include this component in this set of simulations, in the end it was not. It will be included in future versions of the simulation pipeline. </span><br />
<br />
* Compute the effect of gravitational lensing on the temperature and polarization fields, using an algorithm similar to LensPix. We use a fast spherical harmonic transform to compute the temperature, polarization, and deflection fields. The unlensed CMB fields T, Q, and U are evaluated on an equicylindrical pixelization (ECP) grid with <math>N_{\theta}=32\,768</math> and <math>N_{\varphi} = 65\,536</math>, while the deflection field is evaluated on a Healpix Nside=2048 grid. We then calculate the "lensed positions for each Nside=2048 Healpix pixel. We then interpolate T, Q, U at the lensed positions using 2-D cubic Lagrange interpolation on the ECP grid.<br />
<br />
* Incorporate the frequency-dependent Doppler modulation effect {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-pipaberration}}.<br />
<br />
* Evaluate lensed, Doppler boosted <math>T_{\ell m}</math>, <math>E_{\ell m}</math>, and <math>B_{\ell m}</math> up to <math>\ell_{max}=4\,096</math> with a harmonic transform of the Nside=2048 Healpix map of these interpolated T, Q, and U values.<br />
<br />
* Add frequency-dependent Rayleigh scattering effects.<br />
<br />
* Add a second-order temperature quadrupole. Since the main Planck data processing removes the frequency-independent part{{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a09}}, we simulate only the residual frequency-dependent temperature quadrupole. After subtracting the frequency-independent part, the simulated quadrupole has frequency dependence <math>\propto (b_{\nu}-1)/2</math>, which we calculate using the bandpass-integrated <math>b_{\nu}</math> boost factors given in Table 4 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}.<br />
<br />
''' The tensor CMB sky '''<br />
In addition to the scalar CMB simulations, we also generate a set of CMB skies containing primordial tensor modes. Using the fiducial cosmological parameters of Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}, we calculate the tensor power spectra <math>C_{\ell}^{TT, {\rm tensor}}</math>, <math>C_{\ell}^{EE, {\rm tensor}}</math>, and <math>C_{\ell}^{BB, {\rm tensor}}</math> using Camb with a primordial tensor-to-scalar power ratio <math>r=0.2</math> at the pivot scale <math>k=0.05\,Mpc^{-1}</math>. We then simulate Gaussian T, E, and B-modes with these power spectra, and convert these to spherical harmonic representations of the corresponding I, Q and U maps. Note that the default r=0.2 means that building the FFP8a-d maps requires rescaling each CMB tensor map by <math>\sqrt{r/0.2}</math> for each of the values of r in Table 2 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}.<br />
<br />
''' The non-Gaussian CMB sky '''<br />
We use a new algorithm to generate simulations of CMB temperature and polarization maps containing primordial non-Gaussianity. Non-Gaussian fields in general have a non-vanishing bispectrum contribution sourced by mode correlations. The bispectrum, the Fourier transform of the 3-point correlation function, can then be characterized as a function of three wavevectors, <math>F(k_1, k_2, k_3)</math>. Depending on the physical mechanism responsible for generating the non-Gaussian signal, it is possible to introduce broad classes of model that are categorized by the dependence of F on the type of triangle formed by the three momenta <math>k_i</math>. Here, we focus on non-Gaussianity of local type, where the bulk of the signal comes from squeezed triangle configurations, <math>k_1 \ll k_2 \approx k_3</math>. This is typically predicted by multi-field inflationary models. See Section 3.3.3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}} for further details on the simulation of this components and references.<br />
<br />
''' The FFP8.1 CMB skies '''<br />
<br />
The FFP8 simulations are an integral part of the analyses used to derive PR2-2015, and so were necessarily generated prior to determining that release's cosmological parameters. As such there is inevitably a mismatch between the FFP8 and the PR2-2015 cosmologies, which we address in two ways. The quick-and-dirty fix is to determine a single rescaling factor that minimizes the difference between the PR1-2013 and PR2-2015 TT power spectra and apply it to all of the FFP8 CMB maps; this number is determined to be 1.0134, and the rescaled maps have been used in several repeat analyses to confirm the robustness of various PR2-2015 results.<br />
<br />
More rigorously though, we also generate a second set of CMB realizations based on the PR2-2015 cosmology, dubbed FFP8.1, and perform our reanalyses using these in place of the FFP8 CMB skies in both the fiducial and MC realizations. Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}} lists the cosmological parameters used for FFP8.1 while Table 1 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}} enumerates the current status of the FFP8.1 CMB MCs.<br />
<br />
''' The Fiducial Sky Simulations'''<br />
<br />
The FFP8 fiducial realization is generated in two steps: <br />
# Simulation of the full mission TOD for every detector<br />
# Calculation of maps from the various detector subsets, intervals, and data cuts. <br />
<br />
Simulation of explicit TODs allows us to incorporate each detector's full beam (including its far sidelobes) and unique input sky (including its bandpass). As noted above, the fiducial realization is generated in six separate components &mdash; the three CMB components (lensed scalar, tensor, and non-Gaussian complement), two foreground realizations (with and without bandpass mismatch), and noise. The first five of these are simulated as explicit TODs and then mapped, while the noise is generated using the on-the-fly approach described in the noise MC subsection below.<br />
<br />
TOD generation for any detector proceeds by:<br />
# Convolving the appropriate sky component with the beam at every point in a uniformly sampled data cube of Euler angle triplets (encoding the pointing and polarization orientation) to produce the "beamskyset".<br />
# Generating the time-ordered data by interpolating over the beamskyset data cube to the exact pointing and polarization orientation of each sample. <br />
<br />
Previous FFP simulations, including FFP6, accompanying the 2013 Planck data release, used the LevelS software package to do this. However, this required format conversions for the input pointing data and the output time-ordered data, at significant IO and disk space costs. For FFP8 we have therefore embedded the critical parts of these routines into a new code which uses Toast to interface directly with exchange format data. <br />
<br />
All of the FFP8 fiducial maps are produced using Madam/Toast, a Toast port of the Madam generalized destriping code, which allows for destriping with an arbitrary baseline length, with or without a prior on the baseline distribution (or noise filter). Madam is used to produce the official LFI maps, and its destriping parameters can be chosen so that it reproduces the behaviour of Polkapix, the official HFI mapmaking code. Comparison of the official maps and Madam/Toast maps run using exchange data show that mapmaker differences are negligible compared to small differences in pointing and (for HFI) dipole subtraction that do not impact the simulation. The sky components are mapped from the TODs, while the fiducial noise is taken to be realization 10000 of the noise MC (with realizations 0000-9999 reserved for the noise MC itself). <br />
<br />
Summarizing the key differences in the map making parameters for each Planck frequency:<br />
<br />
* 30 GHz is destriped with 0.25 s baselines; 44 and 70 GHz are destriped using 1 s baselines; and 100&mdash;857 GHz are destriped using pointing-period baselines (30-75 min).<br />
<br />
* 30&mdash;70 GHz are destriped with a 1/f-shape noise prior, while 100&mdash;857 GHz are destriped without a noise prior.<br />
<br />
* 30, 44, and 70 GHz have separate destriping masks, while 100&mdash;857 GHz use the same 15% galaxy + point source mask.<br />
<br />
* 30&mdash;70 GHz maps are destriped using baselines derived exclusively from the data going into the particular map, while 100-857 GHz maps are destriped using baselines derived from the full data set.<br />
<br />
''' Noise MC '''<br />
<br />
The FFP8 noise MCs are generated using Madam/Toast, exploiting Toast's on-the-fly noise simulation capability to avoid the IO overhead of writing a simulated TOD to disk only to read it back in to map it. In this implementation, Madam runs exactly as it would with real data, but whenever it submits a request to Toast to provide it with the an interval of the noise TOD, that interval is simply simulated by Toast in accordance with the noise power spectral densities provided in the runconfig, and returned to Madam.<br />
<br />
For a simulation set of this size and complexity, requiring of the order of <math>10^{17}</math> random numbers over <math>10^{12}</math> disjoint and uncorrelated intervals, care must be take with the pseudo-random number generation to ensure that it is fast, reliable (and specifically uncorrelated), and reproducible, in particular enabling any process to generate any element of any subsequence on demand. To achieve this Toast uses a Combined Multiple Recursive Generator (CMRG) that provides more than sufficient period, excellent statistical robustness, and the ability to skip ahead to an arbitrary point in the pseudo-random sequence very quickly. See {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}} for further details on the Noise MCs.<br />
<br />
''' CMB MC '''<br />
<br />
The FFP8 CMB MCs are generated using the Febecop software package, which produces beam-convolved maps directly in the pixel domain rather than sample-by-sample, as is done for the fiducial maps. The goal of this approach is to reduce the computational cost by the ratio of time-samples to map-pixels (i.e., the number of hits per pixel).<br />
<br />
The Febecop software package proceeds as follows:<br />
<br />
# Given the satellite pointing and flags and the focal plane (accessed through the Toast interface), for every channel Febecop first re-orders all of the samples in the mission by pixel instead of time, localizing all of the observations of each pixel, and writes the resulting pixel-ordered detector dngles (PODA) to disk. Note that since the PODA also contains the detector, time-stamp, and weight of each observation this is a one-time operation for each frequency, and does not need to be re-run for different time intervals or detector subsets, or for changes in the beam model or its chosen cut-off radius.<br />
<br />
# For every time interval and detector subset to be mapped, and for every pixel in the map, Febecop uses the PODA and the scanning beams to generate an effective-beam for that pixel which is essentially the weighted average of the discretized beam functions for every sample in the pixel included in the time interval and detector subset. The total effective-beam array is also written to disk. Given the PODA, this is a one-time operation for any beam definition.<br />
<br />
# Finally, Febecop applies the effective-beam pixel-by-pixel to every CMB sky realization in the MC set to generate the corresponding beam-convolved CMB map realization.<br />
<br />
The effective-beams provide a direct connection between the true and observed sky, explicitly incorporating the detailed pointing for every detector through a linear convolution. By providing the effective-beams at every pixel, Febecop enables precise control of systematic effects, e.g., the point-spread functions can be fitted at each pixel on the sky and used to determine point source fluxes {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a35}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a36}}<br />
<br />
''' Validation '''<br />
Our goal for the FFP8 simulation set is that it be not only internally self-consistent, but also a good representation of the real data. In addition to the validation steps carried out on all of the inputs individually and noted in their respective sections above, we must also validate the final outputs. A first crude level of validation is provided simply by visual inspection of the FFP8 and real Planck maps where the only immediately apparent difference is the CMB realization.<br />
<br />
While this is a necessary test, it is hardly sufficient, and the next step is to compare the angular power spectra of the simulated and real channel/mission/full maps. As illustrated in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a35}}, LFI channels show excellent agreement across all angular scales, while HFI channels show a significant power deficit at almost all angular scales. Since this missing HFI power is not picked up in the noise estimation, it must be sky-synchronous (frequency bins corresponding to sky-synchronous signals being discarded when fitting the noise PSDs due to their contamination by signal residuals). This is now understood to be a systematic effect introduced in the HFI pre-processing pipeline, and we are working both to incorporate it as a systematic component in existing simulations and to ameliorate if for future data releases.<br />
<br />
Finally, the various analyses of the FFP8 maps in conjunction with the flight data provide powerful incidental validation. To date the only issues observed here are the known mismatch between the FFP8 and PR2-2015 cosmologies, and the missing systematic component in the HFI maps. As noted above, the former is readily addressed by rescaling or using FFP8.1; however, the characterization and reproduction of the latter is an ongoing effort. Specific details of the consequences of this as-yet unresolved issue, such as its impact on null-test failures and ''p''-value stability in studies of non-Gaussianity. In addition, as stated above, the CMB simulations containing only the modulation but not aberration part of the Doppler boost signal.<br />
<br />
''' Delivered products '''<br />
<br />
''' Fiducial Sky '''<br />
<br />
There are 9 PSM simulations of the fiducial sky that correspond to the simulated sky integrated over the average spectral response of each band, but not convolved with the beam. They can be downloaded from the PLA or directly here:<br />
<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-030_1024_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-044_1024_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-070_1024_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-100_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-143_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-217_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-353_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-545_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-857_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
<br />
In addition, a set of 9 simulations of the fiducial sky corrected for bandpass mismatch (nobpm) can be obtained here:<br />
<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-030_1024_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-044_1024_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-070_1024_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-100_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-143_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-217_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-353_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-545_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-857_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Sky simulated maps file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'SimMap_Sky' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|TEMPERATURE || Real*4 || K_cmb (30-353 GHz) or MJy/sr (545 and 857 GHz) || The Stokes I map<br />
|-<br />
|Q-POLARISATION || Real*4 || K_cmb (30-353 GHz) || The Stokes Q map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|U-POLARISATION || Real*4 || K_cmb (30-353 GHz) || The Stokes U map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix <math>N_{side}</math> <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12 <math>N_{side}</math><sup>2</sup> – 1 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Note: Original PSM foreground components has been generated at NSIDE 2048 and using a gaussian beam of 4 arcmin. LFI CMB maps has been downgraded at NSIDE 1024.<br />
<br />
''' CMB MC '''<br />
<br />
There are 1000 realizations of the lensed CMB per frequency for FFP8 and FFP9, making a total of 18000 CMB simulations available in the PLA. They are named:<br />
<br />
* ''HFI_SimMap_cmb-ffp8-scl-{nnnn}_2048_R2.00_nominal.fits''<br />
* ''LFI_SimMap_cmb-ffp8-scl-{nnnn}_1024_R2.00_nominal.fits''<br />
<br />
* ''HFI_SimMap_cmb-ffp9-scl-{nnnn}_2048_R2.00_nominal.fits''<br />
* ''LFI_SimMap_cmb-ffp9-scl-{nnnn}_1024_R2.00_nominal.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''nnnn'' ranges from 0000 to 1000.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB FFP8 and FFP9 simulated maps file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'SimMap_cmb-ffp?-scl' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|TEMPERATURE || Real*4 || K_cmb (30-353 GHz) or MJy/sr (545 and 857 GHz) || The Stokes I map<br />
|-<br />
|Q-POLARISATION || Real*4 || K_cmb (30-353 GHz) || The Stokes Q map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|U-POLARISATION || Real*4 || K_cmb (30-353 GHz) || The Stokes U map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || RING || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix <math>N_{side}</math> <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12 <math>N_{side}</math><sup>2</sup> – 1 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
''' Noise MC '''<br />
<br />
There are 1000 of the noise per frequency for FFP8, making 9000 noise realizations available in the PLA. They are named<br />
<br />
* ''HFI_SimMap_noise-ffp8-{nnnn}_2048_R2.00_nominal.fits''<br />
* ''LFI_SimMap_noise-ffp8-{nnnn}_1024_R2.00_nominal.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''nnnn'' ranges from 0000 to 1000.<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Noise simulated maps file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'SimMap_Sky' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|TEMPERATURE || Real*4 || K_cmb || <br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix <math>N_{side}</math> <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12 <math>N_{side}</math><sup>2</sup> – 1 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
''' Lensing Simulations '''<br />
<br />
The lensing simulations package contains 100 realisations of the Planck "MV (TT+TE+ET+TB+BT+EE+EB+BE)" lensing potential estimate (November 2014 pipeline v12), as well as the input lensing realizations. They can be used to determine error bars as well eas effective normalizations for cross-correlation with other tracers of lensing. These simulations are of the lensing convergence map contained in the [[Specially processed maps#Lensing map | Lensing map]] release file. The production and characterisation of this lensing potential map are described in detail in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a17}}, which also describes the procedure used to generate the realizations given here.<br />
<br />
<br />
The simulations are delivered as a gzipped tarball of approximately 8 GB in size. For delivery purposes, the package has been split into 4 2GB files using the unix command<br />
: <tt> split -d -b 2048m </tt><br />
<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?COSMOLOGY.FILE_ID=COM_Lensing-SimMap_2048_R2.00.tar.00<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?COSMOLOGY.FILE_ID=COM_Lensing-SimMap_2048_R2.00.tar.01<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?COSMOLOGY.FILE_ID=COM_Lensing-SimMap_2048_R2.00.tar.02<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?COSMOLOGY.FILE_ID=COM_Lensing-SimMap_2048_R2.00.tar.03<br />
<br />
After downloading the individual chunks, the full tarball can be reconstructed with the command<br />
: <tt>cat COM_Lensing-SimMap_2048_R2.00.tar.* | tar xvf - </tt><br />
<br />
The contents of the tarball are described below:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left"<br />
|+ ''' Contents of COM_Lensing-SimMap_2048_R2.00.tar '''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Filename || Format || Description<br />
|-<br />
| obs_klms/sim_????_klm.fits || HEALPIX FITS format alm, with <math> L_{\rm max} = 2048 </math> || Contains the simulated convergence estimate <math> \hat{\kappa}_{LM} = \frac{1}{2} L(L+1)\hat{\phi}_{LM} </math> for each simulation.<br />
|-<br />
| sky_klms/sim_????_klm.fits || HEALPIX FITS format alm, with <math> L_{\rm max} = 2048 </math> || Contains the input lensing convergence for each simulation.<br />
|-<br />
| inputs/mask.fits.gz || HEALPIX FITS format map, with <math> N_{\rm side} = 2048 </math> || Contains the lens reconstruction analysis mask.<br />
|-<br />
| inputs/cls/cl??.dat || ASCII text file, with columns = (<math>L</math>, <math>C_L </math>) || Contains the fiducial theory CMB power spectra for TT, EE, BB, <math> \kappa \kappa </math> and <math> T \kappa </math>, with temperature and polarization in units of <math> \mu K </math>.<br />
|- <br />
|}<br />
<br />
</div><br />
</div><br />
<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="background-color: #EEE8AA;width:80%"><br />
'''2013 Release of simulated maps'''<br />
<div class="mw-collapsible-content"><br />
<br />
''' Introduction '''<br />
<br />
The 2013 Planck data release is supported by a set of simulated maps of the model sky, by astrophysical component, and of that sky as seen by Planck. The simulation process consists of <br />
# modeling each astrophysical component of the sky emission for each Planck detector, using pre-Planck data and the relevant characteristics of the Planck instruments (namely the detector plus filter transmissions curves). <br />
# simulating each detector's observation of each sky component following the Planck scanning strategy and using the best estimates of the detector's beam and noise properties (now obtained in flight), then combining these timelines into a single one per detector, and projecting these simulated timelines onto ''observed'' maps (the ''fiducial'' sky), as is done with the on-orbit data;<br />
# generating Monte Carlo realizations of the CMB and of the noise, again following the Planck scanning strategy and using our best estimates of the detector beams and noise properties respectively. <br />
The first step is performed by the ''Planck Sky Model'' (PSM), and the last two by the ''Planck Simulation Tools'' (PST), both of which are described in the sections below. <br />
<br />
The production of a full focal plane (FFP) simulation, and including the many MC realizations of the CMB and the noise, requires both HFI and LFI data and includes large, computationally challenging, MC realizations. They are too large to be generated on either of the DPC's own cluster. Instead the PST consists of three distinct tools, each designed to run on the largest available supercomputers, that are used to generate the fiducial sky realization, the CMB MC, and the noise MC respectively. The simulations delivered here are part of the 6th generation FFP simulations, known as FFP6. They were primarily generated on the Hopper and Edison systems at [http://www.nersc.gov NERSC], with some of the LFI noise MCs generated on the Louhi system at [http://www.csc.fi/english CSC].<br />
<br />
While FFP6 includes our best measurements of the detector band-passes, main beams and noise power spectral densities, and is guaranteed to be internally self-consistent, there are a number of differences with the real data that should be borne in mind, although all tests performed to date indicate that these are statistically insignificant:<br />
* the beams do not include far side-lobes;<br />
* the detector noise characteristics are assumed stable: a single noise spectrum per detector is used for the entire mission;<br />
* it assumes perfect calibration, transfer function deconvolution and deglitching;<br />
* it uses the HFI pointing solution for the LFI frequencies, rather than the DPC's two focal plane model.<br />
* it uses a different map-maker to HFI, and as a consequence implements very slightly different data cuts - primarily at ring boundaries - resulting in marginally different hit-maps.<br />
<br />
''' The Planck Sky Model '''<br />
<br />
<br />
''' Overall description '''<br />
<br />
The Planck Sky Model, PSM, consists of a set of data and of code used to simulate sky emission at millimeter-wave frequencies; it is described in detail in Delabrouille et al., (2013){{BibCite|delabrouille2012}}, henceforth the PSM paper..<br />
<br />
The Planck Sky Model is available here:<br />
http://www.apc.univ-paris7.fr/~delabrou/PSM/psm.html<br />
<br />
The main simulations used to test and validate the Planck data analysis pipelines (and, in particular, component separation) makes use of simulations generated with version 1.7.7 of the PSM software. The total sky emission is built from the CMB plus ten foreground components, namely thermal dust, spinning dust, synchrotron, CO lines, free-free, thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect (with first order relativistic corrections), kinetic SZ effect, radio and infrared sources, Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB).<br />
<br />
The CMB is modeled using [http://camb.info CAMB]. It is based on adiabatic initial perturbations, with the following cosmological parameters:<br />
* T_CMB = 2.725<br />
* H = 0.684<br />
* OMEGA_M = 0.292<br />
* OMEGA_B = 0.04724<br />
* OMEGA_NU = 0<br />
* OMEGA_K = 0<br />
* SIGMA_8 = 0.789<br />
* N_S = 0.9732<br />
* N_S_RUNNING = 0<br />
* N_T = 0<br />
* R = 0.0844<br />
* TAU_REION = 0.085<br />
* HE_FRACTION = 0.245<br />
* N_MASSLESS_NU = 3.04<br />
* N_MASSIVE_NU = 0<br />
* W_DARK_ENERGY = -1<br />
* K_PIVOT = 0.002<br />
* SCALAR_AMPLITUDE = 2.441e-9<br />
and all other parameters are set to the default standard of the Jan 2012 version of CAMB. In addition, this simulated CMB contains non-Gaussian corrections of the local type, with an f<sub>NL</sub> parameter of 20.4075.<br />
<br />
The Galactic ISM emission comprises five components: thermal dust, spinning dust, synchrotron, CO lines, and free-free emission. We refer the reader to the PSM publication for details. For the simulations generated here, however, the thermal dust model has been modified in the following way: instead of being based on the 100 micron map of Schlegel, Finkbeiner and Davis (2008){{BibCite|schlegel1998}}, henceforth SFB, the dust template uses an internal release of the 857 GHz Planck observed map itself, in which point sources have been subtracted, and which has been locally filtered to remove CIB fluctuations in the regions of lowest column density. A caveat is that while this reduces the level of CIB fluctuations in the dust map in some of the regions, in regions of moderate dust column density the CIB contamination is actually somewhat larger than in the SFD map (by reason of different emission laws for dust and CIB, and of the higher resolution of the Planck map).<br />
<br />
The other emissions of the galactic ISM are simulated using the prescription described in the PSM paper. Synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust emission are based on WMAP observations, as analyzed by Miville-Deschenes et al. (2008){{BibCite|Miville2008}}. Small scale fluctuations have been added to increase the variance on small scales and compensate the lower resolution of WMAP as compared to Planck (in particular for the HFI channels). The main limitation of these maps is the presence at high galactic latitude of fluctuations that may be attributed to WMAP noise. The presence of noise and of added Gaussian fluctuations on small scales may result in a few occasional pixels being negative (e.g. in the spinning dust maps). Low frequency foreground maps are also contaminated by some residuals of bright radio sources that have not been properly subtracted from the templates of diffuse emission.<br />
<br />
The CO maps are simulated using the CO J=1-0 observations of Dame et al. (2001){{BibCite|dame2001}}. The main limitations are limited sky coverage, lower resolution than that of Planck high frequency channels, line ratios (J=2-1)/(J=1-0) and (J=3-2)/(J=2-1) constant over the sky. The CO in the simulation is limited to the three lowest <sup>12</sup>CO lines. No CO maps has been simulated at the LFI frequnecy (30, 44 and 70 GHz).<br />
<br />
Galaxy clusters are generated on the basis of cluster number counts, following the Tinker et al. (2008){{BibCite|Tinker2008}} mass function, for the cosmological parameters listed above. Clusters are assumed perfectly spherical, isothermal, and are modeled using the universal pressure profile of Arnaud et al. (2010){{BibCite|arnaud2010}}. Relativistic corrections following Itoh et al. (1998){{BibCite|Nozawa1998}} are included to first order. The simulated kinetic SZ effect assumes no bulk flow, and a redshift-dependent average cluster velocity compatible with the linear growth of structures.<br />
<br />
Point sources comprise radio sources (based on extrapolations across frequencies of radio observations between 800 MHz and 5 GHz) and infrared sources (based on extrapolations in frequencies of IRAS sources). One caveat is that due to the unevenness of the radio source surveys, the equatorial southern part of the sky has less faint radio sources than the northern part. Although all the missing sources are well below the Planck detection level, this induces a small variation of the total emission background over the sky. Check the individual faint point source emission maps if this is a potential problem for your applications. See also the PSM paper for details about the PSM point source simulations. The PSM separates bright and faint point source; the former are initially in a catalog, and the latter in a map, though a map of the former can also be produced. In the processing below, the bright sources are simulated via the catalog, but for convenience they are delivered as a map.<br />
<br />
Finally, the far infrared background due to high redshift galaxies has been simulated using a procedure is based on the distribution of galaxies in shells of density contrast at various redshifts (Castex et al., PhD thesis; paper in preparation). This simulation has been modified by gradually substituting an uncorrelated extra term of CIB emission at low frequencies, artificially added in particular to decorrelate the CIB at frequencies below 217 GHz from the CIB above that frequency, to mimic the apparent decorrelation observed in the Planck Early Paper on CIB power spectrum {{PlanckPapers|planck2011-6-6}}. <br />
<br />
While the PSM simulations described here provide a reasonably representative multi-component model of sky emission, users are warned that it has been put together mostly on the basis of data sets and knowledge pre-existing the Planck observations themselves. While it is sophisticated enough to include variations of emission laws of major components of the ISM emission, different emission laws for most sources, and a reasonably coherent global picture, it is not (and is not supposed to be) identical to the real sky emission. The users are warned to use these simulations with caution.<br />
<br />
''' PSM Products '''<br />
<br />
To build maps corresponding to the Planck channels, the models described above are convolved with the [[Spectral_response | spectral response]] of the channel in question. The products given here are for the full frequency channels, and as such they are not used in the Planck specific simulations, which use only individual detector channels. The frequency channel spectral responses used (given in [[the RIMO|the RIMO]]), are averages of the responses of the detectors of each frequency channel weighted as they are in the mapmaking step. They are provided for the purpose of testing user's own software of simulations and component separation.<br />
<br />
PSM maps of the CMB and of the ten foregrounds are given in the following map products:<br />
<br />
HFI<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_cmb_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_cmb_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_co_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_co_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_firb_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_firb_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_strongps_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_strongps_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_faintps_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_faintps_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_freefree_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_freefree_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_synchrotron_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_synchrotron_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_thermaldust_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_thermaldust_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_spindust_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_spindust_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_kineticsz_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_kineticsz_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_thermalsz_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_thermalsz_2048_R1.10.fits}}'' <br />
<br />
LFI<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_cmb_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_cmb_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_firb_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_firb_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_strongps_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_strongps_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_faintps_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_faintps_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_freefree_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_freefree_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_synchrotron_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_synchrotron_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_thermaldust_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_thermaldust_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_spindust_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_spindust_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_kineticsz_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_kineticsz_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_thermalsz_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_thermalsz_1024_R1.10.fits}}'' <br />
<br />
<br />
Each file contains a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with either a single map (for the CMB file) or one map for each HFI/LFI frequency (for the foreground components). In the latter case the columns are named ''F030'', ''F044'' ,''F070'',''F100'', ''F143'', … , ''F857''. Units are microK<sub>CMB</sub> for the CMB, K<sub>CMB</sub> at 30, 44 and 70 GHz and MJy/sr for the others. The structure is given below for multi-column files. <br />
<br />
Note: Original PSM foreground components has been generated at NSIDE 2048 and using a gaussian beam of 4 arcmin, LFI maps where then smoothed to LFI resolution (32.0, 27.0 and 13.0 arcmin for the 30, 44 and 70 GHz) and donwgraded at NSIDE 1024. LFI CMB maps has been smoothed at 13.0 arcmin (70 GHz resolution) and downgraded at NSIDE 1024. <br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''HFI FITS file structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'SIM-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|F100 || Real*4 || K_CMB || 100GHz signal map<br />
|-<br />
|F143 || Real*4 || K_CMB || 143GHz signal map<br />
|-<br />
|F217 || Real*4 || K_CMB || 217GHz signal map<br />
|-<br />
|F353 || Real*4 || K_CMB || 353GHz signal map<br />
|-<br />
|F545 || Real*4 || MJy/sr || 545GHz signal map<br />
|-<br />
|F857 || Real*4 || MJy/sr || 857GHz signal map<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COMP || string || component || Astrophysical omponent<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC || Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 50331647 || Last pixel number, for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|BAD_DATA || Real*4 || -1.63750E+30 || Healpix bad pixel value <br />
|-<br />
|BEAMTYPE || string || GAUSSIAN || Type of beam <br />
|-<br />
|BEAMSIZE || Real*4 || size || Beam size in arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|PSM-VERS || string || || PSM Versions used <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''LFI FITS file structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'SIM-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|F030 || Real*4 || KCMB || 30GHz signal map<br />
|-<br />
|F044 || Real*4 || KCMB || 44GHz signal map<br />
|-<br />
|F070 || Real*4 || KCMB || 70GHz signal map<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COMP || string || component || Astrophysical omponent<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC || Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12582911 || Last pixel number, for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|BAD_DATA || Real*4 || -1.63750E+30 || Healpix bad pixel value <br />
|-<br />
|BEAMTYPE || string || GAUSSIAN || Type of beam <br />
|-<br />
|BEAMS_30 || Real*4 || 32.0 || Beam size at 30 GHz in arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|BEAMS_44 || Real*4 || 27.0 || Beam size at 44 GHz in arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|BEAMS_70 || Real*4 || 13.0 || Beam size at 70 GHz in arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|PSM-VERS || string || || PSM Versions used <br />
|}<br />
<br />
''' The Fiducial Sky Simulations'''<br />
<br />
<br />
For each detector, fiducial time-ordered data are generated separately for each of the ten PSM components using the LevelS software{{BibCite|reinecke2006}} as follows:<br />
* the detector's beam and PSM map are converted to spherical harmonics using ''beam2alm'' and ''anafast'' respectively;<br />
* the beam-convolved map value is calculated over a 3-dimensional grid of sky locations and beam orientations using ''conviqt'';<br />
* the map-based timelines are calculated sample-by-sample by interpolating over this grid using ''multimod'';<br />
* the catalogue-based timelines are produced sample-by-sample by beam-convolving any point source laying within a given angular distance of the pointing at each sample time using ''multimod''.<br />
<br />
For each frequency, fiducial sky maps are generated for <br />
* the total signal (i.e. sky + instrument noise), for both the nominal mission and the halfrings thereof (see [[Frequency_Maps#Types_of_maps| details]])<br />
* the foreground sky alone (excluding CMB but including noise), <br />
* the point source sky, and <br />
* the noise alone<br />
All maps are built using the ''MADAM'' destriping map-maker{{BibCite|keihanen2010}} interfaced with the ''TOAST'' data abstraction layer . In order to construct the total timelines required by each map, for each detector ''TOAST'' reads the various component timelines separately and sums then, and, where necessary, simulates and adds a noise realization time-stream on the fly. HFI frequencies are mapped at ''HEALPix'' resolution Nside=2048 using ring-length destriping baselines, while LFI frequencies are mapped at Nside=1024 using 1s baselines.<br />
<br />
''' Products delivered '''<br />
<br />
A single simulation is delivered, which is divided into two types of products: <br />
<br />
1. six files of the full sky signal at each HFI and LFI frequency, and their corresponding halfring maps: <br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
: These files have the same structure as the equivalent ''SkyMap'' products described in the [[Frequency_Maps | Frequency Maps ]] chapter, namely one ''BINTABLE'' extension with three columns containing 1) Signal, 2) hit-count, and 3) variance. Units are K<sub>CMB</sub> for all channels.<br />
<br />
2. Three files containing 1) the sum of all astrophysical foregrounds, 2) the point sources alone, and 3) the noise alone: which are subproducts of the above, and are in the form of the PSM maps described in the previous section. <br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_foreground_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_foreground_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_noise_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_noise_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_ps_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_ps_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' <br />
<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_foreground_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_foreground_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits }}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_noise_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_noise_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits }}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_ps_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_ps_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' <br />
<br />
These files have the same structure as the PSM output maps described above, namely a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with 6 columns named ''F100'' -- ''F857'' each containing the given map for that HFI band and with 3 columns named ''F030'', ''F044'', ''F070'' each containing the given map for that LFI band. Units are alway K<sub>CMB</sub>.<br />
<br />
Note that the CMB alone is not delivered as a separate product, but it can be recovered by simple subtraction of the component maps for the total signal map.<br />
<br />
''' Monte Carlo realizations of CMB and of noise'''<br />
<br />
<br />
The CMB MC set is generated using ''FEBeCoP''{{BibCite|mitra2010}}, which generates an effective beam for each pixel in a map at each frequency by accumulating the weights of all pixels within a fixed distance of that pixel, summed over all observations by all detectors at that frequency. It then applies this effective beam pixel-by-pixel to each of 1000 input CMB sky realizations.<br />
<br />
The noise MC set is generated just as the fiducial noise maps, using ''MADAM/TOAST''. In order to avoid spurious correlations within and between the 1000 realizations, each stationary interval for each detector for each realization is generated from a distinct sub-sequence of a single statistically robust, extremely long period, pseudo-random number sequence.<br />
<br />
''' Products delivered '''<br />
<br />
100 realizations of the CMB (lensed) and of the noise are made available. They are named<br />
* ''HFI_SimMap_cmb-{nnnn}_2048_R1.nn_nominal.fits''<br />
* ''HFI_SimMap_noise-{nnnn}_2048_R1.nn_nominal.fits''<br />
* ''LFI_SimMap_cmb-{nnnn}_2048_R1.nn_nominal.fits''<br />
* ''LFI_SimMap_noise-{nnnn}_2048_R1.nn_nominal.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''nnnn'' ranges from 0000 to 0099.<br />
<br />
The FITS file structure is the same as for the other similar products above, with a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with six columns, one for each HFI frequency, named ''F100'', ''F143'', … , ''F857'' and with three columns, one for each LFI frequency, named ''F030'', ''F044'', ''F070''. Units are always microK<sub>CMB</sub> ''(NB: due to an error in the HFI file construction, the unit keywords in the headers indicate K<sub>CMB</sub>, the "micro" is missing there)''.<br />
<br />
''' Lensing Simulations '''<br />
<br />
<br />
''N.B. The information in this section is adapted from the package Readme.txt file.''<br />
<br />
The lensing simulations package contains 100 realisations of the Planck 2013 "MV" lensing potential estimate, as well as the input CMB and lensing potential <math>\phi</math> realizations. They can be used to determine error bars for cross-correlations with other tracers of lensing. These simulations are of the PHIBAR map contained in the [[Specially processed maps#Lensing map | Lensing map]] release file. The production and characterisation of this lensing potential map are described in detail in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p12}}, which describes also the procedure used to generate the realizations given here.<br />
<br />
<br />
''' Products delivered '''<br />
<br />
The simulations are delivered as a single tarball of ~17 GB containing the following directories:<br />
<br />
: obs_plms/dat_plmbar.fits - contains the multipoles of the PHIBAR map in COM_CompMap_Lensing_2048_R1.10.fits<br />
: obs_plms/sim_????_plmbar.fits - simulated relizations of PHIBAR, in Alm format.<br />
: sky_plms/sim_????_plm.fits - the input multipoles of phi for each simulation<br />
: sky_cmbs/sim_????_tlm_unlensed.fits - the input unlensed CMB multipoles for each simulation<br />
: sky_cmbs/sim_????_tlm_lensed.fits - the input lensed CMB multipoles for each simulation.<br />
<br />
: inputs/cls/cltt.dat - Fiducial lensed CMB temperature power spectrum C<sub>l</sub><sup>TT</sup>.<br />
: inputs/cls/clpp.dat - Fiducial CMB lensing potential power spectrum C<sub>l</sub><sup>PP</sup>.<br />
: inputs/cls/cltp.dat - Fiducial correlation between lensed T and P.<br />
: inputs/cls/cltt_unlensed.dat - Fiducial unlensed CMB temperature power spectrum.<br />
: inputs/filt_mask.fits.gz - HEALpix Nside=2048 map containing the analysis mask for the lens reconstructions (equivalent to the MASK column in COM_CompMap_Lensing_2048_R1.10.fits)<br />
<br />
All of the .fits files in this package are HEALPix Alm, to lmax=2048 unless otherwise specified.<br />
<br />
For delivery purposes this package has been split into 2 GB chunks using the unix command<br />
: <tt> split -d -b 2048m </tt><br />
which produced files with names like ''COM_SimMap_Lensing_R1.10.tar.nn'', with nn=00-07. They can be recombined and the maps extracted via <br />
: <tt>cat COM_SimMap_Lensing_R1.10.tar.* | tar xvf - </tt><br />
<br />
<br />
</div><br />
</div><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
= References =<br />
<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|012]]</div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=Frequency_maps&diff=14594Frequency maps2022-02-14T11:39:26Z<p>Mlopezca: /* Other releases: 2020-NPIPE, 2015 and 2013 */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{DISPLAYTITLE:Frequency maps in Temperature and Polarization}}<br />
==General description==<br />
<br />
Sky maps give the best estimate of the intensity and polarization (Stokes <i>Q</i> and <i>U</i> components), if available, of the signal from the sky after removal, as far as possible, of known systematic effects (mostly instrumental, but including also the solar and Earth-motion dipoles, Galactic stray light, and the zodiacal light). The Planck Collaboration has made three releases of maps, in 2013, 2015 and 2018. This section describes the 2018 release. For descriptions of the other two releases, please go to the sections at the end of this chapter related to 2013 and 2015.<br />
<br />
In the 2013, 2015 and 2018 releases, sky maps are provided for the full Planck mission using all valid detectors in each frequency channel, and also for various subsets obtained by splitting the mission into various time ranges or into subsets of the detectors in a given channel, or by considering only odd or even pointing periods. These products are especially interesting for characterization purposes (see also the [[HFI-Validation | data validation]] section), though some are also useful for the study of source variability. The details of the start and end of the time ranges are given in the table below. <br />
<br />
For this (2018) release, HFI is providing a more limited subset of maps that include the full channel maps, the half-mission and the odd-even ring splits. Also, note that for the 353 GHz band, both full channel and PSBs only maps are provided, and that by default it is the PBS-only maps that are served.<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Ranges for mission and surveys'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Range || ODs || HFI rings || pointing-IDs || Comment<br />
|-<br />
|Nominal mission || 91 - 563 || 240 - 14723 || 00004200 - 03180200 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Full mission || 91 - 974 || 240 - 27005 || 00004200 - 05322620 || For HFI<br />
|-<br />
|Full mission || 91 - 1543 || n/a || 00004200 - 06511160 || For LFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 1 || 91 - 270 || 240 - 5720 || 00004200 - 01059820 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 2 || 270 - 456 || 5721 - 11194 || 01059830 - 02114520 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 3 || 456 - 636 || 11195 - 16691 || 02114530 - 03193660 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 4 || 636 - 807 || 16692 - 21720 || 03193670 - 04243900 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 5 || 807 - 974 || 21721 - 26050 || 05267180 - 05322590 || End of mission for HFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 5 || 807 - 993 || n/a || 05267180 - 06344800 || End of survey for LFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 6 || 993 - 1177 || n/a || 06344810 - 06398120 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|Survey 7 || 1177 - 1358 || n/a || 06398130 - 06456410 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|Survey 8 || 1358 - 1543 || n/a || 06456420 - 06511160 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|HFI mission-half-1 || 91 - 531 || 240 - 13471 || 00004200 - 03155580 ||<br />
|-<br />
|HFI mission-half-2 || 531 - 974 || 13472 - 27005 || 03155590 - 05322590 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 1 || 91 - 456 || n/a || 00004200 - 02114520 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 2 || 456 - 807 || n/a || 02114530 - 04243900 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 3 || 807 - 1177 || n/a || 05267180 - 06398120 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 4 || 1177 - 1543 || n/a || 06398130 - 06511160 ||<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
To help in further processing, there are also masks of the Galactic plane and of point sources, each provided for several different depths. <br />
<br />
All sky maps are in HEALPix format, with <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=1024 (for LFI 30, 44, and 70GHz) and 2048 (for LFI 70GHz and HFI), in Galactic coordinates, and with nested ordering. <br />
<br />
'''WARNING''': The HEALPix convention for polarization is <b>not</b> the same as the IAU convention ([[#Polarization convention used in the Planck project|Section 8 on this page]]).<br />
<br />
The signal is given in units of K<sub>CMB</sub> for 30 to 353 GHz, and of MJy.sr<sup>-1</sup> (for a constant &nu;<i>I</i><sub>&nu;</sub> energy distribution) for 545 and 857 GHz. For each frequency channel, the intensity and polarization maps are packaged into a "BINTABLE" extension of a FITS file together with a hit-counts map (or "hits map", for short, giving the number of observation samples that are accumulated in a pixel, all detectors combined) and with the variance and covariance maps. Additional information is given in the FITS file header. The structure of the FITS file is given in the [[#FITS_file_structure | FITS file structure]] section below.<br />
<br />
==Production process==<br />
<br />
Sky maps are produced by appropriately combining the data from all working detectors in a frequency channel over some period of the mission. They give the best estimate of the signal from the sky (unpolarized) after removal, as far as possible, of known systematic effects and of the dipole signals induced by the motion of the solar system in the CMB and of the Planck satellite in the solar system. In particular, they include the zodiacal light emission ("zodi" for short) and also the scattering from the far sidelobes of the beams (FSL). More on this below.<br />
<br />
=== HFI processing ===<br />
<br />
The mapmaking and calibration process is described in detail in the [[Map-making_LFI | mapmaking]] section and in the {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-XLVI}} paper, where detailed references can be found. In brief, the timelines are cleaned and calibrated and converted into HealPix rings (HPRs), then ''SRoll'' is applied to destripe them in polarised space (removal of very low frequency noise by minimising differences at ring crossing points), to remove knows systematic effects (including the flux calibration), and to project them onto a HealPix map.<br />
<br />
The processing yields maps of the signal, hit counts and auto- and cross-variance maps for the 6 full channel and for a pseudo-channel built from the 353 PSBs only. For each channel HFI provides <br />
* a map for the full mission<br />
* two maps for each half-mission<br />
* two maps for built from odd or even rings only<br />
<br />
for a total of 35 maps. <br />
<br />
==== PR3 HFI products ====<br />
<br />
===== Healpix Pixel Rings (HPRs) =====<br />
''SRoll'' main products are the HFI frequency maps. Nevertheless, we also make available the Healpix Pixel Rings (HPRs) of those maps, ie. the data before projection. See [[Healpix_Rings_HFI| description of those files]].<br />
<br />
===== Frequency maps =====<br />
<br />
The 35 HFI frequency maps of the PR3 Legacy Release are the followings:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''PR3 HFI frequency maps'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
!<br />
!100 GHz<br />
!143 GHz<br />
!217 GHz<br />
!353 GHz<br />
!353_PSB GHz<br />
!545 GHz<br />
!857 GHz<br />
|-<br />
| Full mission<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I<br />
| I<br />
|-<br />
| Half mission 1<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I<br />
| I<br />
|-<br />
| Half mission 2<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I<br />
| I<br />
|-<br />
| Odd rings<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I<br />
| I<br />
|-<br />
| Even rings<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I, Q, U<br />
| I<br />
| I<br />
|}<br />
<br />
See [[Frequency_maps|description of those files]]. These maps are available on the [[https://www.cosmos.esa.int/web/planck/pla| Planck Legacy Archive]].<br />
<br />
<br />
=== LFI processing ===<br />
LFI maps were constructed with the MADAM mapmaking code, version 3.7.4. The code is based on a generalized destriping technique, where the correlated noise component is modelled as a sequence of constant offsets, called "baselines". A noise filter was used to constrain the baseline solution, allowing the use of 0.25-s and 1-s baselines for the 30 and 44GHz, and 70 GHz channels, respectively. See section 6 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l02}}.<br />
<br />
<br />
Radiometers were combined according to the horn-uniform weighting scheme to minimize systematics. The flagged samples were excluded from the analysis by setting their weights to <i>C</i><sub>w</sub><sup>-1</sup> = 0. The Galaxy region was masked out in the destriping phase, to reduce errors arising from strong signal gradients. The polarization component was included in the analysis. <br />
<br />
; Dipole and Far Side Lobe correction: Input timelines are cleaned by the 4&pi;-convolved dipole and Galactic stray light, obtained as a convolution of the 4&pi; in-band far sidelobes and Galactic simulations, as explained in {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l02}}. <br />
<br />
Scaling of the maps due to beam effects is taken into account in the LFI's beam functions (as provided in [[The_RIMO|the RIMO]]) which should be used for analysis of diffuse components.<br />
<br />
; Bandpass leakage correction :LFI high-resolution maps have been reseleased corrected for bandpass leakage or uncorrected. Further details about the procedure used to generate the bandpass correction maps can be found in section 7 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l02}}.<br />
<br />
; Map zero-level : The 30, 44 and 70 GHz, maps are corrected for a zero-level monopole by applying an offset correction (see the LFI Calibration paper, {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a06}}). Note that the offset applied is indicated in the header as a comment keyword.<br />
<br />
A detailed description of the mapmaking procedure is given in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p02}}, {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a03}}, {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a07}} and in the [[Map-making LFI#Map-making|Mapmaking]] section here, in {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l02}} only a summary is reported.<br />
<br />
==Types of map ==<br />
<br />
=== Full-mission, full-channel maps (7 HFI, 4 LFI)===<br />
<br />
Full channel maps are built using all the valid detectors of a frequency channel and cover either the full or the nominal mission. For HFI, the 143-8 and 545-3 bolometers are rejected entirely, since they are seriously affected by RTS noise. HFI provides the Q and U components for the 100, 143, 217 and 353 GHz channels only. LFI provides the <i>I</i>, <i>Q</i>, and <i>U</i> maps for all the channels. Note that the HFI and LFI <i>Q</i> and <i>U</i> maps are corrected for bandpass leakage, version without correction for LFi is also provided. The <i>I</i>, <i>Q</i>, and <i>U</i> maps are displayed in the figures below. The colour range here is set using a histogram equalization scheme (from HEALPix) that is useful for these non-Gaussian data fields. For visualization purposes, the <i>Q</i> and <i>U</i> maps shown here have been smoothed with a 1&deg; Gaussian kernel, otherwise they look like noise to the naked eye. The 70 GHz full map is also available at <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048.<br />
<br />
The high dynamic range colour scheme of the Planck maps is described [https://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php/Planck_high_dynamic_range_colour_palette here].<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=260px heights=160px> <br />
File: LFI_030GHz_dx12_I.png| '''Full mission <i>I</i>, 30 GHz.'''<br />
File: LFI_044GHz_dx12_I.png| '''Full mission <i>I</i>, 44 GHz.'''<br />
File: LFI_070GHz_dx12_I.png| '''Full mission <i>I</i>, 70 GHz.'''<br />
File: HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R3.00_full_T.png| '''Full mission <i>I</i>, 100 GHz.'''<br />
File: HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R3.00_full_T.png| '''Full mission <i>I</i>, 143 GHz.'''<br />
File: HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R3.00_full_T.png| '''Full mission <i>I</i>, 217 GHz.'''<br />
File: HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_R3.00_full_T.png| '''Full mission <i>I</i>, 353 GHz.'''<br />
File: HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R3.00_full_T.png| '''Full mission <i>I</i>, 545 GHz.'''<br />
File: HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R3.00_full_T.png| '''Full mission <i>I</i>, 857 GHz.'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br><br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=260px heights=160px> <br />
File: LFI_030GHz_dx12_Q.png| '''Full mission <i>Q</i>, 30 GHz.'''<br />
File: LFI_044GHz_dx12_Q.png | '''Full mission <i>Q</i>, 44 GHz.'''<br />
File: LFI_070GHz_dx12_Q.png | '''Full mission <i>Q</i>, 70 GHz.'''<br />
File: HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R3.00_full_Q_sm30arcmin.png | '''Full mission <i>Q</i>, 100 GHz.'''<br />
File: HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R3.00_full_Q_sm30arcmin.png | '''Full mission <i>Q</i>, 143 GHz.'''<br />
File: HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R3.00_full_Q_sm30arcmin.png | '''Full mission <i>Q</i>, 217 GHz.'''<br />
File: HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_R3.00_full_Q_sm30arcmin.png | '''Full mission <i>Q</i>, 353 GHz.'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br><br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=260px heights=160px> <br />
File: LFI_030GHz_dx12_U.png| '''Full mission <i>U</i>, 30 GHz.'''<br />
File: LFI_044GHz_dx12_U.png | '''Full mission <i>U</i>, 44 GHz.'''<br />
File: LFI_070GHz_dx12_U.png | '''Full mission <i>U</i>, 70 GHz.'''<br />
File: HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R3.00_full_U_sm30arcmin.png | '''Full mission <i>U</i>, 100 GHz.'''<br />
File: HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R3.00_full_U_sm30arcmin.png | '''Full mission <i>U</i>, 143 GHz.'''<br />
File: HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R3.00_full_U_sm30arcmin.png | '''Full mission <i>U</i>, 217 GHz.'''<br />
File: HFI_SkyMap_353-psb_2048_R3.00_full_U_sm30arcmin.png | '''Full mission <i>U</i>, 353 GHz.'''<br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
</center><br />
<br />
=== Full mission light maps, full channel maps (7 HFI, 7 LFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are based on the Full mission maps but contain fewer columns, IQU from 30 to 353 GHz, and I only at 545 and 857 GHz. These maps have been produced to reduce the transfer time of the most downloaded frequency full mission maps.<br />
<br />
=== Single-survey, full-channel maps (35 LFI)===<br />
<br />
Single-survey maps are built using all valid detectors of a frequency channel; they separately cover the different sky surveys. The surveys are defined as the times over which the satellite spin axis rotates by 180&deg;, which, due to the position of the detectors in the focal plane does not cover the full sky, but a fraction between about 80% and 90%, depending on detector position. During adjacent surveys the sky is scanned in opposite directions (more precisely it is the ecliptic equator that is scanned in opposite directions). While these are useful to investigate variable sources, they are also used to study the systematics of the time-response of the detectors as they scan bright sources, like the Galactic Plane, in different directions during different survey. Note that the HFI and LFI missions cover five and eight surveys, respectively, and in the case of HFI the last survey in incomplete.<br />
The 70 GHz survey maps are available also at <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048. Note that LFI provides a special survey-map combination used in the low-&#8467; analysis; this maps, available at the three LFI frequencies, 30, 44, and 70 GHz, was built using the combination of Surveys 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, and 8.<br />
<br />
=== Year maps, full-channel maps (16 LFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are built using the data of Surveys 1+2, Surveys 3+4, and so forth. They are used to study long-term systematic effects. The 70 GHz years maps are available also at <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048.<br />
<br />
===Half-mission maps, full-channel maps (14 HFI, 12 LFI)===<br />
<br />
For HFI, the half mission is defined after eliminating those rings that are discarded for all bolometers, many of which occurred during the 5th survey when the "End-of-Life" tests were performed. The remaining rings are divided in half to define the two halves of the mission. This exercise is done for the full mission only.<br />
<br />
For LFI, instead of the half-mission maps, the following year combinations have been created: Year 1+2, Year 1+3, Year 2+4, Year 3+4,<br />
<br />
===Full mission, single-detector maps (22 LFI)===<br />
<br />
For LFI, all the 22 Radiometers maps are available, and (obviously) only in Stokes <i>I</i>.<br />
<br />
===Full-mission, detector-set or detector-pairs maps (8 LFI)===<br />
<br />
The objective here is to build independent temperature (<i>I</i>) and polarization (<i>Q</i> and <i>U</i>) maps using the two pairs of polarization-sensitive detectors of each channel where they are available, i.e., for the 44-353 GHz channels. The table below indicates which detectors were used to build each detector set (detset).<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=600px<br />
|+ '''Definition of LFI detector pairs'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!Frequency || Horn pair || Comment <br />
|-<br />
|44 GHz || 24 || This map is only in temperature<br />
|-<br />
|44 GHz || 25 and 26 || <br />
|-<br />
|70 GHz || 18 and 23 || Available also at <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048<br />
|-<br />
|70 GHz || 19 and 22 || Available also at <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048<br />
|-<br />
|70 GHz || 20 and 21 || Available also at <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Half-ring maps (62 LFI)===<br />
<br />
These maps are similar to the ones described above, but are built using only the first or the second halves of each ring (or pointing period). The HFI provides half-ring maps for the full mission only, as well as for the full channel, the detsets, and the single bolometers. The LFI provides half-ring maps for the full mission in each channel (70 GHz also at <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048), for the full-mission radiometers, and for the full-mission horn pairs.<br />
<br />
=== Odd and even rings maps (14 HFI)<br />
<br />
As the name indicates, these are generated by using only the odd or only the even rings.<br />
<br />
=== Caveats and known issues ===<br />
<br />
==== HFI frequency maps ====<br />
Some imperfections have shown up in the tests of the HFI PR3 maps that were previously hidden by higher-level systematics in the previous PR2 data. These lead to guidelines for the proper use of the HFI PR3 data. See {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l03}} for a detailed description of all these issues.<br />
<br />
<span style="color:#ff0000"> Update 12 Sep 2018:</span> Covariance matrices in PR3.00 frequency maps FITS files were not correctly computed and contained wrong values. They must not be used for any purpose. These maps have been removed from the PLA. Version 3.01 must be used instead. Intensity, polarization and hit count maps have not changed.<br />
<br />
===== Monopoles =====<br />
Monopoles, which cannot be extracted from Planck data alone, are adjusted at each frequency (as was done in the previous PR2 release). For component separation, this provides maps that can be used directly in combination with other tracers. See {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l03}} for a detailed discussion.<br />
In the 2018 maps, three monopoles have been adjusted:<br />
* during production of the HFI frequency maps, an HI correlation analysis is carried out to adjust the overall monopole of the map to be consistent with the intensity of the Galactic dust foreground at high galactic latitudes (this adjustment was also done in the 2016 maps)<br />
* a monopole corresponding to the zero-level of the CIB (Cosmic Infrared Background) estimated from a galaxy evolution model has been added to the maps (as for the 2016 maps)<br />
* a monopole corresponding to the zero-level of zodiacal emission, representative of the high ecliptic latitude emission regions, has been added to the maps (note that this was not done in the 2016 maps).<br />
It is recommended that for work separating CMB and diffuse Galactic components from HFI frequency maps, the CIB and Zodiacal emission monopoles should first be removed. Furthermore, especially for applications at low intensity, it is critical to appreciate that there are significant uncertainties in the zero levels in the Galactic maps. It is therefore also recommended that the maps be correlated with the HI map at high latitude, following the detailed methodology set out in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p03b}} and {{PlanckPapers||planck2013-p06}}. Consideration should also be given to the possible effect of dust in the warm ionized medium, as discussed and quantified in {{PlanckPapers||planck2016-l12}}.<br />
<br />
===== Solar dipole residual===== <br />
The ''Planck'' 2015 Solar dipole is removed from the PR3 HFI maps to be consistent with LFI maps and to facilitate comparison with the previous PR2 ones. The best Solar dipole determination from HFI PR3 data shows a small shift in direction of about 1', but a 1.8 &mu;K lower amplitude. Removal of the ''Planck'' 2015 Solar dipole thus leaves a small but non-negligible dipole residual in the HFI PR3 maps. To correct for this, and adjust maps at the best photometric calibration, users of the HFI PR3 maps should:<br />
# put back into the maps the ''Planck'' 2015 Solar dipole (d,l,b)= (3364.5 &plusmn; 2.0 &mu;K, 264.00 &plusmn; 0.03&deg;, 48.24 &plusmn; 0.02&deg;),<br />
# include the [[#Calibration accuracy|absolute calibration frequency bias]], i.e., multiply by 1 minus the calibration bias,<br />
# lastly, remove the [[#HFI 2018 Solar dipole|HFI 2018 Solar dipole]].<br />
<br />
=====Use of the 353 GHz SWBs ===== <br />
In 2018, two types of maps at 353 GHz are provided, one including only PSBs and one including both PSBs and SWBs. For reasons detailed in {{planckPapers|planck2016-l03}}, it is recommended to use the former (i.e. only including PSBs). The alternative one including the 353 GHz SWBs should be used only for specific uses such as, for example, increasing the signal to noise level at high multipoles.<br />
<br />
===== Color correction and component separation=====<br />
In 2018 the SRoll algorithm has been used to produce the frequency maps. This algorithms adjusts by construction all single bolometer maps to the band average response. For this reason, it becomes impossible to use the different individual bolometer responses to extract foreground component maps, and the individual bolometer maps are not provided as part of the release. See {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l03}} for a detailed description. Note also that for the same reason, the effective bandpass response of the 2018 maps is not the same as for the 2015 maps. The new bandpass response is established in the 2018 RIMO.<br />
<br />
===== Sub-pixel effects in very bright regions===== <br />
The bandpass corrections have been optimized for high latitude regions which implied to reduce the noise of the CO and dust bandpass templates to avoid the introduction of significant correlated noise. The effect is negligible for dust but not for CO in very bright regions. As a consequence, some systematic effects (which appear as striping) appear in some of the maps in the brightest galactic emission regions. See [[subpixel_HFI|detailed description]].<br />
<br />
==== LFI Frequency maps ====<br />
<br />
'''TBD'''<br />
<br />
==Inputs==<br />
=== HFI inputs ===<br />
<br />
The HFI mapmaking takes as input:<br />
* the cleaned TOIs of the signal from each detector, together with their flags, produced by the [[TOI processing|TOI processing]] pipeline;<br />
* the TOIs of pointing (quaternions), described in [[Detector_pointing|Detector pointing]];<br />
* bolometer-level characterization data, from the DPC's internal IMO (not distributed);<br />
* Planck orbit data, used to compute and remove the Earth's dipole;<br />
* Planck solar dipole information, used to calibrate the CMB channels;<br />
* planet models used to calibrate the Galactic channels.<br />
<br />
=== LFI inputs ===<br />
<br />
The MADAM mapmaker takes as input:<br />
* the calibrated timelines (for details see [[TOI processing LFI|TOI Processing]]);<br />
* the detector pointings (for details see [[Detector_pointing|Detector pointing]]);<br />
* the noise information in the form of 3-parameter (white noise level &sigma;, slope, and knee frequency <i>f</i><sub>knee</sub>) noise model (for details see [[The RIMO|RIMO]]).<br />
<br />
==Related products==<br />
=== Masks ===<br />
This section presents the "general purpose" masks. Other masks specific to certain products are packaged with those products.<br />
<br />
Note that for this release, HFI has not produced any new masks. <br />
<br />
====Point source masks ====<br />
<br />
For HFI and LFI two sets of point-source masks are provided. <br />
* Intensity masks, which remove sources detected with S/N > 5. <br />
* Polarisation masks, which remove sources that have polarization detection significance levels of 99.97 % or greater at the position of a source detected in intensity. They were derived from the polarization maps with dust foreground bandpass mismatch leakage corrections applied. The area excised around each source has a radius of 3σ (width) of the beam, i.e., 1.27 FWHM (for LFI the cut around each source has a radius of 32 arcmin at 30GHz, 27 arcmin at 44 GHz, and 13 arcmin at 70 GHz).<br />
<br />
Both sets of masks are found in the files ''HFI_Mask_PointSrc_2048_R2.00.fits'' and ''LFI_Mask_PointSrc_2048_R2.00.fits'', in which the first extension contains the intensity masks, and the second contains the polarization masks.<br />
<br />
====Galactic plane masks ====<br />
<br />
Eight Galactic emission masks are provided, giving 20, 40, 60, 70, 80, 90, 97, and 99% sky coverage, derived from the 353 GHz map after CMB subtraction. These are independent of frequency channel. Three versions are given: not apodized; and apodized by 2&deg; and 5&deg;. The filenames are ''HFI_Mask_GalPlane-apoN_2048_R2.00.fits'', where <i>N</i> = 0, 2, and 5.<br />
<br />
The masks are shown below. The eight "GalPlane" masks are combined (added together) and shown in a single figure for each of the three apodizations. While the result is quite clear for the case of no apodization, it is less so for the apodized case. The "PointSrc" masks are shown separately for the intensity case.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery perrow=3 widths=260px heights=160px ><br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo0.png | '''Galactic plane masks, no apodization.'''<br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo2.png | '''Galactic plane masks, apodized to 2&deg;.'''<br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo5.png | '''Galactic plane masks, apodized to 5&deg;.'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_100.png | '''Point source mask, 100 GHz.'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_143.png | '''Point source mask, 143 GHz.'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_217.png | '''Point source mask, 217 GHz.'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_353.png | '''Point source mask, 343 GHz.'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_545.png | '''Point source mask, 545 GHz.'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_857.png | '''Point source mask, 857 GHz.'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
== File names ==<br />
The FITS filenames are of the form ''{H|L}FI_SkyMap_fff{-tag}_Nside_R3.nn_{coverage}-{type}.fits'', where "fff" are three digits to indicate the Planck frequency band, "tag" indicates the single detector or the detset (no "tag" indicates full channel), "Nside" is the HEALPix <i>N</i><sub>side</sub> value of the map, "coverage" indicates which part of the mission is covered (full, half mission, survey, year, etc.), and the optional "type" indicates the subset of input data used. The table below lists the products by type, with the appropriate unix wildcards that form the full filename.<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align"left" border="1" cellpadding="15" cellspacing="20" width=880px<br />
|+ '''HFI FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Coverage || Filename <br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, full mission ||HFI_SkyMap_fff{-tag}_2048_R3.??_full.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, half mission || HFI_SkyMap_fff{-tag}_2048_R3.??_halfmission-{1/2}.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, full mission, odd/even ring || HFI_SkyMap_fff{-tag}_2048_R3.??_{odd/even}ring.fits <br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align"left" border="1" cellpadding="15" cellspacing="20" width=1600px<br />
|+ '''LFI FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Coverage || Filename || Half-ring filename || Comment<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, full mission ||LFI_SkyMap_???_1024_R3.??_full.fits ||LFI_SkyMap_???_1024_R3.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits || 70GHz is corrected for Template<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, full mission BandPass corrected ||LFI_SkyMap_???-BPassCorrected_1024_R3.??_full.fits ||LFI_SkyMap_???-BPassCorrected_???_1024_R3.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits || 70GHz is corrected for Template<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, single survey || LFI_SkyMap_???_1024_R3.??_survey-?.fits || n/a || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, survey combination || LFI_SkyMap_???_1024_R3.??_survey-1-3-5-6-7-8.fits || n/a || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, survey combination BandPass corrected|| LFI_SkyMap_???_1024_R3.??-BPassCorrected_survey-1-3-5-6-7-8.fits || n/a || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, single year || LFI_SkyMap_???_1024_R3.??_year-?.fits || n/a || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, single year BandPass corrected|| LFI_SkyMap_???-BPassCorrected_1024_R3.??_year-?.fits || n/a || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, year combination || LFI_SkyMap_???_1024_R3.??_year?-?.fits || n/a || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, year combination BandPass corrected|| LFI_SkyMap_???-BPassCorrected_1024_R3.??_year?-?.fits || n/a || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Horn pair, full mission || LFI_SkyMap_???-??-??_1024_R3.??_full.fits || LFI_SkyMap_???_??-??_1024_R3.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Single radiometer, full mission || LFI_SkyMap_???-???_1024_R3.??_full.fits || LFI_SkyMap_???-???_1024_R3.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits || n/a<br />
|}<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for the frequency maps with no additional information, we also provide a file combining the nine frequency maps as separate columns in a single extension. The nine columns in this file contain the intensity maps <i>only</i> and no other information (hits maps or variance maps) is provided.<br />
<br />
== FITS file structure ==<br />
<br />
The FITS files for the sky maps contain a minimal primary header with no data, and a ''BINTABLE'' extension (EXTENSION 1, EXTNAME = ''FREQ-MAP'') containing the data. The structure is shown schematically in the figure below. The ''FREQ-MAP'' extension contains a 3- or 10-column table that contain the signal, hit-count, and variance maps, all in HEALPix format. The 3-column case is for intensity only maps, while the 10-column case is for polarization. The number of rows is the number of map pixels, which is <i>N</i><sub>pix</sub> = 12 <i>N</i><sub>side</sub><sup>2</sup> for HEALPix maps, where <i>N</i><sub>side</sub> = 1024 or 2048 for most the maps presented in this section.<br />
<br />
[[File:FITS_FreqMap.png | 550px | center | thumb | '''FITS file structure.''']]<br />
<br />
Note that file sizes are approximately 0.6 GB for <i>I</i>-only maps and 1.9 GB for <i>IQU</i> maps at <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048, but about 0.14 GB for <i>I</i>-only maps and 0.45 GB for <i>IQU</i> maps at <i>N</i><sub>pix</sub>=1024 .<br />
<br />
Keywords indicate the coordinate system ("GALACTIC"), the HEALPix ordering scheme ("NESTED"), the units (K<sub>CMB</sub> or MJy.sr<sup>-1</sup>) of each column, and of course the frequency channel ("FREQ"). Where polarization <i>Q</i> and <i>U</i> maps are provided, the "COSMO" polarization convention (used in HEALPix) is adopted, and it is specified in the "POLCCONV" keyword (see [[Sky_temperature_maps#Polarization_convention_used_in_the_Planck_project|this section]]). The "COMMENT" fields give a one-line summary of the product, and some other information useful for traceability within the DPCs. The original filename is also given in the "FILENAME" keyword. The "BAD_DATA" keyword gives the value used by HEALPix to indicate pixels for which no signal is present (these will also have a hit-count value of 0). The main parameters are summarized in the table below.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Sky map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column name || Data type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_STOKES || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub> or MJy.sr<sup>-1</sup> || Stokes <i>I</i> map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STOKES || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub> or MJy.sr<sup>-1</sup> || Stokes <i>Q</i> map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|U_STOKES || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub> or MJy.sr<sup>-1</sup> || Stokes <i>U</i> map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|HITS || Int*4 || none || The hit-count map<br />
|-<br />
|II_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> or (MJy.sr<sup>-1</sup>)<sup>2</sup> || <i>II</i> variance map<br />
|-<br />
|IQ_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> or (MJy.sr<sup>-1</sup>)<sup>2</sup> || <i>IQ</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|IU_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> or (MJy.sr<sup>-1</sup>)<sup>2</sup> || <i>IQ</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QQ_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> or (MJy.sr<sup>-1</sup>)<sup>2</sup> || <i>QQ</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QU_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> or (MJy.sr<sup>-1</sup>)<sup>2</sup> || <i>QU</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|UU_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> or (MJy.sr<sup>-1</sup>)<sup>2</sup> || <i>UU</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || HEALPix <i>N</i><sub>side</sub> <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12 <i>N</i><sub>side</sub><sup>2</sup> – 1 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ || String || nnn || Frequency channel <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
The same structure applies to all "SkyMap" products, independent of whether they are full channel, survey of half-ring. The distinction between the types of maps is present in the FITS filename (and in the traceability comment fields).<br />
<br />
==Polarization convention used in the Planck project==<br />
<br />
The FITS keyword "POLCCONV" defines the polarization convention of the data within the file.<br />
The Planck collaboration used the COSMO convention for the polarization angle (as usually adopted in space-based and other CMB missions), whereas other subfields of astronomy usually adopt the IAU convention. The basic difference comes down to whether one thinks of the light rays being emitted from the origin (the usual mathematics/physics convention) or converging on the observer from the sky (the usual astronomy convention), and hence the "obvious" choice is different for a physicists and for an astronomer. Given that CMB results are of interest to a wide range of both physicists and astronomers, there is no single choice of convention that everyone would regard as self-evident. Hence one simply has to be aware of the convention being adopted. Because of this the Planck Collaboration has taken pains to point out which convention is being used in publications and in data releases. In the following we describe the difference between these two conventions, and the consequence if it is <i>not</i> taken into account correctly in the analysis.<br />
<br />
[[File:conventions.png|thumb|center|400px|'''Figure 1. Polarization conventions, showing the COSMO convention (left) and IAU convention (right). The vector <math>\hat{z}</math> points in the outward direction in COSMO, and inwards in IAU. The bottom panel refers to the plane tangent to the sphere.''']]<br />
<br />
Changing the orientation convention is equivalent to a transformation &psi;'=&pi;-&psi; of the polarization angle (Figure 1). The consequence of this transformation is the inversion of the Stokes parameter <i>U</i>.<br />
The components of the polarization tensor in the helicity basis <math>\epsilon^{\pm}=(\hat{x}\pm i\hat{y})/\sqrt{2}</math> are<br />
<br />
<math><br />
(Q+iU)(\hat{n}) = \sum _{\ell m}a_{2,lm}{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n}),<br />
\\(Q-iU)(\hat{n}) = \sum _{\ell m}a_{-2,lm}{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n}),<br />
</math><br />
<br />
where <math>{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})</math> are the spin-weighted spherical harmonic functions.<br />
The <i>E</i> and <i>B</i> modes can be defined as<br />
<br />
<math><br />
E(\hat{n}) = \sum_{\ell m}a_{E,\ell m}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n}),<br />
\\B(\hat{n}) = \sum_{\ell m}a_{B,\ell m}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n}),<br />
</math><br />
<br />
where the coefficients <i>a<sub>E,&#8467;m</sub></i> and <i>a<sub>B,&#8467;m</sub></i> are derived from linear combinations of the <i>a<sub>2,&#8467;m</sub></i>, <i>a<sub>-2,&#8467;m</sub></i>, defined implicitly in the first equation (<i>Q</i>&plusmn; i<i>U</i>).<br />
<br />
[[File:test_gradient.jpg|thumb|center|400px|]]<br />
[[File:test_curl.jpg|thumb|center|400px|'''Figure 2. Error on Planck-LFI 70 GHz <i>EE</i> (top) and <i>BB</i> (bottom) power spectra, in the case of an incorrect choice being made for the polarization coordinate system convention (IAU instead of COSMO).''']]<br />
<br />
The effect of the sign inversion of <i>U</i> on the polarization spectra is a non-trivial mixing of <i>E</i> and <i>B</i> modes. <br />
An example of the typical error on <i>EE</i> and <i>BB</i> auto-spectra in the case of the wrong choice for the polarization basis is shown in Figure 2.<br />
<br />
<i>One should be careful</i> to be aware of the polarization convention that is being adopted. If the IAU convention is used in computing the power spectra, then the sign of the <i>U</i> component of the Planck maps must be inverted before computing the <i>E</i> and <i>B</i> modes.<br />
<br />
In astronomical applications it is common to define a pseudo-vector <i>P</i> to show the amplitude and orientation of<br />
polarization on a map. When plotting these line segments to show the orientation of the plane of polarization (or the orthogonal direction, often considered to be the projection of the magnetic field), the results are the same for both the COSMO and IAU conventions. This because the appearance of <i>P</i> is a property of the radiation and hence not affected by the sign of <i>U</i>.<br />
<br />
=== Note on the convention used in the Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources (PCCS) ===<br />
Planck non-cosmology papers sometimes follow the IAU convention for internal analysis, for ease of comparison with other studies (e.g., comparison of Planck-derived thermal dust emission polarization with the optical polarization of starlight). Nevertheless, Planck data products, such as component-separated maps, still use the COSMO convention. The one exception is for the compact source catalogue. Because catalogues of astronomical objects found by Planck need to be compared directly with other source catalogues, the polarized sources described in the Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources follow the IAU convention, and the polarization angles are defined on an interval of [-90&deg;,90&deg;]. To switch to the COSMO convention, the polarization angles listed in the catalogue should be shifted by 90&deg; and multiplied by -1.<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<span style="background:green"><br />
<br />
<span style="background:green"><br />
== Other releases: 2020-NPIPE, 2015 and 2013 ==<br />
<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="background-color: #9ef542;width:80%"><br />
'''2020 - NPIPE'''<br />
<div class="mw-collapsible-content"><br />
The NPIPE flight data maps include several subsets and differ from earlier Planck releases.<br />
<br />
'''Frequency maps'''<br />
<br />
All NPIPE maps, even at 545 and 857GHz, are calibrated into CMB kelvins. The temperature maps include the solar system dipole. The monopole of the maps is arbitrary. Only the seasonally-varying part of zodiacal light is removed.<br />
<br />
Properties of the frequency maps are indicated in the following table:<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Nominal frequency [GHz] !! Eff. freq. [GHz] in T, alpha=-1<sup>a</sup> !! Eff. freq. [GHz] in P, alpha=-1<sup>b</sup> !! Eff. freq. [GHz] in T, alpha=4<sup>c</sup> !! Eff. freq. [GHz] in P, alpha=4 !! Approx. resolution [arc min]<sup>d</sup> !! Average T noise [uK-arcmin]<sup>e</sup> !! Average P noise [uK-arcmin]<sup>f</sup> !! Calibration uncertainty [%]<sup>g</sup><br />
|-<br />
| 30 || 28.27 ± 0.03 || same as T || 29.22 ± 0.04 || same as T || 31.5 || 179 || 354 || 0.045<br />
|-<br />
| 44 || 43.94 ± 0.04 || same as T || 44.69 ± 0.03 || same as T || 27.1 || 203 || 425 || 0.040<br />
|-<br />
| 70 || 69.97 ± 0.04 || same as T || 72.16 ± 0.03 || same as T || 12.8 || 182 || 363 || 0.030<br />
|-<br />
| 100 || 100.32 ± 0.09 || 100.31 ± 0.09|| 106.01 ± 0.06 || 106.01 ± 0.06 || 9.47 || 81.3 || 173 || 0.023<br />
|-<br />
| 143 || 141.41 ± 0.02 || 140.75 ± 0.02 || 149.30 ± 0.01 || 148.91 ± 0.02 || 7.15 || 32.2 || 93.7 || 0.018<br />
|-<br />
| 217 || 220.157 ± 0.005 || 219.222 ± 0.006 || 230.685 ± 0.005 || 230.060 ± 0.006 || 4.84 || 52.6 || 136 || 0.024<br />
|-<br />
| 353 || 358.291 ± 0.005 || 357.432 ± 0.005 || 372.702 ± 0.005 || 371.774 ± 0.005 || 4.76 || 283 || 556 || 0.053<br />
|-<br />
| 545 || 552.155 ± 0.006 || n/a || 576.660 ± 0.004 || n/a || 4.62 || 4680 || n/a || 0.571<br />
|-<br />
| 857 || 854.288 ± 0.006 || n/a || 891.617 ± 0.006|| n/a || 4.23 || 388000 || n/a || 5<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<sup>a</sup> Effective central frequency for a synchrotron-like emission. LFI uncertainties are based on a flat 30% uncertainty in each bandpass bin. HFI uncertainties use estimated statistical uncertainties in each bin.<br />
<br />
<sup>b</sup> Polarized central frequency differs from temperature for HFI because of the non-ideal polarization sensitivity.<br />
<br />
<sup>c</sup> Effective central frequency for a thermal dust-like emission.<br />
<br />
<sup>d</sup> Approximate resolution is measured by fitting a Gaussian beam model to the QuickPol beam window function for intensity.<br />
<br />
<sup>e</sup> Average noise depth is measured as the standard deviation of the simulated residual maps and includes statistical and systematic elements. Planck noise is not uniformly distributed: this value overestimates the depth near the Ecliptic poles and underestimates the depth at the Ecliptic equator. The noise is also scale-dependent, causing the depth to change in a non-trivial manner when downgrading or smoothing the maps.<br />
<br />
<sup>f</sup> Polarized noise depth is the length of the [''Q, U''] error vector, not the individual ''Q'' or ''U'' uncertainty.<br />
<br />
<sup>g</sup> Overall calibration uncertainty as reported in Table 7 of [https://www.aanda.org/articles/aa/abs/2020/11/aa38073-20/aa38073-20.html A&A 643, A42 (2020)]. 857GHz calibration uncertainty continues to be dominated by a 5% planetary emission model uncertainty.<br />
<br />
All effective frequencies are based on integrals of the ground-measured detector bandpasses and noise weights as they are recorded in the accompanying [[NPIPE RIMO|instrument model]]. Inverse variance noise weights in each horn are symmetrized: <br />
<br />
[[File:Symmetrized weight.png|300px|frameless|center|Symmetrized noise weights]]<br />
<br />
'''Half-ring maps'''<br />
<br />
Half-ring frequency maps can be used to gauge instrumental noise. The large-scale systematics residuals in this split are fully correlated and cancel in the difference. The half-ring split data were destriped independently with Madam to avoid correlated noise residuals.<br />
<br />
'''Single-detector maps'''<br />
<br />
We provide de-polarized single-detector maps for all polarized Planck frequencies. 545 and 857GHz single-detector maps are not actively corrected for polarization modulation, but the small level of unintentional polarization sensitivity in the detectors is suppressed using the destriping templates. Single-detector maps are not corrected for bandpass mismatch. 217-857GHz single-detector maps are binned at <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=4096 to better sample the narrow beam. 1/<i>f</i> noise in the detector maps is suppressed by destriping the single detector TOD with the Madam destriper code. As a result, 1/<i>f</i> noise residuals are not correlated between the maps. Large-scale calibration is based on full frequency data and the associated errors are correlated.<br />
<br />
<!--<br />
'''Single-horn maps'''<br />
<br />
De-polarizing single-detector data requires sampling a smoothed full-frequency polarization map to produce a polarization signal estimate. This estimate includes errors and noise that subsequently get injected into the single-detector maps. Those errors can be cancelled by co-adding polarization-orthogonal detectors in each Planck feedhorn. For optimal cancellation, the co-add weights must account for difference in polarization sensitivity between the detectors. Single-horn maps are provided for all Planck horns.<br />
--><br />
'''A/B split maps'''<br />
<br />
Earlier Planck releases included various data splits with different degrees of correlated systematics. Any time-domain split is vulnerable to detector mismatch (beam, bandpass, etc.) that is stable over time. Full-frequency gain and bandpass-mismatch corrections used in PR3 also introduced correlated errors in the split maps that were provided. NPIPE release includes one, maximally-independent split.<br />
<br />
<!---<br />
[[File:Subsets.png|600px|framess|none|NPIPE data splits]]<br />
---><br />
<br />
For frequencies with enough redundancy, the split is based on feedhorns. Since the Planck scan strategy does not allow polarized mapmaking with fewer than two non-redundant feedhorns, the 30 and 44 GHz data could not be split by horns. Instead, these frequency channels are split in time. A half-mission split would produce incomplete sky coverage for the second half of LFI, so we use alternating years instead. Since the NPIPE A/B split is not purely time or detector set, the maps in the PLA are assigned different identifiers, as summarized below.<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Frequency [GHz] !! Subset A !! Subset B<br />
|-<br />
| 30 || Years 1, 3 || Years 2, 4<br />
|-<br />
| 44 || Years 1, 3 || Years 2, 4<br />
|-<br />
| 70 || Feedhorns 18, 20, 23 || Feedhorns 19, 21, 22<br />
|-<br />
| 100 || Feedhorns 1, 4 (ds1) || Feedhorns 2, 3 (ds2)<br />
|-<br />
| 143 || Feedhorns 1, 3, 5, 7 (ds3)|| Feedhorns 2, 4, 6 (ds4)<br />
|-<br />
| 217 || Feedhorns 1, 3, 5, 7 (ds3)|| Feedhorns 2, 4, 6, 8 (ds4)<br />
|-<br />
| 353 || Feedhorns 1, 3, 5, 7 (ds3)|| Feedhorns 2, 4, 6, 8 (ds4)<br />
|-<br />
| 545 || Feedhorn 1 (ds2) || Feedhorns 2, 4 (ds3)<br />
|-<br />
| 857 || Feedhorns 1, 3 (ds3)|| Feedhorns 2, 4 (ds4)<br />
|}<br />
<br />
The locations of the feedhorns are indicated in the following Figure.<br />
<br />
[[File:FocalPlane.png|600px|framess|Planck feedhorn positions|Planck feedhorn positions]]<br />
<br />
Physical properties of the frequency maps are indicated in the following table:<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Nominal frequency [GHz] !! Eff. freq. [GHz] in T, alpha=-1<sup>a</sup> !! Eff. freq. [GHz] in P, alpha=-1<sup>b</sup> !! Eff. freq. [GHz] in T, alpha=4<sup>c</sup> !! Eff. freq. [GHz] in P, alpha=4 !! Approx. resolution [arc min]<sup>d</sup> !! Average T noise [uK-arcmin]<sup>e</sup> !! Average P noise [uK-arcmin]<sup>f</sup> !! Calibration uncertainty [%]<sup>g</sup><br />
|-<br />
| 30A || 28.27 ± 0.03 || same as T || 29.22 ± 0.04 || same as T || 31.5 || 256 || 511 || 0.064<br />
|-<br />
| 30B || 28.27 ± 0.03 || same as T || 29.22 ± 0.04 || same as T || 31.5 || 255 || 510 || 0.064<br />
|-<br />
| 44A || 43.94 ± 0.04 || same as T || 44.69 ± 0.03 || same as T || 27.1 || 292 || 611 || 0.057<br />
|-<br />
| 44B || 43.94 ± 0.04 || same as T || 44.69 ± 0.03 || same as T || 27.1 || 290 || 610 || 0.057<br />
|-<br />
| 70A || 70.09 ± 0.05 || same as T || 72.23 ± 0.05 || same as T || 13.0 || 259 || 540 || 0.043<br />
|-<br />
| 70B || 69.86 ± 0.05 || same as T || 72.10 ± 0.05 || same as T || 12.7 || 256 || 545 || 0.042<br />
|-<br />
| 100A || 100.41 ± 0.12 || 100.40 ± 0.12 || 106.16 ± 0.09 || 106.15 ± 0.09 || 9.50 || 137 || 294 || 0.039<br />
|-<br />
| 100B || 100.27 ± 0.61 || 100.27 ± 0.61 || 105.92 ± 0.67 || 105.91 ± 0.68 || 9.44 || 97.0 || 202 || 0.027<br />
|-<br />
| 143A || 141.65 ± 0.02 || 140.44 ± 0.02 || 149.56 ± 0.02 || 148.62 ± 0.02 || 7.17 || 42.8 || 140 || 0.024<br />
|-<br />
| 143B || 141.14 ± 0.02 || 140.99 ± 0.02 || 149.12 ± 0.02 || 149.03 ± 0.02 || 7.13 || 48.6 || 127 || 0.027<br />
|-<br />
| 217A || 220.248 ± 0.006 || 219.284 ± 0.008 || 230.848 ± 0.006 || 230.278 ± 0.008 || 4.83 || 73.2 || 186 || 0.033<br />
|-<br />
| 217B || 220.064 ± 0.006 || 219.160 ± 0.008 || 230.523 ± 0.006 || 229.850 ± 0.007 || 4.84 || 76.0 || 200 || 0.035<br />
|-<br />
| 353A || 357.571 ± 0.006 || 356.622 ± 0.007 || 371.950 ± 0.006 || 371.320 ± 0.006 || 4.75 || 322 || 751 || 0.060<br />
|-<br />
| 353B || 359.141 ± 0.006 || 358.517 ± 0.006 || 373.572 ± 0.007 || 372.357 ± 0.006 || 4.78 || 321 || 869 || 0.060<br />
|-<br />
| 545A || 554.398 ± 0.013 || n/a || 579.132 ± 0.004 || n/a || 4.75 || 5562 || n/a || 0.679<br />
|-<br />
| 545B || 551.162 ± 0.008 || n/a || 575.531 ± 0.005 || n/a || 4.56 || 4706 || n/a || 0.574<br />
|-<br />
| 857A || 857.886 ± 0.025 || n/a || 894.914 ± 0.032 || n/a || 4.22 || 394000 || n/a || 5<br />
|-<br />
| 857B || 850.364 ± 0.008 || n/a || 887.862 ± 0.009 || n/a || 4.25 || 417000 || n/a || 5<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<sup>a</sup> Effective central frequency for a synchrotron-like emission. LFI uncertainties are based on a flat 30% uncertainty in each bandpass bin. HFI uncertainties use estimated statistical uncertainties in each bin.<br />
<br />
<sup>b</sup> Polarized central frequency differs from temperature for HFI because of the non-ideal polarization sensitivity.<br />
<br />
<sup>c</sup> Effective central frequency for a thermal dust-like emission.<br />
<br />
<sup>d</sup> Approximate resolution is measured by fitting a Gaussian beam model to the QuickPol beam window function for intensity.<br />
<br />
<sup>e</sup> Average noise depth is measured as the standard deviation of the simulated residual maps and includes statistical and systematic elements. Planck noise is not uniformly distributed: this value overestimates the depth near the Ecliptic poles and underestimates the depth at the Ecliptic equator. The noise is also scale-dependent, causing the depth to change in a non-trivial manner when downgrading or smoothing the maps.<br />
<br />
<sup>f</sup> Polarized noise depth is the length of the [''Q, U''] error vector, not the individual ''Q'' or ''U'' uncertainty.<br />
<br />
<sup>g</sup> Overall calibration uncertainty is based on the full frequency results in Table 7 of [https://www.aanda.org/articles/aa/abs/2020/11/aa38073-20/aa38073-20.html A&A 643, A42 (2020)] and scaled to the subset map noise depth. 857GHz calibration uncertainty continues to be dominated by a 5% planetary emission model uncertainty.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''CMB maps'''<br />
<br />
The full-frequency and A/B maps were component separated using Commander and SEVEM. Both versions are provided.<br />
<br />
The Commander temperature map is now provided at <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=4096, making it incompatible with the <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048 polarization maps. To fit temperature and polarization into the same FITS file, two separate header data units (HDUs) are employed. HDU 1 contains the single temperature map and HDU 2 contains the <i>Q</i> and <i>U</i> polarization maps.<br />
<br />
SEVEM products include the jointly-fitted CMB map and foreground-subtracted frequency maps at 70-217GHz. Unlike Commander, SEVEM temperature maps do not contain the CMB dipole.<br />
<br />
'''File names'''<br />
<br />
The FITS filenames are of the form ''{H|L}FI_SkyMap_fff{-tag}_Nside_R4.nn_{coverage}-{type}.fits'', where "fff" are three digits to indicate the Planck frequency band, "tag" indicates the single detector or the detset (no "tag" indicates full channel), "Nside" is the HEALPix <i>N</i><sub>side</sub> value of the map, "coverage" indicates which part of the mission is covered (full, half-mission, survey, year, etc.), and the optional "type" indicates the subset of input data used. The table below lists the products by type, with the appropriate unix wildcards that form the full filename.<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align"left" border="1" cellpadding="15" cellspacing="20" width=880px<br />
|+ '''Frequency map FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Coverage || Filename <br />
|-<br />
| Full-channel, full-mission || ?FI_SkyMap_fff{-tag}_????_R4.??_full.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Full-channel, full-mission, half-ring || ?FI_SkyMap_fff{-tag}_????_R4.??_full-ringhalf-{1|2}.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Subset A maps, 30 and 44GHz || ?FI_SkyMap_fff_1024_R4.??_year-1-3.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Subset B maps, 30 and 44GHz || ?FI_SkyMap_fff_1024_R4.??_year-2-4.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Subset A maps, 70GHz || LFI_SkyMap_070-18-20-23_1024_R4.??_full.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Subset B maps, 70GHz || LFI_SkyMap_070-19-21-22_1024_R4.??_full.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Subset A maps, 100GHz || HFI_SkyMap_100-ds1_2048_R4.??_full.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Subset B maps, 100GHz || HFI_SkyMap_100-ds2_2048_R4.??_full.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Subset A maps, 143GHz || HFI_SkyMap_143-ds3_2048_R4.??_full.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Subset B maps, 143GHz || HFI_SkyMap_143-ds4_2048_R4.??_full.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Subset A maps, 217GHz || HFI_SkyMap_217-ds3_2048_R4.??_full.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Subset B maps, 217GHz || HFI_SkyMap_217-ds4_2048_R4.??_full.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Subset A maps, 353GHz || HFI_SkyMap_353-ds3_2048_R4.??_full.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Subset B maps, 353GHz || HFI_SkyMap_353-ds4_????_R4.??_full.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Subset A maps, 545GHz || HFI_SkyMap_545-ds2_????_R4.??_full.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Subset B maps, 545GHz || HFI_SkyMap_545-ds3_????_R4.??_full.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Subset A maps, 857GHz || HFI_SkyMap_857-ds3_????_R4.??_full.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Subset B maps, 857GHz || HFI_SkyMap_857-ds4_????_R4.??_full.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Single-detector maps || ?FI_SkyMap_{detector}_????_R4.??_full.fits<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align"left" border="1" cellpadding="15" cellspacing="20" width=880px<br />
|+ '''CMB map FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Component-separation code, coverage || Filename <br />
|-<br />
| SEVEM CMB map || COM_CMB_IQU-sevem_2048_R4.??.fits<br />
|-<br />
| SEVEM foreground-subtracted frequency map || COM_CMB_IQU-fff-fgsub-sevem_2048_R4.??.fits<br />
|-<br />
<br />
|}<br />
<br />
'''FITS file structure'''<br />
<br />
The FITS files for the sky maps contain a minimal primary header with no data, and a ''BINTABLE'' extension (EXTENSION 1, EXTNAME = ''FREQ-MAP'') containing the data. The structure is shown schematically in the figure below. The ''FREQ-MAP'' extension contains a 3- or 10-column table that includes the signal, hit-count, and variance maps, all in HEALPix format. The 3-column case is for intensity-only maps, while the 10-column case is for polarization. The number of rows is the number of map pixels, which is <i>N</i><sub>pix</sub> = 12 <i>N</i><sub>side</sub><sup>2</sup> for HEALPix maps, where <i>N</i><sub>side</sub> = 1024 or 2048 for most of the maps presented in this section.<br />
<br />
[[File:FITS_FreqMap.png | 550px | center | thumb | '''FITS file structure.''']]<br />
<br />
Note that file sizes are approximately 0.6 GB for <i>I</i>-only maps and 1.9 GB for <i>IQU</i> maps at <i>N</i><sub>side</sub>=2048, but about 0.14 GB for <i>I</i>-only maps and 0.45 GB for <i>IQU</i> maps at <i>N</i><sub>pix</sub>=1024 .<br />
<br />
Keywords indicate the coordinate system ("GALACTIC"), the HEALPix ordering scheme ("NESTED"), the units (K<sub>CMB</sub> of each column, and of course the frequency channel ("FREQ"). Where polarization <i>Q</i> and <i>U</i> maps are provided, the "COSMO" polarization convention (used in HEALPix) is adopted, and it is specified in the "POLCCONV" keyword. The original filename is also given in the "FILENAME" keyword. The "BAD_DATA" keyword gives the value used by HEALPix to indicate pixels for which no signal is present (these will also have a hit-count value of 0). The main parameters are summarized in the table below.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Sky map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column name || Data type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_STOKES || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub> || Stokes <i>I</i> map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STOKES || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub> || Stokes <i>Q</i> map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|U_STOKES || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub> || Stokes <i>U</i> map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|HITS || Int*4 || none || The hit-count map<br />
|-<br />
|II_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> || <i>II</i> variance map<br />
|-<br />
|IQ_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> || <i>IQ</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|IU_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> || <i>IQ</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QQ_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> || <i>QQ</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QU_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> || <i>QU</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|UU_COV || Real*4 || K<sub>CMB</sub><sup>2</sup> || <i>UU</i> variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || HEALPix <i>N</i><sub>side</sub> <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12 <i>N</i><sub>side</sub><sup>2</sup> – 1 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ || String || nnn || Frequency channel <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
The same structure applies to all "SkyMap" products, independent of whether they are full channel, survey of half-ring. The distinction between the types of map is present in the FITS filename (and in the traceability comment fields).<br />
<br />
<br />
</div><br />
</div><br />
<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="background-color: #FFDAB9;width:80%" ><br />
'''2015 Sky temperature and polarization maps'''<br />
<br />
<div class="mw-collapsible-content"><br />
<br />
<br />
'''General description'''<br />
<br />
Sky maps give the best estimate of the intensity and polarization (Stokes Q and U components), if available, of the signal from the sky after removal, as far as possible, of known systematic effects (mostly instrumental, but including also the solar and earth-motion dipole, Galactic strylight and the Zodiacal light). Sky maps are provided for the full Planck mission using all valid detectors in each frequency channel, and also for various subsets by splitting the mission in various time ranges or in subsets of the detectors in a given channel. These products are useful for the study of source variability, but they are especially interesting for characterisation purposes (see also the [[HFI-Validation | data validation]] section). The details of the start and end of the time ranges are given in the table below.<br />
<br />
To help in further processing, there are also masks of the Galactic Plane and of point sources, each provided for several different depths.<br />
<br />
All sky maps are in Healpix format, with Nside of 1024 (LFI 30, 44 and 70) and 2048 (LFI 70 and HFI), in Galactic coordinates, and Nested ordering. <br />
<br />
;WARNING: the Healpix convention for polarization is NOT the same as the IAU convention - see Section 8 in this page.<br />
<br />
The signal is given in units of K<sub>cmb</sub> for 30-353 GHz, and of MJy/sr (for a constant <math>\nu F_\nu</math> energy distribution ) for 545 and 857 GHz. For each frequency channel, the intensity and polarization maps are packaged into a ''BINTABLE'' extension of a FITS file together with a hit-count map (or hit map, for short, giving the number of observation samples that are cumulated in a pixel, all detectors combined) and with the variance and covariance maps. Additional information is given in the FITS file header. The structure of the FITS file is given in the [[#FITS_file_structure | FITS file structure]] section below. <br />
<br />
; R2.00 : this first release (Jan 2015) contains polarisation data for the 353 GHz channel only.<br />
; R2.01 : this second release (May 2015) adds polarisation data to the 100-217 GHz channels.<br />
; R2.02 : a full re-release to correct the Healpix bad pixel value in the maps which was altered during the preparation of the maps and not reset to the correct value (the valid pixels are unchanged). It also fixes some FITS keywords, and includes a full re-release of the Zodi correction maps, with the 100-217 GHz one now including the polarisation correction)<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Ranges for mission and surveys'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Range || ODs || HFI rings || pointing-IDs || Comment<br />
|-<br />
|nominal mission || 91 - 563 || 240 - 14723 || 00004200 - 03180200 ||<br />
|-<br />
|full mission || 91 - 974 || 240 - 27005 || 00004200 - 05322620 || for HFI<br />
|-<br />
|full mission || 91 - 1543 || n/a || 00004200 - 06511160 || for LFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 1 || 91 - 270 || 240 - 5720 || 00004200 - 01059820 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 2 || 270 - 456 || 5721 - 11194 || 01059830 - 02114520 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 3 || 456 - 636 || 11195 - 16691 || 02114530 - 03193660 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 4 || 636 - 807 || 16692 - 21720 || 03193670 - 04243900 ||<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 5 || 807 - 974 || 21721 - 27005 || 05267180 - 05322590 || end of mission for HFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 5 || 807 - 993 || n/a || 05267180 - 06344800 || end of survey for LFI<br />
|-<br />
|Survey 6 || 993 - 1177 || n/a || 06344810 - 06398120 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|Survey 7 || 1177 - 1358 || n/a || 06398130 - 06456410 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|Survey 8 || 1358 - 1543 || n/a || 06456420 - 06511160 || LFI only <br />
|-<br />
|Survey 9 || 1543 - 1604 || n/a || 06511170 - 06533320 || LFI only Not in this delivery<br />
|-<br />
|HFI mission-half-1 || 91 - 531 || 240 - 13471 || 00004200 - 03155580 ||<br />
|-<br />
|HFI mission-half-2 || 531 - 974 || 13472 - 27005 || 03155590 - 05322590 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 1 || 91 - 456 || n/a || 00004200 - 02114520 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 2 || 456 - 807 || n/a || 02114530 - 04243900 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 3 || 807 - 1177 || n/a || 05267180 - 06398120 ||<br />
|-<br />
|LFI Year 4 || 1177 - 1543 || n/a || 06398130 - 06511160 ||<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
'''Production process'''<br />
<br />
Sky maps are produced by combining appropriately the data of all working detectors in a frequency channel over some period of the mission. They give the best estimate of the signal from the sky (unpolarised) after removal, as far as possible, of known systematic effects and of the dipole signals induced by the motion of the solar system in the CMB and of the Planck satellite in the solar system. In particular, they include the Zodiacal light emission (Zodi for short) and also the scattering from the far-side lobes of the beams (FSL). More on this below.<br />
<br />
''' HFI processing '''<br />
<br />
The mapmaking and calibration process is described in detail in the [[Map-making_LFI | Map-making]] section and in the {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a09}} paper, where detailed references are found. In brief it consists of:<br />
<br />
; binning the TOI data onto ''rings'' : Healpix rings (HPRs) are used here, each ring containing the combined data of one pointing period. <br />
; flux calibration : at 100-353 GHz, the flux calibration factors are determined by correlating the signal with the orbital dipole, which is determined very accurately from the Planck satellite orbital parameters provided by Flight Dynamics. This provides a single gain factor per bolometer. At 545 and 857 GHz the gain is determined from the observation of Uranus and Neptune (but not Jupiter which is too bright) and comparison to recent models made explicitly for this mission. A single gain is applied to all rings at these frequencies.<br />
; destriping : in order to remove low-frequency noise, an offset per ring is determined by minimizing the differences between HPRs at their crossings, and removed.<br />
; Zodiacal light correction : a Zodiacal light model is used to build HPRs of the the Zodi emission, which is subtracted from the calibrated HPRs.<br />
; projection onto the map : the offset-corrected, flux-calibrated, and Zodi-cleaned HPRs are projected onto Healpix maps, with the data of each bolometer weighted by a factor of 1/NET of that bolometer.<br />
<br />
These steps are followed by some post-processing which is designed to prepare the maps for the component separation work. This post processing consists of: <br />
<br />
; Dust bandpass leakage correction : the Q and U maps are corrected for the intensity-to-polarisation leakage caused by the foregrounds having a non-CMB spectrum, and as a consequence of the non-identical bandpasses on the different detectors (bandpass mismatch, or BPM). This correction is determined using the ''ground'' method as described in Section 7.3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a09}}. These correction maps can be found in the Planck Legacy Archive as ''HFI_CorrMap_???-dustleak-ground_2048_R2.0?_{coverage}.fits''. The correction is applied by subtracting the correction map from the corresponding input map. This correction is not applied to the nominal mission maps in order to maintain compatibility with the PR1 products. ''In fact this correction was computed and applied only to the products used in component separation'', so they were not applied to the single survey maps and to the half-ring maps, which are considered characterisation products.<br />
; Far Side Lobe calibration correction : the 100-217 maps are multiplied by factors of 1.00087, 1.00046, and 1.00043, respectively, to compensate for the non-removal of the far-side lobes, and similarly the corresponding covariance maps have also been corrected by multiplication by the square of the factor.<br />
; Fill missing pixels : missing pixels are filled in with a value that is the mean of valid pixels within a given radius. A radius of 1 deg is used for the full channel maps, and 1.5 deg is used for the detset maps. This step is not applied to the single survey maps since they have large swaths of the sky that are not covered.<br />
<br />
; Map zero-level : for the 100 to 857 GHz maps, the zero levels are set to their optimal levels for Galactic and CIB studies. A procedure for adjusting them to astrophysical values is given in the HFI Mapmaking and Calibration paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a09}}.<br />
<br />
These maps provide the main mission products. Together with signal maps, hit count, variance, and variance maps are also produced. The hit maps give the (integer) number of valid TOI-level samples that contribute to the signal of each pixel. All valid samples are counted in the same way, i.e., there is no weighting factor applied. The variance maps project the white noise estimate, provided by the NETs, in the sky domain.<br />
<br />
Note that the nominal mission maps have not had the post-processing applied, which makes them more easily comparable to the PR1 products.<br />
<br />
''' LFI processing '''<br />
LFI maps were constructed with the Madam map-making code, version 3.7.4. The code is based on generalized destriping technique, where the correlated noise component is modeled as a sequence of constant offset, called baselines. A noise filter was used to constrain the baseline solution allowing the use of 0.25 s and 1 second baselines for the 30 and 44, 70 GHz respectively.<br />
<br />
Radiometers were combined according to the horn-uniform weighting scheme to minimize systematics. The used weights are listed in [[Map-making LFI#Map-making|Map-making]]. The flagged samples were excluded from the analysis by setting their weights to <math>C_{w}^{-1}</math> = 0. The galaxy region was masked out in the destriping phase, to reduce error arising from strong signal gradients. The polarization component was included in the analysis... <br />
<br />
; Dipole and Far Side Lobe correction : input timelines are cleaned by 4pi convolved dipole and Galactic Straylight obtained as convolution of the 4pi in band far sidelobes and Galactic Simulation as explained in Section 7.4 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a03}}. <br />
<br />
Beam effects on the LFI maps are described in Section 7.1 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a03}}. Scaling of the maps due to beam effects is taken into account in the LFI's beam functions (as provided in the RIMO, give reference) which should be used for analysis of diffuse components. To compute the flux densities of compact sources, correction must be made for beam effects (see Table 8 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a03}})."<br />
<br />
; Bandpass leakage correction : '''as opposed to the HFI, the LFI high resolution maps have not been corrected for bandpass leakage. Only low resolution (nside 256) maps are provided with the bandpass correction'''. The correction maps (LFI_CorrMap_0??-BPassCorr_*.fits) can be found in the Planck Legacy Archive. Further details about the procedure used to generate the bandpass correction maps can be found in Section 11 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a03}}.<br />
<br />
; Map zero-level : for the 30, 44 and 70 GHz, maps are corrected for zero level monopole by applying an offset correction, see LFI Calibration paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a06}}. Note that the offset applied is indicated in the header as a comment keyword.<br />
<br />
A detailed description of the map-making procedure is given in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p02}}, {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a03}}, {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a07}} and in section [[Map-making LFI#Map-making|Map-making]].<br />
<br />
'''Types of maps '''<br />
<br />
''' Full mission, full channel maps (6 HFI, 4 LFI)'''<br />
<br />
Full channel maps are built using all the valid detectors of a frequency channel and cover the either the full or the nominal mission. For HFI, the 143-8 and 545-3 bolometers are rejected entirely as they are seriously affected by RTS noise. HFI provides the Q and U components for the 100, 143, 217 and 353 GHz channels only. LFI provides the I, Q and U maps for all the channels. Reminder: HFI Q and U maps are corrected for bandpass leakage but LFI Q and U maps are not. The I, Q and U maps are displayed in the figures below. The color range is set using a histogram equalisation scheme (from HEALPIX) that is useful for these non-Gaussian data fields. For visualization purposes, the Q and U maps shown here have been smoothed with a 1 degree Gaussian kernel, otherwise they look like noise to the naked eye.<br />
The 70 GHz full map is available also at <math>N_{side}</math> 2048.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=260px heights=160px> <br />
File: SkyMap30e.png| '''Full mission I, 30 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap44e.png | '''Full mission I, 44 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap70e.png | '''Full mission I, 70 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap100e.png | '''Full mission I, 100 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap143e.png | '''Full mission I, 143 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap217e.png | '''Full mission I, 217 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap353e.png | '''Full mission I, 353 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap545e.png | '''Full mission I, 545 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap857e.png | '''Full mission I, 857 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br><br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=260px heights=160px> <br />
File: LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R2.01_full_Qb_sm1deg.png| '''Full mission Q, 30 GHz'''<br />
File: LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R2.01_full_Qb_sm1deg.png | '''Full mission Q, 44 GHz'''<br />
File: LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R2.01_full_Qb_sm1deg.png | '''Full mission Q, 70 GHz'''<br />
File: HFI_Skymap_100_full_bplcorrected_sm1deg_Qb.png | '''Full mission Q, 100 GHz'''<br />
File: HFI_Skymap_143_full_bplcorrected_sm1deg_Qb.png | '''Full mission Q, 143 GHz'''<br />
File: HFI_Skymap_217_full_bplcorrected_sm1deg_Qb.png | '''Full mission Q, 217 GHz'''<br />
File: HFI_Skymap_353_full_bplcorrected_sm1deg_Qb.png | '''Full mission Q, 353 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br><br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=260px heights=160px> <br />
File: LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R2.01_full_Ub_sm1deg.png| '''Full mission U, 30 GHz'''<br />
File: LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R2.01_full_Ub_sm1deg.png | '''Full mission U, 44 GHz'''<br />
File: LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R2.01_full_Ub_sm1deg.png | '''Full mission U, 70 GHz'''<br />
File: HFI_Skymap_100_full_bplcorrected_sm1deg_Ub.png | '''Full mission U, 100 GHz'''<br />
File: HFI_Skymap_143_full_bplcorrected_sm1deg_Ub.png | '''Full mission U, 143 GHz'''<br />
File: HFI_Skymap_217_full_bplcorrected_sm1deg_Ub.png | '''Full mission U, 217 GHz'''<br />
File: HFI_Skymap_353_full_bplcorrected_sm1deg_Ub.png | '''Full mission U, 353 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
</center><br />
<br />
''' Full mission light maps, full channel maps (6 HFI, 7 LFI) '''<br />
<br />
These maps are based on the Full mission maps but contain fewer columns, IQU from 30 to 353 GHz, and I only at 545 and 857 GHz. These maps have been produced to reduce the transfer time of the most downloaded frequency full mission maps.<br />
<br />
''' Nominal mission, full channel maps (6 HFI) '''<br />
<br />
These maps are similar to the ones above, but cover the nominal mission only. They are meant primarily to be compared to the PR1 products in order to see the level of improvements in the processing. Because of this, they are produced in Temperature only, and have not had the post-processing applied.<br />
<br />
''' Single survey, full channel maps (30 HFI, 35 LFI)'''<br />
<br />
Single survey maps are built using all valid detectors of a frequency channel; they cover separately the different sky surveys. The surveys are defined as the times over which the satellite spin axis rotates but 180 degrees, which, due to the position of the detectors in the focal plane does not cover the full sky, but a fraction between ~80 and 90% depending on detector position. During adjacent surveys the sky is scanned in opposite directions. More precisely it is the ecliptic equator that is scanned in opposite directions. While these are useful to investigate variable sources, they are also used to study the systematics of the time-response of the detectors as they scan bright sources, like the Galactic Plane, in different directions during different survey. Note that the HFI and LFI missions cover 5 and 8 surveys, respectively, and in case of HFI the last survey in incomplete.<br />
The 70 GHz surveys maps are available also at <math>N_{side}</math> 2048.<br />
Note LFI provide a special surveys maps combination used in the low l analysis. This maps, available at the three LFI frequency 30, 44 and 70 GHz, was built using the combination of survey 1, 3, 5, 6, 7 and 8. <br />
<br />
''' Year maps, full channel maps (12 HFI, 16 LFI)'''<br />
<br />
These maps are built using the data of surveys 1+2, surveys 3+4, and so forth. They are used to study long-term systematic effects.<br />
The 70 GHz years maps are available also at <math>N_{side}</math> 2048.<br />
<br />
'''Half-mission maps, full channel maps (12 HFI, 12 LFI)'''<br />
<br />
For HFI, the half mission is defined after eliminating those rings discarded for all bolometers. There are 347 such rings, may of which are during the 5th survey when the ''End-of-Life'' tests were performed. The remaining 26419 rings are divided in half (up to the odd ring) to define the two halves of the mission. This exercise is done for the full mission only.<br />
<br />
For LFI instead of the half-mission the following year combination has been created: Year 1+2, Year 1+3, Year 2+4, Year 3+4, <br />
<br />
'''Full mission, single detector maps (18 HFI, 22 LFI)'''<br />
<br />
IN case of HFI these maps are built only for the SWBs (non polarized) and contain only temperature data, of course. They are not built for the polarisation sensitive detectors because they are not fixed on the sky as the polarisation component depends on the position angle at the time of observation. Instead, we provide maps built by ''quads'' of polarisation-sensitive detectors (see next section), which have different polarisation angles and that can be used to built I, Q, and U maps<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=600px<br />
|+ '''HFI Temperature sensitive bolometers'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!Frequency || Detector names<br />
|-<br />
|143 GHz || 143-5, 6, 7<br />
|-<br />
|217 GHz || 217-1, 2, 3, 4<br />
|-<br />
|353 GHz || 353-1, 2, 7, 8<br />
|-<br />
|545 GHz || 545-1, 2, 4<br />
|-<br />
|857 GHz || 857-1, 2 , 3, 4<br />
|}<br />
<br />
The 143-8 and 353-3 bolometer data are affected by strong RTS (random telegraphic signal) noise. They have not been used in the data processing, and are not delivered. For a figure showing the focal plane layout, see [[Detector_pointing#Introduction_and_Summary | this Introduction]] of the Detector Pointing chapter.<br />
<br />
In case of LFI, all the 22 Radiometers maps are available, those, obviously, are only in temperature.<br />
<br />
'''Full mission, detector set or detector pairs maps (8 HFI, 8 LFI)'''<br />
<br />
The objective here is to build independent temperature (I) and polarisation (Q and U) maps with the two pairs of polarisation sensitive detectors of each channel where they are available, i.e. in the 44-353 GHz channels. The table below indicates which detectors were used to built each detector set (detset).<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=600px<br />
|+ '''Definition of HFI Detector Sets'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!Frequency || DetSet1 || DetSet2 <br />
|-<br />
|100 GHz || 100-1a/b & 100-4a/b || 100-2a/b & 100-3a/b<br />
|-<br />
|143 GHz || 143-1a/b 1 & 43-3a/b || 143-2a/b & 143-4a/b<br />
|-<br />
|217 GHz || 217-5a/b & 217-7a/b || 217-6a/b & 217-8a/b<br />
|-<br />
|353 GHz || 353-3a/b & 353-5a/b || 353-4a/b & 353-6a/b<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=600px<br />
|+ '''Definition of LFI Detector Pairs'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!Frequency || Horn Pair || Comment <br />
|-<br />
|44 GHz || 24 || This maps is only in temperature<br />
|-<br />
|44 GHz || 25 & 26 || <br />
|-<br />
|70 GHz || 18 & 23 || Available also at <math>N_{side}</math> = 2048<br />
|-<br />
|70 GHz || 19 & 22 || Available also at <math>N_{side}</math> = 2048<br />
|-<br />
|70 GHz || 20 & 21 || Available also at <math>N_{side}</math> = 2048<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
'''Half-ring maps (64 HFI, 62 LFI)'''<br />
<br />
These maps are similar to the ones above, but are built using only the first or the second half of each ring (or pointing period). The HFI provides half-ring maps for the full mission only, and for the full channel, the detsets, and the single bolometers. The LFI provides half-rings maps for the channel full mission (70 GHz also at <math>N_{side}</math> 2048), for the radiometer full mission and the horn pairs full mission.<br />
<!----<br />
'''Masks'''<br />
<br />
Masks are provided of the Galactic Plane and of the point sources. For the Galactic Plane, eight masks are given covering different fractions of the sky, and for the points sources two masks are given, at the 5 and 10 sigma level, for each Planck HFI and LFI frequency channel. These are generic masks, specific masks applicable to other products are delivered with the products themselves.<br />
---><br />
<br />
''' The Zodiacal light correction maps '''<br />
<br />
The Zodiacal light signal depends on the location of the observer relative to the Zodiacal light bands, and thus it is not a fixed pattern on the sky but depends on the period of observation. The maps presented here are the difference between the uncorrected (and not delivered) and the corrected maps. <br />
<br />
Note that while the Zodiacal light model that is subtracted at ring level (see [[Map-making#Zodiacal_light_correction | here]]) is not polarised, the corrections are not null and Q and U. This is suspected to come from some combination of leakage due to bandpass differences and beam mismatch, and maybe other effects. These leakages are typically of order a few %, at max, of the maximum zodi intensity at I for each channel. They range from ~150 nK at 100 GHz to ~5 uK at 353 GHz.<br />
<br />
''' Caveats and known issues '''<br />
<br />
; HFI polarization 100-217 GHz : at low multipoles, despite the progress that has been made to control the systematic effects present in the maps, polarization data between 100-217 GHz are still contaminated by systematic residuals. Figure 10 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a09}} shows the EE power spectra from the half-difference maps at 100, 143, and 217 GHz and compared to the noise power spectrum from FFP8 simulations. he half-ring differences are compatible with noise while, at multipoles typically lower than 50, detector-set and half-mission differences are dominated by excess power which is larger than the EE CMB signal. The Planck Collaboration has used the range ell>30 to carry out component separation ({{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a11}}), as data at ell<30 is not considered usable for cosmological analyses. The origin of the excess power will be explored in a forthcoming publication.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''Inputs'''<br />
''' HFI inputs '''<br />
<br />
The HFI mapmaking takes as input:<br />
* the cleaned TOIs of signal of each detector, together with their flags, produced by the [[TOI processing|TOI processing]] pipeline;<br />
* the TOIs of pointing (quaternions), described in [[Detector_pointing|Detector pointing]];<br />
* bolometer-level characterization data, from the DPC's internal IMO (not distributed);<br />
* Planck orbit data, used to compute and remove the Earth's dipole;<br />
* Planck solar dipole information, used to calibrate the CMB channels;<br />
* Planet models used to calibrate the Galactic channels.<br />
<br />
''' LFI inputs '''<br />
<br />
The Madam mapmaker takes as input:<br />
<br />
* the calibrated timelines (for details see [[TOI processing LFI|TOI Processing]]);<br />
* the detector pointings (for details see [[Detector_pointing|Detector pointing]]);<br />
* the noise information in the form of 3-parameter (white noise level, &sigma;, slope, and knee frequency, <i>f</i><sub>knee</sub>) noise model (for details see [[The RIMO|RIMO]])<br />
<br />
'''Related products'''<br />
''' Masks '''<br />
<br />
This section presents the masks of the point sources and of the Galactic plane. These are ''general purpose'' masks. Other masks specific to certain products are packaged with the products.<br />
<br />
'''Point source masks'''<br />
<br />
For HFI and LFI two sets of masks are provided: <br />
* Intensity masks, which removes sources detected with SNR > 5. <br />
* Polarisation masks, which remove sources which have polarisation detection significance of 99.97 % or greater at the position of a source detected in intensity. They were derived from the polarisation maps with dust ground bandpass mismatch leakage correction applied. The cut around each source has a radius of 3σ (width) of the beam ~ 1.27 FWHM (for LFI the cut around each source has a radius of 32 arcmin at 30GHz, 27 arcmin at 44 GHz and 13 arcmin at 70 GHz).<br />
<br />
Both sets are found in the files ''HFI_Mask_PointSrc_2048_R2.00.fits'' and ''LFI_Mask_PointSrc_2048_R2.00.fits'' in which the first extension contains the Intensity masks, and the second contains the Polarisation masks.<br />
<br />
'''Galactic plane masks'''<br />
<br />
Eight masks are provided giving 20, 40, 60, 70, 80, 90, 97, and 99% sky coverage derived from the 353 GHz map, after CMB subtraction. They are independent of frequency channel. Three versions of these are given: not apodized, and apodized by 2 and 5 deg. The filenames are ''HFI_Mask_GalPlane-apoN_2048_R2.00.fits'', where N = 0, 2, 5.<br />
<br />
The masks are shows below. The 8 GalPlane masks are combined (added together) and shown in a single figure for each of the three apodization. While the result is quite clear for the case of no apodization, it is less so for the apodized case. The point source masks are shown separately for the Intensity case.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery perrow=3 widths=260px heights=160px ><br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo0.png | '''Galactic Plane masks, no apod'''<br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo2.png | '''Galactic Plane masks, apod 2 deg'''<br />
File: GalPlaneMask_apo5.png | '''Galactic Plane masks, apod 5 deg'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_100.png | '''PointSource mask 100 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_143.png | '''PointSource mask 143 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_217.png | '''PointSource mask 217 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_353.png | '''PointSource mask 343 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_545.png | '''PointSource mask 545 GHz'''<br />
File: PointSrcMask_857.png | '''PointSource mask 857 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
''' File names '''<br />
The FITS filenames are of the form ''{H|L}FI_SkyMap_fff{-tag}_Nside_R2.nn_{coverage}-{type}.fits'', where ''fff'' are three digits to indicate the Planck frequency band, ''tag'' indicates the single detector or the detset, ''Nside'' is the Healpix Nside of the map, ''coverage'' indicates which part of the mission is covered (full, half mission, survey, year, ...) , and the optional ''type'' indicates the subset of input data used. The table below lists the products by type, with the appropriate unix wildcards that form the full filename.<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align"left" border="1" cellpadding="15" cellspacing="20" width=880px<br />
|+ '''HFI FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Coverage || filename || half-ring filename <br />
|-<br />
| Full chan, full mission ||HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_full.fits ||HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, nominal mission ||HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_nominal.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, single survey || HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_survey-?.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, single year || HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_year-?.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, half mission || HFI_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.??_halfmission*-?.fits || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Det-set, full mission || HFI_SkyMap_???-ds?_2048_R2.??_full.fits || HFI_SkyMap_???-ds?_2048_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits<br />
|-<br />
|Single SWB, full mission || HFI_SkyMap_???-?_2048_R2.??_full.fits || HFI_SkyMap_???-?_2048_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align"left" border="1" cellpadding="15" cellspacing="20" width=1000px<br />
|+ '''LFI FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Coverage || filename || half-ring filename || Comment<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, full mission ||LFI_SkyMap_???_1024_R2.??_full.fits ||LFI_SkyMap_???_1024_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits || Available also at Nside = 2048<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, single survey || LFI_SkyMap_???_1024_R2.??_survey-?.fits || n/a || Available also at Nside = 2048<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, survey combination || LFI_SkyMap_???_1024_R2.??_survey-1-3-5-6-7-8.fits || n/a || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, single year || LFI_SkyMap_???_1024_R2.??_year-?.fits || n/a || Available also at Nside = 2048<br />
|-<br />
| Full channel, year combination || LFI_SkyMap_???_1024_R2.??_year?-?.fits || n/a || n/a<br />
|-<br />
| Horn pair, full mission || LFI_SkyMap_???-??-??_1024_R2.??_full.fits || LFI_SkyMap_???_??-??_1024_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits || Available also at Nside = 2048<br />
|-<br />
| Single radiometer, full mission || LFI_SkyMap_???-???_1024_R2.??_full.fits || LFI_SkyMap_???-???_1024_R2.??_full-ringhalf-?.fits || n/a<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for the frequency maps with no additional information, we also provide a file combining the 9 frequency maps as separate columns in a single extension. The 9 columns in this file contain the intensity maps ONLY and no other information (hit maps and variance maps) is provided.<br />
<br />
<!---<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align:center" border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" width=500px<br />
|+ '''FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Full channel maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''30GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''44GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Full channel, Zodi-corrected maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}} <br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Combined frequency maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''All''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=file|name=COM_MapSet_I-allFreqs_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=COM_MapSet_I-allFreqs_R1.10_nominal.fits}} <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align:center" border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" width=850px<br />
|+ '''FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Survey 1 maps || Survey 2 maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''30GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''44GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Survey 1 Zodi-corrected maps || Survey 2 Zodi-corrected maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Half-ring 1 maps ||Half-ring 2 maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''30GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''44GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|}<br />
---><br />
<br />
''' FITS file structure '''<br />
<br />
The FITS files for the sky maps contain a minimal primary header with no data, and a ''BINTABLE'' extension (EXTENSION 1, EXTNAME = ''FREQ-MAP'') containing the data. The structure is shows schematically in the figure below. The ''FREQ-MAP'' extension contains a 3- or a 10-column table that contain the signal, hit-count and variance maps, all in Healpix format. The 3-column case is for intensity only maps, the 10-column case is for polarisation. The number of rows is the number of map pixels, which is Npix = 12 <math>N_{side}</math><sup>2</sup> for Healpix maps, where <math>N_{side}</math> = 1024 or 2048 for most the maps presented in this chapter.<br />
<br />
[[File:FITS_FreqMap.png | 550px | center | thumb | '''FITS file structure''']]<br />
<br />
Note that file sizes are ~0.6 GB for I-only maps and ~1.9 GB for I,Q,U maps at <math>N_{side}</math> 2048 and ~0.14 GB for I-only maps and ~0.45 GB for I,Q,U maps at <math>N_{side}</math> 1024 .<br />
<br />
Keywords indicate the coordinate system (GALACTIC), the Healpix ordering scheme (NESTED), the units (K_cmb or MJy/sr) of each column, and of course the frequency channel (FREQ). Where polarisation Q and U maps are provided, the ''COSMO'' polarisation convention (used in HEALPIX) is adopted, and it is specified in the ''POLCCONV'' keyword (see [[Sky_temperature_maps#Polarization_convention_used_in_the_Planck_project|this section]]. The COMMENT fields give a one-line summary of the product, and some other information useful for traceability within the DPCs. The original filename is also given in the ''FILENAME'' keyword. The ''BAD_DATA'' keyword gives the value used by Healpix to indicate pixels for which no signal is present (these will also have a hit-count value of 0). The main parameters are summarised below:<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Sky map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb or MJy/sr || The Stokes I map<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb or MJy/sr || The Stokes Q map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|U_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb or MJy/sr || The Stokes U map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|HITS || Int*4 || none || The hit-count map<br />
|-<br />
|II_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The II variance map<br />
|-<br />
|IQ_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The IQ variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|IU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The IQ variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QQ_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The QQ variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|QU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The QU variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|UU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The UU variance map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix <math>N_{side}</math> <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12 <math>N_{side}</math><sup>2</sup> – 1 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ || string || nnn || The frequency channel <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
The same structure applies to all ''SkyMap'' products, independent of whether they are full channel, survey of half-ring. The distinction between the types of maps is present in the FITS filename (and in the traceability comment fields).<br />
<br />
'''Polarization convention used in the Planck project'''<br />
<br />
The Planck collaboration used the COSMO convention for the polarization angle (as usually used in space based CMB missions), whereas other astronomical fields usually use the IAU convention. In the following document we report the difference between these two conventions, and the consequence if it is NOT taken into account correctly in the analysis.<br />
<br />
[[File:conventions.png|thumb|center|400px|'''Figure 1. COSMO convention (left) and IAU convention (right). The versor <math>\hat{z}</math> points outwards the pointing direction in COSMO, and inwards in IAU. The bottom panel refers to the plane tangent to the sphere.''']]<br />
<br />
Changing the orientation convention is equivalent to a transformation <math>\psi'=\pi-\psi</math> of the polarization angle (Figure 1). The consequence of this transformation is the inversion of the Stokes parameter <math>U</math>.<br />
The components of the polarization tensor in the helicity basis <math>\epsilon^{\pm}=1/\sqrt{2}(\hat{x}\pm i\hat{y})</math> are:<br />
<br />
<math><br />
(Q+iU)(\hat{n}) = \sum _{\ell m}a_{2,lm}{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
\\(Q-iU)(\hat{n}) = \sum _{\ell m}a_{-2,lm}{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
</math><br />
<br />
where <math>{}_{2}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})</math> are the spin weighted spherical harmonic functions.<br />
The <math>E</math> and <math>B</math> modes can be defined as:<br />
<math><br />
E(\hat{n}) = \sum_{\ell m}a_{E,\ell m}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
\\B(\hat{n}) = \sum_{\ell m}a_{B,\ell m}Y_{\ell }^{m}(\hat{n})<br />
</math><br />
<br />
where the coefficients <math>a_{E,\ell m}</math> and <math>a_{B,\ell m}</math> are derived from linear combinations of the <math>a_{2,\ell m}</math> , <math>a_{-2,\ell m}</math> defined implicitly in the first equation (<math>Q\pm iU</math>).<br />
<br />
[[File:test_gradient.jpg|thumb|center|400px|]]<br />
[[File:test_curl.jpg|thumb|center|400px|'''Figure 2. Error on Planck-LFI 70 GHz <math>EE</math> (top) and <math>BB</math> (bottom) spectra, in case of wrong choice of the coordinate system convention (IAU instead of COSMO).''']]<br />
<br />
The effect of the sign inversion of <math>U</math> on the polarization spectra is a non trivial mixing of <math>E</math> and <math>B</math> modes. <br />
<br />
An example of the typical error on <math>EE</math> and <math>BB</math> auto-spectra in case of a wrong choice of the polarization basis is shown in Figure 2.<br />
<br />
BE CAREFUL about the polarization convention you are using. If the IAU convention is used in computing the power spectra, the sign of the <math>U</math> component of the Planck maps must be inverted before computing <math>E</math> and <math>B</math> modes.<br />
<br />
''' Note on the convention used by the Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources (PCCS) '''<br />
For continuity with other compact sources catolgues, the Catalogue of Compact Sources provided by Planck follows the IAU convention, and the polarization angles are defined on an interval of [-90&deg;,90&deg;]. To switch to the COSMO convention, the polarization angles listed in the catalogue have to be shifted by 90&deg; and multiplied by -1.<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
</div><br />
</div><br />
<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="background-color: #EEE8AA;width:80%" ><br />
'''2013 Sky temperature maps'''<br />
<br />
<div class="mw-collapsible-content"><br />
<br />
'''General description'''<br />
<br />
<br />
Sky maps give the best estimate of the intensity of the signal from the sky after removal, as far as possible, of known systematic effects and of the dipole signals induced by the motion of the solar system in the CMB and of the Planck satellite in the solar system. Sky maps are provided for the nominal Planck mission and also, separately, for the first two single surveys, the third one being covered only for a small part during the nominal mission.The details of the start and end times of each are given in [[HFIpreprocessingstatics | this table]]. As a secondary product, maps with estimates of the Zodiacal light and Far-Side-Lobes contribution removed are also provided. <br />
<br />
For characterization purposes, are also provided maps covering the nominal survey but each one using only half of the available data. These are the ''ringhalf_{1|2}'' maps, which are built using the first and second half of the stable pointing part in each pointing period. These maps are used extensively to investigate the (high frequency) noise properties the maps themselves and of other products described elsewhere (see e.g., the [[HFI-Validation | data validation]] section).<br />
<br />
To help in further processing, there are also masks of the Galactic Plane and of point sources, each provided for several different depths.<br />
<br />
All sky maps are in Healpix format, with Nside of 2048 for HFI and of 1024 for LFI (note that the LFI 70 GHz has been delivered also at Nside of 2048 to be directly comparable with HFI maps), in Galactic coordinates, and Nested ordering. The signal is given in units of K<sub>cmb</sub> for 30-353 GHz, and of MJy/sr (for a constant $\nu F_\nu$ energy distribution ) for 545 and 857 GHz. Each sky map is packaged into a ''BINTABLE'' extension of a FITS file together with a hit-count map (or hit map, for short, giving the number of observation samples that are cumulated in a pixel, all detectors combined) and a variance map (determined from the half-ring maps), and additional information is given in the FITS file header. The structure of the FITS file is given in the [[#Format | FITS file structure]] section below.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''Types of maps '''<br />
<br />
; Full channel maps<br />
: Full channel maps are built using all the valid detectors of a frequency channel and cover the nominal mission. For HFI, the 143-8 and 545-3 bolometers are rejected entirely as they are seriously affected by RTS noise. The maps are displayed in the figures below. The range is the same from 30 - 143 GHz in order to show the CMB at the same level. At higher frequencies the range is increased in order to keep the Galactic Plane from invading the whole sky.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=260px heights=160px> <br />
File: SkyMap30.png| '''Nominal mission, 30 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap44.png | '''Nominal mission, 44 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap70.png | '''Nominal mission, 70 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap100.png | '''Nominal mission, 100 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap143.png | '''Nominal mission, 143 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap217.png | '''Nominal mission, 217 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap353.png | '''Nominal mission, 353 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap545.png | '''Nominal mission, 545 GHz'''<br />
File: SkyMap857.png | '''Nominal mission, 857 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
; Single survey maps <br />
: Single survey maps are built using all valid detectors of a frequency channel; they cover separately the different sky surveys. The surveys are defined as the times over which the satellite spin axis rotates but 180 degrees, which, due to the position of the detectors in the focal plane does not cover the full sky, but a fraction between ~80 and 90% depending on detector position.<br />
<br />
; Detector set or detector pairs maps<br />
: These are maps built from a subset of the detectors in a frequency channel, typically our of two PSB pairs (i.e., four poloarisation-sensitive bolometers with different orientation on the sky), for HFI in order to extract a single temperature map. While none of these maps are part of the first Planck data release, the concept of ''detset'' is used, and thus it is worth mentioning it here. In particular, information by detector set is available at the [[Frequency_maps_angular_power_spectra | sky power spectrum]] level and in the [[The RIMO | RIMO]].<br />
<br />
; Half-ring maps<br />
: Half-ring maps are built using only the first or the second half of the stable pointing period data. There are thus two half-ring maps per frequency channel named ''ringhalf_1'' and ''ringhalf_2'' respectively. These maps are built for characterization purposes in order to perform null tests. In particular, the difference between the two half-ring maps at a given frequency give a good estimate of the high frequency noise in the data (albeit biased low by ~0.5% for the HFI channels due to specifics of the TOI processing).<br />
<br />
; Masks<br />
: Masks are provided of the Galactic Plane and of the point sources. For the Galactic Plane, eight masks are given covering different fractions of the sky, and for the points sources two masks are given, at the 5 and 10 sigma level, for each Planck HFI frequency channel. These are generic masks, specific masks applicable to other products are delivered with the products themselves.<br />
<br />
''' Caveats and known issues'''<br />
<br />
The primary limitation of the HFI maps are<br />
* the absence of correction of the ADC non-linearities,<br />
* the far-side lobe contribution is not accounted for in the processing and in the calibration,<br />
* the dipole removal is based on the non-relativistic approximation which leaves a weak quadrupole component in the map.<br />
And thus the overall calibration accuracy is at the 0.2% level in 100-217 GHz channels<br />
<br />
The LFI 70 GHz maps at Nside=2048 should be considered as additional product, the default are the LFI maps at Nside=1024. No effective beam at Nside=2048 is provided, only at Nside=1024, for this reason the use of the effective beam with maps at Nside 2048 is discouraged.<br />
<br />
''' Map zero-level '''<br />
<br />
For the 100 to 857 GHz maps, the zero levels are set to their optimal levels for Galactic and CIB studies. A procedure for adjusting them to astrophysical values is given in the HFI Calibration paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p03b}}.<br />
<br />
For the 30, 44 and 70 GHz, maps are corrected for zero level monopole by applying an offset correction, see LFI Calibration paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p02b}} section 3.4 "Setting the zero levels in the maps". Note that the offset applied is indicated in the header as a comment keyword.<br />
<br />
''' The Zodiacal light and the Far-Side Lobes '''<br />
<br />
The figures below show the modeled Zodiacal light and Far Side Lobes projected onto the maps; they are simply the difference between the ''main product'' and the ''ZodiCorrected'' maps for the nominal mission. The units are given in the figures. The ''heat'' color table has been used in place of the standard Planck for clarity reasons. <br />
<center><br />
<gallery perrow=3 widths=260px heights=170px><br />
File: ZodiRes100.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 100 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes143.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 143 GHz''' <br />
File: ZodiRes217.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 217 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes353.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 353 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes545.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 545 GHz'''<br />
File: ZodiRes857.png | '''zodi/FSL rediduals - 857 GHz'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
The effects of the FSLs are seen most clearly at the highest frequencies, as structures roughly symmetric about the center of the image, which corresponds to the location of the Galactic Centre, which is in turn the source of most of the radiation that is scattered into the FSLs.<br />
<br />
''' Artifacts near caustics of the scanning strategy '''<br />
<br />
The [[Survey scanning and performance|scanning strategy]] is such that regions around the Ecliptic poles are surveyed very deeply and compared to the average, and the transition from the nominal depth to the high depth, as shows on hit-count maps is very rapid, namely a few pixels, for a contrast of ~30. These transitions, or caustics in the maps, occur at different positions on the sky for different detectors, as the positions depend on their location in the focal plane of the instrument. As a result, when data from different detectors are combined to build a full channel map, the the weights of different detectors in the mix changes rapidly across the caustic, and given the remaining errors in the relative calibration of the detectors, a visible effect can be introduced in the maps, especially when the SNR is very high, i.e. at the highest frequencies and near bright regions like the Galactic Plane. Some examples are shown below.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery perrow=3 heights=260px widths=260pix ><br />
File: causta857.png | '''857 GHz intensity map around (272.5, -27)'''<br />
File: caustb857.png | '''857 GHz intensity map around (264.5, -37.5)'''<br />
File: caustc857.png | '''857 GHz intensity map around (98.5, 43)'''<br />
File: hita857.png | '''857 GHz hit count map around (272.5, -27)'''<br />
File: hitb857.png | '''857 GHz hit count map around (264.5, -37.5)'''<br />
File: hitc857.png | '''857 GHz hit count map around (98.5, 43)'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
'''Production process'''<br />
<br />
<br />
Sky maps are produced by combining appropriately the data of all working detectors in a frequency channel over some period of the mission. They give the best estimate of the signal from the sky (unpolarised) after removal, as far as possible, of known systematic effects and of the dipole signals induced by the motion of the solar system in the CMB and of the Planck satellite in the solar system. In particular, they include the Zodiacal light emission (Zodi for short) and also the scattering from the far-side lobes of the beams (FSL). More on this below.<br />
<br />
''' HFI processing '''<br />
<br />
The inputs to the mapmaking are TOIs of signal that have been cleaned (as far as possible) of instrumental effects and calibrated in absorbed watts. While the processing involved is described in detail in the [[TOI processing|TOI processing]] section, we give a very brief summary here for convenience. That pipeline performs the following operations:<br />
<br />
; demodulation: this is performed around a variable level which is determined from the valid input data (a validity flag from a previous version of the processing is used for this purpose), and the data are converted to engineering units (V) using known conversion coefficients.<br />
; despiking: using the demodulated data converted to V (by the transfer function) the glitches are identified and fitted with templates. A glitch flag is produced that identifies the strongest part of the glitches, and a timeline of glitch tails is produced from the template fits, and subtracted from the demodulated timeline from step 1. Finally, the flagged ranges are replaced with data from an average over the pointing period (TBC)<br />
; dark template removal: the two dark bolometers are demodulated and despiked as above; the resulting timelines are then smoothed and used as an indicator of the overall temperature variations of the bolometer plate. Where the variations are consistent with each other, they are combined and removed from the bolometer signal timelines using appropriate coupling coefficients. The few percent of the data where they are not consistent are flagged on the timelines.<br />
; conversion to absorbed power: the timeline is converted to watts of absorbed power using the bolometer function. This includes a non-linearity correction; removal of the 4K cooler lines: the electromagnetic interference of the 4K cooler with the bolometer readout wires induces some sharp lines in the signal power spectra at frequencies of the 4K cooler's fundamental and its multiples, folded by the signal modulations. Fourier coefficients of the relevant lines are determined on a per-ring basis, and then removed from the data. The quality of the removal depends on the bolometer.<br />
; deconvolution by the time transfer function: this is done to correct for the non-instantaneous time response of the bolometers. The function itself is modeled using 4 parameters which are adjusted primarily on the planet data and also from comparisons of the northward and southward scans of the Galactic Plane. It is then removed using Fourier techniques, which has the side-effect of increasing the noise at high frequencies.<br />
; jump correction: removes some (relatively rare: 0.3 jumps per bolometer per pointing period, on average) jumps in the signal baseline. The jumps are detected characterized on smoothed TOIs, and corrected by adding a constant to part of the signal timeline. The origin of the jumps is not known.<br />
<br />
The results of this processing are a timeline of signal (in absorbed watts) and a ''valid data'' flag timeline for each of the 50 valid bolometers processed; these timelines contain the full sky signal, i.e., including the solar and orbital dipoles, the Zodiacal light, and contributions from the Far-Side lobes. The dipoles are necessary for the flux calibration and are removed at the mapmaking stage. The remaining two bolometers (143-8 and 535-3) show semi-random jumps in the signal level, typically jumping over 2-5 different ''pseudo-baseline'' levels, a behavior known as ''Random Telegraphic Signal'', so that these are commonly called the RTS bolometers. Finally, ring-level statistics of different types (mean, median, rms, kurtosis, etc.) are determined on a per-ring basis for all timelines, and a selection based on these statistics is used to discard anomalous rings, which are recorded in a ring-level flag for each valid bolometer timeline (see the [[TOI_processing#Discarded_rings| Discarded rings]] section). <br />
<br />
Throughout this processing, bright planets (Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus) and bright asteroids are masked in the timeline in order to avoid ringing effects in the processing. Since they move on the sky, the portion of the sky masked during one survey is observed during one, and no hole is left in the final map. In parallel, the planet data are processed in a similar way, but with different parameters for the despiking step, and without the final jump correction step. These results are processed separately to determine the beam shapes and the focal plane geometry.<br />
<br />
The pointing is determined starting from the AHF produced by MOC, which gives the direction and orientation of the LOS of a fiducial position in the focal plane at frequencies of 8Hz during stable pointing and 4 Hz during maneuvers (TBC for details, reference). This is interpolated to the times of data observation (ref to method), corrected for the wobble and other time-dependent offsets determined from the observed positions of a large number of sources around the sky, and finally converted to the LOS of each detector using the quaternions in the IMO (which are determined from observations of bright planets - see the [[Detector_pointing]] section). <br />
<br />
The mapmaking and calibration process is described in detail in the [[Map-making_LFI | Map-making]] section, where detailed references are found. In brief it consists of:<br />
<br />
; binning the TOI data onto ''rings'' : Healpix rings (HPRs) are used here, each ring containing the combined data of one pointing period. <br />
; flux calibration : at 100-353 GHz, the flux calibration factors are determined for each pointing period (or ring) from the solar-motion dipole, using the WMAP dipole as the reference, and after removal of the dipole signal induced by the motion of the Planck satellite in the solar system. This gain by ring is smoothed with a window of width 50 rings, which reveals an apparent variation of ~1-2% on a scale of 100s to 1000s of rings for the 100-217 GHz channels, and is applied. At 353GHz, where the solar motion dipole is weaker compared to the signal, no gain variation is detected (within the uncertainties), and a single fixed gain is applied to all rings. At 545 and 857 GHz the gain is determined from the observation of Uranus and Neptune (but not Jupiter which is too bright) and comparison to recent models made explicitly for this mission. A single gain is applied to all rings at these frequencies.<br />
; destriping : in order to remove low-frequency noise, an offset per ring is determined by minimizing the differences between HPRs at their crossings, and removed.<br />
; projection onto the map : the offset-corrected and flux-calibrated HPRs are projected onto Healpix maps, with the data of each bolometer weighted by a factor of 1/NET of that bolometer, and accounting for the slight different band transmission profiles of the bolometers in each band. <br />
<br />
These maps provide the main mission products. A second, reduced, set of maps, cleaned of the Zodiacal emission of the FSL leakage is also produced for the nominal mission and the two single surveys, but not for the half-rings (since the contribution would be the same for the two halves of each ring). For this purpose, the the Zodiacal emission and the FSL contamination, which are not fixed on the sky, are modeled separately at HPR-level, and subtracted from the signal HPR before projecting them onto the maps. <br />
<br />
Together with signal maps, hit count and variance maps are also produced. The hit maps give the (integer) number of valid TOI-level samples that contribute to the signal of each pixel. All valid samples are counted in the same way, i.e., there is no weighting factor applied. The variance maps project the white noise estimate, provided by the NETs, in the sky domain.<br />
<br />
''' LFI processing '''<br />
<br />
LFI maps were constructed with the Madam map-making code, version 3.7.4. The code is based on generalized destriping technique, where the correlated noise component is modeled as a sequence of constant offset, called baselines. A noise filter was used to constrain the baseline solution allowing the use of 1 second baselines.<br />
<br />
Radiometers were combined according to the horn-uniform weighting scheme to minimize systematics. The used weights are listed in [[Map-making LFI#Map-making|Map-making]]. The flagged samples were excluded from the analysis by setting their weights to $C_{w}^{-1}$ = 0. The galaxy region was masked out in the destriping phase, to reduce error arising from strong signal gradients. The polarization component was included in the analysis, although only the temperature maps are released. <br />
<br />
A detailed description of the map-making procedure is given in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p02}} and in section [[Map-making LFI#Map-making|Map-making]].<br />
<br />
'''Inputs'''<br />
<br />
<br />
''' HFI inputs '''<br />
<br />
* The cleaned TOIs of signal of each detector, together with their flags, produced by the [[TOI processing|TOI processing]] pipeline<br />
* The TOIs of pointing (quaternions), described in [[Detector_pointing]]<br />
* Bolometer-level characterization data, from the DPC's internal IMO (not distributed)<br />
* Planck orbit data used to compute and remove the earth dipole<br />
* WMAP solar dipole information used to calibrate the CMB channels<br />
* Planet models used to calibrate the Galactic channels.<br />
<br />
''' LFI inputs '''<br />
<br />
The Madam map-maker takes as an input:<br />
<br />
* The calibrated timelines (for details see [[TOI processing LFI|TOI Processing]])<br />
* The detector pointings (for details see [[Detector pointing|Detector pointing]])<br />
* The noise information in the form of three-parameter (white noise level ($\sigma$), slope, and knee frequency ($f_\mathrm{knee}$)) noise model (for details see [[The RIMO|RIMO]])<br />
<br />
'''Related products'''<br />
<br />
<br />
''' Masks '''<br />
<br />
Masks are provided of<br />
<br />
; the point sources<br />
: 15 masks are provided, three for the LFI (one mask for each frequency masking at the 4<math>\sigma</math> level) and 12 for the HFI (two masks for each frequency at the 5 and 10<math>\sigma</math> levels. For the HFI the masks can be used as they are, for the LFI they need to be downgraded to Nside=1024 except for the 70 GHz channel at Nside=2048 which does not need to be downgraded.<br />
<br />
; the Galactic Plane<br />
: 8 masks are provided giving 20, 40, 60, 70, 80, 90, 97, and 99% sky coverage in two different files, at Nside=2048. For the HFI they can be used as they are, for the LFI they need to be downgraded at Nside=1024 (note that if using the 70 GHZ at Nside=2048 no downgraded is needed)<br />
<br />
<br />
The masks are binary, in GALACTIC coordinates, and NESTED ordering. The table below give the filenames. <br />
<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align:center" border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" <br />
|+ '''FITS filenames for masks'''<br />
|-bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || LFI Point Source masks<br />
|-<br />
| '''30GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_MASK_030-ps_2048_R1.00.fits|link=LFI_MASK_030-ps_2048_R1.00.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''44GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_MASK_044-ps_2048_R1.00.fits|link=LFI_MASK_044-ps_2048_R1.00.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_MASK_070-ps_2048_R1.00.fits|link=LFI_MASK_070-ps_2048_R1.00.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! colspan="2" | HFI Point Source masks<br />
|-<br />
| colspan="2" | {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_Mask_PointSrc_2048_R1.10.fits|link=HFI_Mask_PointSrc_2048_R1.10.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! colspan="2" | Galactic Plane masks<br />
|-<br />
| colspan="2" | {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_Mask_GalPlane_2048_R1.10.fits|link=HFI_Mask_GalPlane_2048_R1.10.fits}} <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
The masks are shows below in a single figure. While this is quite clear for the Galactic Plane masks, it is less so for the point source masks, but it does give a clear perspective on how the latter are distributed over the sky.<br />
<br />
<center><br />
<gallery perrow=2 widths=300px heights=185px ><br />
File: HFI_GalPlaneMask.png | '''Galactic Plane masks'''<br />
File: HFI_PointSrcMask.png | '''PointSource masks'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center><br />
<br />
''' File names '''<br />
<br />
<br />
The FITS filenames are of the form ''{H|L}FI_SkyMap_fff_nnnn_R1.nn_{coverage}_{type}.fits'', where ''fff'' are three digits to indicate the Planck frequency band, and ''nnnn'' is the Healpix Nside of the map, ''coverage'' indicates which part of the mission is covered, and the optional ''type'' indicates the subset of input data used. A full list of products, with links to them in the Archive, is given in the tables below.<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for the frequency maps with no additional information, we also provide a file combining the 9 frequency maps as separate columns in a single extension. The 9 columns in this file contain the intensity maps ONLY and no other information (hit maps and variance maps) is provided.<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align:center" border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" width=500px<br />
|+ '''FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Full channel maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''30GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''44GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Full channel, Zodi-corrected maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}} <br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Combined frequency maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''All''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=file|name=COM_MapSet_I-allFreqs_R1.10_nominal.fits|link=COM_MapSet_I-allFreqs_R1.10_nominal.fits}} <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align:center" border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" width=850px<br />
|+ '''FITS filenames'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Survey 1 maps || Survey 2 maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''30GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''44GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Survey 1 Zodi-corrected maps || Survey 2 Zodi-corrected maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_1_ZodiCorrected.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_survey_2_ZodiCorrected.fits}}<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! Frequency || Half-ring 1 maps ||Half-ring 2 maps<br />
|-<br />
| '''30GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''44GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''70GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=LFI_SkyMap_070_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''100GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''143GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''217GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''353GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''545GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|-<br />
| '''857GHz''' || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits}} ||<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits|link=HFI_SkyMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits}}<br />
|}<br />
<br />
''' FITS file structure '''<br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:FITS_FreqMap.png | 500px | right | thumb | '''FITS file structure''']]<br />
<br />
The FITS files for the sky maps contain a minimal primary header with no data, and a ''BINTABLE'' extension (EXTENSION 1, EXTNAME = ''FREQ-MAP'') containing the data. The structure is shows schematically in the figure at right. <br />
<br />
The ''FREQ-MAP'' extension contains is a 3-column table that contain the signal, hit-count and variance maps, all in Healpix format, in columns 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The number of rows is 50331648 for HFI and LFI 70 GHz at Nside=2048 and 12582912 for LFI maps at Nside=1024 (N.B: Npix = 12 Nside^2). The three columns are ''I_STOKES'' for the intensity (or temperature) signal, ''HIT'' for the hit-count and ''II_COV'' for the variance. The exact order of the columns in the figure is indicative only, and the details can be found in the keywords. <br />
<br />
Keywords indicate the coordinate system (GALACTIC), the Healpix ordering scheme (NESTED), the units (K_cmb or MJy/sr) of each column, and of course the frequency channel (FREQ). The COMMENT fields give a one-line summary of the product, and some other information useful for traceability within the DPCs. The original filename is also given in the ''FILENAME'' keyword as are the datasum and the md5 checksum for the extension. The ''BAD_DATA'' keyword gives the value used by Healpix to indicate pixels for which no signal is present (these will also have a hit-count value of 0). The COMMENT fields give further information including some traceability data for the DPC's. The main parameters are summarised below:<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Sky map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'FREQ-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb or MJy/sr || The signal map<br />
|-<br />
|HITS || Int*4 || none || The hit-count map<br />
|-<br />
|II_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb<sup>2</sup> or (MJy/sr)<sup>2</sup> || The variance map<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix Nside <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12582911 or 50331647 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ || string || nnn || The frequency channel <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
The same structure applies to all ''SkyMap'' products, independent of whether they are full channel, survey of half-ring. The distinction between the types of maps is present in the FITS filename (and in the traceability comment fields).<br />
<br />
''' References'''<br />
<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
</div><br />
</div><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|002]]</div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=Simulation_data&diff=14593Simulation data2022-02-14T11:10:39Z<p>Mlopezca: /* Other Releases: 2020-NPIPE, 2015 and 2013 simulated maps */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{DISPLAYTITLE: Simulations}}<br />
<br />
== Introduction ==<br />
<br />
While PR2-2015 simulations ({{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14||FFP8}}) were focused on the reproduction of the flight data Gaussian noise power spectra and their time variations, this new PR3-2018 simulation (FFP10) brings for the first time the realistic simulation of instrumental effects for both HFI and LFI. Moreover these simulated systematic effects are processed in the timelines with the same algorithms (and when possible, codes) as for the flight data.<br />
<br />
The FFP10 dataset is made of several full-sky map sets in FITS format:<br />
<br />
* 1000 realizations of lensed scalar CMB convolved with effective beams per HFI frequency,<br />
* separated input sky components per HFI bolometer and LFI radiometer<br />
* 300 realizations of noise and systematic effect residuals per frequency,<br />
* one fiducial simulation with full sky signal components: lensed scalar CMB, foregrounds, noise and systematic effect residuals, for all frequencies,<br />
<br />
== The end-to-end simulation pipeline ==<br />
<br />
The end-to-end simulation pipeline uses several software components which are described below in the order they are used, as seen in the following schematic. Note that while this schematic is specific to HFI, the main components in the block diagram are similar for both instruments. <br />
<br />
<center><br />
[[File:Simflow2.png]]<br />
</center><br />
<br />
Please note that most of what is written here comes from {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l03}}, which reading is highly recommended for more precisions on technical details and plots, particularly about the characterization of the negligible effects and systematics.<br />
<br />
=== CMB ===<br />
<br />
The FFP10 lensed CMB maps are generated in the same way as for the previous FFP8 release and described in detail in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}. FFP10 simulations only contain the scalar part lensed with independent lensing potential realizations.<br />
<br />
One "fiducial" realization is used as input CMB for the full end-to-end pipeline, and 1000 other realizations are convolved with FEBeCoP{{BibCite|mitra2010}} effective beams to be combined with the 300 noise and systematic residuals maps.<br />
<br />
The cosmological parameters used are:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="8" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left"<br />
|-<br />
! Parameter<br />
! Symbol<br />
! FFP8.1<br />
! FFP10<br />
|-<br />
| Baryon density<br />
| style="text-align:center;" | <math>\omega_b=\Omega_bh^2</math><br />
| <math>0.0223</math><br />
| <math>0.02216571</math><br />
|-<br />
| Cold dark matter density<br />
| style="text-align:center;" | <math>\omega_c=\Omega_ch^2</math><br />
| <math>0.1184</math><br />
| <math>0.1202944</math><br />
|-<br />
| Neutrino energy density<br />
| style="text-align:center;" | <math>\omega_{\nu}=\Omega_{\nu}h^2</math><br />
| <math>0.00065</math><br />
| <math>0.0006451439</math><br />
|-<br />
| Hubble parameter, <math>H_0=100h \mbox{ kms}^{-1} \mbox{ Mpc}^{-1}</math><br />
| style="text-align:center;" | <math>h</math><br />
| <math>0.6712</math><br />
| <math>0.6701904</math><br />
|-<br />
| Thomson optical depth through reionization<br />
| style="text-align:center;" | <math>\tau</math><br />
| <math>0.067</math><br />
| <math>0.06018107</math><br />
|-<br />
| colspan="4" | Primordial curvature perturbation spectrum:<br />
|-<br />
| &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;amplitude<br />
| style="text-align:center;" | <math>A_s</math><br />
| <math>2.14×10^{-9}</math><br />
| <math>2.119631×10^{-9}</math><br />
|-<br />
| &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;spectral index<br />
| style="text-align:center;" | <math>n_s</math><br />
| <math>0.97</math><br />
| <math>0.9636852</math><br />
|}<br />
<br />
=== The Planck Sky Model ===<br />
<br />
The FFP10 simulation input sky is the coaddition of the following sky components generated using the Planck Sky Model (PSM) package (Delabrouille et al. 2013 {{BibCite|delabrouille2012}}). Each of these components is convovled with each HFI bolometer spectral response by the PSM software, using the same spectral responses as in 2015 FFP8. Please note that one important difference with FFP8 is that FFP10 PSM maps are '''not''' smoothed with any beam, while in FFP8 PSM maps were smoothed with a 5’ Gaussian beam.<br />
<br />
==== Diffuse Galactic components ====<br />
<br />
* '''Dust'''<br />
The dust model maps are built as follows. The Stokes I map at 353 GHz is the dust total intensity Planck map obtained by applying the Generalized Needlet Internal Linear Combination (GNILC) method of Remazeilles et al. (2011){{BibCite|remazeilles2011}} to the PR2-2015 release of Planck HFI maps, as described in {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-XLVIII}}, and subtracting the monopole of the Cosmic Infrared Background ({{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a09}}). For the Stokes Q and U maps at 353 GHz, we started with one realization of the statistical model of Vansyngel et al. (2017){{BibCite|vansyngel2017}}. The portions of the simulated Stokes Q and U maps near Galactic plane were replaced by the Planck 353-GHz PR2 data. The transition between data and simulation was made using a Galactic mask with a 5° apodization, which leaves 68% of the sky unmasked at high latitude. Furthermore, on the full sky, the large angular scales in the simulated Stokes Q and U maps were replaced by the Planck data. Specifically, the first ten multipoles came from the Planck 353-GHz PR2 data, while over the <math>\ell=10-20</math> range, the simulations were introduced smoothly using the function <math>(1+{\sin}[\pi(15-\ell)/10])/2</math>.<br />
<br />
To scale the dust Stokes maps from the 353-GHz templates to other Planck frequencies, we follow the FFP8 prescription ({{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}). A different modified blackbody emission law is used for each of the <math>N_{side}=2048</math> HEALPix pixels. The dust spectral index used for scaling in frequency is different for frequencies above and below 353 GHz. For frequencies above 353 GHz, the parameters come from the modified blackbody fit of the dust spectral energy distribution (SED) for total intensity obtained by applying the GNILC method to the PR2 HFI maps ({{PlanckPapers|planck2016-XLVIII}}). These parameter maps have a variable angular resolution that decreases towards high Galactic latitudes. Below 353 GHz, we also use the dust temperature map from {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-XLVIII}}, but with a distinct map of spectral indices from {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06b}}, which has an angular resolution of 30’. These maps introduce significant spectral variations over the sky at high Galactic latitudes, and between the dust SEDs for total intensity and polarization. The spatial variations of the dust SED for polarization in the FFP10 sky model are quantified in {{PlanckPapers|planck2018-LIV}}.<br />
<br />
* '''Synchrotron'''<br />
Synchrotron intensity is modelled by scaling in frequency the 408-MHz template map from Haslam et al. (1982){{BibCite|haslam1982}}, as reprocessed by Remazeilles et al. (2015){{BibCite|remazeilles2015}} using a single power law per pixel. The pixel-dependent spectral index is derived from an analysis of WMAP data by Miville-Deschênes et al. (2008){{BibCite|Miville2008}}. The generation of synchrotron polarization follows the prescription of Delabrouille et al. (2013){{BibCite|delabrouille2012}}.<br />
<br />
* '''Other components'''<br />
Free-free, spinning dust models, and Galactic CO emissions are essentially the same as those used for the FFP8 sky model ({{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}), but the actual synchrotron and free-free maps used for FFP10 are obtained with a different realization of small-scale fluctuations of the intensity. CO maps do not include small-scale fluctuations, and are generated from the spectroscopic survey of Dame et al. (2001){{BibCite|dame2001}}. None of these three components is polarized in the FFP10 simulations.<br />
<br />
==== Unresolved point sources and cosmic infrared background ====<br />
<br />
Catalogues of individual radio and low-redshift infrared sources are generated in the same way as for FFP8 simulations ({{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}), but use a different seed for random number generation. Number counts for three types of galaxies (early-type proto-spheroids, and more recent spiral and starburst galaxies) are based on the model of Cai et al. (2013){{BibCite|cai2013}}. The entire Hubble volume out to redshift <math>z=6</math> is cut into 64 spherical shells, and for each shell we generate a map of density contrast integrated along the line of sight between <math>z_{min}</math> and <math>z_{max}</math>, such that the statistics of these density contrast maps (i.e., power spectrum of linear density fluctuations, and cross-spectra between adjacent shells, as well as with the CMB lensing potential), obey statistics computed using the Cosmic Linear Anisotropy Solving System (CLASS) code (Blas et al. 2011{{BibCite|blas2011}}; Di Dio et al. 2013{{BibCite|didio2013}}). For each type of galaxy, a catalogue of randomly-generated galaxies is generated for each shell, following the appropriate number counts. These galaxies are then distributed in the shell to generate a single intensity map at a given reference frequency, which is scaled across frequencies using the prototype galaxy SED at the appropriate redshift.<br />
<br />
==== Galaxy clusters ====<br />
<br />
A full-sky catalogue of galaxy clusters is generated based on number counts following the method of Delabrouille et al. (2002){{BibCite|Delabrouille2002}}. The mass function of Tinker et al. (2008){{BibCite|Tinker2008}} is used to predict number counts. Clusters are distributed in redshift shells, proportionally to the density contrast in each pixel with a bias <math>b(z, M)</math>, in agreement with the linear bias model of Mo & White (1996){{BibCite|mowhite1996}}. For each cluster, we assign a universal profile based on XMM observations, as described in Arnaud et al. (2010){{BibCite|arnaud2010}}. Relativistic corrections are included to first order following the expansion of Nozawa et al. (1998){{BibCite|Nozawa1998}}. To assign an SZ flux to each cluster, we use a mass bias of <math>M_{Xray}/M_{true}=0.63</math> to match actual cluster number counts observed by Planck for the best-fit cosmological model coming from CMB observations. We use the specific value <math>\sigma_8=0.8159</math>.<br />
<br />
The kinematic SZ effect is computed by assigning to each cluster a radial velocity that is randomly drawn from a centred Gaussian distribution, with a redshift-dependent standard deviation that is computed from the power spectrum of density fluctuations. This neglects correlations between cluster motions, such as bulk flows or pairwise velocities of nearby clusters.<br />
<br />
=== Input sky maps to timelines ===<br />
<br />
The LevelS software package (Reinecke et al. 2006 {{BibCite|reinecke2006}}) is used to convert the input sky maps to timelines for each bolometer.<br />
<br />
* Using '''conviqtv3''', the maps are convolved with the same scanning beams as for FFP8, which were produced by stacking intensity-only observations of planets ({{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}}, appendix B), and to which a fake polarization has been added using a simple model based on each bolometer polarization angle and leakage.<br />
<br />
* The convolved maps are then scanned to timelines with '''multimod''', using the same scanning strategy as the 2018 flight data release. The only difference between the 2018 scanning strategy and the 2015 one is that about 1000 stable pointing periods at the end of the mission are omitted in 2018, because it has been found that the data quality was significantly lower in this interval.<br />
<br />
=== Instrument-specific simulations ===<br />
<br />
The main new aspect of FFP10 is the production of End-to-end (E2E) detector simulations, which include all significant systematic effects, and are used to produce realistic maps of noise and systematic effect residuals. <br />
<br />
==== HFI E2E simulations ====<br />
<br />
The pipeline adds the modelled instrumental systematic effects at the timeline level. It includes noise only up to the time response convolution step, after which the signal is added and the systematics simulated. It was shown in appendix B.3.1 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-XLVI}} that, including the CMB map in the inputs or adding it after mapmaking, leads to differences for the power spectra in CMB channels below the <math>10^{-4}\mu{K}^2</math> level. This justifies the use of CMB swapping even when non-Gaussian systematic effects dominate over the TOI detector noise.<br />
<br />
Here are the main effects included in the FFP10 simulation:<br />
<br />
* '''White noise:''' the noise is based on a physical model composed of photon, phonon, and electronic noises. The time-transfer functions are different for these three noise sources. A timeline of noise only is created, with the level adjusted to agree with the observed TOI white noise after removal of the sky signal averaged per ring.<br />
<br />
* '''Bolometer signal time-response convolution:''' the photon white noise is convolved with the bolometer time response using the same code and same parameters as in the 2015 processing. A second white noise contribution is added to the convolved photon white noise to simulate the electronics noise.<br />
<br />
* '''Noise auto-correlation due to deglitching:''' the deglitching step in the data processing creates noise auto-correlation by flagging samples that are synchronous with the sky. Since we do not simulate the cosmic-ray glitches, we mimic this behaviour by adjusting the noise of samples above a given threshold to simulate their flagging.<br />
<br />
* '''Time response deconvolution:''' the timeline containing the photon and electronic noise contributions is then deconvolved with the bolometer time response and low-pass filtered to limit the amplification of the high-frequency noise, using the same parameters as in the 2015 data processing.<br />
<br />
: The input sky signal timeline is added to the convolved/deconvolved noise timeline and is then put through the instrument simulation. Note that the sky signal is not convolved/deconvolved with the bolometer time response, since it is already convolved with the scanning beam extracted from the 2015 TOI processing output which already contains the low-pass filter and residuals associated with the time-response deconvolution.<br />
<br />
* '''Simulation of the signal non-linearity:''' the first step of electronics simulation is the conversion of the input sky plus noise signal from K<sub>CMB</sub> units to analog-to-digital units (ADU) using the detector response measured on the ground and assumed to be stable in time. The ADU signal is then fed through a simulator of a non-linear analogue-to-digital converter (ADCNL). This step is the one introducing complexity into the signal, inducing time variation of the response, and causing gain differences with respect to the ground-based measurements. This corresponds to specific new correction steps in the mapmaking.<br />
<br />
: The ADCNL transfer-function simulation is based on the TOI processing, with correction from the ground measurements, combined with in-flight measurements. A reference simulation is built for each bolometer, which minimizes the difference between the simulation and the data gain variations, measured in a first run of the mapmaking. Realizations of the ADCNL are then drawn to mimic the variable behaviour of the gains seen in the 2018 data.<br />
<br />
* '''Compression/decompression:''' the simulated signal is compressed by the algorithm required by the telemetry rate allocated to the HFI instrument, with a slight accuracy loss. While very close to the compression algorithm used on-board, the one used in the simulation pipeline differs slightly, due to the non-simulation of the cosmic-ray glitches, together with the use of the average of the signal in the compression slice.<br />
: The same number of compression steps as in flight data, the signal mean of each compression slice and the step value for each sample are then used by the decompression algorithm to reconstruct the modulated signal.<br />
<br />
===== TOI processing =====<br />
<br />
The TOIs issued from the steps above are then processed in the same way as the flight data. Because of the granularity needed and the computational performance required to produce hundreds of realizations, the TOI processing pipeline applied to the simulated data is highly optimized and slightly different from the one used for the data. The specific steps are the following:<br />
<br />
* '''ADCNL correction:''' the ADCNL correction is carried out with the same parameters as the 2015 data TOI processing, and with the same algorithm. The difference between the realizations of ADC transfer function used for simulation and the constant one used for TOI processing is tuned to reproduce the gain variations found in 2015 processed TOI.<br />
<br />
* '''Demodulation:''' signal demodulation is also performed in the same way as the flight TOI processing. First, the signal is converted from ADU to volts. Next, the signal is demodulated by subtracting from each sample the average of the modulated signal over 1 hour and then taking the opposite value for "negative" parity samples.<br />
<br />
* '''Conversion to watts and thermal baseline subtraction:''' the demodulated signal is converted from volts to watts (neglecting the conversion non-linearity of the bolometers and amplifiers, which has been shown to be negligible). Eventually, the flight data thermal baseline, derived from the deglitched signals of the two dark bolometers smoothed over 1 minute, is subtracted.<br />
<br />
* '''1/f noise:''' a 1/f type noise component is added to the signal for each stable pointing period, with parameters (slope and knee frequency) adjusted on the flight data.<br />
<br />
* '''Projection to HPR:''' the signal timeline is then projected and binned to HEALPix pixels for each stable pointing period (HEALPix rings, or HPR) after removal of flight-flagged data (unstable pointing periods, glitches, Solar system objects, planets, etc.).<br />
<br />
* '''4-K line residuals:''' a HPR of the 4-K line residuals for each bolometer, built by stacking the 2015 TOI, is added to the simulation output HPR.<br />
<br />
===== Effects and processings not simulated =====<br />
<br />
* no discrete point sources,<br />
* no glitching/deglitching, only deglitching-induced noise auto-correlation,<br />
* no 4-K line simulation and removal, only addition of their residuals,<br />
* no bolometer volts-to-watts conversion non-linearity from the bolometers and amplifiers,<br />
* no far sidelobes (FSLs),<br />
* reduced simulation pipeline at 545 GHz and 857 GHz<br />
<br />
To be more specific about this last item, the submillimetre channels simulation uses a pipeline without electronics simulation. It only contains photon and electronic noises, deglitching noise auto-correlation, time-response convolution/deconvolution, and 1/f noise. Bolometer by bolometer baseline addition and thermal baseline subtraction, compression/decompression, and 4-K line residuals are not included.<br />
<br />
===== Mapmaking =====<br />
<br />
The next stage is to use the SRoll mapmaking on the stim HPR. The following mapmaking inputs are all the same for simulation as for flight data:<br />
<br />
* thermal dust, CO, and free-free map templates,<br />
* detector NEP and polarization parameters,<br />
* detector pointings,<br />
* bad ring lists and sample flagging<br />
<br />
The FSL removal performed in the mapmaking destriper is not activated (since no FSL contribution is included in the input). The total dipole removed by the mapmaking is the same as the input in the sky TOIs generated by LevelS (given in section 4.2. of {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l03}}).<br />
<br />
===== Post-processing =====<br />
<br />
* '''Noise alignment:''' an additional noise component is added to more accurately align the noise levels of the simulations with the noise estimates built from the 2018 odd minus even ring maps. Of course, this adjustment of the noise level may not satisfy all the other noise null tests. This alignment is different for temperature and for polarization maps, in order to simulate the effect of the noise correlation between detectors within a PSB.<br />
<br />
* '''Monopole adjustment:''' a constant value is added to each simulated map to bring its monopole to the same value as the corresponding 2018 map, which is described in section 3.1.1. of {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l03}}.<br />
<br />
* '''Signal subtraction:''' from each map, the input sky (CMB and foregrounds) is subtracted to build the “noise and residual systematics frequency maps.” These systematics include additional noise and residuals induced by sky-signal distortion. These maps are part of the FFP10 data set.<br />
<br />
==== LFI E2E simulations ====<br />
<br />
As described in {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l02}}, the LFI systematic effect simulations are done partially at time- line and partially at ring-set level, with the goal of being as modular as possible, in order to create a reusable set of simulations. From the input sky model and according to the pointing information, we create single-channel ring-sets of the pure sky convolved with a suitable instrumental beam. To these we add pure noise (white and 1/ f ) ring-sets generated from the noise power spectrum distributions measured from real data one day at a time. The overall scheme is given in the Figure below:<br />
<br />
[[File:Screen Shot 2018-07-13 at 13.58.58.png|thumb|400px|center]]<br />
<br />
In the same manner, we create ring-sets for each of the specific systematic effects we would like to measure. We add together signal, noise, and systematic ring-sets, and, given models for straylight (based on the GRASP beams) and the orbital dipole, we create “perfectly-calibrated” ring-sets (i.e., calibration constant = 1). We use the gains estimate from the 2018 data release to “de-calibrate” these timelines, i.e., to convert them from kelvins to volts. At this point the calibration pipeline starts, and produces the reconstructed gains that will be different from the ones used in the de-calibration process due to the presence of simulated systematic effects. The calibration pipeline is algorithmically exactly the same as that used at the DPC for product creation, but with a different implementation (based principally on python). The gain-smoothing algorithm is the same as used for the data, and has been tuned to the actual data. This means that there will be cases where reconstructed gains from simulations differ significantly from the input ones. We have verified that this indeed happens, but only for very few pointing periods, and we therefore decided not to consider them in the following analysis. The overall process for estimating gains is given in the figure below:<br />
<br />
[[File:Screen Shot 2018-07-13 at 13.59.17.png|400px|thumb|center]]<br />
<br />
At this point we are able to generate maps for full mission, half-ring, and odd-even-year splits) that include the effects of systematic errors on calibration. In the final step, we produce timelines (which are never stored) starting from the same fiducial sky map, using the same model for straylight and the orbital dipole as in the previous steps, and from generated noise-only timelines created with the same seeds and noise model used before. We then apply the official gains to “de-calibrate” the timelines, which are immediately calibrated with the reconstructed gains in the previous step. The nominal destriping mapmaking algorithm is then used to create final maps. The complete data flow is given in the figure below:<br />
<br />
[[File:Screen Shot 2018-07-13 at 14.03.40.png|400px|thumb|center]]<br />
<br />
<br />
== Delivered Products ==<br />
<br />
=== Input sky components ===<br />
<br />
The separated input sky components generated by the Planck Sky Model are available for all frequencies, at HEALPix <math>N_{side}=1024</math> or <math>2048</math> or <math>4096</math>, depending on frequency:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left"<br />
!<br />
! 100GHz<br />
! 143GHz<br />
! 217GHz<br />
! 353GHz<br />
! 545GHz<br />
! 857GHz<br />
|-<br />
! fiducial lensed scalar CMB<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! CO<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! free-free<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! synchrotron<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! far infrared background<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! kinetic SZ<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_kineticsz-ffp10-skyinbands-100_2048_R3.00_full.fits 100GHz&nbsp;kineticsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_kineticsz-ffp10-skyinbands-143_2048_R3.00_full.fits 143GHz&nbsp;kineticsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_kineticsz-ffp10-skyinbands-217_2048_R3.00_full.fits 217GHz&nbsp;kineticsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_kineticsz-ffp10-skyinbands-353_2048_R3.00_full.fits 353GHz&nbsp;kineticsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_kineticsz-ffp10-skyinbands-545_2048_R3.00_full.fits 545GHz&nbsp;kineticsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_kineticsz-ffp10-skyinbands-857_2048_R3.00_full.fits 857GHz&nbsp;kineticsz]<br />
|-<br />
! Thermal SZ<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_thermalsz-ffp10-skyinbands-100_2048_R3.00_full.fits 100GHz&nbsp;thermalsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_thermalsz-ffp10-skyinbands-143_2048_R3.00_full.fits 143GHz&nbsp;thermalsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_thermalsz-ffp10-skyinbands-217_2048_R3.00_full.fits 217GHz&nbsp;thermalsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_thermalsz-ffp10-skyinbands-353_2048_R3.00_full.fits 353GHz&nbsp;thermalsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_thermalsz-ffp10-skyinbands-545_2048_R3.00_full.fits 545GHz&nbsp;thermalsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_thermalsz-ffp10-skyinbands-857_2048_R3.00_full.fits 857GHz&nbsp;thermalsz]<br />
|-<br />
! faint&nbsp;infrared&nbsp;point&nbsp;sources<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintirps-ffp10-skyinbands-100_4096_R3.00_full.fits 100GHz&nbsp;faintirps]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintirps-ffp10-skyinbands-143_4096_R3.00_full.fits 143GHz&nbsp;faintirps]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintirps-ffp10-skyinbands-217_4096_R3.00_full.fits 217GHz&nbsp;faintirps]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintirps-ffp10-skyinbands-353_4096_R3.00_full.fits 353GHz&nbsp;faintirps]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintirps-ffp10-skyinbands-545_4096_R3.00_full.fits 545GHz&nbsp;faintirps]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintirps-ffp10-skyinbands-857_4096_R3.00_full.fits 857GHz&nbsp;faintirps]<br />
|-<br />
! faint radio point sources<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintradiops-ffp10-skyinbands-100_4096_R3.00_full.fits 100GHz&nbsp;faintradiops]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintradiops-ffp10-skyinbands-143_4096_R3.00_full.fits 143GHz&nbsp;faintradiops]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintradiops-ffp10-skyinbands-217_4096_R3.00_full.fits 217GHz&nbsp;faintradiops]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintradiops-ffp10-skyinbands-353_4096_R3.00_full.fits 353GHz&nbsp;faintradiops]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintradiops-ffp10-skyinbands-545_4096_R3.00_full.fits 545GHz&nbsp;faintradiops]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintradiops-ffp10-skyinbands-857_4096_R3.00_full.fits 857GHz&nbsp;faintradiops]<br />
|-<br />
! thermal dust<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=== CMB realizations ===<br />
<br />
The 1000 lensed scalar CMB map realizations are convolved with the FEBeCoP effective beams computed using the 2015 scanning beams ({{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}}, appendix B), and the updated scanning strategy described in the [[#PSM maps to timelines]] section above. Each CMB realization is available for the full-mission span only, at each frequency, which means 1000 realizations x 9 frequencies = 9000 CMB maps, which can be retrieved using the following link template:<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=febecop_ffp10_lensed_scl_cmb_{frequency}_mc_{realization}.fits</pre><br />
<br />
where:<br />
* '''{frequency}''' is any of frequency: 30, 44, 70, 100, 143, 217, 353, 545 or 857,<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realisation number, between 0000 and 0999, padded to four digits with leading zeros<br />
<br />
For example: http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=febecop_ffp10_lensed_scl_cmb_100_mc_0000.fits<br />
<br />
<br />
=== Noise and instrumental effect residual maps ===<br />
<br />
==== HFI E2E maps ====<br />
<br />
As described above, 300 realizations of full end-to-end simulations have been produced, to which the full sky signal part (CMB+foregrounds) have been subtracted in post-processing, to give maps of noise and systematic residuals only. For each realization and frequency, five data cuts are provided:<br />
<br />
* full-mission,<br />
* first and second half-missions,<br />
* odd and even stable pointing periods (rings)<br />
<br />
In addition to all 6 HFI frequencies, a special detector set made of only 353 GHz polarized bolometers (a.k.a 353_psb) is also published, to match the 2018 flight data set, for a total of 300 realizations x 5 data cuts x 7 HFI detector sets = 10,500 maps.<br />
<br />
The noise maps can be retrieved from PLA using the following naming convention:<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=ffp10_noise_{frequency}_{ring_cut}_map_mc_{realization}.fits</pre><br />
<br />
where:<br />
* '''{frequency}''' is any of HFI frequency: 100, 143, 217, 353, 353_psb, 545 or 857,<br />
* '''{ring_cut}''' is the ring selection scheme, one of: full, hm1, hm2, oe1, oe2<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realisation number, between 00000 and 00299, padded to five digits with leading zeros<br />
<br />
For example: http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=ffp10_noise_100_full_map_mc_00000.fits<br />
<br />
Please note that due to the specific polarization orientation of 100GHz bolometers, odd and even ring maps are badly conditionned for HEALPix <math>N_{side}=2048</math> and are therefore also available at <math>N_{side}=1024</math> by just replacing "_map_mc_" with "_map_1024_mc_" in the file link name.<br />
<br />
<br />
==== LFI E2E maps ====<br />
<br />
For LFI, a similar approach is followed as for HFI in terms of number and formatting of the E2E noise+systematics simulations.<br />
<br />
=== Fiducial simulation ===<br />
<br />
A separate full end-to-end simulation with a different CMB realization is also provided, with the full sky signal included and the same data cuts and detector sets as the 300 noise and systematic residual maps, to serve as a reference for whatever you would need it to. Please don't overlook the important warning below about thermal dust.<br />
<br />
'''TODO: fiducial naming scheme'''<br />
<br />
== Two important warnings about noise and thermal dust ==<br />
<br />
=== Noise ===<br />
<br />
As stated in the introduction, FFP10 focus is on the simulation and correction of the main instrumental effects and systematics. It uses a noise model which doesn't vary in time, contrary to FFP8 simulations which used realizations of one noise power spectrum per stable pointing period and per detector. Doing so, all systematic residuals in FFP8 are considered as Gaussian noise, which time variations should follow the flight data.<br />
<br />
If interested in Gaussian noise variations following flight data rather than non-Gaussian instrumental effects and systematic residuals, the user may want to check whether FFP8 noise maps better suit their needs. This is particularly true for 545 GHz and 857 GHz, for which FFP10 doesn't contain all instrumental effects and systematics and in which detectors' time response deconvolution is simulated at the noise-alignment post-processing step.<br />
<br />
=== Thermal dust ===<br />
<br />
After the production of the 300 realizations of noise and systematic residual simulations, a bug has been found in the PSM thermal dust template used as input, which led to a 10% intensity mismatch in temperature at 353 GHz due to a missing color correction. The same dust template has been correctly used for the simulations and for the sky subtraction post-processing, so the produced and published residual maps are not affected.<br />
<br />
Note however, that the thermal dust maps provided as PSM input sky and the one used in the fiducial simulation are the fixed version of the PSM thermal dust, which slightly differs from the one used (and removed) in the 300 noise and systematic residual simulations.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<br />
<References /><br />
= Other Releases: 2020-NPIPE, 2015 and 2013 simulated maps =<br />
<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="background-color: #9ef542;width:80%"><br />
'''2020 Release of simulated maps (NPIPE)'''<br />
<div class="mw-collapsible-content"><br />
The NPIPE release includes 600 simulated full-frequency and detector-set Monte Carlo realizations. 100 of those realizations include single-detector and half-ring maps. <br />
<br />
NPIPE simulations include all of the reprocessing steps, but only approximate the effects of preprocessing. The approximation is based on simulating the detector noise from a power spectral density (PSD) measured from preprocessed time-ordered data.<br />
<br />
The components of the full signal simulations are:<br />
* CMB signal, consisting of independent CMB realisations convolved on-the-fly with the asymmetric detector beams and including the solar system and orbital dipole;<br />
* foregrounds, consisting of a Commander sky model evaluated at each frequency;<br />
* zodiacal light, based on fits of the zodiacal templates on real data;<br />
* bandpass mismatch, based on real data fits of the mismatch templates;<br />
* LFI gain fluctuations, consisting of smoothed versions of the noisy fits of real data;<br />
* instrumental noise, based on measured noise in preprocessed data, including cross-detector correlated noise.<br />
<br />
In addition, fitting for the full suite of reprocessing templates adds all potential template degeneracies and pipeline transfer function effects.<br />
<br />
Each full signal simulation is accompanied with a symmetric beam-convolved CMB map, foreground map, and a residual (noise) map created by regressing out the input signals from the full map.<br />
<br />
Simulated NPIPE maps derive from a time-domain simulation that includes beam-convolved CMB, bandpass-mismatched foregrounds, and instrumental 1/<i>f</i> noise with realistic intra horn correlations. Seasonal gain fluctuations are added into the simulated LFI signal by smoothing the measured real data gain fluctuation. The data are processed with the same reprocessing module as the real data, introducing similar large-scale systematics and correlations.<br />
<br />
'''CMB'''<br />
<br />
The simulated CMB is the same as used in PR3 simulations. Instead of processing the CMB in the map-domain, NPIPE uses [https://github.com/hpc4cmb/libconviqt libconviqt] to convolve the CMB with individual detector beams at appropriate orientations. Simulating full time-domain processing allows the user to assess potential pipeline transfer function effects relevant to their analysis. This is in contrast to PR3 where the CMB simulations were performed in the map domain.<br />
<br />
The parameters of the simulated CMB are shown in the following table, reproduced from A&A 643, A42 (2020).<br />
<br />
[[File:Ffp10 params.png|400px|frameless|none|Simulated CMB parameters]]<br />
<br />
'''Foregrounds'''<br />
<br />
Unlike the CMB, there is only one realization of the foregrounds. They are based on the Commander sky model, evaluated at the nominal central frequency for each band. Sky-model component maps that are noise-dominated outside the Galactic plane are smoothed to remove unphysical levels of small-scale structure from the simulation. Without this smoothing the simulated 30-GHz maps showed a significant excess of extra-Galactic power when compared to the real data maps.<br />
<br />
Bandpass mismatch is simulated by adding bandpass-mismatch templates to the frequency map before sampling it into the map domain. The template amplitudes are based on real data fits.<br />
<br />
Since the Commander sky model used as input already includes beam smoothing, we do not convolve with the instrumental beam as we do with the CMB.<br />
<br />
'''Noise'''<br />
<br />
Instrumental noise is simulated from mission-averaged noise PSDs. We use the Fourier technique to create noise realizations that conform to the full PSD, not just a parametrized noise model. Correlated noise between detectors in a single horn reduces the horn's sensitivity to sky temperature but not polarization. We use the measured detector cross-spectra to account for this phenomenon. <br />
<br />
'''Simulated maps'''<br />
<br />
100 Monte Carlo realizations are available on the PLA. These include full-frequency maps, A/B splits, and single-detector maps. For convenience, we provide total signal and residual maps. Matching SEVEM-processed CMB and noise maps are also made available.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''CMB realizations'''<br />
<br />
Input CMB maps convolved with a symmetrized beam are available using the following link template:<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20{subset}_cmb_input_{frequency}_map_mc_{realization}.fits</pre><br />
<br />
Here:<br />
* '''{subset}''' is "", "A", or "B";<br />
* '''{frequency}''' is any of 030, 044, 070, 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, or 857;<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realization number, between 0200 and 0299, padded to four digits with leading zeros.<br />
<br />
For example: http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20_cmb_030_A_mc_00299.fits<br />
<br />
<!-- '''Foreground maps'''<br />
<br />
Foreground maps used in the simulation can be downloaded with<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20_foreground_input_{frequency}_map.fits</pre><br />
Here:<br />
* '''{frequency}''' is any of: 030, 044, 070, 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, or 857.<br />
<br />
'''Single-detector maps'''<br />
<br />
Simulated single-detector maps can be downloaded with this link template:<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20_total_{detector}_map_mc_{realization}.fits</pre><br />
<br />
Here:<br />
* '''{detector}''' is any valid Planck detector;<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realization number, between 0200 and 0299, padded to four digits with leading zeros.<br />
<br />
For example: http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20_total_LFI28M_map_mc_0200.fits<br />
<br />
'''Total-signal maps'''<br />
<br />
Simulated total-signal maps can be downloaded using the following link template:<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20{subset}_total_{frequency}_map_mc_{realization}.fits</pre><br />
<br />
Here:<br />
* '''{subset}''' is "", "A", or "B";<br />
* '''{frequency}''' is any of: 030, 044, 070, 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, or 857;<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realization number, between 0200 and 0299, padded to four digits with leading zeros.<br />
<br />
For example: http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20_total_143_map_mc_0200.fits<br />
--> <br />
<br />
'''Residual maps'''<br />
<br />
Simulated residual maps (output - input) can be downloaded with the following link template:<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20{subset}_noise_{frequency}_map_mc_{realization}.fits</pre><br />
<br />
Here:<br />
* '''{subset}''' is "", "A", or "B";<br />
* '''{frequency}''' is any of: 030, 044, 070, 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, or 857;<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realization number, between 0200 and 0299, padded to four digits with leading zeros.<br />
<br />
For example: http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20_noise_030_A_mc_00200.fits<br />
<br />
'''Commander maps'''<br />
<br />
Simulated Commander CMB maps are available at<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20{subset}_sevem_cmb_mc_{realization}_raw.fits</pre><br />
<br />
Here:<br />
* '''{subset}''' is "", "A", or "B";<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realization number, between 0200 and 0299, padded to four digits with leading zeros.<br />
<br />
Matching foreground-subtracted frequency maps can be retrieved with, for example:<br />
<br />
http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20_commander_cmb_2048_mc_0300_005a.fits<br />
<br />
Here:<br />
* '''{subset}''' is "", "A", or "B";<br />
* '''{frequency}''' is any of 070, 100, 143, or 217;<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realization number, between 0200 and 0299, padded to four digits with leading zeros.<br />
<br />
<br />
</div><br />
</div><br />
<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="background-color: #FFDAB9;width:80%"><br />
'''2015 Release of simulated maps'''<br />
<div class="mw-collapsible-content"><br />
<br />
''' Introduction '''<br />
<br />
The 2015 Planck data release is supported by a set of simulated maps of the sky, by astrophysical component, and of that sky as seen by Planck (fiducial mission realizations), together with separate sets of Monte Carlo realizations of the CMB and the instrument noise. <br />
<br />
Currently, only a subset of these simulations is available from the Planck Legacy Archive. In particular:<br />
* 18000 full mission CMB simulations: 1000 for each of the nine Planck frequencies, and for two different sets of cosmological parameters.<br />
* 9000 full mission noise simulations: 1000 for each of the nine Planck frequencies.<br />
* 18 full mission sky simulated maps: two sets of sky maps with and without bandpass corrections applied.<br />
<br />
The first two types of simulations, CMB and noise, that are only partially available in the PLA, and the sky simulated maps, have been highlighted in red in Table 1. <br />
<br />
The full set of Planck simulations can be found in the NERSC supercomputing center. Instructions on how to access and retrieve the data can be found in [http://crd.lbl.gov/departments/computational-science/c3/c3-research/cosmic-microwave-background/cmb-data-at-nersc/ HERE]. <br />
<br />
They contain the dominant instrumental (detector beam, bandpass, and correlated noise properties), scanning (pointing and flags), and analysis (map-making algorithm and implementation) effects. These simulations have been described in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}.<br />
<br />
In addition to the baseline maps made from the data from all detectors at a given frequency for the entire mission, there are a number of data cuts that are mapped both for systematics tests and to support cross-spectral analyses. These include:<br />
<br />
* '''detector subsets''' (“detsets”), comprising the individual unpolarized detectors and the polarized detector quadruplets corresponding to each leading trailing horn pair. Note that HFI sometimes refers to full channels as detset0; here detset only refers to subsets of detectors.<br />
* '''mission subsets''', comprising the surveys, years, and half-missions, with exact boundary definitions given in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a03}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}} for LFI and HFI, respectively.<br />
* '''half-ring subsets''', comprising the data from either the first or the second half of each pointing-period ring<br />
<br />
The various combinations of these data cuts then define 1134 maps, as enumerated in the top section of Table 1 from {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}. The different types of map are then named according to their included detectors (channel or detset), interval (mission, half-mission, year or survey), and ring-content (full or half-ring); for example the baseline maps are described as channel/mission/full, etc.<br />
<br />
The simulation process consists of <br />
* modelling each astrophysical component of the sky emission for each Planck detector, using Planck data and the relevant characteristics of the Planck instruments. <br />
* simulating each detector's observation of each sky component following the Planck scanning strategy and using the best estimates of the detector's beam and noise properties (obtained in flight), then combining these timelines into a single one per detector, and projecting these simulated timelines onto ''observed'' maps (the ''fiducial'' sky), as is done with the on-orbit data;<br />
* generating Monte Carlo realizations of the CMB and of the noise, again following the Planck scanning strategy and using our best estimates of the detector beams and noise properties respectively. <br />
The first step is performed by the ''Planck Sky Model'' (PSM), and the last two by the ''Planck Simulation Tools'' (PST), both of which are described in the sections below. <br />
<br />
The production of a full focal plane (FFP) simulation, and including the many MC realizations of the CMB and the noise, requires both HFI and LFI data and includes large, computationally challenging, MC realizations. They are too large to be generated on either of the DPC's own cluster. Instead the PST consists of three distinct tools, each designed to run on the largest available supercomputers, that are used to generate the fiducial sky realization, the CMB MC, and the noise MC respectively. The simulations delivered here are part of the 8th generation FFP simulations, known as FFP8. They were primarily generated on the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) in the USA and at CSC–IT Center for Science (CSC) in Finland.<br />
<br />
The fiducial realizations include instrument noise, astrophysical foregrounds, and the lensed scalar, tensor, and non-Gaussian CMB components, and are primarily designed to support the validation and verification of analysis codes. To test our ability to detect tensor modes and non-Gaussianity, we generate five CMB realizations with various cosmologically interesting &mdash; but undeclared &mdash; values of the tensor-to-scalar ratio '''r''' and non-Gaussianity parameter '''f<sub>NL</sub>'''. To investigate the impact of differences in the bandpasses of the detectors at any given frequency, the foreground sky is simulated using both the individual detector bandpasses and a common average bandpass, to include and exclude the effects of bandpass mismatch. To check that the PR2-2015 results are not sensitive to the exact cosmological parameters used in FFP8 we subsequently generated FFP8.1, exactly matching the PR2-2015 cosmology.<br />
<br />
Table 1 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}. The numbers of fiducial, MC noise and MC CMB maps at each frequency by detector subset, data interval, and data cut.<br />
<br />
[[File:A14_Table1_1_col.png|center|900px]]<br />
[[File:A14_Table1_2_col.png|center|900px]]<br />
[[File:A14_Table1_3_col.png|center|900px]]<br />
<br />
Since mapmaking is a linear operation, the easiest way to generate all of these different realizations is to build the full set of maps of each of six components:<br />
<br />
# the lensed scalar CMB (''cmb_scl'');<br />
# the tensor CMB (''cmb_ten'');<br />
# the non-Gaussian complement CMB (''cmb_ngc'');<br />
# the forgreounds including bandpass mismatch (''fg_bpm'');<br />
# the foregrounds excluding bandpass mismatch (''fg_nobpm'');<br />
# the noise.<br />
<br />
We then sum these, weighting the tensor and non-Gaussian complement maps with <math>\sqrt{r}</math> and f<sub>NL</sub>, respectively, and including one of the two foreground maps, to produce 10 total maps of each type. The complete fiducial data set then comprises 18,144 maps.<br />
<br />
While the full set of maps can be generated for the fiducial cases, for the 10<sup>4</sup>-realization MC sets this would result in some 10<sup>7</sup> maps and require about 6 PB of storage. Instead, therefore, the number of realizations generated for each type of map is chosen to balance the improved statistics it supports against the computational cost of its generation and storage. The remaining noise MCs sample broadly across all data cuts, while the additional CMB MCs are focused on the channel/half-mission/full maps and the subset of the detset/mission/full maps required by the "commander" component separation code {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
''' Mission and instrument characteristics '''<br />
The goal of FFP8 is to simulate the Planck mission as accurately as possible; however, there are a number of known systematic effects that are not included, either because they are removed in the pre-processing of the time-ordered data (TOD), or because they are insufficiently well-characterized to simulate reliably, or because their inclusion (simulation and removal) would be too computationally expensive. These systematic effects are discussed in detail in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a03}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}} and include:<br />
* cosmic ray glitches (HFI);<br />
* spurious spectral lines from the 4-K cooler electronics (HFI);<br />
* non-linearity in the analogue-to-digital converter (HFI);<br />
* imperfect reconstruction of the focal plane geometry.<br />
<br />
Note that if the residuals from the treatment of any of these effects could be mapped in isolation, then maps of such systematics could simply be added to the existing FFP8 maps to improve their correspondence to the real data.<br />
<br />
''' Pointing '''<br />
The FFP8 detector pointing is calculated by interpolating the satellite attitude to the detector sample times and by applying a fixed rotation from the satellite frame into the detector frame. The fixed rotations are determined by the measured focal plane geometry as shown in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a05}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}}, while the satellite attitude is described in the Planck attitude history files (AHF). The FFP pointing expansion reproduces the DPC pointing to sub-arcsecond accuracy, except for three short and isolated instances during Surveys 6&mdash;8 where the LFI sampling frequency was out of specification. Pixelization of the information causes the pointing error to be quantized to either zero (majority of cases) or the distance between pixel centres (3.4' and 1.7' for LFI and HFI, respectively). Since we need a single reconstruction that will serve both instruments efficiently in a massively parallel environment, we use the pointing provided by the Time Ordered Astrophysics Scalable Tools (Toast) package.<br />
<br />
''' Noise '''<br />
We require simulated noise realizations that are representative of the noise in the flight data, including variations in the noise power spectral density (PSD) of each detector over time. To obtain these we developed a noise estimation pipeline complementary to those of the DPCs. The goal of DPC noise estimation is to monitor instrument health and to derive optimal noise weighting, whereas our estimation is optimized to feed into noise simulation. Key features are the use of full mission maps for signal subtraction, long (about 24 hour) realization length, and the use of auto-correlation functions in place of Fourier transforms to handle flagged and masked data (HFI).<br />
<br />
''' Beams '''<br />
The simulations use the so-called scanning beams (e.g., {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p03}}), which give the point-spread function of for a given detector including all temporal data processing effects: sample integration, demodulation, ADC non-linearity residuals, bolometric time constant residuals, etc. In the absence of significant residuals (LFI), the scanning beams may be estimated from the optical beams by smearing them in the scanning direction to match the finite integration time for each instrument sample. Where there are unknown residuals in the timelines (HFI), the scanning beam must be measured directly from observations of strong point-like sources, namely planets. If the residuals are present but understood, it is possible to simulate the beam measurement and predict the scanning beam shape starting from the optical beam.<br />
<br />
For FFP8, the scanning beams are expanded in terms of their spherical harmonic coefficients, <math>b_{\ell m}</math>, with the order of the expansion (maximum <math>\ell</math> and m considered) representing a trade-off between the accuracy of the representation and the computational cost of its convolution. The LFI horns have larger beams with larger sidelobes (due to their location on the outside of the focal plane), and we treat them as full <math>4\pi</math> beams divided into main (up to 1.9&deg;, 1.3&deg;, and 0.9&deg; for 30, 44, and 70 GHz, respectively), intermediate (up to 5&deg;), and sidelobe (above 5&deg;) components {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a05}}. This division allows us to tune the expansion orders of the three components separately. HFI horns are limited to the main beam component, measured out to 100 arc minutes {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}}. Since detector beams are characterized independently, the simulations naturally include differential beam and pointing systematics.<br />
<br />
''' Bandpasses '''<br />
Both the LFI and HFI detector bandpasses are based on ground measurements (see {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p03d}}, respectively), although flight data processing for LFI now uses in-flight top-hat approximations rather than the ground measurements that were found to contain systematic errors. Differences in the bandpasses of detectors nominally at the same frequency (the so-called bandpass mismatch) generate spurious signals in the maps, since each detector is seeing a slightly different sky while the mapmaking algorithms assume that the signal in a pixel is the same for all detectors. To quantify the effect of these residuals, in FFP8 we generate detector timelines from foreground maps in two ways, one that incorporates the individual detector bandpasses, the other using an average bandpass for all the detectors at a given frequency.<br />
<br />
This effect of the bandpass mismatch can be roughly measured from either flight or simulated data using so-called spurious component mapmaking, which provides noisy all-sky estimates of the observed sky differences (the spurious maps), excluding polarization, between individual detectors and the frequency average. We compare the amount of simulated bandpass mismatch to flight data. The spurious component approach is detailed in the Appendix of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}. Mismatch between FFP8 and flight data is driven by inaccurate bandpass description (LFI) and incomplete line emission simulation (HFI). The noisy pixels that align with the Planck scanning rings in the HFI maps are regions where the spurious map solution is degenerate with polarization due to insufficient observation orientations.<br />
<br />
''' The Planck Sky Model '''<br />
<br />
The Planck Sky Model, PSM, consists of a set of data and of code used to simulate sky emission at millimeter-wave frequencies; it is described in detail in Delabrouille et al., (2013){{BibCite|delabrouille2012}}, henceforth the PSM paper.<br />
<br />
The Planck Sky Model is available here:<br />
http://www.apc.univ-paris7.fr/~delabrou/PSM/psm.html<br />
<br />
The main simulations used to test and validate the Planck data analysis pipelines (and, in particular, component separation) makes use of simulations generated with version 1.9 of the PSM software. The total sky emission is built from the CMB plus ten foreground components, namely thermal dust, spinning dust, synchrotron, CO lines, free-free, thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect (with first order relativistic corrections), kinetic SZ effect, radio and infrared sources, Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB).<br />
<br />
The CMB is modelled using [http://camb.info CAMB]. It is based on adiabatic initial perturbations, with the following cosmological parameters as listed in Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}}<br />
<br />
[[File:A14_Table3_CosmoParams.png|center|800px]]<br />
<br />
''' Galactic and extragalactic components '''<br />
<br />
The '''Galactic ISM emission''' comprises five components: thermal dust, spinning dust, synchrotron, free-free, CO lines (the J=1->0, J=2->1, and J=3->2 lines at 115.27, 230.54, and 345.80 GHz, respectively), and plus the cosmic infrared background (CIB), emission from radio sources, and the thermal and kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effects.<br />
<br />
The '''thermal dust''' emission is modelled using single-frequency template maps of the intensity and polarization, together with a pixel-dependent emission law. For FFP8 the thermal dust emission templates are derived from the Planck 353 GHz observations. This update of the original PSM dust model is necessary to provide a better match to the emission observed by Planck. While one option would be simply to use the dust opacity map obtained in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06b}}, this map still suffers from significant contamination by CIB anisotropies and infrared point sources. Using it as a 353 GHz dust template in simulations would result in an excess of small scale power (from CIB and infrared sources) scaling exactly as thermal dust across frequencies. The resulting component represents correctly neither dust alone (because of an excess of small scale power) nor the sum of dust and infrared sources (because the frequency scaling of the CIB and infrared sources is wrong). For simulation purposes, the main objective is not to have an exact map of the dust, but instead a map that has the right statistical properties. Hence we produce a template dust map at 353 GHz by removing that fraction of the small-scale power that is due to CIB emission, infra-red sources, CMB, and noise.<br />
<br />
The '''spinning-dust''' map used for FFP8 simulations is a simple realization of the spinning dust model, post-processed to remove negative values occurring in a few pixels because of the generation of small-scale fluctuations on top of the spinning dust template extracted from WMAP data.<br />
<br />
The FFP8 '''synchrotron''' emission is modelled on the basis of the template emission map observed at 408 MHz by Haslam et al. (1982). This template synchrotron map is extrapolated in frequency using a spectral index map corresponding to a simple power law.<br />
<br />
The '''free-free''' spectral dependence is modelled in FFP8 by assuming a constant electron temperature <math>T_{e}</math> = 7000 K. Electron-ion interactions in the ionized phase of the ISM produce emission that is in general fainter than both the synchrotron and the thermal dust emission outside of the active star-forming regions in the Galactic plane. The free-free model uses a single template, which is scaled in frequency by a specific emission law. The free-free spectral index is a slowly varying function of frequency and depends only slightly on the local value of the electron temperature.<br />
<br />
The '''radio sources''' are modelled in FFP8 in a different way from the pre-launch versions of the PSM. <br />
<br />
For '''strong radio sources''' (<math>S_{30}</math> > 0.5 Jy), we use radio sources at 0.84, 1.4, or 4.85 GHz. For sources observed at two of these frequencies, we extrapolate or interpolate to the third frequency assuming the spectral index estimated from two observed. For sources observed at only one frequency, we use differential source counts to obtain the ratio of steep- to flat-spectrum sources in each interval of flux density considered. From this ratio, we assign spectral indices (randomly) to each source within each flux density interval. Fiducial Gaussian spectral index distributions as a function of spectral class are obtained from the literature. These are then adjusted slightly until there is reasonable agreement between the PSM differential counts and the predicted model counts predicted.<br />
<br />
For '''faint radio sources''' (<math>S_{30}</math> <= 0.5 Jy), the pre-launch PSM showed a deficit of sources resulting from inhomogeneities in surveys at different depths. We address this issue by constructing a simulated catalogue of sources at 1.4 GHz. We replace the simulated sources by the observed ones, wherever possible. If, however, in any particular pixel, we have a shortfall of observed sources, we make up the deficit with the simulated sources. Every source in this new catalogue is given a model-derived spectral class. We thus assign a spectral index to each source based on the spectral class, and model the spectrum of each source using four power laws. We also assume some steepening of the spectral index with frequency, with fiducial values of the steepening obtained from the literature.<br />
<br />
We combine the faint and strong radio source catalogues we constructed and compute the differential source counts on these sources between 0.005 Jy and 1 Jy. Finally we also model the polarization of these radio sources using the measured polarization fractions from the literature; for each simulated source we draw a polarization fraction at random from the list of real sources of the same spectral type.<br />
<br />
The '''SZ clusters''' are simulated following the model of Delabrouille, Melin, and Bartlett (DMB) as implemented in the PSM. A catalogue of halos is drawn from a Poisson distribution of the mass function with a limiting mass of M<sub>500,true</sub> > 2x10<sup>13</sup> <math>M_\odot</math>. We use the pressure profile from the literature to model the thermal SZ emission of each halo given its redshift and mass. We determine the cluster temperature and assume that the profiles are isothermal. These steps allow us to compute the first-order thermal relativistic correction and the kinetic SZ effect for each cluster, both of which are included in the simulation. Finally, we inject catalogued clusters following the same model, and remove from the simulation corresponding clusters in each redshift and mass range. Hence the SZ simulation features the majority of known X-ray and optical clusters, and is fully consistent with X-ray scaling laws and observed Planck SZ counts.<br />
<br />
The '''CIB''' model used to simulate FFP8 relies on the distribution of individual galaxies in template maps based on the distribution of dark matter at a range of relevant redshifts. We assume the CIB galaxies can be grouped into three different populations (proto-spheroid, spiral, starburst). Within each population, galaxies have the same SED, while the flux density is randomly distributed according to redshift-dependent number counts obtained from JCMT/SCUBA-2 observations and the Planck ERCSC, as well as observations from Herschel-SPIRE and AzTEC/ASTE. We use the Class software to generate dark matter maps at 17 different redshifts between 1 and 5.5. Since the galaxy distribution does not exactly follow the dark matter distribution, we modify the a<sub>lm</sub> coefficients of dark matter anisotropies given by Class. Template maps generated from the a<sub>lm</sub> coefficients are then exponentiated to avoid negative pixels. Galaxies are randomly distributed with a probability of presence proportional to the pixel values of the template maps. One map is generated for each population, at each redshift, and associated with a redshifted SED depending on the population. The emission of these maps (initially at a reference frequency) can be extrapolated to any frequency using the associated redshifted SED. By summing the emission of all maps, we can generate CIB maps at any frequency in the range of validity of our model. <br />
<br />
See {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}} and references therein for a very detailed explanation of the procedures to simulate each of the components.<br />
<br />
The sky model is simulated at a resolution common to all components by smoothing the maps with an ideal Gaussian beam of FWHM of 4 arcminute. The Healpix [http://healpix.sourceforge.net] pixelization in Galactic coordinates is used for all components, with Nside = 2048 and <math>\ell_{max}</math> = 6000. Sky emission maps are generated by numerically band-integrating the sky model maps (emission law of each component, in each pixel) over the frequency bands both of each detector in the focal plane and &mdash; using an average over the detectors at a given frequency &mdash; of each channel. The band-integrated maps are essentially observations of the model sky simulated by an ideal noiseless instrument with ideal Gaussian beams of FWHM equal to the resolution of the model sky.<br />
<br />
''' The CMB Sky '''<br />
<br />
The CMB sky is simulated in three distinct components, namely lensed scalar, tensor, and non-Gaussian complement. The total CMB sky is then the weighted sum with weights 1, <math>\sqrt{r}</math>, and f_<sub>NL</sub>, respectively. For FFP8, all CMB sky components are produced as spherical harmonic representations of the I, Q, and U skies.<br />
<br />
The FFP8 CMB sky is derived from our best estimate of the cosmological parameters available at the time of its generation, namely those from the first Planck data release {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p01}}, augmented with a judicious choice of reionization parameter <math>\tau</math>, as listed in Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}.<br />
<br />
''' The scalar CMB sky '''<br />
<br />
The scalar component of the CMB sky is generated including lensing, Rayleigh scattering, and Doppler boosting effects. <br />
<br />
* Using the Camb code, we first calculate fiducial unlensed CMB power spectra <math>C_{\ell}^{TT}</math>, <math>C_{\ell}^{EE}</math>, <math>C_{\ell}^{TE}</math>, the lensing potential power spectrum <math>C_{\ell}^{\phi\phi}</math>, and the cross-correlations <math>C_{\ell}^{T\phi}</math> and <math>C_{\ell}^{E\phi}</math>. We then generate Gaussian T, E, and <math>\phi</math> multipoles with the appropriate covariances and cross-correlations using a Cholesky decomposition and three streams of random Gaussian phases. These fields are simulated up to <math>\ell_{max}</math>=5120. <br />
<br />
* Add a dipole component to <math>\phi</math> to account for the Doppler aberration due to our motion with respect to the CMB. <span style="color:#ff0000">UPDATE: Note that although it was intended to include this component in this set of simulations, in the end it was not. It will be included in future versions of the simulation pipeline. </span><br />
<br />
* Compute the effect of gravitational lensing on the temperature and polarization fields, using an algorithm similar to LensPix. We use a fast spherical harmonic transform to compute the temperature, polarization, and deflection fields. The unlensed CMB fields T, Q, and U are evaluated on an equicylindrical pixelization (ECP) grid with <math>N_{\theta}=32\,768</math> and <math>N_{\varphi} = 65\,536</math>, while the deflection field is evaluated on a Healpix Nside=2048 grid. We then calculate the "lensed positions for each Nside=2048 Healpix pixel. We then interpolate T, Q, U at the lensed positions using 2-D cubic Lagrange interpolation on the ECP grid.<br />
<br />
* Incorporate the frequency-dependent Doppler modulation effect {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-pipaberration}}.<br />
<br />
* Evaluate lensed, Doppler boosted <math>T_{\ell m}</math>, <math>E_{\ell m}</math>, and <math>B_{\ell m}</math> up to <math>\ell_{max}=4\,096</math> with a harmonic transform of the Nside=2048 Healpix map of these interpolated T, Q, and U values.<br />
<br />
* Add frequency-dependent Rayleigh scattering effects.<br />
<br />
* Add a second-order temperature quadrupole. Since the main Planck data processing removes the frequency-independent part{{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a09}}, we simulate only the residual frequency-dependent temperature quadrupole. After subtracting the frequency-independent part, the simulated quadrupole has frequency dependence <math>\propto (b_{\nu}-1)/2</math>, which we calculate using the bandpass-integrated <math>b_{\nu}</math> boost factors given in Table 4 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}.<br />
<br />
''' The tensor CMB sky '''<br />
In addition to the scalar CMB simulations, we also generate a set of CMB skies containing primordial tensor modes. Using the fiducial cosmological parameters of Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}, we calculate the tensor power spectra <math>C_{\ell}^{TT, {\rm tensor}}</math>, <math>C_{\ell}^{EE, {\rm tensor}}</math>, and <math>C_{\ell}^{BB, {\rm tensor}}</math> using Camb with a primordial tensor-to-scalar power ratio <math>r=0.2</math> at the pivot scale <math>k=0.05\,Mpc^{-1}</math>. We then simulate Gaussian T, E, and B-modes with these power spectra, and convert these to spherical harmonic representations of the corresponding I, Q and U maps. Note that the default r=0.2 means that building the FFP8a-d maps requires rescaling each CMB tensor map by <math>\sqrt{r/0.2}</math> for each of the values of r in Table 2 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}.<br />
<br />
''' The non-Gaussian CMB sky '''<br />
We use a new algorithm to generate simulations of CMB temperature and polarization maps containing primordial non-Gaussianity. Non-Gaussian fields in general have a non-vanishing bispectrum contribution sourced by mode correlations. The bispectrum, the Fourier transform of the 3-point correlation function, can then be characterized as a function of three wavevectors, <math>F(k_1, k_2, k_3)</math>. Depending on the physical mechanism responsible for generating the non-Gaussian signal, it is possible to introduce broad classes of model that are categorized by the dependence of F on the type of triangle formed by the three momenta <math>k_i</math>. Here, we focus on non-Gaussianity of local type, where the bulk of the signal comes from squeezed triangle configurations, <math>k_1 \ll k_2 \approx k_3</math>. This is typically predicted by multi-field inflationary models. See Section 3.3.3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}} for further details on the simulation of this components and references.<br />
<br />
''' The FFP8.1 CMB skies '''<br />
<br />
The FFP8 simulations are an integral part of the analyses used to derive PR2-2015, and so were necessarily generated prior to determining that release's cosmological parameters. As such there is inevitably a mismatch between the FFP8 and the PR2-2015 cosmologies, which we address in two ways. The quick-and-dirty fix is to determine a single rescaling factor that minimizes the difference between the PR1-2013 and PR2-2015 TT power spectra and apply it to all of the FFP8 CMB maps; this number is determined to be 1.0134, and the rescaled maps have been used in several repeat analyses to confirm the robustness of various PR2-2015 results.<br />
<br />
More rigorously though, we also generate a second set of CMB realizations based on the PR2-2015 cosmology, dubbed FFP8.1, and perform our reanalyses using these in place of the FFP8 CMB skies in both the fiducial and MC realizations. Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}} lists the cosmological parameters used for FFP8.1 while Table 1 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}} enumerates the current status of the FFP8.1 CMB MCs.<br />
<br />
''' The Fiducial Sky Simulations'''<br />
<br />
The FFP8 fiducial realization is generated in two steps: <br />
# Simulation of the full mission TOD for every detector<br />
# Calculation of maps from the various detector subsets, intervals, and data cuts. <br />
<br />
Simulation of explicit TODs allows us to incorporate each detector's full beam (including its far sidelobes) and unique input sky (including its bandpass). As noted above, the fiducial realization is generated in six separate components &mdash; the three CMB components (lensed scalar, tensor, and non-Gaussian complement), two foreground realizations (with and without bandpass mismatch), and noise. The first five of these are simulated as explicit TODs and then mapped, while the noise is generated using the on-the-fly approach described in the noise MC subsection below.<br />
<br />
TOD generation for any detector proceeds by:<br />
# Convolving the appropriate sky component with the beam at every point in a uniformly sampled data cube of Euler angle triplets (encoding the pointing and polarization orientation) to produce the "beamskyset".<br />
# Generating the time-ordered data by interpolating over the beamskyset data cube to the exact pointing and polarization orientation of each sample. <br />
<br />
Previous FFP simulations, including FFP6, accompanying the 2013 Planck data release, used the LevelS software package to do this. However, this required format conversions for the input pointing data and the output time-ordered data, at significant IO and disk space costs. For FFP8 we have therefore embedded the critical parts of these routines into a new code which uses Toast to interface directly with exchange format data. <br />
<br />
All of the FFP8 fiducial maps are produced using Madam/Toast, a Toast port of the Madam generalized destriping code, which allows for destriping with an arbitrary baseline length, with or without a prior on the baseline distribution (or noise filter). Madam is used to produce the official LFI maps, and its destriping parameters can be chosen so that it reproduces the behaviour of Polkapix, the official HFI mapmaking code. Comparison of the official maps and Madam/Toast maps run using exchange data show that mapmaker differences are negligible compared to small differences in pointing and (for HFI) dipole subtraction that do not impact the simulation. The sky components are mapped from the TODs, while the fiducial noise is taken to be realization 10000 of the noise MC (with realizations 0000-9999 reserved for the noise MC itself). <br />
<br />
Summarizing the key differences in the map making parameters for each Planck frequency:<br />
<br />
* 30 GHz is destriped with 0.25 s baselines; 44 and 70 GHz are destriped using 1 s baselines; and 100&mdash;857 GHz are destriped using pointing-period baselines (30-75 min).<br />
<br />
* 30&mdash;70 GHz are destriped with a 1/f-shape noise prior, while 100&mdash;857 GHz are destriped without a noise prior.<br />
<br />
* 30, 44, and 70 GHz have separate destriping masks, while 100&mdash;857 GHz use the same 15% galaxy + point source mask.<br />
<br />
* 30&mdash;70 GHz maps are destriped using baselines derived exclusively from the data going into the particular map, while 100-857 GHz maps are destriped using baselines derived from the full data set.<br />
<br />
''' Noise MC '''<br />
<br />
The FFP8 noise MCs are generated using Madam/Toast, exploiting Toast's on-the-fly noise simulation capability to avoid the IO overhead of writing a simulated TOD to disk only to read it back in to map it. In this implementation, Madam runs exactly as it would with real data, but whenever it submits a request to Toast to provide it with the an interval of the noise TOD, that interval is simply simulated by Toast in accordance with the noise power spectral densities provided in the runconfig, and returned to Madam.<br />
<br />
For a simulation set of this size and complexity, requiring of the order of <math>10^{17}</math> random numbers over <math>10^{12}</math> disjoint and uncorrelated intervals, care must be take with the pseudo-random number generation to ensure that it is fast, reliable (and specifically uncorrelated), and reproducible, in particular enabling any process to generate any element of any subsequence on demand. To achieve this Toast uses a Combined Multiple Recursive Generator (CMRG) that provides more than sufficient period, excellent statistical robustness, and the ability to skip ahead to an arbitrary point in the pseudo-random sequence very quickly. See {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}} for further details on the Noise MCs.<br />
<br />
''' CMB MC '''<br />
<br />
The FFP8 CMB MCs are generated using the Febecop software package, which produces beam-convolved maps directly in the pixel domain rather than sample-by-sample, as is done for the fiducial maps. The goal of this approach is to reduce the computational cost by the ratio of time-samples to map-pixels (i.e., the number of hits per pixel).<br />
<br />
The Febecop software package proceeds as follows:<br />
<br />
# Given the satellite pointing and flags and the focal plane (accessed through the Toast interface), for every channel Febecop first re-orders all of the samples in the mission by pixel instead of time, localizing all of the observations of each pixel, and writes the resulting pixel-ordered detector dngles (PODA) to disk. Note that since the PODA also contains the detector, time-stamp, and weight of each observation this is a one-time operation for each frequency, and does not need to be re-run for different time intervals or detector subsets, or for changes in the beam model or its chosen cut-off radius.<br />
<br />
# For every time interval and detector subset to be mapped, and for every pixel in the map, Febecop uses the PODA and the scanning beams to generate an effective-beam for that pixel which is essentially the weighted average of the discretized beam functions for every sample in the pixel included in the time interval and detector subset. The total effective-beam array is also written to disk. Given the PODA, this is a one-time operation for any beam definition.<br />
<br />
# Finally, Febecop applies the effective-beam pixel-by-pixel to every CMB sky realization in the MC set to generate the corresponding beam-convolved CMB map realization.<br />
<br />
The effective-beams provide a direct connection between the true and observed sky, explicitly incorporating the detailed pointing for every detector through a linear convolution. By providing the effective-beams at every pixel, Febecop enables precise control of systematic effects, e.g., the point-spread functions can be fitted at each pixel on the sky and used to determine point source fluxes {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a35}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a36}}<br />
<br />
''' Validation '''<br />
Our goal for the FFP8 simulation set is that it be not only internally self-consistent, but also a good representation of the real data. In addition to the validation steps carried out on all of the inputs individually and noted in their respective sections above, we must also validate the final outputs. A first crude level of validation is provided simply by visual inspection of the FFP8 and real Planck maps where the only immediately apparent difference is the CMB realization.<br />
<br />
While this is a necessary test, it is hardly sufficient, and the next step is to compare the angular power spectra of the simulated and real channel/mission/full maps. As illustrated in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a35}}, LFI channels show excellent agreement across all angular scales, while HFI channels show a significant power deficit at almost all angular scales. Since this missing HFI power is not picked up in the noise estimation, it must be sky-synchronous (frequency bins corresponding to sky-synchronous signals being discarded when fitting the noise PSDs due to their contamination by signal residuals). This is now understood to be a systematic effect introduced in the HFI pre-processing pipeline, and we are working both to incorporate it as a systematic component in existing simulations and to ameliorate if for future data releases.<br />
<br />
Finally, the various analyses of the FFP8 maps in conjunction with the flight data provide powerful incidental validation. To date the only issues observed here are the known mismatch between the FFP8 and PR2-2015 cosmologies, and the missing systematic component in the HFI maps. As noted above, the former is readily addressed by rescaling or using FFP8.1; however, the characterization and reproduction of the latter is an ongoing effort. Specific details of the consequences of this as-yet unresolved issue, such as its impact on null-test failures and ''p''-value stability in studies of non-Gaussianity. In addition, as stated above, the CMB simulations containing only the modulation but not aberration part of the Doppler boost signal.<br />
<br />
''' Delivered products '''<br />
<br />
''' Fiducial Sky '''<br />
<br />
There are 9 PSM simulations of the fiducial sky that correspond to the simulated sky integrated over the average spectral response of each band, but not convolved with the beam. They can be downloaded from the PLA or directly here:<br />
<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-030_1024_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-044_1024_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-070_1024_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-100_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-143_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-217_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-353_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-545_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-857_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
<br />
In addition, a set of 9 simulations of the fiducial sky corrected for bandpass mismatch (nobpm) can be obtained here:<br />
<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-030_1024_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-044_1024_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-070_1024_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-100_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-143_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-217_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-353_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-545_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-857_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Sky simulated maps file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'SimMap_Sky' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|TEMPERATURE || Real*4 || K_cmb (30-353 GHz) or MJy/sr (545 and 857 GHz) || The Stokes I map<br />
|-<br />
|Q-POLARISATION || Real*4 || K_cmb (30-353 GHz) || The Stokes Q map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|U-POLARISATION || Real*4 || K_cmb (30-353 GHz) || The Stokes U map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix <math>N_{side}</math> <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12 <math>N_{side}</math><sup>2</sup> – 1 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Note: Original PSM foreground components has been generated at NSIDE 2048 and using a gaussian beam of 4 arcmin. LFI CMB maps has been downgraded at NSIDE 1024.<br />
<br />
''' CMB MC '''<br />
<br />
There are 1000 realizations of the lensed CMB per frequency for FFP8 and FFP9, making a total of 18000 CMB simulations available in the PLA. They are named:<br />
<br />
* ''HFI_SimMap_cmb-ffp8-scl-{nnnn}_2048_R2.00_nominal.fits''<br />
* ''LFI_SimMap_cmb-ffp8-scl-{nnnn}_1024_R2.00_nominal.fits''<br />
<br />
* ''HFI_SimMap_cmb-ffp9-scl-{nnnn}_2048_R2.00_nominal.fits''<br />
* ''LFI_SimMap_cmb-ffp9-scl-{nnnn}_1024_R2.00_nominal.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''nnnn'' ranges from 0000 to 1000.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB FFP8 and FFP9 simulated maps file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'SimMap_cmb-ffp?-scl' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|TEMPERATURE || Real*4 || K_cmb (30-353 GHz) or MJy/sr (545 and 857 GHz) || The Stokes I map<br />
|-<br />
|Q-POLARISATION || Real*4 || K_cmb (30-353 GHz) || The Stokes Q map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|U-POLARISATION || Real*4 || K_cmb (30-353 GHz) || The Stokes U map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || RING || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix <math>N_{side}</math> <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12 <math>N_{side}</math><sup>2</sup> – 1 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
''' Noise MC '''<br />
<br />
There are 1000 of the noise per frequency for FFP8, making 9000 noise realizations available in the PLA. They are named<br />
<br />
* ''HFI_SimMap_noise-ffp8-{nnnn}_2048_R2.00_nominal.fits''<br />
* ''LFI_SimMap_noise-ffp8-{nnnn}_1024_R2.00_nominal.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''nnnn'' ranges from 0000 to 1000.<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Noise simulated maps file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'SimMap_Sky' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|TEMPERATURE || Real*4 || K_cmb || <br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix <math>N_{side}</math> <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12 <math>N_{side}</math><sup>2</sup> – 1 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
''' Lensing Simulations '''<br />
<br />
The lensing simulations package contains 100 realisations of the Planck "MV (TT+TE+ET+TB+BT+EE+EB+BE)" lensing potential estimate (November 2014 pipeline v12), as well as the input lensing realizations. They can be used to determine error bars as well eas effective normalizations for cross-correlation with other tracers of lensing. These simulations are of the lensing convergence map contained in the [[Specially processed maps#Lensing map | Lensing map]] release file. The production and characterisation of this lensing potential map are described in detail in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a17}}, which also describes the procedure used to generate the realizations given here.<br />
<br />
<br />
The simulations are delivered as a gzipped tarball of approximately 8 GB in size. For delivery purposes, the package has been split into 4 2GB files using the unix command<br />
: <tt> split -d -b 2048m </tt><br />
<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?COSMOLOGY.FILE_ID=COM_Lensing-SimMap_2048_R2.00.tar.00<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?COSMOLOGY.FILE_ID=COM_Lensing-SimMap_2048_R2.00.tar.01<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?COSMOLOGY.FILE_ID=COM_Lensing-SimMap_2048_R2.00.tar.02<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?COSMOLOGY.FILE_ID=COM_Lensing-SimMap_2048_R2.00.tar.03<br />
<br />
After downloading the individual chunks, the full tarball can be reconstructed with the command<br />
: <tt>cat COM_Lensing-SimMap_2048_R2.00.tar.* | tar xvf - </tt><br />
<br />
The contents of the tarball are described below:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left"<br />
|+ ''' Contents of COM_Lensing-SimMap_2048_R2.00.tar '''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Filename || Format || Description<br />
|-<br />
| obs_klms/sim_????_klm.fits || HEALPIX FITS format alm, with <math> L_{\rm max} = 2048 </math> || Contains the simulated convergence estimate <math> \hat{\kappa}_{LM} = \frac{1}{2} L(L+1)\hat{\phi}_{LM} </math> for each simulation.<br />
|-<br />
| sky_klms/sim_????_klm.fits || HEALPIX FITS format alm, with <math> L_{\rm max} = 2048 </math> || Contains the input lensing convergence for each simulation.<br />
|-<br />
| inputs/mask.fits.gz || HEALPIX FITS format map, with <math> N_{\rm side} = 2048 </math> || Contains the lens reconstruction analysis mask.<br />
|-<br />
| inputs/cls/cl??.dat || ASCII text file, with columns = (<math>L</math>, <math>C_L </math>) || Contains the fiducial theory CMB power spectra for TT, EE, BB, <math> \kappa \kappa </math> and <math> T \kappa </math>, with temperature and polarization in units of <math> \mu K </math>.<br />
|- <br />
|}<br />
<br />
</div><br />
</div><br />
<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="background-color: #EEE8AA;width:80%"><br />
'''2013 Release of simulated maps'''<br />
<div class="mw-collapsible-content"><br />
<br />
''' Introduction '''<br />
<br />
The 2013 Planck data release is supported by a set of simulated maps of the model sky, by astrophysical component, and of that sky as seen by Planck. The simulation process consists of <br />
# modeling each astrophysical component of the sky emission for each Planck detector, using pre-Planck data and the relevant characteristics of the Planck instruments (namely the detector plus filter transmissions curves). <br />
# simulating each detector's observation of each sky component following the Planck scanning strategy and using the best estimates of the detector's beam and noise properties (now obtained in flight), then combining these timelines into a single one per detector, and projecting these simulated timelines onto ''observed'' maps (the ''fiducial'' sky), as is done with the on-orbit data;<br />
# generating Monte Carlo realizations of the CMB and of the noise, again following the Planck scanning strategy and using our best estimates of the detector beams and noise properties respectively. <br />
The first step is performed by the ''Planck Sky Model'' (PSM), and the last two by the ''Planck Simulation Tools'' (PST), both of which are described in the sections below. <br />
<br />
The production of a full focal plane (FFP) simulation, and including the many MC realizations of the CMB and the noise, requires both HFI and LFI data and includes large, computationally challenging, MC realizations. They are too large to be generated on either of the DPC's own cluster. Instead the PST consists of three distinct tools, each designed to run on the largest available supercomputers, that are used to generate the fiducial sky realization, the CMB MC, and the noise MC respectively. The simulations delivered here are part of the 6th generation FFP simulations, known as FFP6. They were primarily generated on the Hopper and Edison systems at [http://www.nersc.gov NERSC], with some of the LFI noise MCs generated on the Louhi system at [http://www.csc.fi/english CSC].<br />
<br />
While FFP6 includes our best measurements of the detector band-passes, main beams and noise power spectral densities, and is guaranteed to be internally self-consistent, there are a number of differences with the real data that should be borne in mind, although all tests performed to date indicate that these are statistically insignificant:<br />
* the beams do not include far side-lobes;<br />
* the detector noise characteristics are assumed stable: a single noise spectrum per detector is used for the entire mission;<br />
* it assumes perfect calibration, transfer function deconvolution and deglitching;<br />
* it uses the HFI pointing solution for the LFI frequencies, rather than the DPC's two focal plane model.<br />
* it uses a different map-maker to HFI, and as a consequence implements very slightly different data cuts - primarily at ring boundaries - resulting in marginally different hit-maps.<br />
<br />
''' The Planck Sky Model '''<br />
<br />
<br />
''' Overall description '''<br />
<br />
The Planck Sky Model, PSM, consists of a set of data and of code used to simulate sky emission at millimeter-wave frequencies; it is described in detail in Delabrouille et al., (2013){{BibCite|delabrouille2012}}, henceforth the PSM paper..<br />
<br />
The Planck Sky Model is available here:<br />
http://www.apc.univ-paris7.fr/~delabrou/PSM/psm.html<br />
<br />
The main simulations used to test and validate the Planck data analysis pipelines (and, in particular, component separation) makes use of simulations generated with version 1.7.7 of the PSM software. The total sky emission is built from the CMB plus ten foreground components, namely thermal dust, spinning dust, synchrotron, CO lines, free-free, thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect (with first order relativistic corrections), kinetic SZ effect, radio and infrared sources, Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB).<br />
<br />
The CMB is modeled using [http://camb.info CAMB]. It is based on adiabatic initial perturbations, with the following cosmological parameters:<br />
* T_CMB = 2.725<br />
* H = 0.684<br />
* OMEGA_M = 0.292<br />
* OMEGA_B = 0.04724<br />
* OMEGA_NU = 0<br />
* OMEGA_K = 0<br />
* SIGMA_8 = 0.789<br />
* N_S = 0.9732<br />
* N_S_RUNNING = 0<br />
* N_T = 0<br />
* R = 0.0844<br />
* TAU_REION = 0.085<br />
* HE_FRACTION = 0.245<br />
* N_MASSLESS_NU = 3.04<br />
* N_MASSIVE_NU = 0<br />
* W_DARK_ENERGY = -1<br />
* K_PIVOT = 0.002<br />
* SCALAR_AMPLITUDE = 2.441e-9<br />
and all other parameters are set to the default standard of the Jan 2012 version of CAMB. In addition, this simulated CMB contains non-Gaussian corrections of the local type, with an f<sub>NL</sub> parameter of 20.4075.<br />
<br />
The Galactic ISM emission comprises five components: thermal dust, spinning dust, synchrotron, CO lines, and free-free emission. We refer the reader to the PSM publication for details. For the simulations generated here, however, the thermal dust model has been modified in the following way: instead of being based on the 100 micron map of Schlegel, Finkbeiner and Davis (2008){{BibCite|schlegel1998}}, henceforth SFB, the dust template uses an internal release of the 857 GHz Planck observed map itself, in which point sources have been subtracted, and which has been locally filtered to remove CIB fluctuations in the regions of lowest column density. A caveat is that while this reduces the level of CIB fluctuations in the dust map in some of the regions, in regions of moderate dust column density the CIB contamination is actually somewhat larger than in the SFD map (by reason of different emission laws for dust and CIB, and of the higher resolution of the Planck map).<br />
<br />
The other emissions of the galactic ISM are simulated using the prescription described in the PSM paper. Synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust emission are based on WMAP observations, as analyzed by Miville-Deschenes et al. (2008){{BibCite|Miville2008}}. Small scale fluctuations have been added to increase the variance on small scales and compensate the lower resolution of WMAP as compared to Planck (in particular for the HFI channels). The main limitation of these maps is the presence at high galactic latitude of fluctuations that may be attributed to WMAP noise. The presence of noise and of added Gaussian fluctuations on small scales may result in a few occasional pixels being negative (e.g. in the spinning dust maps). Low frequency foreground maps are also contaminated by some residuals of bright radio sources that have not been properly subtracted from the templates of diffuse emission.<br />
<br />
The CO maps are simulated using the CO J=1-0 observations of Dame et al. (2001){{BibCite|dame2001}}. The main limitations are limited sky coverage, lower resolution than that of Planck high frequency channels, line ratios (J=2-1)/(J=1-0) and (J=3-2)/(J=2-1) constant over the sky. The CO in the simulation is limited to the three lowest <sup>12</sup>CO lines. No CO maps has been simulated at the LFI frequnecy (30, 44 and 70 GHz).<br />
<br />
Galaxy clusters are generated on the basis of cluster number counts, following the Tinker et al. (2008){{BibCite|Tinker2008}} mass function, for the cosmological parameters listed above. Clusters are assumed perfectly spherical, isothermal, and are modeled using the universal pressure profile of Arnaud et al. (2010){{BibCite|arnaud2010}}. Relativistic corrections following Itoh et al. (1998){{BibCite|Nozawa1998}} are included to first order. The simulated kinetic SZ effect assumes no bulk flow, and a redshift-dependent average cluster velocity compatible with the linear growth of structures.<br />
<br />
Point sources comprise radio sources (based on extrapolations across frequencies of radio observations between 800 MHz and 5 GHz) and infrared sources (based on extrapolations in frequencies of IRAS sources). One caveat is that due to the unevenness of the radio source surveys, the equatorial southern part of the sky has less faint radio sources than the northern part. Although all the missing sources are well below the Planck detection level, this induces a small variation of the total emission background over the sky. Check the individual faint point source emission maps if this is a potential problem for your applications. See also the PSM paper for details about the PSM point source simulations. The PSM separates bright and faint point source; the former are initially in a catalog, and the latter in a map, though a map of the former can also be produced. In the processing below, the bright sources are simulated via the catalog, but for convenience they are delivered as a map.<br />
<br />
Finally, the far infrared background due to high redshift galaxies has been simulated using a procedure is based on the distribution of galaxies in shells of density contrast at various redshifts (Castex et al., PhD thesis; paper in preparation). This simulation has been modified by gradually substituting an uncorrelated extra term of CIB emission at low frequencies, artificially added in particular to decorrelate the CIB at frequencies below 217 GHz from the CIB above that frequency, to mimic the apparent decorrelation observed in the Planck Early Paper on CIB power spectrum {{PlanckPapers|planck2011-6-6}}. <br />
<br />
While the PSM simulations described here provide a reasonably representative multi-component model of sky emission, users are warned that it has been put together mostly on the basis of data sets and knowledge pre-existing the Planck observations themselves. While it is sophisticated enough to include variations of emission laws of major components of the ISM emission, different emission laws for most sources, and a reasonably coherent global picture, it is not (and is not supposed to be) identical to the real sky emission. The users are warned to use these simulations with caution.<br />
<br />
''' PSM Products '''<br />
<br />
To build maps corresponding to the Planck channels, the models described above are convolved with the [[Spectral_response | spectral response]] of the channel in question. The products given here are for the full frequency channels, and as such they are not used in the Planck specific simulations, which use only individual detector channels. The frequency channel spectral responses used (given in [[the RIMO|the RIMO]]), are averages of the responses of the detectors of each frequency channel weighted as they are in the mapmaking step. They are provided for the purpose of testing user's own software of simulations and component separation.<br />
<br />
PSM maps of the CMB and of the ten foregrounds are given in the following map products:<br />
<br />
HFI<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_cmb_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_cmb_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_co_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_co_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_firb_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_firb_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_strongps_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_strongps_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_faintps_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_faintps_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_freefree_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_freefree_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_synchrotron_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_synchrotron_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_thermaldust_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_thermaldust_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_spindust_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_spindust_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_kineticsz_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_kineticsz_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_thermalsz_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_thermalsz_2048_R1.10.fits}}'' <br />
<br />
LFI<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_cmb_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_cmb_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_firb_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_firb_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_strongps_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_strongps_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_faintps_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_faintps_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_freefree_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_freefree_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_synchrotron_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_synchrotron_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_thermaldust_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_thermaldust_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_spindust_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_spindust_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_kineticsz_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_kineticsz_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_thermalsz_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_thermalsz_1024_R1.10.fits}}'' <br />
<br />
<br />
Each file contains a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with either a single map (for the CMB file) or one map for each HFI/LFI frequency (for the foreground components). In the latter case the columns are named ''F030'', ''F044'' ,''F070'',''F100'', ''F143'', … , ''F857''. Units are microK<sub>CMB</sub> for the CMB, K<sub>CMB</sub> at 30, 44 and 70 GHz and MJy/sr for the others. The structure is given below for multi-column files. <br />
<br />
Note: Original PSM foreground components has been generated at NSIDE 2048 and using a gaussian beam of 4 arcmin, LFI maps where then smoothed to LFI resolution (32.0, 27.0 and 13.0 arcmin for the 30, 44 and 70 GHz) and donwgraded at NSIDE 1024. LFI CMB maps has been smoothed at 13.0 arcmin (70 GHz resolution) and downgraded at NSIDE 1024. <br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''HFI FITS file structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'SIM-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|F100 || Real*4 || K_CMB || 100GHz signal map<br />
|-<br />
|F143 || Real*4 || K_CMB || 143GHz signal map<br />
|-<br />
|F217 || Real*4 || K_CMB || 217GHz signal map<br />
|-<br />
|F353 || Real*4 || K_CMB || 353GHz signal map<br />
|-<br />
|F545 || Real*4 || MJy/sr || 545GHz signal map<br />
|-<br />
|F857 || Real*4 || MJy/sr || 857GHz signal map<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COMP || string || component || Astrophysical omponent<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC || Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 50331647 || Last pixel number, for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|BAD_DATA || Real*4 || -1.63750E+30 || Healpix bad pixel value <br />
|-<br />
|BEAMTYPE || string || GAUSSIAN || Type of beam <br />
|-<br />
|BEAMSIZE || Real*4 || size || Beam size in arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|PSM-VERS || string || || PSM Versions used <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''LFI FITS file structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'SIM-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|F030 || Real*4 || KCMB || 30GHz signal map<br />
|-<br />
|F044 || Real*4 || KCMB || 44GHz signal map<br />
|-<br />
|F070 || Real*4 || KCMB || 70GHz signal map<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COMP || string || component || Astrophysical omponent<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC || Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12582911 || Last pixel number, for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|BAD_DATA || Real*4 || -1.63750E+30 || Healpix bad pixel value <br />
|-<br />
|BEAMTYPE || string || GAUSSIAN || Type of beam <br />
|-<br />
|BEAMS_30 || Real*4 || 32.0 || Beam size at 30 GHz in arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|BEAMS_44 || Real*4 || 27.0 || Beam size at 44 GHz in arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|BEAMS_70 || Real*4 || 13.0 || Beam size at 70 GHz in arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|PSM-VERS || string || || PSM Versions used <br />
|}<br />
<br />
''' The Fiducial Sky Simulations'''<br />
<br />
<br />
For each detector, fiducial time-ordered data are generated separately for each of the ten PSM components using the LevelS software{{BibCite|reinecke2006}} as follows:<br />
* the detector's beam and PSM map are converted to spherical harmonics using ''beam2alm'' and ''anafast'' respectively;<br />
* the beam-convolved map value is calculated over a 3-dimensional grid of sky locations and beam orientations using ''conviqt'';<br />
* the map-based timelines are calculated sample-by-sample by interpolating over this grid using ''multimod'';<br />
* the catalogue-based timelines are produced sample-by-sample by beam-convolving any point source laying within a given angular distance of the pointing at each sample time using ''multimod''.<br />
<br />
For each frequency, fiducial sky maps are generated for <br />
* the total signal (i.e. sky + instrument noise), for both the nominal mission and the halfrings thereof (see [[Frequency_Maps#Types_of_maps| details]])<br />
* the foreground sky alone (excluding CMB but including noise), <br />
* the point source sky, and <br />
* the noise alone<br />
All maps are built using the ''MADAM'' destriping map-maker{{BibCite|keihanen2010}} interfaced with the ''TOAST'' data abstraction layer . In order to construct the total timelines required by each map, for each detector ''TOAST'' reads the various component timelines separately and sums then, and, where necessary, simulates and adds a noise realization time-stream on the fly. HFI frequencies are mapped at ''HEALPix'' resolution Nside=2048 using ring-length destriping baselines, while LFI frequencies are mapped at Nside=1024 using 1s baselines.<br />
<br />
''' Products delivered '''<br />
<br />
A single simulation is delivered, which is divided into two types of products: <br />
<br />
1. six files of the full sky signal at each HFI and LFI frequency, and their corresponding halfring maps: <br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
: These files have the same structure as the equivalent ''SkyMap'' products described in the [[Frequency_Maps | Frequency Maps ]] chapter, namely one ''BINTABLE'' extension with three columns containing 1) Signal, 2) hit-count, and 3) variance. Units are K<sub>CMB</sub> for all channels.<br />
<br />
2. Three files containing 1) the sum of all astrophysical foregrounds, 2) the point sources alone, and 3) the noise alone: which are subproducts of the above, and are in the form of the PSM maps described in the previous section. <br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_foreground_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_foreground_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_noise_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_noise_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_ps_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_ps_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' <br />
<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_foreground_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_foreground_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits }}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_noise_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_noise_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits }}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_ps_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_ps_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' <br />
<br />
These files have the same structure as the PSM output maps described above, namely a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with 6 columns named ''F100'' -- ''F857'' each containing the given map for that HFI band and with 3 columns named ''F030'', ''F044'', ''F070'' each containing the given map for that LFI band. Units are alway K<sub>CMB</sub>.<br />
<br />
Note that the CMB alone is not delivered as a separate product, but it can be recovered by simple subtraction of the component maps for the total signal map.<br />
<br />
''' Monte Carlo realizations of CMB and of noise'''<br />
<br />
<br />
The CMB MC set is generated using ''FEBeCoP''{{BibCite|mitra2010}}, which generates an effective beam for each pixel in a map at each frequency by accumulating the weights of all pixels within a fixed distance of that pixel, summed over all observations by all detectors at that frequency. It then applies this effective beam pixel-by-pixel to each of 1000 input CMB sky realizations.<br />
<br />
The noise MC set is generated just as the fiducial noise maps, using ''MADAM/TOAST''. In order to avoid spurious correlations within and between the 1000 realizations, each stationary interval for each detector for each realization is generated from a distinct sub-sequence of a single statistically robust, extremely long period, pseudo-random number sequence.<br />
<br />
''' Products delivered '''<br />
<br />
100 realizations of the CMB (lensed) and of the noise are made available. They are named<br />
* ''HFI_SimMap_cmb-{nnnn}_2048_R1.nn_nominal.fits''<br />
* ''HFI_SimMap_noise-{nnnn}_2048_R1.nn_nominal.fits''<br />
* ''LFI_SimMap_cmb-{nnnn}_2048_R1.nn_nominal.fits''<br />
* ''LFI_SimMap_noise-{nnnn}_2048_R1.nn_nominal.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''nnnn'' ranges from 0000 to 0099.<br />
<br />
The FITS file structure is the same as for the other similar products above, with a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with six columns, one for each HFI frequency, named ''F100'', ''F143'', … , ''F857'' and with three columns, one for each LFI frequency, named ''F030'', ''F044'', ''F070''. Units are always microK<sub>CMB</sub> ''(NB: due to an error in the HFI file construction, the unit keywords in the headers indicate K<sub>CMB</sub>, the "micro" is missing there)''.<br />
<br />
''' Lensing Simulations '''<br />
<br />
<br />
''N.B. The information in this section is adapted from the package Readme.txt file.''<br />
<br />
The lensing simulations package contains 100 realisations of the Planck 2013 "MV" lensing potential estimate, as well as the input CMB and lensing potential <math>\phi</math> realizations. They can be used to determine error bars for cross-correlations with other tracers of lensing. These simulations are of the PHIBAR map contained in the [[Specially processed maps#Lensing map | Lensing map]] release file. The production and characterisation of this lensing potential map are described in detail in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p12}}, which describes also the procedure used to generate the realizations given here.<br />
<br />
<br />
''' Products delivered '''<br />
<br />
The simulations are delivered as a single tarball of ~17 GB containing the following directories:<br />
<br />
: obs_plms/dat_plmbar.fits - contains the multipoles of the PHIBAR map in COM_CompMap_Lensing_2048_R1.10.fits<br />
: obs_plms/sim_????_plmbar.fits - simulated relizations of PHIBAR, in Alm format.<br />
: sky_plms/sim_????_plm.fits - the input multipoles of phi for each simulation<br />
: sky_cmbs/sim_????_tlm_unlensed.fits - the input unlensed CMB multipoles for each simulation<br />
: sky_cmbs/sim_????_tlm_lensed.fits - the input lensed CMB multipoles for each simulation.<br />
<br />
: inputs/cls/cltt.dat - Fiducial lensed CMB temperature power spectrum C<sub>l</sub><sup>TT</sup>.<br />
: inputs/cls/clpp.dat - Fiducial CMB lensing potential power spectrum C<sub>l</sub><sup>PP</sup>.<br />
: inputs/cls/cltp.dat - Fiducial correlation between lensed T and P.<br />
: inputs/cls/cltt_unlensed.dat - Fiducial unlensed CMB temperature power spectrum.<br />
: inputs/filt_mask.fits.gz - HEALpix Nside=2048 map containing the analysis mask for the lens reconstructions (equivalent to the MASK column in COM_CompMap_Lensing_2048_R1.10.fits)<br />
<br />
All of the .fits files in this package are HEALPix Alm, to lmax=2048 unless otherwise specified.<br />
<br />
For delivery purposes this package has been split into 2 GB chunks using the unix command<br />
: <tt> split -d -b 2048m </tt><br />
which produced files with names like ''COM_SimMap_Lensing_R1.10.tar.nn'', with nn=00-07. They can be recombined and the maps extracted via <br />
: <tt>cat COM_SimMap_Lensing_R1.10.tar.* | tar xvf - </tt><br />
<br />
<br />
</div><br />
</div><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
= References =<br />
<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|012]]</div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=Simulation_data&diff=14592Simulation data2022-02-14T11:08:16Z<p>Mlopezca: /* Other Releases: 2020-NPIPE, 2015 and 2013 simulated maps */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{DISPLAYTITLE: Simulations}}<br />
<br />
== Introduction ==<br />
<br />
While PR2-2015 simulations ({{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14||FFP8}}) were focused on the reproduction of the flight data Gaussian noise power spectra and their time variations, this new PR3-2018 simulation (FFP10) brings for the first time the realistic simulation of instrumental effects for both HFI and LFI. Moreover these simulated systematic effects are processed in the timelines with the same algorithms (and when possible, codes) as for the flight data.<br />
<br />
The FFP10 dataset is made of several full-sky map sets in FITS format:<br />
<br />
* 1000 realizations of lensed scalar CMB convolved with effective beams per HFI frequency,<br />
* separated input sky components per HFI bolometer and LFI radiometer<br />
* 300 realizations of noise and systematic effect residuals per frequency,<br />
* one fiducial simulation with full sky signal components: lensed scalar CMB, foregrounds, noise and systematic effect residuals, for all frequencies,<br />
<br />
== The end-to-end simulation pipeline ==<br />
<br />
The end-to-end simulation pipeline uses several software components which are described below in the order they are used, as seen in the following schematic. Note that while this schematic is specific to HFI, the main components in the block diagram are similar for both instruments. <br />
<br />
<center><br />
[[File:Simflow2.png]]<br />
</center><br />
<br />
Please note that most of what is written here comes from {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l03}}, which reading is highly recommended for more precisions on technical details and plots, particularly about the characterization of the negligible effects and systematics.<br />
<br />
=== CMB ===<br />
<br />
The FFP10 lensed CMB maps are generated in the same way as for the previous FFP8 release and described in detail in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}. FFP10 simulations only contain the scalar part lensed with independent lensing potential realizations.<br />
<br />
One "fiducial" realization is used as input CMB for the full end-to-end pipeline, and 1000 other realizations are convolved with FEBeCoP{{BibCite|mitra2010}} effective beams to be combined with the 300 noise and systematic residuals maps.<br />
<br />
The cosmological parameters used are:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="8" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left"<br />
|-<br />
! Parameter<br />
! Symbol<br />
! FFP8.1<br />
! FFP10<br />
|-<br />
| Baryon density<br />
| style="text-align:center;" | <math>\omega_b=\Omega_bh^2</math><br />
| <math>0.0223</math><br />
| <math>0.02216571</math><br />
|-<br />
| Cold dark matter density<br />
| style="text-align:center;" | <math>\omega_c=\Omega_ch^2</math><br />
| <math>0.1184</math><br />
| <math>0.1202944</math><br />
|-<br />
| Neutrino energy density<br />
| style="text-align:center;" | <math>\omega_{\nu}=\Omega_{\nu}h^2</math><br />
| <math>0.00065</math><br />
| <math>0.0006451439</math><br />
|-<br />
| Hubble parameter, <math>H_0=100h \mbox{ kms}^{-1} \mbox{ Mpc}^{-1}</math><br />
| style="text-align:center;" | <math>h</math><br />
| <math>0.6712</math><br />
| <math>0.6701904</math><br />
|-<br />
| Thomson optical depth through reionization<br />
| style="text-align:center;" | <math>\tau</math><br />
| <math>0.067</math><br />
| <math>0.06018107</math><br />
|-<br />
| colspan="4" | Primordial curvature perturbation spectrum:<br />
|-<br />
| &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;amplitude<br />
| style="text-align:center;" | <math>A_s</math><br />
| <math>2.14×10^{-9}</math><br />
| <math>2.119631×10^{-9}</math><br />
|-<br />
| &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;spectral index<br />
| style="text-align:center;" | <math>n_s</math><br />
| <math>0.97</math><br />
| <math>0.9636852</math><br />
|}<br />
<br />
=== The Planck Sky Model ===<br />
<br />
The FFP10 simulation input sky is the coaddition of the following sky components generated using the Planck Sky Model (PSM) package (Delabrouille et al. 2013 {{BibCite|delabrouille2012}}). Each of these components is convovled with each HFI bolometer spectral response by the PSM software, using the same spectral responses as in 2015 FFP8. Please note that one important difference with FFP8 is that FFP10 PSM maps are '''not''' smoothed with any beam, while in FFP8 PSM maps were smoothed with a 5’ Gaussian beam.<br />
<br />
==== Diffuse Galactic components ====<br />
<br />
* '''Dust'''<br />
The dust model maps are built as follows. The Stokes I map at 353 GHz is the dust total intensity Planck map obtained by applying the Generalized Needlet Internal Linear Combination (GNILC) method of Remazeilles et al. (2011){{BibCite|remazeilles2011}} to the PR2-2015 release of Planck HFI maps, as described in {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-XLVIII}}, and subtracting the monopole of the Cosmic Infrared Background ({{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a09}}). For the Stokes Q and U maps at 353 GHz, we started with one realization of the statistical model of Vansyngel et al. (2017){{BibCite|vansyngel2017}}. The portions of the simulated Stokes Q and U maps near Galactic plane were replaced by the Planck 353-GHz PR2 data. The transition between data and simulation was made using a Galactic mask with a 5° apodization, which leaves 68% of the sky unmasked at high latitude. Furthermore, on the full sky, the large angular scales in the simulated Stokes Q and U maps were replaced by the Planck data. Specifically, the first ten multipoles came from the Planck 353-GHz PR2 data, while over the <math>\ell=10-20</math> range, the simulations were introduced smoothly using the function <math>(1+{\sin}[\pi(15-\ell)/10])/2</math>.<br />
<br />
To scale the dust Stokes maps from the 353-GHz templates to other Planck frequencies, we follow the FFP8 prescription ({{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}). A different modified blackbody emission law is used for each of the <math>N_{side}=2048</math> HEALPix pixels. The dust spectral index used for scaling in frequency is different for frequencies above and below 353 GHz. For frequencies above 353 GHz, the parameters come from the modified blackbody fit of the dust spectral energy distribution (SED) for total intensity obtained by applying the GNILC method to the PR2 HFI maps ({{PlanckPapers|planck2016-XLVIII}}). These parameter maps have a variable angular resolution that decreases towards high Galactic latitudes. Below 353 GHz, we also use the dust temperature map from {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-XLVIII}}, but with a distinct map of spectral indices from {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06b}}, which has an angular resolution of 30’. These maps introduce significant spectral variations over the sky at high Galactic latitudes, and between the dust SEDs for total intensity and polarization. The spatial variations of the dust SED for polarization in the FFP10 sky model are quantified in {{PlanckPapers|planck2018-LIV}}.<br />
<br />
* '''Synchrotron'''<br />
Synchrotron intensity is modelled by scaling in frequency the 408-MHz template map from Haslam et al. (1982){{BibCite|haslam1982}}, as reprocessed by Remazeilles et al. (2015){{BibCite|remazeilles2015}} using a single power law per pixel. The pixel-dependent spectral index is derived from an analysis of WMAP data by Miville-Deschênes et al. (2008){{BibCite|Miville2008}}. The generation of synchrotron polarization follows the prescription of Delabrouille et al. (2013){{BibCite|delabrouille2012}}.<br />
<br />
* '''Other components'''<br />
Free-free, spinning dust models, and Galactic CO emissions are essentially the same as those used for the FFP8 sky model ({{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}), but the actual synchrotron and free-free maps used for FFP10 are obtained with a different realization of small-scale fluctuations of the intensity. CO maps do not include small-scale fluctuations, and are generated from the spectroscopic survey of Dame et al. (2001){{BibCite|dame2001}}. None of these three components is polarized in the FFP10 simulations.<br />
<br />
==== Unresolved point sources and cosmic infrared background ====<br />
<br />
Catalogues of individual radio and low-redshift infrared sources are generated in the same way as for FFP8 simulations ({{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}), but use a different seed for random number generation. Number counts for three types of galaxies (early-type proto-spheroids, and more recent spiral and starburst galaxies) are based on the model of Cai et al. (2013){{BibCite|cai2013}}. The entire Hubble volume out to redshift <math>z=6</math> is cut into 64 spherical shells, and for each shell we generate a map of density contrast integrated along the line of sight between <math>z_{min}</math> and <math>z_{max}</math>, such that the statistics of these density contrast maps (i.e., power spectrum of linear density fluctuations, and cross-spectra between adjacent shells, as well as with the CMB lensing potential), obey statistics computed using the Cosmic Linear Anisotropy Solving System (CLASS) code (Blas et al. 2011{{BibCite|blas2011}}; Di Dio et al. 2013{{BibCite|didio2013}}). For each type of galaxy, a catalogue of randomly-generated galaxies is generated for each shell, following the appropriate number counts. These galaxies are then distributed in the shell to generate a single intensity map at a given reference frequency, which is scaled across frequencies using the prototype galaxy SED at the appropriate redshift.<br />
<br />
==== Galaxy clusters ====<br />
<br />
A full-sky catalogue of galaxy clusters is generated based on number counts following the method of Delabrouille et al. (2002){{BibCite|Delabrouille2002}}. The mass function of Tinker et al. (2008){{BibCite|Tinker2008}} is used to predict number counts. Clusters are distributed in redshift shells, proportionally to the density contrast in each pixel with a bias <math>b(z, M)</math>, in agreement with the linear bias model of Mo & White (1996){{BibCite|mowhite1996}}. For each cluster, we assign a universal profile based on XMM observations, as described in Arnaud et al. (2010){{BibCite|arnaud2010}}. Relativistic corrections are included to first order following the expansion of Nozawa et al. (1998){{BibCite|Nozawa1998}}. To assign an SZ flux to each cluster, we use a mass bias of <math>M_{Xray}/M_{true}=0.63</math> to match actual cluster number counts observed by Planck for the best-fit cosmological model coming from CMB observations. We use the specific value <math>\sigma_8=0.8159</math>.<br />
<br />
The kinematic SZ effect is computed by assigning to each cluster a radial velocity that is randomly drawn from a centred Gaussian distribution, with a redshift-dependent standard deviation that is computed from the power spectrum of density fluctuations. This neglects correlations between cluster motions, such as bulk flows or pairwise velocities of nearby clusters.<br />
<br />
=== Input sky maps to timelines ===<br />
<br />
The LevelS software package (Reinecke et al. 2006 {{BibCite|reinecke2006}}) is used to convert the input sky maps to timelines for each bolometer.<br />
<br />
* Using '''conviqtv3''', the maps are convolved with the same scanning beams as for FFP8, which were produced by stacking intensity-only observations of planets ({{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}}, appendix B), and to which a fake polarization has been added using a simple model based on each bolometer polarization angle and leakage.<br />
<br />
* The convolved maps are then scanned to timelines with '''multimod''', using the same scanning strategy as the 2018 flight data release. The only difference between the 2018 scanning strategy and the 2015 one is that about 1000 stable pointing periods at the end of the mission are omitted in 2018, because it has been found that the data quality was significantly lower in this interval.<br />
<br />
=== Instrument-specific simulations ===<br />
<br />
The main new aspect of FFP10 is the production of End-to-end (E2E) detector simulations, which include all significant systematic effects, and are used to produce realistic maps of noise and systematic effect residuals. <br />
<br />
==== HFI E2E simulations ====<br />
<br />
The pipeline adds the modelled instrumental systematic effects at the timeline level. It includes noise only up to the time response convolution step, after which the signal is added and the systematics simulated. It was shown in appendix B.3.1 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-XLVI}} that, including the CMB map in the inputs or adding it after mapmaking, leads to differences for the power spectra in CMB channels below the <math>10^{-4}\mu{K}^2</math> level. This justifies the use of CMB swapping even when non-Gaussian systematic effects dominate over the TOI detector noise.<br />
<br />
Here are the main effects included in the FFP10 simulation:<br />
<br />
* '''White noise:''' the noise is based on a physical model composed of photon, phonon, and electronic noises. The time-transfer functions are different for these three noise sources. A timeline of noise only is created, with the level adjusted to agree with the observed TOI white noise after removal of the sky signal averaged per ring.<br />
<br />
* '''Bolometer signal time-response convolution:''' the photon white noise is convolved with the bolometer time response using the same code and same parameters as in the 2015 processing. A second white noise contribution is added to the convolved photon white noise to simulate the electronics noise.<br />
<br />
* '''Noise auto-correlation due to deglitching:''' the deglitching step in the data processing creates noise auto-correlation by flagging samples that are synchronous with the sky. Since we do not simulate the cosmic-ray glitches, we mimic this behaviour by adjusting the noise of samples above a given threshold to simulate their flagging.<br />
<br />
* '''Time response deconvolution:''' the timeline containing the photon and electronic noise contributions is then deconvolved with the bolometer time response and low-pass filtered to limit the amplification of the high-frequency noise, using the same parameters as in the 2015 data processing.<br />
<br />
: The input sky signal timeline is added to the convolved/deconvolved noise timeline and is then put through the instrument simulation. Note that the sky signal is not convolved/deconvolved with the bolometer time response, since it is already convolved with the scanning beam extracted from the 2015 TOI processing output which already contains the low-pass filter and residuals associated with the time-response deconvolution.<br />
<br />
* '''Simulation of the signal non-linearity:''' the first step of electronics simulation is the conversion of the input sky plus noise signal from K<sub>CMB</sub> units to analog-to-digital units (ADU) using the detector response measured on the ground and assumed to be stable in time. The ADU signal is then fed through a simulator of a non-linear analogue-to-digital converter (ADCNL). This step is the one introducing complexity into the signal, inducing time variation of the response, and causing gain differences with respect to the ground-based measurements. This corresponds to specific new correction steps in the mapmaking.<br />
<br />
: The ADCNL transfer-function simulation is based on the TOI processing, with correction from the ground measurements, combined with in-flight measurements. A reference simulation is built for each bolometer, which minimizes the difference between the simulation and the data gain variations, measured in a first run of the mapmaking. Realizations of the ADCNL are then drawn to mimic the variable behaviour of the gains seen in the 2018 data.<br />
<br />
* '''Compression/decompression:''' the simulated signal is compressed by the algorithm required by the telemetry rate allocated to the HFI instrument, with a slight accuracy loss. While very close to the compression algorithm used on-board, the one used in the simulation pipeline differs slightly, due to the non-simulation of the cosmic-ray glitches, together with the use of the average of the signal in the compression slice.<br />
: The same number of compression steps as in flight data, the signal mean of each compression slice and the step value for each sample are then used by the decompression algorithm to reconstruct the modulated signal.<br />
<br />
===== TOI processing =====<br />
<br />
The TOIs issued from the steps above are then processed in the same way as the flight data. Because of the granularity needed and the computational performance required to produce hundreds of realizations, the TOI processing pipeline applied to the simulated data is highly optimized and slightly different from the one used for the data. The specific steps are the following:<br />
<br />
* '''ADCNL correction:''' the ADCNL correction is carried out with the same parameters as the 2015 data TOI processing, and with the same algorithm. The difference between the realizations of ADC transfer function used for simulation and the constant one used for TOI processing is tuned to reproduce the gain variations found in 2015 processed TOI.<br />
<br />
* '''Demodulation:''' signal demodulation is also performed in the same way as the flight TOI processing. First, the signal is converted from ADU to volts. Next, the signal is demodulated by subtracting from each sample the average of the modulated signal over 1 hour and then taking the opposite value for "negative" parity samples.<br />
<br />
* '''Conversion to watts and thermal baseline subtraction:''' the demodulated signal is converted from volts to watts (neglecting the conversion non-linearity of the bolometers and amplifiers, which has been shown to be negligible). Eventually, the flight data thermal baseline, derived from the deglitched signals of the two dark bolometers smoothed over 1 minute, is subtracted.<br />
<br />
* '''1/f noise:''' a 1/f type noise component is added to the signal for each stable pointing period, with parameters (slope and knee frequency) adjusted on the flight data.<br />
<br />
* '''Projection to HPR:''' the signal timeline is then projected and binned to HEALPix pixels for each stable pointing period (HEALPix rings, or HPR) after removal of flight-flagged data (unstable pointing periods, glitches, Solar system objects, planets, etc.).<br />
<br />
* '''4-K line residuals:''' a HPR of the 4-K line residuals for each bolometer, built by stacking the 2015 TOI, is added to the simulation output HPR.<br />
<br />
===== Effects and processings not simulated =====<br />
<br />
* no discrete point sources,<br />
* no glitching/deglitching, only deglitching-induced noise auto-correlation,<br />
* no 4-K line simulation and removal, only addition of their residuals,<br />
* no bolometer volts-to-watts conversion non-linearity from the bolometers and amplifiers,<br />
* no far sidelobes (FSLs),<br />
* reduced simulation pipeline at 545 GHz and 857 GHz<br />
<br />
To be more specific about this last item, the submillimetre channels simulation uses a pipeline without electronics simulation. It only contains photon and electronic noises, deglitching noise auto-correlation, time-response convolution/deconvolution, and 1/f noise. Bolometer by bolometer baseline addition and thermal baseline subtraction, compression/decompression, and 4-K line residuals are not included.<br />
<br />
===== Mapmaking =====<br />
<br />
The next stage is to use the SRoll mapmaking on the stim HPR. The following mapmaking inputs are all the same for simulation as for flight data:<br />
<br />
* thermal dust, CO, and free-free map templates,<br />
* detector NEP and polarization parameters,<br />
* detector pointings,<br />
* bad ring lists and sample flagging<br />
<br />
The FSL removal performed in the mapmaking destriper is not activated (since no FSL contribution is included in the input). The total dipole removed by the mapmaking is the same as the input in the sky TOIs generated by LevelS (given in section 4.2. of {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l03}}).<br />
<br />
===== Post-processing =====<br />
<br />
* '''Noise alignment:''' an additional noise component is added to more accurately align the noise levels of the simulations with the noise estimates built from the 2018 odd minus even ring maps. Of course, this adjustment of the noise level may not satisfy all the other noise null tests. This alignment is different for temperature and for polarization maps, in order to simulate the effect of the noise correlation between detectors within a PSB.<br />
<br />
* '''Monopole adjustment:''' a constant value is added to each simulated map to bring its monopole to the same value as the corresponding 2018 map, which is described in section 3.1.1. of {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l03}}.<br />
<br />
* '''Signal subtraction:''' from each map, the input sky (CMB and foregrounds) is subtracted to build the “noise and residual systematics frequency maps.” These systematics include additional noise and residuals induced by sky-signal distortion. These maps are part of the FFP10 data set.<br />
<br />
==== LFI E2E simulations ====<br />
<br />
As described in {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l02}}, the LFI systematic effect simulations are done partially at time- line and partially at ring-set level, with the goal of being as modular as possible, in order to create a reusable set of simulations. From the input sky model and according to the pointing information, we create single-channel ring-sets of the pure sky convolved with a suitable instrumental beam. To these we add pure noise (white and 1/ f ) ring-sets generated from the noise power spectrum distributions measured from real data one day at a time. The overall scheme is given in the Figure below:<br />
<br />
[[File:Screen Shot 2018-07-13 at 13.58.58.png|thumb|400px|center]]<br />
<br />
In the same manner, we create ring-sets for each of the specific systematic effects we would like to measure. We add together signal, noise, and systematic ring-sets, and, given models for straylight (based on the GRASP beams) and the orbital dipole, we create “perfectly-calibrated” ring-sets (i.e., calibration constant = 1). We use the gains estimate from the 2018 data release to “de-calibrate” these timelines, i.e., to convert them from kelvins to volts. At this point the calibration pipeline starts, and produces the reconstructed gains that will be different from the ones used in the de-calibration process due to the presence of simulated systematic effects. The calibration pipeline is algorithmically exactly the same as that used at the DPC for product creation, but with a different implementation (based principally on python). The gain-smoothing algorithm is the same as used for the data, and has been tuned to the actual data. This means that there will be cases where reconstructed gains from simulations differ significantly from the input ones. We have verified that this indeed happens, but only for very few pointing periods, and we therefore decided not to consider them in the following analysis. The overall process for estimating gains is given in the figure below:<br />
<br />
[[File:Screen Shot 2018-07-13 at 13.59.17.png|400px|thumb|center]]<br />
<br />
At this point we are able to generate maps for full mission, half-ring, and odd-even-year splits) that include the effects of systematic errors on calibration. In the final step, we produce timelines (which are never stored) starting from the same fiducial sky map, using the same model for straylight and the orbital dipole as in the previous steps, and from generated noise-only timelines created with the same seeds and noise model used before. We then apply the official gains to “de-calibrate” the timelines, which are immediately calibrated with the reconstructed gains in the previous step. The nominal destriping mapmaking algorithm is then used to create final maps. The complete data flow is given in the figure below:<br />
<br />
[[File:Screen Shot 2018-07-13 at 14.03.40.png|400px|thumb|center]]<br />
<br />
<br />
== Delivered Products ==<br />
<br />
=== Input sky components ===<br />
<br />
The separated input sky components generated by the Planck Sky Model are available for all frequencies, at HEALPix <math>N_{side}=1024</math> or <math>2048</math> or <math>4096</math>, depending on frequency:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left"<br />
!<br />
! 100GHz<br />
! 143GHz<br />
! 217GHz<br />
! 353GHz<br />
! 545GHz<br />
! 857GHz<br />
|-<br />
! fiducial lensed scalar CMB<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! CO<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! free-free<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! synchrotron<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! far infrared background<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! kinetic SZ<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_kineticsz-ffp10-skyinbands-100_2048_R3.00_full.fits 100GHz&nbsp;kineticsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_kineticsz-ffp10-skyinbands-143_2048_R3.00_full.fits 143GHz&nbsp;kineticsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_kineticsz-ffp10-skyinbands-217_2048_R3.00_full.fits 217GHz&nbsp;kineticsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_kineticsz-ffp10-skyinbands-353_2048_R3.00_full.fits 353GHz&nbsp;kineticsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_kineticsz-ffp10-skyinbands-545_2048_R3.00_full.fits 545GHz&nbsp;kineticsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_kineticsz-ffp10-skyinbands-857_2048_R3.00_full.fits 857GHz&nbsp;kineticsz]<br />
|-<br />
! Thermal SZ<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_thermalsz-ffp10-skyinbands-100_2048_R3.00_full.fits 100GHz&nbsp;thermalsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_thermalsz-ffp10-skyinbands-143_2048_R3.00_full.fits 143GHz&nbsp;thermalsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_thermalsz-ffp10-skyinbands-217_2048_R3.00_full.fits 217GHz&nbsp;thermalsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_thermalsz-ffp10-skyinbands-353_2048_R3.00_full.fits 353GHz&nbsp;thermalsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_thermalsz-ffp10-skyinbands-545_2048_R3.00_full.fits 545GHz&nbsp;thermalsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_thermalsz-ffp10-skyinbands-857_2048_R3.00_full.fits 857GHz&nbsp;thermalsz]<br />
|-<br />
! faint&nbsp;infrared&nbsp;point&nbsp;sources<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintirps-ffp10-skyinbands-100_4096_R3.00_full.fits 100GHz&nbsp;faintirps]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintirps-ffp10-skyinbands-143_4096_R3.00_full.fits 143GHz&nbsp;faintirps]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintirps-ffp10-skyinbands-217_4096_R3.00_full.fits 217GHz&nbsp;faintirps]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintirps-ffp10-skyinbands-353_4096_R3.00_full.fits 353GHz&nbsp;faintirps]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintirps-ffp10-skyinbands-545_4096_R3.00_full.fits 545GHz&nbsp;faintirps]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintirps-ffp10-skyinbands-857_4096_R3.00_full.fits 857GHz&nbsp;faintirps]<br />
|-<br />
! faint radio point sources<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintradiops-ffp10-skyinbands-100_4096_R3.00_full.fits 100GHz&nbsp;faintradiops]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintradiops-ffp10-skyinbands-143_4096_R3.00_full.fits 143GHz&nbsp;faintradiops]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintradiops-ffp10-skyinbands-217_4096_R3.00_full.fits 217GHz&nbsp;faintradiops]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintradiops-ffp10-skyinbands-353_4096_R3.00_full.fits 353GHz&nbsp;faintradiops]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintradiops-ffp10-skyinbands-545_4096_R3.00_full.fits 545GHz&nbsp;faintradiops]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintradiops-ffp10-skyinbands-857_4096_R3.00_full.fits 857GHz&nbsp;faintradiops]<br />
|-<br />
! thermal dust<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=== CMB realizations ===<br />
<br />
The 1000 lensed scalar CMB map realizations are convolved with the FEBeCoP effective beams computed using the 2015 scanning beams ({{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}}, appendix B), and the updated scanning strategy described in the [[#PSM maps to timelines]] section above. Each CMB realization is available for the full-mission span only, at each frequency, which means 1000 realizations x 9 frequencies = 9000 CMB maps, which can be retrieved using the following link template:<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=febecop_ffp10_lensed_scl_cmb_{frequency}_mc_{realization}.fits</pre><br />
<br />
where:<br />
* '''{frequency}''' is any of frequency: 30, 44, 70, 100, 143, 217, 353, 545 or 857,<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realisation number, between 0000 and 0999, padded to four digits with leading zeros<br />
<br />
For example: http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=febecop_ffp10_lensed_scl_cmb_100_mc_0000.fits<br />
<br />
<br />
=== Noise and instrumental effect residual maps ===<br />
<br />
==== HFI E2E maps ====<br />
<br />
As described above, 300 realizations of full end-to-end simulations have been produced, to which the full sky signal part (CMB+foregrounds) have been subtracted in post-processing, to give maps of noise and systematic residuals only. For each realization and frequency, five data cuts are provided:<br />
<br />
* full-mission,<br />
* first and second half-missions,<br />
* odd and even stable pointing periods (rings)<br />
<br />
In addition to all 6 HFI frequencies, a special detector set made of only 353 GHz polarized bolometers (a.k.a 353_psb) is also published, to match the 2018 flight data set, for a total of 300 realizations x 5 data cuts x 7 HFI detector sets = 10,500 maps.<br />
<br />
The noise maps can be retrieved from PLA using the following naming convention:<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=ffp10_noise_{frequency}_{ring_cut}_map_mc_{realization}.fits</pre><br />
<br />
where:<br />
* '''{frequency}''' is any of HFI frequency: 100, 143, 217, 353, 353_psb, 545 or 857,<br />
* '''{ring_cut}''' is the ring selection scheme, one of: full, hm1, hm2, oe1, oe2<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realisation number, between 00000 and 00299, padded to five digits with leading zeros<br />
<br />
For example: http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=ffp10_noise_100_full_map_mc_00000.fits<br />
<br />
Please note that due to the specific polarization orientation of 100GHz bolometers, odd and even ring maps are badly conditionned for HEALPix <math>N_{side}=2048</math> and are therefore also available at <math>N_{side}=1024</math> by just replacing "_map_mc_" with "_map_1024_mc_" in the file link name.<br />
<br />
<br />
==== LFI E2E maps ====<br />
<br />
For LFI, a similar approach is followed as for HFI in terms of number and formatting of the E2E noise+systematics simulations.<br />
<br />
=== Fiducial simulation ===<br />
<br />
A separate full end-to-end simulation with a different CMB realization is also provided, with the full sky signal included and the same data cuts and detector sets as the 300 noise and systematic residual maps, to serve as a reference for whatever you would need it to. Please don't overlook the important warning below about thermal dust.<br />
<br />
'''TODO: fiducial naming scheme'''<br />
<br />
== Two important warnings about noise and thermal dust ==<br />
<br />
=== Noise ===<br />
<br />
As stated in the introduction, FFP10 focus is on the simulation and correction of the main instrumental effects and systematics. It uses a noise model which doesn't vary in time, contrary to FFP8 simulations which used realizations of one noise power spectrum per stable pointing period and per detector. Doing so, all systematic residuals in FFP8 are considered as Gaussian noise, which time variations should follow the flight data.<br />
<br />
If interested in Gaussian noise variations following flight data rather than non-Gaussian instrumental effects and systematic residuals, the user may want to check whether FFP8 noise maps better suit their needs. This is particularly true for 545 GHz and 857 GHz, for which FFP10 doesn't contain all instrumental effects and systematics and in which detectors' time response deconvolution is simulated at the noise-alignment post-processing step.<br />
<br />
=== Thermal dust ===<br />
<br />
After the production of the 300 realizations of noise and systematic residual simulations, a bug has been found in the PSM thermal dust template used as input, which led to a 10% intensity mismatch in temperature at 353 GHz due to a missing color correction. The same dust template has been correctly used for the simulations and for the sky subtraction post-processing, so the produced and published residual maps are not affected.<br />
<br />
Note however, that the thermal dust maps provided as PSM input sky and the one used in the fiducial simulation are the fixed version of the PSM thermal dust, which slightly differs from the one used (and removed) in the 300 noise and systematic residual simulations.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<br />
<References /><br />
= Other Releases: 2020-NPIPE, 2015 and 2013 simulated maps =<br />
<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="background-color: #9ef542;width:80%"><br />
'''2020 Release of simulated maps (NPIPE)'''<br />
<div class="mw-collapsible-content"><br />
The NPIPE release includes 600 simulated full-frequency and detector-set Monte Carlo realizations. 100 of those realizations include single-detector and half-ring maps. <br />
<br />
NPIPE simulations include all of the reprocessing steps, but only approximate the effects of preprocessing. The approximation is based on simulating the detector noise from a power spectral density (PSD) measured from preprocessed time-ordered data.<br />
<br />
The components of the full signal simulations are:<br />
* CMB signal, consisting of independent CMB realisations convolved on-the-fly with the asymmetric detector beams and including the solar system and orbital dipole;<br />
* foregrounds, consisting of a Commander sky model evaluated at each frequency;<br />
* zodiacal light, based on fits of the zodiacal templates on real data;<br />
* bandpass mismatch, based on real data fits of the mismatch templates;<br />
* LFI gain fluctuations, consisting of smoothed versions of the noisy fits of real data;<br />
* instrumental noise, based on measured noise in preprocessed data, including cross-detector correlated noise.<br />
<br />
In addition, fitting for the full suite of reprocessing templates adds all potential template degeneracies and pipeline transfer function effects.<br />
<br />
Each full signal simulation is accompanied with a symmetric beam-convolved CMB map, foreground map, and a residual (noise) map created by regressing out the input signals from the full map.<br />
<br />
Simulated NPIPE maps derive from a time-domain simulation that includes beam-convolved CMB, bandpass-mismatched foregrounds, and instrumental 1/<i>f</i> noise with realistic intra horn correlations. Seasonal gain fluctuations are added into the simulated LFI signal by smoothing the measured real data gain fluctuation. The data are processed with the same reprocessing module as the real data, introducing similar large-scale systematics and correlations.<br />
<br />
'''CMB'''<br />
<br />
The simulated CMB is the same as used in PR3 simulations. Instead of processing the CMB in the map-domain, NPIPE uses [https://github.com/hpc4cmb/libconviqt libconviqt] to convolve the CMB with individual detector beams at appropriate orientations. Simulating full time-domain processing allows the user to assess potential pipeline transfer function effects relevant to their analysis. This is in contrast to PR3 where the CMB simulations were performed in the map domain.<br />
<br />
The parameters of the simulated CMB are shown in the following table, reproduced from A&A 643, A42 (2020).<br />
<br />
[[File:Ffp10 params.png|400px|frameless|none|Simulated CMB parameters]]<br />
<br />
'''Foregrounds'''<br />
<br />
Unlike the CMB, there is only one realization of the foregrounds. They are based on the Commander sky model, evaluated at the nominal central frequency for each band. Sky-model component maps that are noise-dominated outside the Galactic plane are smoothed to remove unphysical levels of small-scale structure from the simulation. Without this smoothing the simulated 30-GHz maps showed a significant excess of extra-Galactic power when compared to the real data maps.<br />
<br />
Bandpass mismatch is simulated by adding bandpass-mismatch templates to the frequency map before sampling it into the map domain. The template amplitudes are based on real data fits.<br />
<br />
Since the Commander sky model used as input already includes beam smoothing, we do not convolve with the instrumental beam as we do with the CMB.<br />
<br />
'''Noise'''<br />
<br />
Instrumental noise is simulated from mission-averaged noise PSDs. We use the Fourier technique to create noise realizations that conform to the full PSD, not just a parametrized noise model. Correlated noise between detectors in a single horn reduces the horn's sensitivity to sky temperature but not polarization. We use the measured detector cross-spectra to account for this phenomenon. <br />
<br />
'''Simulated maps'''<br />
<br />
100 Monte Carlo realizations are available on the PLA. These include full-frequency maps, A/B splits, and single-detector maps. For convenience, we provide total signal and residual maps. Matching SEVEM-processed CMB and noise maps are also made available.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''CMB realizations'''<br />
<br />
Input CMB maps convolved with a symmetrized beam are available using the following link template:<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20{subset}_cmb_input_{frequency}_map_mc_{realization}.fits</pre><br />
<br />
Here:<br />
* '''{subset}''' is "", "A", or "B";<br />
* '''{frequency}''' is any of 030, 044, 070, 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, or 857;<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realization number, between 0200 and 0299, padded to four digits with leading zeros.<br />
<br />
For example: http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20_cmb_030_A_mc_00299.fits<br />
<br />
'''Foreground maps'''<br />
<br />
Foreground maps used in the simulation can be downloaded with<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20_foreground_input_{frequency}_map.fits</pre><br />
Here:<br />
* '''{frequency}''' is any of: 030, 044, 070, 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, or 857.<br />
<br />
'''Single-detector maps'''<br />
<br />
Simulated single-detector maps can be downloaded with this link template:<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20_total_{detector}_map_mc_{realization}.fits</pre><br />
<br />
Here:<br />
* '''{detector}''' is any valid Planck detector;<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realization number, between 0200 and 0299, padded to four digits with leading zeros.<br />
<br />
For example: http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20_total_LFI28M_map_mc_0200.fits<br />
<br />
'''Total-signal maps'''<br />
<br />
Simulated total-signal maps can be downloaded using the following link template:<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20{subset}_total_{frequency}_map_mc_{realization}.fits</pre><br />
<br />
Here:<br />
* '''{subset}''' is "", "A", or "B";<br />
* '''{frequency}''' is any of: 030, 044, 070, 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, or 857;<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realization number, between 0200 and 0299, padded to four digits with leading zeros.<br />
<br />
For example: http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20_total_143_map_mc_0200.fits<br />
<br />
'''Residual maps'''<br />
<br />
Simulated residual maps (output - input) can be downloaded with the following link template:<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20{subset}_noise_{frequency}_map_mc_{realization}.fits</pre><br />
<br />
Here:<br />
* '''{subset}''' is "", "A", or "B";<br />
* '''{frequency}''' is any of: 030, 044, 070, 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, or 857;<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realization number, between 0200 and 0299, padded to four digits with leading zeros.<br />
<br />
For example: http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20_noise_030_A_mc_00200.fits<br />
<br />
'''Commander maps'''<br />
<br />
Simulated Commander CMB maps are available at<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20{subset}_sevem_cmb_mc_{realization}_raw.fits</pre><br />
<br />
Here:<br />
* '''{subset}''' is "", "A", or "B";<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realization number, between 0200 and 0299, padded to four digits with leading zeros.<br />
<br />
Matching foreground-subtracted frequency maps can be retrieved with, for example:<br />
<br />
http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20_commander_cmb_2048_mc_0300_005a.fits<br />
<br />
Here:<br />
* '''{subset}''' is "", "A", or "B";<br />
* '''{frequency}''' is any of 070, 100, 143, or 217;<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realization number, between 0200 and 0299, padded to four digits with leading zeros.<br />
<br />
<br />
</div><br />
</div><br />
<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="background-color: #FFDAB9;width:80%"><br />
'''2015 Release of simulated maps'''<br />
<div class="mw-collapsible-content"><br />
<br />
''' Introduction '''<br />
<br />
The 2015 Planck data release is supported by a set of simulated maps of the sky, by astrophysical component, and of that sky as seen by Planck (fiducial mission realizations), together with separate sets of Monte Carlo realizations of the CMB and the instrument noise. <br />
<br />
Currently, only a subset of these simulations is available from the Planck Legacy Archive. In particular:<br />
* 18000 full mission CMB simulations: 1000 for each of the nine Planck frequencies, and for two different sets of cosmological parameters.<br />
* 9000 full mission noise simulations: 1000 for each of the nine Planck frequencies.<br />
* 18 full mission sky simulated maps: two sets of sky maps with and without bandpass corrections applied.<br />
<br />
The first two types of simulations, CMB and noise, that are only partially available in the PLA, and the sky simulated maps, have been highlighted in red in Table 1. <br />
<br />
The full set of Planck simulations can be found in the NERSC supercomputing center. Instructions on how to access and retrieve the data can be found in [http://crd.lbl.gov/departments/computational-science/c3/c3-research/cosmic-microwave-background/cmb-data-at-nersc/ HERE]. <br />
<br />
They contain the dominant instrumental (detector beam, bandpass, and correlated noise properties), scanning (pointing and flags), and analysis (map-making algorithm and implementation) effects. These simulations have been described in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}.<br />
<br />
In addition to the baseline maps made from the data from all detectors at a given frequency for the entire mission, there are a number of data cuts that are mapped both for systematics tests and to support cross-spectral analyses. These include:<br />
<br />
* '''detector subsets''' (“detsets”), comprising the individual unpolarized detectors and the polarized detector quadruplets corresponding to each leading trailing horn pair. Note that HFI sometimes refers to full channels as detset0; here detset only refers to subsets of detectors.<br />
* '''mission subsets''', comprising the surveys, years, and half-missions, with exact boundary definitions given in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a03}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}} for LFI and HFI, respectively.<br />
* '''half-ring subsets''', comprising the data from either the first or the second half of each pointing-period ring<br />
<br />
The various combinations of these data cuts then define 1134 maps, as enumerated in the top section of Table 1 from {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}. The different types of map are then named according to their included detectors (channel or detset), interval (mission, half-mission, year or survey), and ring-content (full or half-ring); for example the baseline maps are described as channel/mission/full, etc.<br />
<br />
The simulation process consists of <br />
* modelling each astrophysical component of the sky emission for each Planck detector, using Planck data and the relevant characteristics of the Planck instruments. <br />
* simulating each detector's observation of each sky component following the Planck scanning strategy and using the best estimates of the detector's beam and noise properties (obtained in flight), then combining these timelines into a single one per detector, and projecting these simulated timelines onto ''observed'' maps (the ''fiducial'' sky), as is done with the on-orbit data;<br />
* generating Monte Carlo realizations of the CMB and of the noise, again following the Planck scanning strategy and using our best estimates of the detector beams and noise properties respectively. <br />
The first step is performed by the ''Planck Sky Model'' (PSM), and the last two by the ''Planck Simulation Tools'' (PST), both of which are described in the sections below. <br />
<br />
The production of a full focal plane (FFP) simulation, and including the many MC realizations of the CMB and the noise, requires both HFI and LFI data and includes large, computationally challenging, MC realizations. They are too large to be generated on either of the DPC's own cluster. Instead the PST consists of three distinct tools, each designed to run on the largest available supercomputers, that are used to generate the fiducial sky realization, the CMB MC, and the noise MC respectively. The simulations delivered here are part of the 8th generation FFP simulations, known as FFP8. They were primarily generated on the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) in the USA and at CSC–IT Center for Science (CSC) in Finland.<br />
<br />
The fiducial realizations include instrument noise, astrophysical foregrounds, and the lensed scalar, tensor, and non-Gaussian CMB components, and are primarily designed to support the validation and verification of analysis codes. To test our ability to detect tensor modes and non-Gaussianity, we generate five CMB realizations with various cosmologically interesting &mdash; but undeclared &mdash; values of the tensor-to-scalar ratio '''r''' and non-Gaussianity parameter '''f<sub>NL</sub>'''. To investigate the impact of differences in the bandpasses of the detectors at any given frequency, the foreground sky is simulated using both the individual detector bandpasses and a common average bandpass, to include and exclude the effects of bandpass mismatch. To check that the PR2-2015 results are not sensitive to the exact cosmological parameters used in FFP8 we subsequently generated FFP8.1, exactly matching the PR2-2015 cosmology.<br />
<br />
Table 1 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}. The numbers of fiducial, MC noise and MC CMB maps at each frequency by detector subset, data interval, and data cut.<br />
<br />
[[File:A14_Table1_1_col.png|center|900px]]<br />
[[File:A14_Table1_2_col.png|center|900px]]<br />
[[File:A14_Table1_3_col.png|center|900px]]<br />
<br />
Since mapmaking is a linear operation, the easiest way to generate all of these different realizations is to build the full set of maps of each of six components:<br />
<br />
# the lensed scalar CMB (''cmb_scl'');<br />
# the tensor CMB (''cmb_ten'');<br />
# the non-Gaussian complement CMB (''cmb_ngc'');<br />
# the forgreounds including bandpass mismatch (''fg_bpm'');<br />
# the foregrounds excluding bandpass mismatch (''fg_nobpm'');<br />
# the noise.<br />
<br />
We then sum these, weighting the tensor and non-Gaussian complement maps with <math>\sqrt{r}</math> and f<sub>NL</sub>, respectively, and including one of the two foreground maps, to produce 10 total maps of each type. The complete fiducial data set then comprises 18,144 maps.<br />
<br />
While the full set of maps can be generated for the fiducial cases, for the 10<sup>4</sup>-realization MC sets this would result in some 10<sup>7</sup> maps and require about 6 PB of storage. Instead, therefore, the number of realizations generated for each type of map is chosen to balance the improved statistics it supports against the computational cost of its generation and storage. The remaining noise MCs sample broadly across all data cuts, while the additional CMB MCs are focused on the channel/half-mission/full maps and the subset of the detset/mission/full maps required by the "commander" component separation code {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
''' Mission and instrument characteristics '''<br />
The goal of FFP8 is to simulate the Planck mission as accurately as possible; however, there are a number of known systematic effects that are not included, either because they are removed in the pre-processing of the time-ordered data (TOD), or because they are insufficiently well-characterized to simulate reliably, or because their inclusion (simulation and removal) would be too computationally expensive. These systematic effects are discussed in detail in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a03}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}} and include:<br />
* cosmic ray glitches (HFI);<br />
* spurious spectral lines from the 4-K cooler electronics (HFI);<br />
* non-linearity in the analogue-to-digital converter (HFI);<br />
* imperfect reconstruction of the focal plane geometry.<br />
<br />
Note that if the residuals from the treatment of any of these effects could be mapped in isolation, then maps of such systematics could simply be added to the existing FFP8 maps to improve their correspondence to the real data.<br />
<br />
''' Pointing '''<br />
The FFP8 detector pointing is calculated by interpolating the satellite attitude to the detector sample times and by applying a fixed rotation from the satellite frame into the detector frame. The fixed rotations are determined by the measured focal plane geometry as shown in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a05}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}}, while the satellite attitude is described in the Planck attitude history files (AHF). The FFP pointing expansion reproduces the DPC pointing to sub-arcsecond accuracy, except for three short and isolated instances during Surveys 6&mdash;8 where the LFI sampling frequency was out of specification. Pixelization of the information causes the pointing error to be quantized to either zero (majority of cases) or the distance between pixel centres (3.4' and 1.7' for LFI and HFI, respectively). Since we need a single reconstruction that will serve both instruments efficiently in a massively parallel environment, we use the pointing provided by the Time Ordered Astrophysics Scalable Tools (Toast) package.<br />
<br />
''' Noise '''<br />
We require simulated noise realizations that are representative of the noise in the flight data, including variations in the noise power spectral density (PSD) of each detector over time. To obtain these we developed a noise estimation pipeline complementary to those of the DPCs. The goal of DPC noise estimation is to monitor instrument health and to derive optimal noise weighting, whereas our estimation is optimized to feed into noise simulation. Key features are the use of full mission maps for signal subtraction, long (about 24 hour) realization length, and the use of auto-correlation functions in place of Fourier transforms to handle flagged and masked data (HFI).<br />
<br />
''' Beams '''<br />
The simulations use the so-called scanning beams (e.g., {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p03}}), which give the point-spread function of for a given detector including all temporal data processing effects: sample integration, demodulation, ADC non-linearity residuals, bolometric time constant residuals, etc. In the absence of significant residuals (LFI), the scanning beams may be estimated from the optical beams by smearing them in the scanning direction to match the finite integration time for each instrument sample. Where there are unknown residuals in the timelines (HFI), the scanning beam must be measured directly from observations of strong point-like sources, namely planets. If the residuals are present but understood, it is possible to simulate the beam measurement and predict the scanning beam shape starting from the optical beam.<br />
<br />
For FFP8, the scanning beams are expanded in terms of their spherical harmonic coefficients, <math>b_{\ell m}</math>, with the order of the expansion (maximum <math>\ell</math> and m considered) representing a trade-off between the accuracy of the representation and the computational cost of its convolution. The LFI horns have larger beams with larger sidelobes (due to their location on the outside of the focal plane), and we treat them as full <math>4\pi</math> beams divided into main (up to 1.9&deg;, 1.3&deg;, and 0.9&deg; for 30, 44, and 70 GHz, respectively), intermediate (up to 5&deg;), and sidelobe (above 5&deg;) components {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a05}}. This division allows us to tune the expansion orders of the three components separately. HFI horns are limited to the main beam component, measured out to 100 arc minutes {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}}. Since detector beams are characterized independently, the simulations naturally include differential beam and pointing systematics.<br />
<br />
''' Bandpasses '''<br />
Both the LFI and HFI detector bandpasses are based on ground measurements (see {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p03d}}, respectively), although flight data processing for LFI now uses in-flight top-hat approximations rather than the ground measurements that were found to contain systematic errors. Differences in the bandpasses of detectors nominally at the same frequency (the so-called bandpass mismatch) generate spurious signals in the maps, since each detector is seeing a slightly different sky while the mapmaking algorithms assume that the signal in a pixel is the same for all detectors. To quantify the effect of these residuals, in FFP8 we generate detector timelines from foreground maps in two ways, one that incorporates the individual detector bandpasses, the other using an average bandpass for all the detectors at a given frequency.<br />
<br />
This effect of the bandpass mismatch can be roughly measured from either flight or simulated data using so-called spurious component mapmaking, which provides noisy all-sky estimates of the observed sky differences (the spurious maps), excluding polarization, between individual detectors and the frequency average. We compare the amount of simulated bandpass mismatch to flight data. The spurious component approach is detailed in the Appendix of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}. Mismatch between FFP8 and flight data is driven by inaccurate bandpass description (LFI) and incomplete line emission simulation (HFI). The noisy pixels that align with the Planck scanning rings in the HFI maps are regions where the spurious map solution is degenerate with polarization due to insufficient observation orientations.<br />
<br />
''' The Planck Sky Model '''<br />
<br />
The Planck Sky Model, PSM, consists of a set of data and of code used to simulate sky emission at millimeter-wave frequencies; it is described in detail in Delabrouille et al., (2013){{BibCite|delabrouille2012}}, henceforth the PSM paper.<br />
<br />
The Planck Sky Model is available here:<br />
http://www.apc.univ-paris7.fr/~delabrou/PSM/psm.html<br />
<br />
The main simulations used to test and validate the Planck data analysis pipelines (and, in particular, component separation) makes use of simulations generated with version 1.9 of the PSM software. The total sky emission is built from the CMB plus ten foreground components, namely thermal dust, spinning dust, synchrotron, CO lines, free-free, thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect (with first order relativistic corrections), kinetic SZ effect, radio and infrared sources, Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB).<br />
<br />
The CMB is modelled using [http://camb.info CAMB]. It is based on adiabatic initial perturbations, with the following cosmological parameters as listed in Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}}<br />
<br />
[[File:A14_Table3_CosmoParams.png|center|800px]]<br />
<br />
''' Galactic and extragalactic components '''<br />
<br />
The '''Galactic ISM emission''' comprises five components: thermal dust, spinning dust, synchrotron, free-free, CO lines (the J=1->0, J=2->1, and J=3->2 lines at 115.27, 230.54, and 345.80 GHz, respectively), and plus the cosmic infrared background (CIB), emission from radio sources, and the thermal and kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effects.<br />
<br />
The '''thermal dust''' emission is modelled using single-frequency template maps of the intensity and polarization, together with a pixel-dependent emission law. For FFP8 the thermal dust emission templates are derived from the Planck 353 GHz observations. This update of the original PSM dust model is necessary to provide a better match to the emission observed by Planck. While one option would be simply to use the dust opacity map obtained in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06b}}, this map still suffers from significant contamination by CIB anisotropies and infrared point sources. Using it as a 353 GHz dust template in simulations would result in an excess of small scale power (from CIB and infrared sources) scaling exactly as thermal dust across frequencies. The resulting component represents correctly neither dust alone (because of an excess of small scale power) nor the sum of dust and infrared sources (because the frequency scaling of the CIB and infrared sources is wrong). For simulation purposes, the main objective is not to have an exact map of the dust, but instead a map that has the right statistical properties. Hence we produce a template dust map at 353 GHz by removing that fraction of the small-scale power that is due to CIB emission, infra-red sources, CMB, and noise.<br />
<br />
The '''spinning-dust''' map used for FFP8 simulations is a simple realization of the spinning dust model, post-processed to remove negative values occurring in a few pixels because of the generation of small-scale fluctuations on top of the spinning dust template extracted from WMAP data.<br />
<br />
The FFP8 '''synchrotron''' emission is modelled on the basis of the template emission map observed at 408 MHz by Haslam et al. (1982). This template synchrotron map is extrapolated in frequency using a spectral index map corresponding to a simple power law.<br />
<br />
The '''free-free''' spectral dependence is modelled in FFP8 by assuming a constant electron temperature <math>T_{e}</math> = 7000 K. Electron-ion interactions in the ionized phase of the ISM produce emission that is in general fainter than both the synchrotron and the thermal dust emission outside of the active star-forming regions in the Galactic plane. The free-free model uses a single template, which is scaled in frequency by a specific emission law. The free-free spectral index is a slowly varying function of frequency and depends only slightly on the local value of the electron temperature.<br />
<br />
The '''radio sources''' are modelled in FFP8 in a different way from the pre-launch versions of the PSM. <br />
<br />
For '''strong radio sources''' (<math>S_{30}</math> > 0.5 Jy), we use radio sources at 0.84, 1.4, or 4.85 GHz. For sources observed at two of these frequencies, we extrapolate or interpolate to the third frequency assuming the spectral index estimated from two observed. For sources observed at only one frequency, we use differential source counts to obtain the ratio of steep- to flat-spectrum sources in each interval of flux density considered. From this ratio, we assign spectral indices (randomly) to each source within each flux density interval. Fiducial Gaussian spectral index distributions as a function of spectral class are obtained from the literature. These are then adjusted slightly until there is reasonable agreement between the PSM differential counts and the predicted model counts predicted.<br />
<br />
For '''faint radio sources''' (<math>S_{30}</math> <= 0.5 Jy), the pre-launch PSM showed a deficit of sources resulting from inhomogeneities in surveys at different depths. We address this issue by constructing a simulated catalogue of sources at 1.4 GHz. We replace the simulated sources by the observed ones, wherever possible. If, however, in any particular pixel, we have a shortfall of observed sources, we make up the deficit with the simulated sources. Every source in this new catalogue is given a model-derived spectral class. We thus assign a spectral index to each source based on the spectral class, and model the spectrum of each source using four power laws. We also assume some steepening of the spectral index with frequency, with fiducial values of the steepening obtained from the literature.<br />
<br />
We combine the faint and strong radio source catalogues we constructed and compute the differential source counts on these sources between 0.005 Jy and 1 Jy. Finally we also model the polarization of these radio sources using the measured polarization fractions from the literature; for each simulated source we draw a polarization fraction at random from the list of real sources of the same spectral type.<br />
<br />
The '''SZ clusters''' are simulated following the model of Delabrouille, Melin, and Bartlett (DMB) as implemented in the PSM. A catalogue of halos is drawn from a Poisson distribution of the mass function with a limiting mass of M<sub>500,true</sub> > 2x10<sup>13</sup> <math>M_\odot</math>. We use the pressure profile from the literature to model the thermal SZ emission of each halo given its redshift and mass. We determine the cluster temperature and assume that the profiles are isothermal. These steps allow us to compute the first-order thermal relativistic correction and the kinetic SZ effect for each cluster, both of which are included in the simulation. Finally, we inject catalogued clusters following the same model, and remove from the simulation corresponding clusters in each redshift and mass range. Hence the SZ simulation features the majority of known X-ray and optical clusters, and is fully consistent with X-ray scaling laws and observed Planck SZ counts.<br />
<br />
The '''CIB''' model used to simulate FFP8 relies on the distribution of individual galaxies in template maps based on the distribution of dark matter at a range of relevant redshifts. We assume the CIB galaxies can be grouped into three different populations (proto-spheroid, spiral, starburst). Within each population, galaxies have the same SED, while the flux density is randomly distributed according to redshift-dependent number counts obtained from JCMT/SCUBA-2 observations and the Planck ERCSC, as well as observations from Herschel-SPIRE and AzTEC/ASTE. We use the Class software to generate dark matter maps at 17 different redshifts between 1 and 5.5. Since the galaxy distribution does not exactly follow the dark matter distribution, we modify the a<sub>lm</sub> coefficients of dark matter anisotropies given by Class. Template maps generated from the a<sub>lm</sub> coefficients are then exponentiated to avoid negative pixels. Galaxies are randomly distributed with a probability of presence proportional to the pixel values of the template maps. One map is generated for each population, at each redshift, and associated with a redshifted SED depending on the population. The emission of these maps (initially at a reference frequency) can be extrapolated to any frequency using the associated redshifted SED. By summing the emission of all maps, we can generate CIB maps at any frequency in the range of validity of our model. <br />
<br />
See {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}} and references therein for a very detailed explanation of the procedures to simulate each of the components.<br />
<br />
The sky model is simulated at a resolution common to all components by smoothing the maps with an ideal Gaussian beam of FWHM of 4 arcminute. The Healpix [http://healpix.sourceforge.net] pixelization in Galactic coordinates is used for all components, with Nside = 2048 and <math>\ell_{max}</math> = 6000. Sky emission maps are generated by numerically band-integrating the sky model maps (emission law of each component, in each pixel) over the frequency bands both of each detector in the focal plane and &mdash; using an average over the detectors at a given frequency &mdash; of each channel. The band-integrated maps are essentially observations of the model sky simulated by an ideal noiseless instrument with ideal Gaussian beams of FWHM equal to the resolution of the model sky.<br />
<br />
''' The CMB Sky '''<br />
<br />
The CMB sky is simulated in three distinct components, namely lensed scalar, tensor, and non-Gaussian complement. The total CMB sky is then the weighted sum with weights 1, <math>\sqrt{r}</math>, and f_<sub>NL</sub>, respectively. For FFP8, all CMB sky components are produced as spherical harmonic representations of the I, Q, and U skies.<br />
<br />
The FFP8 CMB sky is derived from our best estimate of the cosmological parameters available at the time of its generation, namely those from the first Planck data release {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p01}}, augmented with a judicious choice of reionization parameter <math>\tau</math>, as listed in Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}.<br />
<br />
''' The scalar CMB sky '''<br />
<br />
The scalar component of the CMB sky is generated including lensing, Rayleigh scattering, and Doppler boosting effects. <br />
<br />
* Using the Camb code, we first calculate fiducial unlensed CMB power spectra <math>C_{\ell}^{TT}</math>, <math>C_{\ell}^{EE}</math>, <math>C_{\ell}^{TE}</math>, the lensing potential power spectrum <math>C_{\ell}^{\phi\phi}</math>, and the cross-correlations <math>C_{\ell}^{T\phi}</math> and <math>C_{\ell}^{E\phi}</math>. We then generate Gaussian T, E, and <math>\phi</math> multipoles with the appropriate covariances and cross-correlations using a Cholesky decomposition and three streams of random Gaussian phases. These fields are simulated up to <math>\ell_{max}</math>=5120. <br />
<br />
* Add a dipole component to <math>\phi</math> to account for the Doppler aberration due to our motion with respect to the CMB. <span style="color:#ff0000">UPDATE: Note that although it was intended to include this component in this set of simulations, in the end it was not. It will be included in future versions of the simulation pipeline. </span><br />
<br />
* Compute the effect of gravitational lensing on the temperature and polarization fields, using an algorithm similar to LensPix. We use a fast spherical harmonic transform to compute the temperature, polarization, and deflection fields. The unlensed CMB fields T, Q, and U are evaluated on an equicylindrical pixelization (ECP) grid with <math>N_{\theta}=32\,768</math> and <math>N_{\varphi} = 65\,536</math>, while the deflection field is evaluated on a Healpix Nside=2048 grid. We then calculate the "lensed positions for each Nside=2048 Healpix pixel. We then interpolate T, Q, U at the lensed positions using 2-D cubic Lagrange interpolation on the ECP grid.<br />
<br />
* Incorporate the frequency-dependent Doppler modulation effect {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-pipaberration}}.<br />
<br />
* Evaluate lensed, Doppler boosted <math>T_{\ell m}</math>, <math>E_{\ell m}</math>, and <math>B_{\ell m}</math> up to <math>\ell_{max}=4\,096</math> with a harmonic transform of the Nside=2048 Healpix map of these interpolated T, Q, and U values.<br />
<br />
* Add frequency-dependent Rayleigh scattering effects.<br />
<br />
* Add a second-order temperature quadrupole. Since the main Planck data processing removes the frequency-independent part{{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a09}}, we simulate only the residual frequency-dependent temperature quadrupole. After subtracting the frequency-independent part, the simulated quadrupole has frequency dependence <math>\propto (b_{\nu}-1)/2</math>, which we calculate using the bandpass-integrated <math>b_{\nu}</math> boost factors given in Table 4 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}.<br />
<br />
''' The tensor CMB sky '''<br />
In addition to the scalar CMB simulations, we also generate a set of CMB skies containing primordial tensor modes. Using the fiducial cosmological parameters of Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}, we calculate the tensor power spectra <math>C_{\ell}^{TT, {\rm tensor}}</math>, <math>C_{\ell}^{EE, {\rm tensor}}</math>, and <math>C_{\ell}^{BB, {\rm tensor}}</math> using Camb with a primordial tensor-to-scalar power ratio <math>r=0.2</math> at the pivot scale <math>k=0.05\,Mpc^{-1}</math>. We then simulate Gaussian T, E, and B-modes with these power spectra, and convert these to spherical harmonic representations of the corresponding I, Q and U maps. Note that the default r=0.2 means that building the FFP8a-d maps requires rescaling each CMB tensor map by <math>\sqrt{r/0.2}</math> for each of the values of r in Table 2 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}.<br />
<br />
''' The non-Gaussian CMB sky '''<br />
We use a new algorithm to generate simulations of CMB temperature and polarization maps containing primordial non-Gaussianity. Non-Gaussian fields in general have a non-vanishing bispectrum contribution sourced by mode correlations. The bispectrum, the Fourier transform of the 3-point correlation function, can then be characterized as a function of three wavevectors, <math>F(k_1, k_2, k_3)</math>. Depending on the physical mechanism responsible for generating the non-Gaussian signal, it is possible to introduce broad classes of model that are categorized by the dependence of F on the type of triangle formed by the three momenta <math>k_i</math>. Here, we focus on non-Gaussianity of local type, where the bulk of the signal comes from squeezed triangle configurations, <math>k_1 \ll k_2 \approx k_3</math>. This is typically predicted by multi-field inflationary models. See Section 3.3.3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}} for further details on the simulation of this components and references.<br />
<br />
''' The FFP8.1 CMB skies '''<br />
<br />
The FFP8 simulations are an integral part of the analyses used to derive PR2-2015, and so were necessarily generated prior to determining that release's cosmological parameters. As such there is inevitably a mismatch between the FFP8 and the PR2-2015 cosmologies, which we address in two ways. The quick-and-dirty fix is to determine a single rescaling factor that minimizes the difference between the PR1-2013 and PR2-2015 TT power spectra and apply it to all of the FFP8 CMB maps; this number is determined to be 1.0134, and the rescaled maps have been used in several repeat analyses to confirm the robustness of various PR2-2015 results.<br />
<br />
More rigorously though, we also generate a second set of CMB realizations based on the PR2-2015 cosmology, dubbed FFP8.1, and perform our reanalyses using these in place of the FFP8 CMB skies in both the fiducial and MC realizations. Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}} lists the cosmological parameters used for FFP8.1 while Table 1 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}} enumerates the current status of the FFP8.1 CMB MCs.<br />
<br />
''' The Fiducial Sky Simulations'''<br />
<br />
The FFP8 fiducial realization is generated in two steps: <br />
# Simulation of the full mission TOD for every detector<br />
# Calculation of maps from the various detector subsets, intervals, and data cuts. <br />
<br />
Simulation of explicit TODs allows us to incorporate each detector's full beam (including its far sidelobes) and unique input sky (including its bandpass). As noted above, the fiducial realization is generated in six separate components &mdash; the three CMB components (lensed scalar, tensor, and non-Gaussian complement), two foreground realizations (with and without bandpass mismatch), and noise. The first five of these are simulated as explicit TODs and then mapped, while the noise is generated using the on-the-fly approach described in the noise MC subsection below.<br />
<br />
TOD generation for any detector proceeds by:<br />
# Convolving the appropriate sky component with the beam at every point in a uniformly sampled data cube of Euler angle triplets (encoding the pointing and polarization orientation) to produce the "beamskyset".<br />
# Generating the time-ordered data by interpolating over the beamskyset data cube to the exact pointing and polarization orientation of each sample. <br />
<br />
Previous FFP simulations, including FFP6, accompanying the 2013 Planck data release, used the LevelS software package to do this. However, this required format conversions for the input pointing data and the output time-ordered data, at significant IO and disk space costs. For FFP8 we have therefore embedded the critical parts of these routines into a new code which uses Toast to interface directly with exchange format data. <br />
<br />
All of the FFP8 fiducial maps are produced using Madam/Toast, a Toast port of the Madam generalized destriping code, which allows for destriping with an arbitrary baseline length, with or without a prior on the baseline distribution (or noise filter). Madam is used to produce the official LFI maps, and its destriping parameters can be chosen so that it reproduces the behaviour of Polkapix, the official HFI mapmaking code. Comparison of the official maps and Madam/Toast maps run using exchange data show that mapmaker differences are negligible compared to small differences in pointing and (for HFI) dipole subtraction that do not impact the simulation. The sky components are mapped from the TODs, while the fiducial noise is taken to be realization 10000 of the noise MC (with realizations 0000-9999 reserved for the noise MC itself). <br />
<br />
Summarizing the key differences in the map making parameters for each Planck frequency:<br />
<br />
* 30 GHz is destriped with 0.25 s baselines; 44 and 70 GHz are destriped using 1 s baselines; and 100&mdash;857 GHz are destriped using pointing-period baselines (30-75 min).<br />
<br />
* 30&mdash;70 GHz are destriped with a 1/f-shape noise prior, while 100&mdash;857 GHz are destriped without a noise prior.<br />
<br />
* 30, 44, and 70 GHz have separate destriping masks, while 100&mdash;857 GHz use the same 15% galaxy + point source mask.<br />
<br />
* 30&mdash;70 GHz maps are destriped using baselines derived exclusively from the data going into the particular map, while 100-857 GHz maps are destriped using baselines derived from the full data set.<br />
<br />
''' Noise MC '''<br />
<br />
The FFP8 noise MCs are generated using Madam/Toast, exploiting Toast's on-the-fly noise simulation capability to avoid the IO overhead of writing a simulated TOD to disk only to read it back in to map it. In this implementation, Madam runs exactly as it would with real data, but whenever it submits a request to Toast to provide it with the an interval of the noise TOD, that interval is simply simulated by Toast in accordance with the noise power spectral densities provided in the runconfig, and returned to Madam.<br />
<br />
For a simulation set of this size and complexity, requiring of the order of <math>10^{17}</math> random numbers over <math>10^{12}</math> disjoint and uncorrelated intervals, care must be take with the pseudo-random number generation to ensure that it is fast, reliable (and specifically uncorrelated), and reproducible, in particular enabling any process to generate any element of any subsequence on demand. To achieve this Toast uses a Combined Multiple Recursive Generator (CMRG) that provides more than sufficient period, excellent statistical robustness, and the ability to skip ahead to an arbitrary point in the pseudo-random sequence very quickly. See {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}} for further details on the Noise MCs.<br />
<br />
''' CMB MC '''<br />
<br />
The FFP8 CMB MCs are generated using the Febecop software package, which produces beam-convolved maps directly in the pixel domain rather than sample-by-sample, as is done for the fiducial maps. The goal of this approach is to reduce the computational cost by the ratio of time-samples to map-pixels (i.e., the number of hits per pixel).<br />
<br />
The Febecop software package proceeds as follows:<br />
<br />
# Given the satellite pointing and flags and the focal plane (accessed through the Toast interface), for every channel Febecop first re-orders all of the samples in the mission by pixel instead of time, localizing all of the observations of each pixel, and writes the resulting pixel-ordered detector dngles (PODA) to disk. Note that since the PODA also contains the detector, time-stamp, and weight of each observation this is a one-time operation for each frequency, and does not need to be re-run for different time intervals or detector subsets, or for changes in the beam model or its chosen cut-off radius.<br />
<br />
# For every time interval and detector subset to be mapped, and for every pixel in the map, Febecop uses the PODA and the scanning beams to generate an effective-beam for that pixel which is essentially the weighted average of the discretized beam functions for every sample in the pixel included in the time interval and detector subset. The total effective-beam array is also written to disk. Given the PODA, this is a one-time operation for any beam definition.<br />
<br />
# Finally, Febecop applies the effective-beam pixel-by-pixel to every CMB sky realization in the MC set to generate the corresponding beam-convolved CMB map realization.<br />
<br />
The effective-beams provide a direct connection between the true and observed sky, explicitly incorporating the detailed pointing for every detector through a linear convolution. By providing the effective-beams at every pixel, Febecop enables precise control of systematic effects, e.g., the point-spread functions can be fitted at each pixel on the sky and used to determine point source fluxes {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a35}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a36}}<br />
<br />
''' Validation '''<br />
Our goal for the FFP8 simulation set is that it be not only internally self-consistent, but also a good representation of the real data. In addition to the validation steps carried out on all of the inputs individually and noted in their respective sections above, we must also validate the final outputs. A first crude level of validation is provided simply by visual inspection of the FFP8 and real Planck maps where the only immediately apparent difference is the CMB realization.<br />
<br />
While this is a necessary test, it is hardly sufficient, and the next step is to compare the angular power spectra of the simulated and real channel/mission/full maps. As illustrated in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a35}}, LFI channels show excellent agreement across all angular scales, while HFI channels show a significant power deficit at almost all angular scales. Since this missing HFI power is not picked up in the noise estimation, it must be sky-synchronous (frequency bins corresponding to sky-synchronous signals being discarded when fitting the noise PSDs due to their contamination by signal residuals). This is now understood to be a systematic effect introduced in the HFI pre-processing pipeline, and we are working both to incorporate it as a systematic component in existing simulations and to ameliorate if for future data releases.<br />
<br />
Finally, the various analyses of the FFP8 maps in conjunction with the flight data provide powerful incidental validation. To date the only issues observed here are the known mismatch between the FFP8 and PR2-2015 cosmologies, and the missing systematic component in the HFI maps. As noted above, the former is readily addressed by rescaling or using FFP8.1; however, the characterization and reproduction of the latter is an ongoing effort. Specific details of the consequences of this as-yet unresolved issue, such as its impact on null-test failures and ''p''-value stability in studies of non-Gaussianity. In addition, as stated above, the CMB simulations containing only the modulation but not aberration part of the Doppler boost signal.<br />
<br />
''' Delivered products '''<br />
<br />
''' Fiducial Sky '''<br />
<br />
There are 9 PSM simulations of the fiducial sky that correspond to the simulated sky integrated over the average spectral response of each band, but not convolved with the beam. They can be downloaded from the PLA or directly here:<br />
<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-030_1024_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-044_1024_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-070_1024_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-100_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-143_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-217_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-353_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-545_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-857_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
<br />
In addition, a set of 9 simulations of the fiducial sky corrected for bandpass mismatch (nobpm) can be obtained here:<br />
<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-030_1024_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-044_1024_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-070_1024_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-100_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-143_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-217_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-353_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-545_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-857_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Sky simulated maps file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'SimMap_Sky' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|TEMPERATURE || Real*4 || K_cmb (30-353 GHz) or MJy/sr (545 and 857 GHz) || The Stokes I map<br />
|-<br />
|Q-POLARISATION || Real*4 || K_cmb (30-353 GHz) || The Stokes Q map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|U-POLARISATION || Real*4 || K_cmb (30-353 GHz) || The Stokes U map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix <math>N_{side}</math> <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12 <math>N_{side}</math><sup>2</sup> – 1 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Note: Original PSM foreground components has been generated at NSIDE 2048 and using a gaussian beam of 4 arcmin. LFI CMB maps has been downgraded at NSIDE 1024.<br />
<br />
''' CMB MC '''<br />
<br />
There are 1000 realizations of the lensed CMB per frequency for FFP8 and FFP9, making a total of 18000 CMB simulations available in the PLA. They are named:<br />
<br />
* ''HFI_SimMap_cmb-ffp8-scl-{nnnn}_2048_R2.00_nominal.fits''<br />
* ''LFI_SimMap_cmb-ffp8-scl-{nnnn}_1024_R2.00_nominal.fits''<br />
<br />
* ''HFI_SimMap_cmb-ffp9-scl-{nnnn}_2048_R2.00_nominal.fits''<br />
* ''LFI_SimMap_cmb-ffp9-scl-{nnnn}_1024_R2.00_nominal.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''nnnn'' ranges from 0000 to 1000.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB FFP8 and FFP9 simulated maps file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'SimMap_cmb-ffp?-scl' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|TEMPERATURE || Real*4 || K_cmb (30-353 GHz) or MJy/sr (545 and 857 GHz) || The Stokes I map<br />
|-<br />
|Q-POLARISATION || Real*4 || K_cmb (30-353 GHz) || The Stokes Q map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|U-POLARISATION || Real*4 || K_cmb (30-353 GHz) || The Stokes U map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || RING || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix <math>N_{side}</math> <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12 <math>N_{side}</math><sup>2</sup> – 1 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
''' Noise MC '''<br />
<br />
There are 1000 of the noise per frequency for FFP8, making 9000 noise realizations available in the PLA. They are named<br />
<br />
* ''HFI_SimMap_noise-ffp8-{nnnn}_2048_R2.00_nominal.fits''<br />
* ''LFI_SimMap_noise-ffp8-{nnnn}_1024_R2.00_nominal.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''nnnn'' ranges from 0000 to 1000.<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Noise simulated maps file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'SimMap_Sky' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|TEMPERATURE || Real*4 || K_cmb || <br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix <math>N_{side}</math> <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12 <math>N_{side}</math><sup>2</sup> – 1 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
''' Lensing Simulations '''<br />
<br />
The lensing simulations package contains 100 realisations of the Planck "MV (TT+TE+ET+TB+BT+EE+EB+BE)" lensing potential estimate (November 2014 pipeline v12), as well as the input lensing realizations. They can be used to determine error bars as well eas effective normalizations for cross-correlation with other tracers of lensing. These simulations are of the lensing convergence map contained in the [[Specially processed maps#Lensing map | Lensing map]] release file. The production and characterisation of this lensing potential map are described in detail in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a17}}, which also describes the procedure used to generate the realizations given here.<br />
<br />
<br />
The simulations are delivered as a gzipped tarball of approximately 8 GB in size. For delivery purposes, the package has been split into 4 2GB files using the unix command<br />
: <tt> split -d -b 2048m </tt><br />
<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?COSMOLOGY.FILE_ID=COM_Lensing-SimMap_2048_R2.00.tar.00<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?COSMOLOGY.FILE_ID=COM_Lensing-SimMap_2048_R2.00.tar.01<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?COSMOLOGY.FILE_ID=COM_Lensing-SimMap_2048_R2.00.tar.02<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?COSMOLOGY.FILE_ID=COM_Lensing-SimMap_2048_R2.00.tar.03<br />
<br />
After downloading the individual chunks, the full tarball can be reconstructed with the command<br />
: <tt>cat COM_Lensing-SimMap_2048_R2.00.tar.* | tar xvf - </tt><br />
<br />
The contents of the tarball are described below:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left"<br />
|+ ''' Contents of COM_Lensing-SimMap_2048_R2.00.tar '''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Filename || Format || Description<br />
|-<br />
| obs_klms/sim_????_klm.fits || HEALPIX FITS format alm, with <math> L_{\rm max} = 2048 </math> || Contains the simulated convergence estimate <math> \hat{\kappa}_{LM} = \frac{1}{2} L(L+1)\hat{\phi}_{LM} </math> for each simulation.<br />
|-<br />
| sky_klms/sim_????_klm.fits || HEALPIX FITS format alm, with <math> L_{\rm max} = 2048 </math> || Contains the input lensing convergence for each simulation.<br />
|-<br />
| inputs/mask.fits.gz || HEALPIX FITS format map, with <math> N_{\rm side} = 2048 </math> || Contains the lens reconstruction analysis mask.<br />
|-<br />
| inputs/cls/cl??.dat || ASCII text file, with columns = (<math>L</math>, <math>C_L </math>) || Contains the fiducial theory CMB power spectra for TT, EE, BB, <math> \kappa \kappa </math> and <math> T \kappa </math>, with temperature and polarization in units of <math> \mu K </math>.<br />
|- <br />
|}<br />
<br />
</div><br />
</div><br />
<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="background-color: #EEE8AA;width:80%"><br />
'''2013 Release of simulated maps'''<br />
<div class="mw-collapsible-content"><br />
<br />
''' Introduction '''<br />
<br />
The 2013 Planck data release is supported by a set of simulated maps of the model sky, by astrophysical component, and of that sky as seen by Planck. The simulation process consists of <br />
# modeling each astrophysical component of the sky emission for each Planck detector, using pre-Planck data and the relevant characteristics of the Planck instruments (namely the detector plus filter transmissions curves). <br />
# simulating each detector's observation of each sky component following the Planck scanning strategy and using the best estimates of the detector's beam and noise properties (now obtained in flight), then combining these timelines into a single one per detector, and projecting these simulated timelines onto ''observed'' maps (the ''fiducial'' sky), as is done with the on-orbit data;<br />
# generating Monte Carlo realizations of the CMB and of the noise, again following the Planck scanning strategy and using our best estimates of the detector beams and noise properties respectively. <br />
The first step is performed by the ''Planck Sky Model'' (PSM), and the last two by the ''Planck Simulation Tools'' (PST), both of which are described in the sections below. <br />
<br />
The production of a full focal plane (FFP) simulation, and including the many MC realizations of the CMB and the noise, requires both HFI and LFI data and includes large, computationally challenging, MC realizations. They are too large to be generated on either of the DPC's own cluster. Instead the PST consists of three distinct tools, each designed to run on the largest available supercomputers, that are used to generate the fiducial sky realization, the CMB MC, and the noise MC respectively. The simulations delivered here are part of the 6th generation FFP simulations, known as FFP6. They were primarily generated on the Hopper and Edison systems at [http://www.nersc.gov NERSC], with some of the LFI noise MCs generated on the Louhi system at [http://www.csc.fi/english CSC].<br />
<br />
While FFP6 includes our best measurements of the detector band-passes, main beams and noise power spectral densities, and is guaranteed to be internally self-consistent, there are a number of differences with the real data that should be borne in mind, although all tests performed to date indicate that these are statistically insignificant:<br />
* the beams do not include far side-lobes;<br />
* the detector noise characteristics are assumed stable: a single noise spectrum per detector is used for the entire mission;<br />
* it assumes perfect calibration, transfer function deconvolution and deglitching;<br />
* it uses the HFI pointing solution for the LFI frequencies, rather than the DPC's two focal plane model.<br />
* it uses a different map-maker to HFI, and as a consequence implements very slightly different data cuts - primarily at ring boundaries - resulting in marginally different hit-maps.<br />
<br />
''' The Planck Sky Model '''<br />
<br />
<br />
''' Overall description '''<br />
<br />
The Planck Sky Model, PSM, consists of a set of data and of code used to simulate sky emission at millimeter-wave frequencies; it is described in detail in Delabrouille et al., (2013){{BibCite|delabrouille2012}}, henceforth the PSM paper..<br />
<br />
The Planck Sky Model is available here:<br />
http://www.apc.univ-paris7.fr/~delabrou/PSM/psm.html<br />
<br />
The main simulations used to test and validate the Planck data analysis pipelines (and, in particular, component separation) makes use of simulations generated with version 1.7.7 of the PSM software. The total sky emission is built from the CMB plus ten foreground components, namely thermal dust, spinning dust, synchrotron, CO lines, free-free, thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect (with first order relativistic corrections), kinetic SZ effect, radio and infrared sources, Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB).<br />
<br />
The CMB is modeled using [http://camb.info CAMB]. It is based on adiabatic initial perturbations, with the following cosmological parameters:<br />
* T_CMB = 2.725<br />
* H = 0.684<br />
* OMEGA_M = 0.292<br />
* OMEGA_B = 0.04724<br />
* OMEGA_NU = 0<br />
* OMEGA_K = 0<br />
* SIGMA_8 = 0.789<br />
* N_S = 0.9732<br />
* N_S_RUNNING = 0<br />
* N_T = 0<br />
* R = 0.0844<br />
* TAU_REION = 0.085<br />
* HE_FRACTION = 0.245<br />
* N_MASSLESS_NU = 3.04<br />
* N_MASSIVE_NU = 0<br />
* W_DARK_ENERGY = -1<br />
* K_PIVOT = 0.002<br />
* SCALAR_AMPLITUDE = 2.441e-9<br />
and all other parameters are set to the default standard of the Jan 2012 version of CAMB. In addition, this simulated CMB contains non-Gaussian corrections of the local type, with an f<sub>NL</sub> parameter of 20.4075.<br />
<br />
The Galactic ISM emission comprises five components: thermal dust, spinning dust, synchrotron, CO lines, and free-free emission. We refer the reader to the PSM publication for details. For the simulations generated here, however, the thermal dust model has been modified in the following way: instead of being based on the 100 micron map of Schlegel, Finkbeiner and Davis (2008){{BibCite|schlegel1998}}, henceforth SFB, the dust template uses an internal release of the 857 GHz Planck observed map itself, in which point sources have been subtracted, and which has been locally filtered to remove CIB fluctuations in the regions of lowest column density. A caveat is that while this reduces the level of CIB fluctuations in the dust map in some of the regions, in regions of moderate dust column density the CIB contamination is actually somewhat larger than in the SFD map (by reason of different emission laws for dust and CIB, and of the higher resolution of the Planck map).<br />
<br />
The other emissions of the galactic ISM are simulated using the prescription described in the PSM paper. Synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust emission are based on WMAP observations, as analyzed by Miville-Deschenes et al. (2008){{BibCite|Miville2008}}. Small scale fluctuations have been added to increase the variance on small scales and compensate the lower resolution of WMAP as compared to Planck (in particular for the HFI channels). The main limitation of these maps is the presence at high galactic latitude of fluctuations that may be attributed to WMAP noise. The presence of noise and of added Gaussian fluctuations on small scales may result in a few occasional pixels being negative (e.g. in the spinning dust maps). Low frequency foreground maps are also contaminated by some residuals of bright radio sources that have not been properly subtracted from the templates of diffuse emission.<br />
<br />
The CO maps are simulated using the CO J=1-0 observations of Dame et al. (2001){{BibCite|dame2001}}. The main limitations are limited sky coverage, lower resolution than that of Planck high frequency channels, line ratios (J=2-1)/(J=1-0) and (J=3-2)/(J=2-1) constant over the sky. The CO in the simulation is limited to the three lowest <sup>12</sup>CO lines. No CO maps has been simulated at the LFI frequnecy (30, 44 and 70 GHz).<br />
<br />
Galaxy clusters are generated on the basis of cluster number counts, following the Tinker et al. (2008){{BibCite|Tinker2008}} mass function, for the cosmological parameters listed above. Clusters are assumed perfectly spherical, isothermal, and are modeled using the universal pressure profile of Arnaud et al. (2010){{BibCite|arnaud2010}}. Relativistic corrections following Itoh et al. (1998){{BibCite|Nozawa1998}} are included to first order. The simulated kinetic SZ effect assumes no bulk flow, and a redshift-dependent average cluster velocity compatible with the linear growth of structures.<br />
<br />
Point sources comprise radio sources (based on extrapolations across frequencies of radio observations between 800 MHz and 5 GHz) and infrared sources (based on extrapolations in frequencies of IRAS sources). One caveat is that due to the unevenness of the radio source surveys, the equatorial southern part of the sky has less faint radio sources than the northern part. Although all the missing sources are well below the Planck detection level, this induces a small variation of the total emission background over the sky. Check the individual faint point source emission maps if this is a potential problem for your applications. See also the PSM paper for details about the PSM point source simulations. The PSM separates bright and faint point source; the former are initially in a catalog, and the latter in a map, though a map of the former can also be produced. In the processing below, the bright sources are simulated via the catalog, but for convenience they are delivered as a map.<br />
<br />
Finally, the far infrared background due to high redshift galaxies has been simulated using a procedure is based on the distribution of galaxies in shells of density contrast at various redshifts (Castex et al., PhD thesis; paper in preparation). This simulation has been modified by gradually substituting an uncorrelated extra term of CIB emission at low frequencies, artificially added in particular to decorrelate the CIB at frequencies below 217 GHz from the CIB above that frequency, to mimic the apparent decorrelation observed in the Planck Early Paper on CIB power spectrum {{PlanckPapers|planck2011-6-6}}. <br />
<br />
While the PSM simulations described here provide a reasonably representative multi-component model of sky emission, users are warned that it has been put together mostly on the basis of data sets and knowledge pre-existing the Planck observations themselves. While it is sophisticated enough to include variations of emission laws of major components of the ISM emission, different emission laws for most sources, and a reasonably coherent global picture, it is not (and is not supposed to be) identical to the real sky emission. The users are warned to use these simulations with caution.<br />
<br />
''' PSM Products '''<br />
<br />
To build maps corresponding to the Planck channels, the models described above are convolved with the [[Spectral_response | spectral response]] of the channel in question. The products given here are for the full frequency channels, and as such they are not used in the Planck specific simulations, which use only individual detector channels. The frequency channel spectral responses used (given in [[the RIMO|the RIMO]]), are averages of the responses of the detectors of each frequency channel weighted as they are in the mapmaking step. They are provided for the purpose of testing user's own software of simulations and component separation.<br />
<br />
PSM maps of the CMB and of the ten foregrounds are given in the following map products:<br />
<br />
HFI<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_cmb_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_cmb_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_co_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_co_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_firb_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_firb_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_strongps_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_strongps_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_faintps_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_faintps_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_freefree_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_freefree_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_synchrotron_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_synchrotron_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_thermaldust_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_thermaldust_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_spindust_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_spindust_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_kineticsz_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_kineticsz_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_thermalsz_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_thermalsz_2048_R1.10.fits}}'' <br />
<br />
LFI<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_cmb_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_cmb_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_firb_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_firb_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_strongps_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_strongps_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_faintps_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_faintps_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_freefree_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_freefree_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_synchrotron_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_synchrotron_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_thermaldust_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_thermaldust_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_spindust_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_spindust_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_kineticsz_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_kineticsz_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_thermalsz_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_thermalsz_1024_R1.10.fits}}'' <br />
<br />
<br />
Each file contains a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with either a single map (for the CMB file) or one map for each HFI/LFI frequency (for the foreground components). In the latter case the columns are named ''F030'', ''F044'' ,''F070'',''F100'', ''F143'', … , ''F857''. Units are microK<sub>CMB</sub> for the CMB, K<sub>CMB</sub> at 30, 44 and 70 GHz and MJy/sr for the others. The structure is given below for multi-column files. <br />
<br />
Note: Original PSM foreground components has been generated at NSIDE 2048 and using a gaussian beam of 4 arcmin, LFI maps where then smoothed to LFI resolution (32.0, 27.0 and 13.0 arcmin for the 30, 44 and 70 GHz) and donwgraded at NSIDE 1024. LFI CMB maps has been smoothed at 13.0 arcmin (70 GHz resolution) and downgraded at NSIDE 1024. <br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''HFI FITS file structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'SIM-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|F100 || Real*4 || K_CMB || 100GHz signal map<br />
|-<br />
|F143 || Real*4 || K_CMB || 143GHz signal map<br />
|-<br />
|F217 || Real*4 || K_CMB || 217GHz signal map<br />
|-<br />
|F353 || Real*4 || K_CMB || 353GHz signal map<br />
|-<br />
|F545 || Real*4 || MJy/sr || 545GHz signal map<br />
|-<br />
|F857 || Real*4 || MJy/sr || 857GHz signal map<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COMP || string || component || Astrophysical omponent<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC || Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 50331647 || Last pixel number, for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|BAD_DATA || Real*4 || -1.63750E+30 || Healpix bad pixel value <br />
|-<br />
|BEAMTYPE || string || GAUSSIAN || Type of beam <br />
|-<br />
|BEAMSIZE || Real*4 || size || Beam size in arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|PSM-VERS || string || || PSM Versions used <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''LFI FITS file structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'SIM-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|F030 || Real*4 || KCMB || 30GHz signal map<br />
|-<br />
|F044 || Real*4 || KCMB || 44GHz signal map<br />
|-<br />
|F070 || Real*4 || KCMB || 70GHz signal map<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COMP || string || component || Astrophysical omponent<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC || Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12582911 || Last pixel number, for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|BAD_DATA || Real*4 || -1.63750E+30 || Healpix bad pixel value <br />
|-<br />
|BEAMTYPE || string || GAUSSIAN || Type of beam <br />
|-<br />
|BEAMS_30 || Real*4 || 32.0 || Beam size at 30 GHz in arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|BEAMS_44 || Real*4 || 27.0 || Beam size at 44 GHz in arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|BEAMS_70 || Real*4 || 13.0 || Beam size at 70 GHz in arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|PSM-VERS || string || || PSM Versions used <br />
|}<br />
<br />
''' The Fiducial Sky Simulations'''<br />
<br />
<br />
For each detector, fiducial time-ordered data are generated separately for each of the ten PSM components using the LevelS software{{BibCite|reinecke2006}} as follows:<br />
* the detector's beam and PSM map are converted to spherical harmonics using ''beam2alm'' and ''anafast'' respectively;<br />
* the beam-convolved map value is calculated over a 3-dimensional grid of sky locations and beam orientations using ''conviqt'';<br />
* the map-based timelines are calculated sample-by-sample by interpolating over this grid using ''multimod'';<br />
* the catalogue-based timelines are produced sample-by-sample by beam-convolving any point source laying within a given angular distance of the pointing at each sample time using ''multimod''.<br />
<br />
For each frequency, fiducial sky maps are generated for <br />
* the total signal (i.e. sky + instrument noise), for both the nominal mission and the halfrings thereof (see [[Frequency_Maps#Types_of_maps| details]])<br />
* the foreground sky alone (excluding CMB but including noise), <br />
* the point source sky, and <br />
* the noise alone<br />
All maps are built using the ''MADAM'' destriping map-maker{{BibCite|keihanen2010}} interfaced with the ''TOAST'' data abstraction layer . In order to construct the total timelines required by each map, for each detector ''TOAST'' reads the various component timelines separately and sums then, and, where necessary, simulates and adds a noise realization time-stream on the fly. HFI frequencies are mapped at ''HEALPix'' resolution Nside=2048 using ring-length destriping baselines, while LFI frequencies are mapped at Nside=1024 using 1s baselines.<br />
<br />
''' Products delivered '''<br />
<br />
A single simulation is delivered, which is divided into two types of products: <br />
<br />
1. six files of the full sky signal at each HFI and LFI frequency, and their corresponding halfring maps: <br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
: These files have the same structure as the equivalent ''SkyMap'' products described in the [[Frequency_Maps | Frequency Maps ]] chapter, namely one ''BINTABLE'' extension with three columns containing 1) Signal, 2) hit-count, and 3) variance. Units are K<sub>CMB</sub> for all channels.<br />
<br />
2. Three files containing 1) the sum of all astrophysical foregrounds, 2) the point sources alone, and 3) the noise alone: which are subproducts of the above, and are in the form of the PSM maps described in the previous section. <br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_foreground_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_foreground_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_noise_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_noise_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_ps_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_ps_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' <br />
<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_foreground_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_foreground_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits }}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_noise_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_noise_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits }}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_ps_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_ps_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' <br />
<br />
These files have the same structure as the PSM output maps described above, namely a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with 6 columns named ''F100'' -- ''F857'' each containing the given map for that HFI band and with 3 columns named ''F030'', ''F044'', ''F070'' each containing the given map for that LFI band. Units are alway K<sub>CMB</sub>.<br />
<br />
Note that the CMB alone is not delivered as a separate product, but it can be recovered by simple subtraction of the component maps for the total signal map.<br />
<br />
''' Monte Carlo realizations of CMB and of noise'''<br />
<br />
<br />
The CMB MC set is generated using ''FEBeCoP''{{BibCite|mitra2010}}, which generates an effective beam for each pixel in a map at each frequency by accumulating the weights of all pixels within a fixed distance of that pixel, summed over all observations by all detectors at that frequency. It then applies this effective beam pixel-by-pixel to each of 1000 input CMB sky realizations.<br />
<br />
The noise MC set is generated just as the fiducial noise maps, using ''MADAM/TOAST''. In order to avoid spurious correlations within and between the 1000 realizations, each stationary interval for each detector for each realization is generated from a distinct sub-sequence of a single statistically robust, extremely long period, pseudo-random number sequence.<br />
<br />
''' Products delivered '''<br />
<br />
100 realizations of the CMB (lensed) and of the noise are made available. They are named<br />
* ''HFI_SimMap_cmb-{nnnn}_2048_R1.nn_nominal.fits''<br />
* ''HFI_SimMap_noise-{nnnn}_2048_R1.nn_nominal.fits''<br />
* ''LFI_SimMap_cmb-{nnnn}_2048_R1.nn_nominal.fits''<br />
* ''LFI_SimMap_noise-{nnnn}_2048_R1.nn_nominal.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''nnnn'' ranges from 0000 to 0099.<br />
<br />
The FITS file structure is the same as for the other similar products above, with a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with six columns, one for each HFI frequency, named ''F100'', ''F143'', … , ''F857'' and with three columns, one for each LFI frequency, named ''F030'', ''F044'', ''F070''. Units are always microK<sub>CMB</sub> ''(NB: due to an error in the HFI file construction, the unit keywords in the headers indicate K<sub>CMB</sub>, the "micro" is missing there)''.<br />
<br />
''' Lensing Simulations '''<br />
<br />
<br />
''N.B. The information in this section is adapted from the package Readme.txt file.''<br />
<br />
The lensing simulations package contains 100 realisations of the Planck 2013 "MV" lensing potential estimate, as well as the input CMB and lensing potential <math>\phi</math> realizations. They can be used to determine error bars for cross-correlations with other tracers of lensing. These simulations are of the PHIBAR map contained in the [[Specially processed maps#Lensing map | Lensing map]] release file. The production and characterisation of this lensing potential map are described in detail in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p12}}, which describes also the procedure used to generate the realizations given here.<br />
<br />
<br />
''' Products delivered '''<br />
<br />
The simulations are delivered as a single tarball of ~17 GB containing the following directories:<br />
<br />
: obs_plms/dat_plmbar.fits - contains the multipoles of the PHIBAR map in COM_CompMap_Lensing_2048_R1.10.fits<br />
: obs_plms/sim_????_plmbar.fits - simulated relizations of PHIBAR, in Alm format.<br />
: sky_plms/sim_????_plm.fits - the input multipoles of phi for each simulation<br />
: sky_cmbs/sim_????_tlm_unlensed.fits - the input unlensed CMB multipoles for each simulation<br />
: sky_cmbs/sim_????_tlm_lensed.fits - the input lensed CMB multipoles for each simulation.<br />
<br />
: inputs/cls/cltt.dat - Fiducial lensed CMB temperature power spectrum C<sub>l</sub><sup>TT</sup>.<br />
: inputs/cls/clpp.dat - Fiducial CMB lensing potential power spectrum C<sub>l</sub><sup>PP</sup>.<br />
: inputs/cls/cltp.dat - Fiducial correlation between lensed T and P.<br />
: inputs/cls/cltt_unlensed.dat - Fiducial unlensed CMB temperature power spectrum.<br />
: inputs/filt_mask.fits.gz - HEALpix Nside=2048 map containing the analysis mask for the lens reconstructions (equivalent to the MASK column in COM_CompMap_Lensing_2048_R1.10.fits)<br />
<br />
All of the .fits files in this package are HEALPix Alm, to lmax=2048 unless otherwise specified.<br />
<br />
For delivery purposes this package has been split into 2 GB chunks using the unix command<br />
: <tt> split -d -b 2048m </tt><br />
which produced files with names like ''COM_SimMap_Lensing_R1.10.tar.nn'', with nn=00-07. They can be recombined and the maps extracted via <br />
: <tt>cat COM_SimMap_Lensing_R1.10.tar.* | tar xvf - </tt><br />
<br />
<br />
</div><br />
</div><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
= References =<br />
<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|012]]</div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=Simulation_data&diff=14591Simulation data2022-02-14T11:03:36Z<p>Mlopezca: /* Other Releases: 2020-NPIPE, 2015 and 2013 simulated maps */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{DISPLAYTITLE: Simulations}}<br />
<br />
== Introduction ==<br />
<br />
While PR2-2015 simulations ({{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14||FFP8}}) were focused on the reproduction of the flight data Gaussian noise power spectra and their time variations, this new PR3-2018 simulation (FFP10) brings for the first time the realistic simulation of instrumental effects for both HFI and LFI. Moreover these simulated systematic effects are processed in the timelines with the same algorithms (and when possible, codes) as for the flight data.<br />
<br />
The FFP10 dataset is made of several full-sky map sets in FITS format:<br />
<br />
* 1000 realizations of lensed scalar CMB convolved with effective beams per HFI frequency,<br />
* separated input sky components per HFI bolometer and LFI radiometer<br />
* 300 realizations of noise and systematic effect residuals per frequency,<br />
* one fiducial simulation with full sky signal components: lensed scalar CMB, foregrounds, noise and systematic effect residuals, for all frequencies,<br />
<br />
== The end-to-end simulation pipeline ==<br />
<br />
The end-to-end simulation pipeline uses several software components which are described below in the order they are used, as seen in the following schematic. Note that while this schematic is specific to HFI, the main components in the block diagram are similar for both instruments. <br />
<br />
<center><br />
[[File:Simflow2.png]]<br />
</center><br />
<br />
Please note that most of what is written here comes from {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l03}}, which reading is highly recommended for more precisions on technical details and plots, particularly about the characterization of the negligible effects and systematics.<br />
<br />
=== CMB ===<br />
<br />
The FFP10 lensed CMB maps are generated in the same way as for the previous FFP8 release and described in detail in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}. FFP10 simulations only contain the scalar part lensed with independent lensing potential realizations.<br />
<br />
One "fiducial" realization is used as input CMB for the full end-to-end pipeline, and 1000 other realizations are convolved with FEBeCoP{{BibCite|mitra2010}} effective beams to be combined with the 300 noise and systematic residuals maps.<br />
<br />
The cosmological parameters used are:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="8" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left"<br />
|-<br />
! Parameter<br />
! Symbol<br />
! FFP8.1<br />
! FFP10<br />
|-<br />
| Baryon density<br />
| style="text-align:center;" | <math>\omega_b=\Omega_bh^2</math><br />
| <math>0.0223</math><br />
| <math>0.02216571</math><br />
|-<br />
| Cold dark matter density<br />
| style="text-align:center;" | <math>\omega_c=\Omega_ch^2</math><br />
| <math>0.1184</math><br />
| <math>0.1202944</math><br />
|-<br />
| Neutrino energy density<br />
| style="text-align:center;" | <math>\omega_{\nu}=\Omega_{\nu}h^2</math><br />
| <math>0.00065</math><br />
| <math>0.0006451439</math><br />
|-<br />
| Hubble parameter, <math>H_0=100h \mbox{ kms}^{-1} \mbox{ Mpc}^{-1}</math><br />
| style="text-align:center;" | <math>h</math><br />
| <math>0.6712</math><br />
| <math>0.6701904</math><br />
|-<br />
| Thomson optical depth through reionization<br />
| style="text-align:center;" | <math>\tau</math><br />
| <math>0.067</math><br />
| <math>0.06018107</math><br />
|-<br />
| colspan="4" | Primordial curvature perturbation spectrum:<br />
|-<br />
| &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;amplitude<br />
| style="text-align:center;" | <math>A_s</math><br />
| <math>2.14×10^{-9}</math><br />
| <math>2.119631×10^{-9}</math><br />
|-<br />
| &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;spectral index<br />
| style="text-align:center;" | <math>n_s</math><br />
| <math>0.97</math><br />
| <math>0.9636852</math><br />
|}<br />
<br />
=== The Planck Sky Model ===<br />
<br />
The FFP10 simulation input sky is the coaddition of the following sky components generated using the Planck Sky Model (PSM) package (Delabrouille et al. 2013 {{BibCite|delabrouille2012}}). Each of these components is convovled with each HFI bolometer spectral response by the PSM software, using the same spectral responses as in 2015 FFP8. Please note that one important difference with FFP8 is that FFP10 PSM maps are '''not''' smoothed with any beam, while in FFP8 PSM maps were smoothed with a 5’ Gaussian beam.<br />
<br />
==== Diffuse Galactic components ====<br />
<br />
* '''Dust'''<br />
The dust model maps are built as follows. The Stokes I map at 353 GHz is the dust total intensity Planck map obtained by applying the Generalized Needlet Internal Linear Combination (GNILC) method of Remazeilles et al. (2011){{BibCite|remazeilles2011}} to the PR2-2015 release of Planck HFI maps, as described in {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-XLVIII}}, and subtracting the monopole of the Cosmic Infrared Background ({{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a09}}). For the Stokes Q and U maps at 353 GHz, we started with one realization of the statistical model of Vansyngel et al. (2017){{BibCite|vansyngel2017}}. The portions of the simulated Stokes Q and U maps near Galactic plane were replaced by the Planck 353-GHz PR2 data. The transition between data and simulation was made using a Galactic mask with a 5° apodization, which leaves 68% of the sky unmasked at high latitude. Furthermore, on the full sky, the large angular scales in the simulated Stokes Q and U maps were replaced by the Planck data. Specifically, the first ten multipoles came from the Planck 353-GHz PR2 data, while over the <math>\ell=10-20</math> range, the simulations were introduced smoothly using the function <math>(1+{\sin}[\pi(15-\ell)/10])/2</math>.<br />
<br />
To scale the dust Stokes maps from the 353-GHz templates to other Planck frequencies, we follow the FFP8 prescription ({{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}). A different modified blackbody emission law is used for each of the <math>N_{side}=2048</math> HEALPix pixels. The dust spectral index used for scaling in frequency is different for frequencies above and below 353 GHz. For frequencies above 353 GHz, the parameters come from the modified blackbody fit of the dust spectral energy distribution (SED) for total intensity obtained by applying the GNILC method to the PR2 HFI maps ({{PlanckPapers|planck2016-XLVIII}}). These parameter maps have a variable angular resolution that decreases towards high Galactic latitudes. Below 353 GHz, we also use the dust temperature map from {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-XLVIII}}, but with a distinct map of spectral indices from {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06b}}, which has an angular resolution of 30’. These maps introduce significant spectral variations over the sky at high Galactic latitudes, and between the dust SEDs for total intensity and polarization. The spatial variations of the dust SED for polarization in the FFP10 sky model are quantified in {{PlanckPapers|planck2018-LIV}}.<br />
<br />
* '''Synchrotron'''<br />
Synchrotron intensity is modelled by scaling in frequency the 408-MHz template map from Haslam et al. (1982){{BibCite|haslam1982}}, as reprocessed by Remazeilles et al. (2015){{BibCite|remazeilles2015}} using a single power law per pixel. The pixel-dependent spectral index is derived from an analysis of WMAP data by Miville-Deschênes et al. (2008){{BibCite|Miville2008}}. The generation of synchrotron polarization follows the prescription of Delabrouille et al. (2013){{BibCite|delabrouille2012}}.<br />
<br />
* '''Other components'''<br />
Free-free, spinning dust models, and Galactic CO emissions are essentially the same as those used for the FFP8 sky model ({{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}), but the actual synchrotron and free-free maps used for FFP10 are obtained with a different realization of small-scale fluctuations of the intensity. CO maps do not include small-scale fluctuations, and are generated from the spectroscopic survey of Dame et al. (2001){{BibCite|dame2001}}. None of these three components is polarized in the FFP10 simulations.<br />
<br />
==== Unresolved point sources and cosmic infrared background ====<br />
<br />
Catalogues of individual radio and low-redshift infrared sources are generated in the same way as for FFP8 simulations ({{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}), but use a different seed for random number generation. Number counts for three types of galaxies (early-type proto-spheroids, and more recent spiral and starburst galaxies) are based on the model of Cai et al. (2013){{BibCite|cai2013}}. The entire Hubble volume out to redshift <math>z=6</math> is cut into 64 spherical shells, and for each shell we generate a map of density contrast integrated along the line of sight between <math>z_{min}</math> and <math>z_{max}</math>, such that the statistics of these density contrast maps (i.e., power spectrum of linear density fluctuations, and cross-spectra between adjacent shells, as well as with the CMB lensing potential), obey statistics computed using the Cosmic Linear Anisotropy Solving System (CLASS) code (Blas et al. 2011{{BibCite|blas2011}}; Di Dio et al. 2013{{BibCite|didio2013}}). For each type of galaxy, a catalogue of randomly-generated galaxies is generated for each shell, following the appropriate number counts. These galaxies are then distributed in the shell to generate a single intensity map at a given reference frequency, which is scaled across frequencies using the prototype galaxy SED at the appropriate redshift.<br />
<br />
==== Galaxy clusters ====<br />
<br />
A full-sky catalogue of galaxy clusters is generated based on number counts following the method of Delabrouille et al. (2002){{BibCite|Delabrouille2002}}. The mass function of Tinker et al. (2008){{BibCite|Tinker2008}} is used to predict number counts. Clusters are distributed in redshift shells, proportionally to the density contrast in each pixel with a bias <math>b(z, M)</math>, in agreement with the linear bias model of Mo & White (1996){{BibCite|mowhite1996}}. For each cluster, we assign a universal profile based on XMM observations, as described in Arnaud et al. (2010){{BibCite|arnaud2010}}. Relativistic corrections are included to first order following the expansion of Nozawa et al. (1998){{BibCite|Nozawa1998}}. To assign an SZ flux to each cluster, we use a mass bias of <math>M_{Xray}/M_{true}=0.63</math> to match actual cluster number counts observed by Planck for the best-fit cosmological model coming from CMB observations. We use the specific value <math>\sigma_8=0.8159</math>.<br />
<br />
The kinematic SZ effect is computed by assigning to each cluster a radial velocity that is randomly drawn from a centred Gaussian distribution, with a redshift-dependent standard deviation that is computed from the power spectrum of density fluctuations. This neglects correlations between cluster motions, such as bulk flows or pairwise velocities of nearby clusters.<br />
<br />
=== Input sky maps to timelines ===<br />
<br />
The LevelS software package (Reinecke et al. 2006 {{BibCite|reinecke2006}}) is used to convert the input sky maps to timelines for each bolometer.<br />
<br />
* Using '''conviqtv3''', the maps are convolved with the same scanning beams as for FFP8, which were produced by stacking intensity-only observations of planets ({{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}}, appendix B), and to which a fake polarization has been added using a simple model based on each bolometer polarization angle and leakage.<br />
<br />
* The convolved maps are then scanned to timelines with '''multimod''', using the same scanning strategy as the 2018 flight data release. The only difference between the 2018 scanning strategy and the 2015 one is that about 1000 stable pointing periods at the end of the mission are omitted in 2018, because it has been found that the data quality was significantly lower in this interval.<br />
<br />
=== Instrument-specific simulations ===<br />
<br />
The main new aspect of FFP10 is the production of End-to-end (E2E) detector simulations, which include all significant systematic effects, and are used to produce realistic maps of noise and systematic effect residuals. <br />
<br />
==== HFI E2E simulations ====<br />
<br />
The pipeline adds the modelled instrumental systematic effects at the timeline level. It includes noise only up to the time response convolution step, after which the signal is added and the systematics simulated. It was shown in appendix B.3.1 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-XLVI}} that, including the CMB map in the inputs or adding it after mapmaking, leads to differences for the power spectra in CMB channels below the <math>10^{-4}\mu{K}^2</math> level. This justifies the use of CMB swapping even when non-Gaussian systematic effects dominate over the TOI detector noise.<br />
<br />
Here are the main effects included in the FFP10 simulation:<br />
<br />
* '''White noise:''' the noise is based on a physical model composed of photon, phonon, and electronic noises. The time-transfer functions are different for these three noise sources. A timeline of noise only is created, with the level adjusted to agree with the observed TOI white noise after removal of the sky signal averaged per ring.<br />
<br />
* '''Bolometer signal time-response convolution:''' the photon white noise is convolved with the bolometer time response using the same code and same parameters as in the 2015 processing. A second white noise contribution is added to the convolved photon white noise to simulate the electronics noise.<br />
<br />
* '''Noise auto-correlation due to deglitching:''' the deglitching step in the data processing creates noise auto-correlation by flagging samples that are synchronous with the sky. Since we do not simulate the cosmic-ray glitches, we mimic this behaviour by adjusting the noise of samples above a given threshold to simulate their flagging.<br />
<br />
* '''Time response deconvolution:''' the timeline containing the photon and electronic noise contributions is then deconvolved with the bolometer time response and low-pass filtered to limit the amplification of the high-frequency noise, using the same parameters as in the 2015 data processing.<br />
<br />
: The input sky signal timeline is added to the convolved/deconvolved noise timeline and is then put through the instrument simulation. Note that the sky signal is not convolved/deconvolved with the bolometer time response, since it is already convolved with the scanning beam extracted from the 2015 TOI processing output which already contains the low-pass filter and residuals associated with the time-response deconvolution.<br />
<br />
* '''Simulation of the signal non-linearity:''' the first step of electronics simulation is the conversion of the input sky plus noise signal from K<sub>CMB</sub> units to analog-to-digital units (ADU) using the detector response measured on the ground and assumed to be stable in time. The ADU signal is then fed through a simulator of a non-linear analogue-to-digital converter (ADCNL). This step is the one introducing complexity into the signal, inducing time variation of the response, and causing gain differences with respect to the ground-based measurements. This corresponds to specific new correction steps in the mapmaking.<br />
<br />
: The ADCNL transfer-function simulation is based on the TOI processing, with correction from the ground measurements, combined with in-flight measurements. A reference simulation is built for each bolometer, which minimizes the difference between the simulation and the data gain variations, measured in a first run of the mapmaking. Realizations of the ADCNL are then drawn to mimic the variable behaviour of the gains seen in the 2018 data.<br />
<br />
* '''Compression/decompression:''' the simulated signal is compressed by the algorithm required by the telemetry rate allocated to the HFI instrument, with a slight accuracy loss. While very close to the compression algorithm used on-board, the one used in the simulation pipeline differs slightly, due to the non-simulation of the cosmic-ray glitches, together with the use of the average of the signal in the compression slice.<br />
: The same number of compression steps as in flight data, the signal mean of each compression slice and the step value for each sample are then used by the decompression algorithm to reconstruct the modulated signal.<br />
<br />
===== TOI processing =====<br />
<br />
The TOIs issued from the steps above are then processed in the same way as the flight data. Because of the granularity needed and the computational performance required to produce hundreds of realizations, the TOI processing pipeline applied to the simulated data is highly optimized and slightly different from the one used for the data. The specific steps are the following:<br />
<br />
* '''ADCNL correction:''' the ADCNL correction is carried out with the same parameters as the 2015 data TOI processing, and with the same algorithm. The difference between the realizations of ADC transfer function used for simulation and the constant one used for TOI processing is tuned to reproduce the gain variations found in 2015 processed TOI.<br />
<br />
* '''Demodulation:''' signal demodulation is also performed in the same way as the flight TOI processing. First, the signal is converted from ADU to volts. Next, the signal is demodulated by subtracting from each sample the average of the modulated signal over 1 hour and then taking the opposite value for "negative" parity samples.<br />
<br />
* '''Conversion to watts and thermal baseline subtraction:''' the demodulated signal is converted from volts to watts (neglecting the conversion non-linearity of the bolometers and amplifiers, which has been shown to be negligible). Eventually, the flight data thermal baseline, derived from the deglitched signals of the two dark bolometers smoothed over 1 minute, is subtracted.<br />
<br />
* '''1/f noise:''' a 1/f type noise component is added to the signal for each stable pointing period, with parameters (slope and knee frequency) adjusted on the flight data.<br />
<br />
* '''Projection to HPR:''' the signal timeline is then projected and binned to HEALPix pixels for each stable pointing period (HEALPix rings, or HPR) after removal of flight-flagged data (unstable pointing periods, glitches, Solar system objects, planets, etc.).<br />
<br />
* '''4-K line residuals:''' a HPR of the 4-K line residuals for each bolometer, built by stacking the 2015 TOI, is added to the simulation output HPR.<br />
<br />
===== Effects and processings not simulated =====<br />
<br />
* no discrete point sources,<br />
* no glitching/deglitching, only deglitching-induced noise auto-correlation,<br />
* no 4-K line simulation and removal, only addition of their residuals,<br />
* no bolometer volts-to-watts conversion non-linearity from the bolometers and amplifiers,<br />
* no far sidelobes (FSLs),<br />
* reduced simulation pipeline at 545 GHz and 857 GHz<br />
<br />
To be more specific about this last item, the submillimetre channels simulation uses a pipeline without electronics simulation. It only contains photon and electronic noises, deglitching noise auto-correlation, time-response convolution/deconvolution, and 1/f noise. Bolometer by bolometer baseline addition and thermal baseline subtraction, compression/decompression, and 4-K line residuals are not included.<br />
<br />
===== Mapmaking =====<br />
<br />
The next stage is to use the SRoll mapmaking on the stim HPR. The following mapmaking inputs are all the same for simulation as for flight data:<br />
<br />
* thermal dust, CO, and free-free map templates,<br />
* detector NEP and polarization parameters,<br />
* detector pointings,<br />
* bad ring lists and sample flagging<br />
<br />
The FSL removal performed in the mapmaking destriper is not activated (since no FSL contribution is included in the input). The total dipole removed by the mapmaking is the same as the input in the sky TOIs generated by LevelS (given in section 4.2. of {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l03}}).<br />
<br />
===== Post-processing =====<br />
<br />
* '''Noise alignment:''' an additional noise component is added to more accurately align the noise levels of the simulations with the noise estimates built from the 2018 odd minus even ring maps. Of course, this adjustment of the noise level may not satisfy all the other noise null tests. This alignment is different for temperature and for polarization maps, in order to simulate the effect of the noise correlation between detectors within a PSB.<br />
<br />
* '''Monopole adjustment:''' a constant value is added to each simulated map to bring its monopole to the same value as the corresponding 2018 map, which is described in section 3.1.1. of {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l03}}.<br />
<br />
* '''Signal subtraction:''' from each map, the input sky (CMB and foregrounds) is subtracted to build the “noise and residual systematics frequency maps.” These systematics include additional noise and residuals induced by sky-signal distortion. These maps are part of the FFP10 data set.<br />
<br />
==== LFI E2E simulations ====<br />
<br />
As described in {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l02}}, the LFI systematic effect simulations are done partially at time- line and partially at ring-set level, with the goal of being as modular as possible, in order to create a reusable set of simulations. From the input sky model and according to the pointing information, we create single-channel ring-sets of the pure sky convolved with a suitable instrumental beam. To these we add pure noise (white and 1/ f ) ring-sets generated from the noise power spectrum distributions measured from real data one day at a time. The overall scheme is given in the Figure below:<br />
<br />
[[File:Screen Shot 2018-07-13 at 13.58.58.png|thumb|400px|center]]<br />
<br />
In the same manner, we create ring-sets for each of the specific systematic effects we would like to measure. We add together signal, noise, and systematic ring-sets, and, given models for straylight (based on the GRASP beams) and the orbital dipole, we create “perfectly-calibrated” ring-sets (i.e., calibration constant = 1). We use the gains estimate from the 2018 data release to “de-calibrate” these timelines, i.e., to convert them from kelvins to volts. At this point the calibration pipeline starts, and produces the reconstructed gains that will be different from the ones used in the de-calibration process due to the presence of simulated systematic effects. The calibration pipeline is algorithmically exactly the same as that used at the DPC for product creation, but with a different implementation (based principally on python). The gain-smoothing algorithm is the same as used for the data, and has been tuned to the actual data. This means that there will be cases where reconstructed gains from simulations differ significantly from the input ones. We have verified that this indeed happens, but only for very few pointing periods, and we therefore decided not to consider them in the following analysis. The overall process for estimating gains is given in the figure below:<br />
<br />
[[File:Screen Shot 2018-07-13 at 13.59.17.png|400px|thumb|center]]<br />
<br />
At this point we are able to generate maps for full mission, half-ring, and odd-even-year splits) that include the effects of systematic errors on calibration. In the final step, we produce timelines (which are never stored) starting from the same fiducial sky map, using the same model for straylight and the orbital dipole as in the previous steps, and from generated noise-only timelines created with the same seeds and noise model used before. We then apply the official gains to “de-calibrate” the timelines, which are immediately calibrated with the reconstructed gains in the previous step. The nominal destriping mapmaking algorithm is then used to create final maps. The complete data flow is given in the figure below:<br />
<br />
[[File:Screen Shot 2018-07-13 at 14.03.40.png|400px|thumb|center]]<br />
<br />
<br />
== Delivered Products ==<br />
<br />
=== Input sky components ===<br />
<br />
The separated input sky components generated by the Planck Sky Model are available for all frequencies, at HEALPix <math>N_{side}=1024</math> or <math>2048</math> or <math>4096</math>, depending on frequency:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left"<br />
!<br />
! 100GHz<br />
! 143GHz<br />
! 217GHz<br />
! 353GHz<br />
! 545GHz<br />
! 857GHz<br />
|-<br />
! fiducial lensed scalar CMB<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! CO<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! free-free<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! synchrotron<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! far infrared background<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! kinetic SZ<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_kineticsz-ffp10-skyinbands-100_2048_R3.00_full.fits 100GHz&nbsp;kineticsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_kineticsz-ffp10-skyinbands-143_2048_R3.00_full.fits 143GHz&nbsp;kineticsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_kineticsz-ffp10-skyinbands-217_2048_R3.00_full.fits 217GHz&nbsp;kineticsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_kineticsz-ffp10-skyinbands-353_2048_R3.00_full.fits 353GHz&nbsp;kineticsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_kineticsz-ffp10-skyinbands-545_2048_R3.00_full.fits 545GHz&nbsp;kineticsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_kineticsz-ffp10-skyinbands-857_2048_R3.00_full.fits 857GHz&nbsp;kineticsz]<br />
|-<br />
! Thermal SZ<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_thermalsz-ffp10-skyinbands-100_2048_R3.00_full.fits 100GHz&nbsp;thermalsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_thermalsz-ffp10-skyinbands-143_2048_R3.00_full.fits 143GHz&nbsp;thermalsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_thermalsz-ffp10-skyinbands-217_2048_R3.00_full.fits 217GHz&nbsp;thermalsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_thermalsz-ffp10-skyinbands-353_2048_R3.00_full.fits 353GHz&nbsp;thermalsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_thermalsz-ffp10-skyinbands-545_2048_R3.00_full.fits 545GHz&nbsp;thermalsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_thermalsz-ffp10-skyinbands-857_2048_R3.00_full.fits 857GHz&nbsp;thermalsz]<br />
|-<br />
! faint&nbsp;infrared&nbsp;point&nbsp;sources<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintirps-ffp10-skyinbands-100_4096_R3.00_full.fits 100GHz&nbsp;faintirps]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintirps-ffp10-skyinbands-143_4096_R3.00_full.fits 143GHz&nbsp;faintirps]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintirps-ffp10-skyinbands-217_4096_R3.00_full.fits 217GHz&nbsp;faintirps]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintirps-ffp10-skyinbands-353_4096_R3.00_full.fits 353GHz&nbsp;faintirps]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintirps-ffp10-skyinbands-545_4096_R3.00_full.fits 545GHz&nbsp;faintirps]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintirps-ffp10-skyinbands-857_4096_R3.00_full.fits 857GHz&nbsp;faintirps]<br />
|-<br />
! faint radio point sources<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintradiops-ffp10-skyinbands-100_4096_R3.00_full.fits 100GHz&nbsp;faintradiops]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintradiops-ffp10-skyinbands-143_4096_R3.00_full.fits 143GHz&nbsp;faintradiops]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintradiops-ffp10-skyinbands-217_4096_R3.00_full.fits 217GHz&nbsp;faintradiops]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintradiops-ffp10-skyinbands-353_4096_R3.00_full.fits 353GHz&nbsp;faintradiops]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintradiops-ffp10-skyinbands-545_4096_R3.00_full.fits 545GHz&nbsp;faintradiops]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintradiops-ffp10-skyinbands-857_4096_R3.00_full.fits 857GHz&nbsp;faintradiops]<br />
|-<br />
! thermal dust<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=== CMB realizations ===<br />
<br />
The 1000 lensed scalar CMB map realizations are convolved with the FEBeCoP effective beams computed using the 2015 scanning beams ({{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}}, appendix B), and the updated scanning strategy described in the [[#PSM maps to timelines]] section above. Each CMB realization is available for the full-mission span only, at each frequency, which means 1000 realizations x 9 frequencies = 9000 CMB maps, which can be retrieved using the following link template:<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=febecop_ffp10_lensed_scl_cmb_{frequency}_mc_{realization}.fits</pre><br />
<br />
where:<br />
* '''{frequency}''' is any of frequency: 30, 44, 70, 100, 143, 217, 353, 545 or 857,<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realisation number, between 0000 and 0999, padded to four digits with leading zeros<br />
<br />
For example: http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=febecop_ffp10_lensed_scl_cmb_100_mc_0000.fits<br />
<br />
<br />
=== Noise and instrumental effect residual maps ===<br />
<br />
==== HFI E2E maps ====<br />
<br />
As described above, 300 realizations of full end-to-end simulations have been produced, to which the full sky signal part (CMB+foregrounds) have been subtracted in post-processing, to give maps of noise and systematic residuals only. For each realization and frequency, five data cuts are provided:<br />
<br />
* full-mission,<br />
* first and second half-missions,<br />
* odd and even stable pointing periods (rings)<br />
<br />
In addition to all 6 HFI frequencies, a special detector set made of only 353 GHz polarized bolometers (a.k.a 353_psb) is also published, to match the 2018 flight data set, for a total of 300 realizations x 5 data cuts x 7 HFI detector sets = 10,500 maps.<br />
<br />
The noise maps can be retrieved from PLA using the following naming convention:<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=ffp10_noise_{frequency}_{ring_cut}_map_mc_{realization}.fits</pre><br />
<br />
where:<br />
* '''{frequency}''' is any of HFI frequency: 100, 143, 217, 353, 353_psb, 545 or 857,<br />
* '''{ring_cut}''' is the ring selection scheme, one of: full, hm1, hm2, oe1, oe2<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realisation number, between 00000 and 00299, padded to five digits with leading zeros<br />
<br />
For example: http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=ffp10_noise_100_full_map_mc_00000.fits<br />
<br />
Please note that due to the specific polarization orientation of 100GHz bolometers, odd and even ring maps are badly conditionned for HEALPix <math>N_{side}=2048</math> and are therefore also available at <math>N_{side}=1024</math> by just replacing "_map_mc_" with "_map_1024_mc_" in the file link name.<br />
<br />
<br />
==== LFI E2E maps ====<br />
<br />
For LFI, a similar approach is followed as for HFI in terms of number and formatting of the E2E noise+systematics simulations.<br />
<br />
=== Fiducial simulation ===<br />
<br />
A separate full end-to-end simulation with a different CMB realization is also provided, with the full sky signal included and the same data cuts and detector sets as the 300 noise and systematic residual maps, to serve as a reference for whatever you would need it to. Please don't overlook the important warning below about thermal dust.<br />
<br />
'''TODO: fiducial naming scheme'''<br />
<br />
== Two important warnings about noise and thermal dust ==<br />
<br />
=== Noise ===<br />
<br />
As stated in the introduction, FFP10 focus is on the simulation and correction of the main instrumental effects and systematics. It uses a noise model which doesn't vary in time, contrary to FFP8 simulations which used realizations of one noise power spectrum per stable pointing period and per detector. Doing so, all systematic residuals in FFP8 are considered as Gaussian noise, which time variations should follow the flight data.<br />
<br />
If interested in Gaussian noise variations following flight data rather than non-Gaussian instrumental effects and systematic residuals, the user may want to check whether FFP8 noise maps better suit their needs. This is particularly true for 545 GHz and 857 GHz, for which FFP10 doesn't contain all instrumental effects and systematics and in which detectors' time response deconvolution is simulated at the noise-alignment post-processing step.<br />
<br />
=== Thermal dust ===<br />
<br />
After the production of the 300 realizations of noise and systematic residual simulations, a bug has been found in the PSM thermal dust template used as input, which led to a 10% intensity mismatch in temperature at 353 GHz due to a missing color correction. The same dust template has been correctly used for the simulations and for the sky subtraction post-processing, so the produced and published residual maps are not affected.<br />
<br />
Note however, that the thermal dust maps provided as PSM input sky and the one used in the fiducial simulation are the fixed version of the PSM thermal dust, which slightly differs from the one used (and removed) in the 300 noise and systematic residual simulations.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<br />
<References /><br />
= Other Releases: 2020-NPIPE, 2015 and 2013 simulated maps =<br />
<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="background-color: #9ef542;width:80%"><br />
'''2020 Release of simulated maps (NPIPE)'''<br />
<div class="mw-collapsible-content"><br />
The NPIPE release includes 600 simulated full-frequency and detector-set Monte Carlo realizations. 100 of those realizations include single-detector and half-ring maps. <br />
<br />
NPIPE simulations include all of the reprocessing steps, but only approximate the effects of preprocessing. The approximation is based on simulating the detector noise from a power spectral density (PSD) measured from preprocessed time-ordered data.<br />
<br />
The components of the full signal simulations are:<br />
* CMB signal, consisting of independent CMB realisations convolved on-the-fly with the asymmetric detector beams and including the solar system and orbital dipole;<br />
* foregrounds, consisting of a Commander sky model evaluated at each frequency;<br />
* zodiacal light, based on fits of the zodiacal templates on real data;<br />
* bandpass mismatch, based on real data fits of the mismatch templates;<br />
* LFI gain fluctuations, consisting of smoothed versions of the noisy fits of real data;<br />
* instrumental noise, based on measured noise in preprocessed data, including cross-detector correlated noise.<br />
<br />
In addition, fitting for the full suite of reprocessing templates adds all potential template degeneracies and pipeline transfer function effects.<br />
<br />
Each full signal simulation is accompanied with a symmetric beam-convolved CMB map, foreground map, and a residual (noise) map created by regressing out the input signals from the full map.<br />
<br />
Simulated NPIPE maps derive from a time-domain simulation that includes beam-convolved CMB, bandpass-mismatched foregrounds, and instrumental 1/<i>f</i> noise with realistic intra horn correlations. Seasonal gain fluctuations are added into the simulated LFI signal by smoothing the measured real data gain fluctuation. The data are processed with the same reprocessing module as the real data, introducing similar large-scale systematics and correlations.<br />
<br />
'''CMB'''<br />
<br />
The simulated CMB is the same as used in PR3 simulations. Instead of processing the CMB in the map-domain, NPIPE uses [https://github.com/hpc4cmb/libconviqt libconviqt] to convolve the CMB with individual detector beams at appropriate orientations. Simulating full time-domain processing allows the user to assess potential pipeline transfer function effects relevant to their analysis. This is in contrast to PR3 where the CMB simulations were performed in the map domain.<br />
<br />
The parameters of the simulated CMB are shown in the following table, reproduced from A&A 643, A42 (2020).<br />
<br />
[[File:Ffp10 params.png|400px|frameless|none|Simulated CMB parameters]]<br />
<br />
'''Foregrounds'''<br />
<br />
Unlike the CMB, there is only one realization of the foregrounds. They are based on the Commander sky model, evaluated at the nominal central frequency for each band. Sky-model component maps that are noise-dominated outside the Galactic plane are smoothed to remove unphysical levels of small-scale structure from the simulation. Without this smoothing the simulated 30-GHz maps showed a significant excess of extra-Galactic power when compared to the real data maps.<br />
<br />
Bandpass mismatch is simulated by adding bandpass-mismatch templates to the frequency map before sampling it into the map domain. The template amplitudes are based on real data fits.<br />
<br />
Since the Commander sky model used as input already includes beam smoothing, we do not convolve with the instrumental beam as we do with the CMB.<br />
<br />
'''Noise'''<br />
<br />
Instrumental noise is simulated from mission-averaged noise PSDs. We use the Fourier technique to create noise realizations that conform to the full PSD, not just a parametrized noise model. Correlated noise between detectors in a single horn reduces the horn's sensitivity to sky temperature but not polarization. We use the measured detector cross-spectra to account for this phenomenon. <br />
<br />
'''Simulated maps'''<br />
<br />
100 Monte Carlo realizations are available on the PLA. These include full-frequency maps, A/B splits, and single-detector maps. For convenience, we provide total signal and residual maps. Matching SEVEM-processed CMB and noise maps are also made available.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''CMB realizations'''<br />
<br />
Input CMB maps convolved with a symmetrized beam are available using the following link template:<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20{subset}_cmb_input_{frequency}_map_mc_{realization}.fits</pre><br />
<br />
Here:<br />
* '''{subset}''' is "", "A", or "B";<br />
* '''{frequency}''' is any of 030, 044, 070, 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, or 857;<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realization number, between 0200 and 0299, padded to four digits with leading zeros.<br />
<br />
For example: http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20_cmb_030_A_mc_00299.fits<br />
<br />
'''Foreground maps'''<br />
<br />
Foreground maps used in the simulation can be downloaded with<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20_foreground_input_{frequency}_map.fits</pre><br />
Here:<br />
* '''{frequency}''' is any of: 030, 044, 070, 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, or 857.<br />
<br />
'''Single-detector maps'''<br />
<br />
Simulated single-detector maps can be downloaded with this link template:<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20_total_{detector}_map_mc_{realization}.fits</pre><br />
<br />
Here:<br />
* '''{detector}''' is any valid Planck detector;<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realization number, between 0200 and 0299, padded to four digits with leading zeros.<br />
<br />
For example: http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20_total_LFI28M_map_mc_0200.fits<br />
<br />
'''Total-signal maps'''<br />
<br />
Simulated total-signal maps can be downloaded using the following link template:<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20{subset}_total_{frequency}_map_mc_{realization}.fits</pre><br />
<br />
Here:<br />
* '''{subset}''' is "", "A", or "B";<br />
* '''{frequency}''' is any of: 030, 044, 070, 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, or 857;<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realization number, between 0200 and 0299, padded to four digits with leading zeros.<br />
<br />
For example: http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20_total_143_map_mc_0200.fits<br />
<br />
'''Residual maps'''<br />
<br />
Simulated residual maps (output - input) can be downloaded with the following link template:<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20{subset}_noise_{frequency}_map_mc_{realization}.fits</pre><br />
<br />
Here:<br />
* '''{subset}''' is "", "A", or "B";<br />
* '''{frequency}''' is any of: 030, 044, 070, 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, or 857;<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realization number, between 0200 and 0299, padded to four digits with leading zeros.<br />
<br />
For example: http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20B_noise_070_map_mc_0200.fits<br />
<br />
'''SEVEM maps'''<br />
<br />
Simulated SEVEM CMB and noise maps are available at<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20{subset}_sevem_cmb_mc_{realization}_raw.fits</pre><br />
and<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20{subset}_sevem_noise_mc_{realization}_raw.fits</pre><br />
<br />
Here:<br />
* '''{subset}''' is "", "A", or "B";<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realization number, between 0200 and 0299, padded to four digits with leading zeros.<br />
<br />
Matching foreground-subtracted frequency maps can be retrieved with<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20{subset}_sevem_{frequency}_cmb_mc_{realization}_raw.fits</pre><br />
and<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20{subset}_sevem_{frequency}_noise_mc_{realization}_raw.fits</pre><br />
<br />
Here:<br />
* '''{subset}''' is "", "A", or "B";<br />
* '''{frequency}''' is any of 070, 100, 143, or 217;<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realization number, between 0200 and 0299, padded to four digits with leading zeros.<br />
<br />
<br />
</div><br />
</div><br />
<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="background-color: #FFDAB9;width:80%"><br />
'''2015 Release of simulated maps'''<br />
<div class="mw-collapsible-content"><br />
<br />
''' Introduction '''<br />
<br />
The 2015 Planck data release is supported by a set of simulated maps of the sky, by astrophysical component, and of that sky as seen by Planck (fiducial mission realizations), together with separate sets of Monte Carlo realizations of the CMB and the instrument noise. <br />
<br />
Currently, only a subset of these simulations is available from the Planck Legacy Archive. In particular:<br />
* 18000 full mission CMB simulations: 1000 for each of the nine Planck frequencies, and for two different sets of cosmological parameters.<br />
* 9000 full mission noise simulations: 1000 for each of the nine Planck frequencies.<br />
* 18 full mission sky simulated maps: two sets of sky maps with and without bandpass corrections applied.<br />
<br />
The first two types of simulations, CMB and noise, that are only partially available in the PLA, and the sky simulated maps, have been highlighted in red in Table 1. <br />
<br />
The full set of Planck simulations can be found in the NERSC supercomputing center. Instructions on how to access and retrieve the data can be found in [http://crd.lbl.gov/departments/computational-science/c3/c3-research/cosmic-microwave-background/cmb-data-at-nersc/ HERE]. <br />
<br />
They contain the dominant instrumental (detector beam, bandpass, and correlated noise properties), scanning (pointing and flags), and analysis (map-making algorithm and implementation) effects. These simulations have been described in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}.<br />
<br />
In addition to the baseline maps made from the data from all detectors at a given frequency for the entire mission, there are a number of data cuts that are mapped both for systematics tests and to support cross-spectral analyses. These include:<br />
<br />
* '''detector subsets''' (“detsets”), comprising the individual unpolarized detectors and the polarized detector quadruplets corresponding to each leading trailing horn pair. Note that HFI sometimes refers to full channels as detset0; here detset only refers to subsets of detectors.<br />
* '''mission subsets''', comprising the surveys, years, and half-missions, with exact boundary definitions given in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a03}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}} for LFI and HFI, respectively.<br />
* '''half-ring subsets''', comprising the data from either the first or the second half of each pointing-period ring<br />
<br />
The various combinations of these data cuts then define 1134 maps, as enumerated in the top section of Table 1 from {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}. The different types of map are then named according to their included detectors (channel or detset), interval (mission, half-mission, year or survey), and ring-content (full or half-ring); for example the baseline maps are described as channel/mission/full, etc.<br />
<br />
The simulation process consists of <br />
* modelling each astrophysical component of the sky emission for each Planck detector, using Planck data and the relevant characteristics of the Planck instruments. <br />
* simulating each detector's observation of each sky component following the Planck scanning strategy and using the best estimates of the detector's beam and noise properties (obtained in flight), then combining these timelines into a single one per detector, and projecting these simulated timelines onto ''observed'' maps (the ''fiducial'' sky), as is done with the on-orbit data;<br />
* generating Monte Carlo realizations of the CMB and of the noise, again following the Planck scanning strategy and using our best estimates of the detector beams and noise properties respectively. <br />
The first step is performed by the ''Planck Sky Model'' (PSM), and the last two by the ''Planck Simulation Tools'' (PST), both of which are described in the sections below. <br />
<br />
The production of a full focal plane (FFP) simulation, and including the many MC realizations of the CMB and the noise, requires both HFI and LFI data and includes large, computationally challenging, MC realizations. They are too large to be generated on either of the DPC's own cluster. Instead the PST consists of three distinct tools, each designed to run on the largest available supercomputers, that are used to generate the fiducial sky realization, the CMB MC, and the noise MC respectively. The simulations delivered here are part of the 8th generation FFP simulations, known as FFP8. They were primarily generated on the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) in the USA and at CSC–IT Center for Science (CSC) in Finland.<br />
<br />
The fiducial realizations include instrument noise, astrophysical foregrounds, and the lensed scalar, tensor, and non-Gaussian CMB components, and are primarily designed to support the validation and verification of analysis codes. To test our ability to detect tensor modes and non-Gaussianity, we generate five CMB realizations with various cosmologically interesting &mdash; but undeclared &mdash; values of the tensor-to-scalar ratio '''r''' and non-Gaussianity parameter '''f<sub>NL</sub>'''. To investigate the impact of differences in the bandpasses of the detectors at any given frequency, the foreground sky is simulated using both the individual detector bandpasses and a common average bandpass, to include and exclude the effects of bandpass mismatch. To check that the PR2-2015 results are not sensitive to the exact cosmological parameters used in FFP8 we subsequently generated FFP8.1, exactly matching the PR2-2015 cosmology.<br />
<br />
Table 1 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}. The numbers of fiducial, MC noise and MC CMB maps at each frequency by detector subset, data interval, and data cut.<br />
<br />
[[File:A14_Table1_1_col.png|center|900px]]<br />
[[File:A14_Table1_2_col.png|center|900px]]<br />
[[File:A14_Table1_3_col.png|center|900px]]<br />
<br />
Since mapmaking is a linear operation, the easiest way to generate all of these different realizations is to build the full set of maps of each of six components:<br />
<br />
# the lensed scalar CMB (''cmb_scl'');<br />
# the tensor CMB (''cmb_ten'');<br />
# the non-Gaussian complement CMB (''cmb_ngc'');<br />
# the forgreounds including bandpass mismatch (''fg_bpm'');<br />
# the foregrounds excluding bandpass mismatch (''fg_nobpm'');<br />
# the noise.<br />
<br />
We then sum these, weighting the tensor and non-Gaussian complement maps with <math>\sqrt{r}</math> and f<sub>NL</sub>, respectively, and including one of the two foreground maps, to produce 10 total maps of each type. The complete fiducial data set then comprises 18,144 maps.<br />
<br />
While the full set of maps can be generated for the fiducial cases, for the 10<sup>4</sup>-realization MC sets this would result in some 10<sup>7</sup> maps and require about 6 PB of storage. Instead, therefore, the number of realizations generated for each type of map is chosen to balance the improved statistics it supports against the computational cost of its generation and storage. The remaining noise MCs sample broadly across all data cuts, while the additional CMB MCs are focused on the channel/half-mission/full maps and the subset of the detset/mission/full maps required by the "commander" component separation code {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
''' Mission and instrument characteristics '''<br />
The goal of FFP8 is to simulate the Planck mission as accurately as possible; however, there are a number of known systematic effects that are not included, either because they are removed in the pre-processing of the time-ordered data (TOD), or because they are insufficiently well-characterized to simulate reliably, or because their inclusion (simulation and removal) would be too computationally expensive. These systematic effects are discussed in detail in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a03}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}} and include:<br />
* cosmic ray glitches (HFI);<br />
* spurious spectral lines from the 4-K cooler electronics (HFI);<br />
* non-linearity in the analogue-to-digital converter (HFI);<br />
* imperfect reconstruction of the focal plane geometry.<br />
<br />
Note that if the residuals from the treatment of any of these effects could be mapped in isolation, then maps of such systematics could simply be added to the existing FFP8 maps to improve their correspondence to the real data.<br />
<br />
''' Pointing '''<br />
The FFP8 detector pointing is calculated by interpolating the satellite attitude to the detector sample times and by applying a fixed rotation from the satellite frame into the detector frame. The fixed rotations are determined by the measured focal plane geometry as shown in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a05}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}}, while the satellite attitude is described in the Planck attitude history files (AHF). The FFP pointing expansion reproduces the DPC pointing to sub-arcsecond accuracy, except for three short and isolated instances during Surveys 6&mdash;8 where the LFI sampling frequency was out of specification. Pixelization of the information causes the pointing error to be quantized to either zero (majority of cases) or the distance between pixel centres (3.4' and 1.7' for LFI and HFI, respectively). Since we need a single reconstruction that will serve both instruments efficiently in a massively parallel environment, we use the pointing provided by the Time Ordered Astrophysics Scalable Tools (Toast) package.<br />
<br />
''' Noise '''<br />
We require simulated noise realizations that are representative of the noise in the flight data, including variations in the noise power spectral density (PSD) of each detector over time. To obtain these we developed a noise estimation pipeline complementary to those of the DPCs. The goal of DPC noise estimation is to monitor instrument health and to derive optimal noise weighting, whereas our estimation is optimized to feed into noise simulation. Key features are the use of full mission maps for signal subtraction, long (about 24 hour) realization length, and the use of auto-correlation functions in place of Fourier transforms to handle flagged and masked data (HFI).<br />
<br />
''' Beams '''<br />
The simulations use the so-called scanning beams (e.g., {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p03}}), which give the point-spread function of for a given detector including all temporal data processing effects: sample integration, demodulation, ADC non-linearity residuals, bolometric time constant residuals, etc. In the absence of significant residuals (LFI), the scanning beams may be estimated from the optical beams by smearing them in the scanning direction to match the finite integration time for each instrument sample. Where there are unknown residuals in the timelines (HFI), the scanning beam must be measured directly from observations of strong point-like sources, namely planets. If the residuals are present but understood, it is possible to simulate the beam measurement and predict the scanning beam shape starting from the optical beam.<br />
<br />
For FFP8, the scanning beams are expanded in terms of their spherical harmonic coefficients, <math>b_{\ell m}</math>, with the order of the expansion (maximum <math>\ell</math> and m considered) representing a trade-off between the accuracy of the representation and the computational cost of its convolution. The LFI horns have larger beams with larger sidelobes (due to their location on the outside of the focal plane), and we treat them as full <math>4\pi</math> beams divided into main (up to 1.9&deg;, 1.3&deg;, and 0.9&deg; for 30, 44, and 70 GHz, respectively), intermediate (up to 5&deg;), and sidelobe (above 5&deg;) components {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a05}}. This division allows us to tune the expansion orders of the three components separately. HFI horns are limited to the main beam component, measured out to 100 arc minutes {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}}. Since detector beams are characterized independently, the simulations naturally include differential beam and pointing systematics.<br />
<br />
''' Bandpasses '''<br />
Both the LFI and HFI detector bandpasses are based on ground measurements (see {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p03d}}, respectively), although flight data processing for LFI now uses in-flight top-hat approximations rather than the ground measurements that were found to contain systematic errors. Differences in the bandpasses of detectors nominally at the same frequency (the so-called bandpass mismatch) generate spurious signals in the maps, since each detector is seeing a slightly different sky while the mapmaking algorithms assume that the signal in a pixel is the same for all detectors. To quantify the effect of these residuals, in FFP8 we generate detector timelines from foreground maps in two ways, one that incorporates the individual detector bandpasses, the other using an average bandpass for all the detectors at a given frequency.<br />
<br />
This effect of the bandpass mismatch can be roughly measured from either flight or simulated data using so-called spurious component mapmaking, which provides noisy all-sky estimates of the observed sky differences (the spurious maps), excluding polarization, between individual detectors and the frequency average. We compare the amount of simulated bandpass mismatch to flight data. The spurious component approach is detailed in the Appendix of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}. Mismatch between FFP8 and flight data is driven by inaccurate bandpass description (LFI) and incomplete line emission simulation (HFI). The noisy pixels that align with the Planck scanning rings in the HFI maps are regions where the spurious map solution is degenerate with polarization due to insufficient observation orientations.<br />
<br />
''' The Planck Sky Model '''<br />
<br />
The Planck Sky Model, PSM, consists of a set of data and of code used to simulate sky emission at millimeter-wave frequencies; it is described in detail in Delabrouille et al., (2013){{BibCite|delabrouille2012}}, henceforth the PSM paper.<br />
<br />
The Planck Sky Model is available here:<br />
http://www.apc.univ-paris7.fr/~delabrou/PSM/psm.html<br />
<br />
The main simulations used to test and validate the Planck data analysis pipelines (and, in particular, component separation) makes use of simulations generated with version 1.9 of the PSM software. The total sky emission is built from the CMB plus ten foreground components, namely thermal dust, spinning dust, synchrotron, CO lines, free-free, thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect (with first order relativistic corrections), kinetic SZ effect, radio and infrared sources, Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB).<br />
<br />
The CMB is modelled using [http://camb.info CAMB]. It is based on adiabatic initial perturbations, with the following cosmological parameters as listed in Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}}<br />
<br />
[[File:A14_Table3_CosmoParams.png|center|800px]]<br />
<br />
''' Galactic and extragalactic components '''<br />
<br />
The '''Galactic ISM emission''' comprises five components: thermal dust, spinning dust, synchrotron, free-free, CO lines (the J=1->0, J=2->1, and J=3->2 lines at 115.27, 230.54, and 345.80 GHz, respectively), and plus the cosmic infrared background (CIB), emission from radio sources, and the thermal and kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effects.<br />
<br />
The '''thermal dust''' emission is modelled using single-frequency template maps of the intensity and polarization, together with a pixel-dependent emission law. For FFP8 the thermal dust emission templates are derived from the Planck 353 GHz observations. This update of the original PSM dust model is necessary to provide a better match to the emission observed by Planck. While one option would be simply to use the dust opacity map obtained in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06b}}, this map still suffers from significant contamination by CIB anisotropies and infrared point sources. Using it as a 353 GHz dust template in simulations would result in an excess of small scale power (from CIB and infrared sources) scaling exactly as thermal dust across frequencies. The resulting component represents correctly neither dust alone (because of an excess of small scale power) nor the sum of dust and infrared sources (because the frequency scaling of the CIB and infrared sources is wrong). For simulation purposes, the main objective is not to have an exact map of the dust, but instead a map that has the right statistical properties. Hence we produce a template dust map at 353 GHz by removing that fraction of the small-scale power that is due to CIB emission, infra-red sources, CMB, and noise.<br />
<br />
The '''spinning-dust''' map used for FFP8 simulations is a simple realization of the spinning dust model, post-processed to remove negative values occurring in a few pixels because of the generation of small-scale fluctuations on top of the spinning dust template extracted from WMAP data.<br />
<br />
The FFP8 '''synchrotron''' emission is modelled on the basis of the template emission map observed at 408 MHz by Haslam et al. (1982). This template synchrotron map is extrapolated in frequency using a spectral index map corresponding to a simple power law.<br />
<br />
The '''free-free''' spectral dependence is modelled in FFP8 by assuming a constant electron temperature <math>T_{e}</math> = 7000 K. Electron-ion interactions in the ionized phase of the ISM produce emission that is in general fainter than both the synchrotron and the thermal dust emission outside of the active star-forming regions in the Galactic plane. The free-free model uses a single template, which is scaled in frequency by a specific emission law. The free-free spectral index is a slowly varying function of frequency and depends only slightly on the local value of the electron temperature.<br />
<br />
The '''radio sources''' are modelled in FFP8 in a different way from the pre-launch versions of the PSM. <br />
<br />
For '''strong radio sources''' (<math>S_{30}</math> > 0.5 Jy), we use radio sources at 0.84, 1.4, or 4.85 GHz. For sources observed at two of these frequencies, we extrapolate or interpolate to the third frequency assuming the spectral index estimated from two observed. For sources observed at only one frequency, we use differential source counts to obtain the ratio of steep- to flat-spectrum sources in each interval of flux density considered. From this ratio, we assign spectral indices (randomly) to each source within each flux density interval. Fiducial Gaussian spectral index distributions as a function of spectral class are obtained from the literature. These are then adjusted slightly until there is reasonable agreement between the PSM differential counts and the predicted model counts predicted.<br />
<br />
For '''faint radio sources''' (<math>S_{30}</math> <= 0.5 Jy), the pre-launch PSM showed a deficit of sources resulting from inhomogeneities in surveys at different depths. We address this issue by constructing a simulated catalogue of sources at 1.4 GHz. We replace the simulated sources by the observed ones, wherever possible. If, however, in any particular pixel, we have a shortfall of observed sources, we make up the deficit with the simulated sources. Every source in this new catalogue is given a model-derived spectral class. We thus assign a spectral index to each source based on the spectral class, and model the spectrum of each source using four power laws. We also assume some steepening of the spectral index with frequency, with fiducial values of the steepening obtained from the literature.<br />
<br />
We combine the faint and strong radio source catalogues we constructed and compute the differential source counts on these sources between 0.005 Jy and 1 Jy. Finally we also model the polarization of these radio sources using the measured polarization fractions from the literature; for each simulated source we draw a polarization fraction at random from the list of real sources of the same spectral type.<br />
<br />
The '''SZ clusters''' are simulated following the model of Delabrouille, Melin, and Bartlett (DMB) as implemented in the PSM. A catalogue of halos is drawn from a Poisson distribution of the mass function with a limiting mass of M<sub>500,true</sub> > 2x10<sup>13</sup> <math>M_\odot</math>. We use the pressure profile from the literature to model the thermal SZ emission of each halo given its redshift and mass. We determine the cluster temperature and assume that the profiles are isothermal. These steps allow us to compute the first-order thermal relativistic correction and the kinetic SZ effect for each cluster, both of which are included in the simulation. Finally, we inject catalogued clusters following the same model, and remove from the simulation corresponding clusters in each redshift and mass range. Hence the SZ simulation features the majority of known X-ray and optical clusters, and is fully consistent with X-ray scaling laws and observed Planck SZ counts.<br />
<br />
The '''CIB''' model used to simulate FFP8 relies on the distribution of individual galaxies in template maps based on the distribution of dark matter at a range of relevant redshifts. We assume the CIB galaxies can be grouped into three different populations (proto-spheroid, spiral, starburst). Within each population, galaxies have the same SED, while the flux density is randomly distributed according to redshift-dependent number counts obtained from JCMT/SCUBA-2 observations and the Planck ERCSC, as well as observations from Herschel-SPIRE and AzTEC/ASTE. We use the Class software to generate dark matter maps at 17 different redshifts between 1 and 5.5. Since the galaxy distribution does not exactly follow the dark matter distribution, we modify the a<sub>lm</sub> coefficients of dark matter anisotropies given by Class. Template maps generated from the a<sub>lm</sub> coefficients are then exponentiated to avoid negative pixels. Galaxies are randomly distributed with a probability of presence proportional to the pixel values of the template maps. One map is generated for each population, at each redshift, and associated with a redshifted SED depending on the population. The emission of these maps (initially at a reference frequency) can be extrapolated to any frequency using the associated redshifted SED. By summing the emission of all maps, we can generate CIB maps at any frequency in the range of validity of our model. <br />
<br />
See {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}} and references therein for a very detailed explanation of the procedures to simulate each of the components.<br />
<br />
The sky model is simulated at a resolution common to all components by smoothing the maps with an ideal Gaussian beam of FWHM of 4 arcminute. The Healpix [http://healpix.sourceforge.net] pixelization in Galactic coordinates is used for all components, with Nside = 2048 and <math>\ell_{max}</math> = 6000. Sky emission maps are generated by numerically band-integrating the sky model maps (emission law of each component, in each pixel) over the frequency bands both of each detector in the focal plane and &mdash; using an average over the detectors at a given frequency &mdash; of each channel. The band-integrated maps are essentially observations of the model sky simulated by an ideal noiseless instrument with ideal Gaussian beams of FWHM equal to the resolution of the model sky.<br />
<br />
''' The CMB Sky '''<br />
<br />
The CMB sky is simulated in three distinct components, namely lensed scalar, tensor, and non-Gaussian complement. The total CMB sky is then the weighted sum with weights 1, <math>\sqrt{r}</math>, and f_<sub>NL</sub>, respectively. For FFP8, all CMB sky components are produced as spherical harmonic representations of the I, Q, and U skies.<br />
<br />
The FFP8 CMB sky is derived from our best estimate of the cosmological parameters available at the time of its generation, namely those from the first Planck data release {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p01}}, augmented with a judicious choice of reionization parameter <math>\tau</math>, as listed in Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}.<br />
<br />
''' The scalar CMB sky '''<br />
<br />
The scalar component of the CMB sky is generated including lensing, Rayleigh scattering, and Doppler boosting effects. <br />
<br />
* Using the Camb code, we first calculate fiducial unlensed CMB power spectra <math>C_{\ell}^{TT}</math>, <math>C_{\ell}^{EE}</math>, <math>C_{\ell}^{TE}</math>, the lensing potential power spectrum <math>C_{\ell}^{\phi\phi}</math>, and the cross-correlations <math>C_{\ell}^{T\phi}</math> and <math>C_{\ell}^{E\phi}</math>. We then generate Gaussian T, E, and <math>\phi</math> multipoles with the appropriate covariances and cross-correlations using a Cholesky decomposition and three streams of random Gaussian phases. These fields are simulated up to <math>\ell_{max}</math>=5120. <br />
<br />
* Add a dipole component to <math>\phi</math> to account for the Doppler aberration due to our motion with respect to the CMB. <span style="color:#ff0000">UPDATE: Note that although it was intended to include this component in this set of simulations, in the end it was not. It will be included in future versions of the simulation pipeline. </span><br />
<br />
* Compute the effect of gravitational lensing on the temperature and polarization fields, using an algorithm similar to LensPix. We use a fast spherical harmonic transform to compute the temperature, polarization, and deflection fields. The unlensed CMB fields T, Q, and U are evaluated on an equicylindrical pixelization (ECP) grid with <math>N_{\theta}=32\,768</math> and <math>N_{\varphi} = 65\,536</math>, while the deflection field is evaluated on a Healpix Nside=2048 grid. We then calculate the "lensed positions for each Nside=2048 Healpix pixel. We then interpolate T, Q, U at the lensed positions using 2-D cubic Lagrange interpolation on the ECP grid.<br />
<br />
* Incorporate the frequency-dependent Doppler modulation effect {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-pipaberration}}.<br />
<br />
* Evaluate lensed, Doppler boosted <math>T_{\ell m}</math>, <math>E_{\ell m}</math>, and <math>B_{\ell m}</math> up to <math>\ell_{max}=4\,096</math> with a harmonic transform of the Nside=2048 Healpix map of these interpolated T, Q, and U values.<br />
<br />
* Add frequency-dependent Rayleigh scattering effects.<br />
<br />
* Add a second-order temperature quadrupole. Since the main Planck data processing removes the frequency-independent part{{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a09}}, we simulate only the residual frequency-dependent temperature quadrupole. After subtracting the frequency-independent part, the simulated quadrupole has frequency dependence <math>\propto (b_{\nu}-1)/2</math>, which we calculate using the bandpass-integrated <math>b_{\nu}</math> boost factors given in Table 4 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}.<br />
<br />
''' The tensor CMB sky '''<br />
In addition to the scalar CMB simulations, we also generate a set of CMB skies containing primordial tensor modes. Using the fiducial cosmological parameters of Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}, we calculate the tensor power spectra <math>C_{\ell}^{TT, {\rm tensor}}</math>, <math>C_{\ell}^{EE, {\rm tensor}}</math>, and <math>C_{\ell}^{BB, {\rm tensor}}</math> using Camb with a primordial tensor-to-scalar power ratio <math>r=0.2</math> at the pivot scale <math>k=0.05\,Mpc^{-1}</math>. We then simulate Gaussian T, E, and B-modes with these power spectra, and convert these to spherical harmonic representations of the corresponding I, Q and U maps. Note that the default r=0.2 means that building the FFP8a-d maps requires rescaling each CMB tensor map by <math>\sqrt{r/0.2}</math> for each of the values of r in Table 2 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}.<br />
<br />
''' The non-Gaussian CMB sky '''<br />
We use a new algorithm to generate simulations of CMB temperature and polarization maps containing primordial non-Gaussianity. Non-Gaussian fields in general have a non-vanishing bispectrum contribution sourced by mode correlations. The bispectrum, the Fourier transform of the 3-point correlation function, can then be characterized as a function of three wavevectors, <math>F(k_1, k_2, k_3)</math>. Depending on the physical mechanism responsible for generating the non-Gaussian signal, it is possible to introduce broad classes of model that are categorized by the dependence of F on the type of triangle formed by the three momenta <math>k_i</math>. Here, we focus on non-Gaussianity of local type, where the bulk of the signal comes from squeezed triangle configurations, <math>k_1 \ll k_2 \approx k_3</math>. This is typically predicted by multi-field inflationary models. See Section 3.3.3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}} for further details on the simulation of this components and references.<br />
<br />
''' The FFP8.1 CMB skies '''<br />
<br />
The FFP8 simulations are an integral part of the analyses used to derive PR2-2015, and so were necessarily generated prior to determining that release's cosmological parameters. As such there is inevitably a mismatch between the FFP8 and the PR2-2015 cosmologies, which we address in two ways. The quick-and-dirty fix is to determine a single rescaling factor that minimizes the difference between the PR1-2013 and PR2-2015 TT power spectra and apply it to all of the FFP8 CMB maps; this number is determined to be 1.0134, and the rescaled maps have been used in several repeat analyses to confirm the robustness of various PR2-2015 results.<br />
<br />
More rigorously though, we also generate a second set of CMB realizations based on the PR2-2015 cosmology, dubbed FFP8.1, and perform our reanalyses using these in place of the FFP8 CMB skies in both the fiducial and MC realizations. Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}} lists the cosmological parameters used for FFP8.1 while Table 1 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}} enumerates the current status of the FFP8.1 CMB MCs.<br />
<br />
''' The Fiducial Sky Simulations'''<br />
<br />
The FFP8 fiducial realization is generated in two steps: <br />
# Simulation of the full mission TOD for every detector<br />
# Calculation of maps from the various detector subsets, intervals, and data cuts. <br />
<br />
Simulation of explicit TODs allows us to incorporate each detector's full beam (including its far sidelobes) and unique input sky (including its bandpass). As noted above, the fiducial realization is generated in six separate components &mdash; the three CMB components (lensed scalar, tensor, and non-Gaussian complement), two foreground realizations (with and without bandpass mismatch), and noise. The first five of these are simulated as explicit TODs and then mapped, while the noise is generated using the on-the-fly approach described in the noise MC subsection below.<br />
<br />
TOD generation for any detector proceeds by:<br />
# Convolving the appropriate sky component with the beam at every point in a uniformly sampled data cube of Euler angle triplets (encoding the pointing and polarization orientation) to produce the "beamskyset".<br />
# Generating the time-ordered data by interpolating over the beamskyset data cube to the exact pointing and polarization orientation of each sample. <br />
<br />
Previous FFP simulations, including FFP6, accompanying the 2013 Planck data release, used the LevelS software package to do this. However, this required format conversions for the input pointing data and the output time-ordered data, at significant IO and disk space costs. For FFP8 we have therefore embedded the critical parts of these routines into a new code which uses Toast to interface directly with exchange format data. <br />
<br />
All of the FFP8 fiducial maps are produced using Madam/Toast, a Toast port of the Madam generalized destriping code, which allows for destriping with an arbitrary baseline length, with or without a prior on the baseline distribution (or noise filter). Madam is used to produce the official LFI maps, and its destriping parameters can be chosen so that it reproduces the behaviour of Polkapix, the official HFI mapmaking code. Comparison of the official maps and Madam/Toast maps run using exchange data show that mapmaker differences are negligible compared to small differences in pointing and (for HFI) dipole subtraction that do not impact the simulation. The sky components are mapped from the TODs, while the fiducial noise is taken to be realization 10000 of the noise MC (with realizations 0000-9999 reserved for the noise MC itself). <br />
<br />
Summarizing the key differences in the map making parameters for each Planck frequency:<br />
<br />
* 30 GHz is destriped with 0.25 s baselines; 44 and 70 GHz are destriped using 1 s baselines; and 100&mdash;857 GHz are destriped using pointing-period baselines (30-75 min).<br />
<br />
* 30&mdash;70 GHz are destriped with a 1/f-shape noise prior, while 100&mdash;857 GHz are destriped without a noise prior.<br />
<br />
* 30, 44, and 70 GHz have separate destriping masks, while 100&mdash;857 GHz use the same 15% galaxy + point source mask.<br />
<br />
* 30&mdash;70 GHz maps are destriped using baselines derived exclusively from the data going into the particular map, while 100-857 GHz maps are destriped using baselines derived from the full data set.<br />
<br />
''' Noise MC '''<br />
<br />
The FFP8 noise MCs are generated using Madam/Toast, exploiting Toast's on-the-fly noise simulation capability to avoid the IO overhead of writing a simulated TOD to disk only to read it back in to map it. In this implementation, Madam runs exactly as it would with real data, but whenever it submits a request to Toast to provide it with the an interval of the noise TOD, that interval is simply simulated by Toast in accordance with the noise power spectral densities provided in the runconfig, and returned to Madam.<br />
<br />
For a simulation set of this size and complexity, requiring of the order of <math>10^{17}</math> random numbers over <math>10^{12}</math> disjoint and uncorrelated intervals, care must be take with the pseudo-random number generation to ensure that it is fast, reliable (and specifically uncorrelated), and reproducible, in particular enabling any process to generate any element of any subsequence on demand. To achieve this Toast uses a Combined Multiple Recursive Generator (CMRG) that provides more than sufficient period, excellent statistical robustness, and the ability to skip ahead to an arbitrary point in the pseudo-random sequence very quickly. See {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}} for further details on the Noise MCs.<br />
<br />
''' CMB MC '''<br />
<br />
The FFP8 CMB MCs are generated using the Febecop software package, which produces beam-convolved maps directly in the pixel domain rather than sample-by-sample, as is done for the fiducial maps. The goal of this approach is to reduce the computational cost by the ratio of time-samples to map-pixels (i.e., the number of hits per pixel).<br />
<br />
The Febecop software package proceeds as follows:<br />
<br />
# Given the satellite pointing and flags and the focal plane (accessed through the Toast interface), for every channel Febecop first re-orders all of the samples in the mission by pixel instead of time, localizing all of the observations of each pixel, and writes the resulting pixel-ordered detector dngles (PODA) to disk. Note that since the PODA also contains the detector, time-stamp, and weight of each observation this is a one-time operation for each frequency, and does not need to be re-run for different time intervals or detector subsets, or for changes in the beam model or its chosen cut-off radius.<br />
<br />
# For every time interval and detector subset to be mapped, and for every pixel in the map, Febecop uses the PODA and the scanning beams to generate an effective-beam for that pixel which is essentially the weighted average of the discretized beam functions for every sample in the pixel included in the time interval and detector subset. The total effective-beam array is also written to disk. Given the PODA, this is a one-time operation for any beam definition.<br />
<br />
# Finally, Febecop applies the effective-beam pixel-by-pixel to every CMB sky realization in the MC set to generate the corresponding beam-convolved CMB map realization.<br />
<br />
The effective-beams provide a direct connection between the true and observed sky, explicitly incorporating the detailed pointing for every detector through a linear convolution. By providing the effective-beams at every pixel, Febecop enables precise control of systematic effects, e.g., the point-spread functions can be fitted at each pixel on the sky and used to determine point source fluxes {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a35}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a36}}<br />
<br />
''' Validation '''<br />
Our goal for the FFP8 simulation set is that it be not only internally self-consistent, but also a good representation of the real data. In addition to the validation steps carried out on all of the inputs individually and noted in their respective sections above, we must also validate the final outputs. A first crude level of validation is provided simply by visual inspection of the FFP8 and real Planck maps where the only immediately apparent difference is the CMB realization.<br />
<br />
While this is a necessary test, it is hardly sufficient, and the next step is to compare the angular power spectra of the simulated and real channel/mission/full maps. As illustrated in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a35}}, LFI channels show excellent agreement across all angular scales, while HFI channels show a significant power deficit at almost all angular scales. Since this missing HFI power is not picked up in the noise estimation, it must be sky-synchronous (frequency bins corresponding to sky-synchronous signals being discarded when fitting the noise PSDs due to their contamination by signal residuals). This is now understood to be a systematic effect introduced in the HFI pre-processing pipeline, and we are working both to incorporate it as a systematic component in existing simulations and to ameliorate if for future data releases.<br />
<br />
Finally, the various analyses of the FFP8 maps in conjunction with the flight data provide powerful incidental validation. To date the only issues observed here are the known mismatch between the FFP8 and PR2-2015 cosmologies, and the missing systematic component in the HFI maps. As noted above, the former is readily addressed by rescaling or using FFP8.1; however, the characterization and reproduction of the latter is an ongoing effort. Specific details of the consequences of this as-yet unresolved issue, such as its impact on null-test failures and ''p''-value stability in studies of non-Gaussianity. In addition, as stated above, the CMB simulations containing only the modulation but not aberration part of the Doppler boost signal.<br />
<br />
''' Delivered products '''<br />
<br />
''' Fiducial Sky '''<br />
<br />
There are 9 PSM simulations of the fiducial sky that correspond to the simulated sky integrated over the average spectral response of each band, but not convolved with the beam. They can be downloaded from the PLA or directly here:<br />
<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-030_1024_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-044_1024_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-070_1024_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-100_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-143_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-217_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-353_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-545_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-857_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
<br />
In addition, a set of 9 simulations of the fiducial sky corrected for bandpass mismatch (nobpm) can be obtained here:<br />
<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-030_1024_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-044_1024_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-070_1024_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-100_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-143_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-217_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-353_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-545_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-857_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Sky simulated maps file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'SimMap_Sky' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|TEMPERATURE || Real*4 || K_cmb (30-353 GHz) or MJy/sr (545 and 857 GHz) || The Stokes I map<br />
|-<br />
|Q-POLARISATION || Real*4 || K_cmb (30-353 GHz) || The Stokes Q map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|U-POLARISATION || Real*4 || K_cmb (30-353 GHz) || The Stokes U map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix <math>N_{side}</math> <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12 <math>N_{side}</math><sup>2</sup> – 1 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Note: Original PSM foreground components has been generated at NSIDE 2048 and using a gaussian beam of 4 arcmin. LFI CMB maps has been downgraded at NSIDE 1024.<br />
<br />
''' CMB MC '''<br />
<br />
There are 1000 realizations of the lensed CMB per frequency for FFP8 and FFP9, making a total of 18000 CMB simulations available in the PLA. They are named:<br />
<br />
* ''HFI_SimMap_cmb-ffp8-scl-{nnnn}_2048_R2.00_nominal.fits''<br />
* ''LFI_SimMap_cmb-ffp8-scl-{nnnn}_1024_R2.00_nominal.fits''<br />
<br />
* ''HFI_SimMap_cmb-ffp9-scl-{nnnn}_2048_R2.00_nominal.fits''<br />
* ''LFI_SimMap_cmb-ffp9-scl-{nnnn}_1024_R2.00_nominal.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''nnnn'' ranges from 0000 to 1000.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB FFP8 and FFP9 simulated maps file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'SimMap_cmb-ffp?-scl' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|TEMPERATURE || Real*4 || K_cmb (30-353 GHz) or MJy/sr (545 and 857 GHz) || The Stokes I map<br />
|-<br />
|Q-POLARISATION || Real*4 || K_cmb (30-353 GHz) || The Stokes Q map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|U-POLARISATION || Real*4 || K_cmb (30-353 GHz) || The Stokes U map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || RING || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix <math>N_{side}</math> <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12 <math>N_{side}</math><sup>2</sup> – 1 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
''' Noise MC '''<br />
<br />
There are 1000 of the noise per frequency for FFP8, making 9000 noise realizations available in the PLA. They are named<br />
<br />
* ''HFI_SimMap_noise-ffp8-{nnnn}_2048_R2.00_nominal.fits''<br />
* ''LFI_SimMap_noise-ffp8-{nnnn}_1024_R2.00_nominal.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''nnnn'' ranges from 0000 to 1000.<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Noise simulated maps file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'SimMap_Sky' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|TEMPERATURE || Real*4 || K_cmb || <br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix <math>N_{side}</math> <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12 <math>N_{side}</math><sup>2</sup> – 1 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
''' Lensing Simulations '''<br />
<br />
The lensing simulations package contains 100 realisations of the Planck "MV (TT+TE+ET+TB+BT+EE+EB+BE)" lensing potential estimate (November 2014 pipeline v12), as well as the input lensing realizations. They can be used to determine error bars as well eas effective normalizations for cross-correlation with other tracers of lensing. These simulations are of the lensing convergence map contained in the [[Specially processed maps#Lensing map | Lensing map]] release file. The production and characterisation of this lensing potential map are described in detail in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a17}}, which also describes the procedure used to generate the realizations given here.<br />
<br />
<br />
The simulations are delivered as a gzipped tarball of approximately 8 GB in size. For delivery purposes, the package has been split into 4 2GB files using the unix command<br />
: <tt> split -d -b 2048m </tt><br />
<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?COSMOLOGY.FILE_ID=COM_Lensing-SimMap_2048_R2.00.tar.00<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?COSMOLOGY.FILE_ID=COM_Lensing-SimMap_2048_R2.00.tar.01<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?COSMOLOGY.FILE_ID=COM_Lensing-SimMap_2048_R2.00.tar.02<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?COSMOLOGY.FILE_ID=COM_Lensing-SimMap_2048_R2.00.tar.03<br />
<br />
After downloading the individual chunks, the full tarball can be reconstructed with the command<br />
: <tt>cat COM_Lensing-SimMap_2048_R2.00.tar.* | tar xvf - </tt><br />
<br />
The contents of the tarball are described below:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left"<br />
|+ ''' Contents of COM_Lensing-SimMap_2048_R2.00.tar '''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Filename || Format || Description<br />
|-<br />
| obs_klms/sim_????_klm.fits || HEALPIX FITS format alm, with <math> L_{\rm max} = 2048 </math> || Contains the simulated convergence estimate <math> \hat{\kappa}_{LM} = \frac{1}{2} L(L+1)\hat{\phi}_{LM} </math> for each simulation.<br />
|-<br />
| sky_klms/sim_????_klm.fits || HEALPIX FITS format alm, with <math> L_{\rm max} = 2048 </math> || Contains the input lensing convergence for each simulation.<br />
|-<br />
| inputs/mask.fits.gz || HEALPIX FITS format map, with <math> N_{\rm side} = 2048 </math> || Contains the lens reconstruction analysis mask.<br />
|-<br />
| inputs/cls/cl??.dat || ASCII text file, with columns = (<math>L</math>, <math>C_L </math>) || Contains the fiducial theory CMB power spectra for TT, EE, BB, <math> \kappa \kappa </math> and <math> T \kappa </math>, with temperature and polarization in units of <math> \mu K </math>.<br />
|- <br />
|}<br />
<br />
</div><br />
</div><br />
<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="background-color: #EEE8AA;width:80%"><br />
'''2013 Release of simulated maps'''<br />
<div class="mw-collapsible-content"><br />
<br />
''' Introduction '''<br />
<br />
The 2013 Planck data release is supported by a set of simulated maps of the model sky, by astrophysical component, and of that sky as seen by Planck. The simulation process consists of <br />
# modeling each astrophysical component of the sky emission for each Planck detector, using pre-Planck data and the relevant characteristics of the Planck instruments (namely the detector plus filter transmissions curves). <br />
# simulating each detector's observation of each sky component following the Planck scanning strategy and using the best estimates of the detector's beam and noise properties (now obtained in flight), then combining these timelines into a single one per detector, and projecting these simulated timelines onto ''observed'' maps (the ''fiducial'' sky), as is done with the on-orbit data;<br />
# generating Monte Carlo realizations of the CMB and of the noise, again following the Planck scanning strategy and using our best estimates of the detector beams and noise properties respectively. <br />
The first step is performed by the ''Planck Sky Model'' (PSM), and the last two by the ''Planck Simulation Tools'' (PST), both of which are described in the sections below. <br />
<br />
The production of a full focal plane (FFP) simulation, and including the many MC realizations of the CMB and the noise, requires both HFI and LFI data and includes large, computationally challenging, MC realizations. They are too large to be generated on either of the DPC's own cluster. Instead the PST consists of three distinct tools, each designed to run on the largest available supercomputers, that are used to generate the fiducial sky realization, the CMB MC, and the noise MC respectively. The simulations delivered here are part of the 6th generation FFP simulations, known as FFP6. They were primarily generated on the Hopper and Edison systems at [http://www.nersc.gov NERSC], with some of the LFI noise MCs generated on the Louhi system at [http://www.csc.fi/english CSC].<br />
<br />
While FFP6 includes our best measurements of the detector band-passes, main beams and noise power spectral densities, and is guaranteed to be internally self-consistent, there are a number of differences with the real data that should be borne in mind, although all tests performed to date indicate that these are statistically insignificant:<br />
* the beams do not include far side-lobes;<br />
* the detector noise characteristics are assumed stable: a single noise spectrum per detector is used for the entire mission;<br />
* it assumes perfect calibration, transfer function deconvolution and deglitching;<br />
* it uses the HFI pointing solution for the LFI frequencies, rather than the DPC's two focal plane model.<br />
* it uses a different map-maker to HFI, and as a consequence implements very slightly different data cuts - primarily at ring boundaries - resulting in marginally different hit-maps.<br />
<br />
''' The Planck Sky Model '''<br />
<br />
<br />
''' Overall description '''<br />
<br />
The Planck Sky Model, PSM, consists of a set of data and of code used to simulate sky emission at millimeter-wave frequencies; it is described in detail in Delabrouille et al., (2013){{BibCite|delabrouille2012}}, henceforth the PSM paper..<br />
<br />
The Planck Sky Model is available here:<br />
http://www.apc.univ-paris7.fr/~delabrou/PSM/psm.html<br />
<br />
The main simulations used to test and validate the Planck data analysis pipelines (and, in particular, component separation) makes use of simulations generated with version 1.7.7 of the PSM software. The total sky emission is built from the CMB plus ten foreground components, namely thermal dust, spinning dust, synchrotron, CO lines, free-free, thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect (with first order relativistic corrections), kinetic SZ effect, radio and infrared sources, Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB).<br />
<br />
The CMB is modeled using [http://camb.info CAMB]. It is based on adiabatic initial perturbations, with the following cosmological parameters:<br />
* T_CMB = 2.725<br />
* H = 0.684<br />
* OMEGA_M = 0.292<br />
* OMEGA_B = 0.04724<br />
* OMEGA_NU = 0<br />
* OMEGA_K = 0<br />
* SIGMA_8 = 0.789<br />
* N_S = 0.9732<br />
* N_S_RUNNING = 0<br />
* N_T = 0<br />
* R = 0.0844<br />
* TAU_REION = 0.085<br />
* HE_FRACTION = 0.245<br />
* N_MASSLESS_NU = 3.04<br />
* N_MASSIVE_NU = 0<br />
* W_DARK_ENERGY = -1<br />
* K_PIVOT = 0.002<br />
* SCALAR_AMPLITUDE = 2.441e-9<br />
and all other parameters are set to the default standard of the Jan 2012 version of CAMB. In addition, this simulated CMB contains non-Gaussian corrections of the local type, with an f<sub>NL</sub> parameter of 20.4075.<br />
<br />
The Galactic ISM emission comprises five components: thermal dust, spinning dust, synchrotron, CO lines, and free-free emission. We refer the reader to the PSM publication for details. For the simulations generated here, however, the thermal dust model has been modified in the following way: instead of being based on the 100 micron map of Schlegel, Finkbeiner and Davis (2008){{BibCite|schlegel1998}}, henceforth SFB, the dust template uses an internal release of the 857 GHz Planck observed map itself, in which point sources have been subtracted, and which has been locally filtered to remove CIB fluctuations in the regions of lowest column density. A caveat is that while this reduces the level of CIB fluctuations in the dust map in some of the regions, in regions of moderate dust column density the CIB contamination is actually somewhat larger than in the SFD map (by reason of different emission laws for dust and CIB, and of the higher resolution of the Planck map).<br />
<br />
The other emissions of the galactic ISM are simulated using the prescription described in the PSM paper. Synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust emission are based on WMAP observations, as analyzed by Miville-Deschenes et al. (2008){{BibCite|Miville2008}}. Small scale fluctuations have been added to increase the variance on small scales and compensate the lower resolution of WMAP as compared to Planck (in particular for the HFI channels). The main limitation of these maps is the presence at high galactic latitude of fluctuations that may be attributed to WMAP noise. The presence of noise and of added Gaussian fluctuations on small scales may result in a few occasional pixels being negative (e.g. in the spinning dust maps). Low frequency foreground maps are also contaminated by some residuals of bright radio sources that have not been properly subtracted from the templates of diffuse emission.<br />
<br />
The CO maps are simulated using the CO J=1-0 observations of Dame et al. (2001){{BibCite|dame2001}}. The main limitations are limited sky coverage, lower resolution than that of Planck high frequency channels, line ratios (J=2-1)/(J=1-0) and (J=3-2)/(J=2-1) constant over the sky. The CO in the simulation is limited to the three lowest <sup>12</sup>CO lines. No CO maps has been simulated at the LFI frequnecy (30, 44 and 70 GHz).<br />
<br />
Galaxy clusters are generated on the basis of cluster number counts, following the Tinker et al. (2008){{BibCite|Tinker2008}} mass function, for the cosmological parameters listed above. Clusters are assumed perfectly spherical, isothermal, and are modeled using the universal pressure profile of Arnaud et al. (2010){{BibCite|arnaud2010}}. Relativistic corrections following Itoh et al. (1998){{BibCite|Nozawa1998}} are included to first order. The simulated kinetic SZ effect assumes no bulk flow, and a redshift-dependent average cluster velocity compatible with the linear growth of structures.<br />
<br />
Point sources comprise radio sources (based on extrapolations across frequencies of radio observations between 800 MHz and 5 GHz) and infrared sources (based on extrapolations in frequencies of IRAS sources). One caveat is that due to the unevenness of the radio source surveys, the equatorial southern part of the sky has less faint radio sources than the northern part. Although all the missing sources are well below the Planck detection level, this induces a small variation of the total emission background over the sky. Check the individual faint point source emission maps if this is a potential problem for your applications. See also the PSM paper for details about the PSM point source simulations. The PSM separates bright and faint point source; the former are initially in a catalog, and the latter in a map, though a map of the former can also be produced. In the processing below, the bright sources are simulated via the catalog, but for convenience they are delivered as a map.<br />
<br />
Finally, the far infrared background due to high redshift galaxies has been simulated using a procedure is based on the distribution of galaxies in shells of density contrast at various redshifts (Castex et al., PhD thesis; paper in preparation). This simulation has been modified by gradually substituting an uncorrelated extra term of CIB emission at low frequencies, artificially added in particular to decorrelate the CIB at frequencies below 217 GHz from the CIB above that frequency, to mimic the apparent decorrelation observed in the Planck Early Paper on CIB power spectrum {{PlanckPapers|planck2011-6-6}}. <br />
<br />
While the PSM simulations described here provide a reasonably representative multi-component model of sky emission, users are warned that it has been put together mostly on the basis of data sets and knowledge pre-existing the Planck observations themselves. While it is sophisticated enough to include variations of emission laws of major components of the ISM emission, different emission laws for most sources, and a reasonably coherent global picture, it is not (and is not supposed to be) identical to the real sky emission. The users are warned to use these simulations with caution.<br />
<br />
''' PSM Products '''<br />
<br />
To build maps corresponding to the Planck channels, the models described above are convolved with the [[Spectral_response | spectral response]] of the channel in question. The products given here are for the full frequency channels, and as such they are not used in the Planck specific simulations, which use only individual detector channels. The frequency channel spectral responses used (given in [[the RIMO|the RIMO]]), are averages of the responses of the detectors of each frequency channel weighted as they are in the mapmaking step. They are provided for the purpose of testing user's own software of simulations and component separation.<br />
<br />
PSM maps of the CMB and of the ten foregrounds are given in the following map products:<br />
<br />
HFI<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_cmb_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_cmb_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_co_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_co_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_firb_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_firb_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_strongps_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_strongps_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_faintps_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_faintps_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_freefree_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_freefree_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_synchrotron_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_synchrotron_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_thermaldust_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_thermaldust_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_spindust_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_spindust_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_kineticsz_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_kineticsz_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_thermalsz_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_thermalsz_2048_R1.10.fits}}'' <br />
<br />
LFI<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_cmb_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_cmb_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_firb_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_firb_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_strongps_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_strongps_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_faintps_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_faintps_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_freefree_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_freefree_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_synchrotron_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_synchrotron_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_thermaldust_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_thermaldust_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_spindust_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_spindust_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_kineticsz_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_kineticsz_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_thermalsz_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_thermalsz_1024_R1.10.fits}}'' <br />
<br />
<br />
Each file contains a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with either a single map (for the CMB file) or one map for each HFI/LFI frequency (for the foreground components). In the latter case the columns are named ''F030'', ''F044'' ,''F070'',''F100'', ''F143'', … , ''F857''. Units are microK<sub>CMB</sub> for the CMB, K<sub>CMB</sub> at 30, 44 and 70 GHz and MJy/sr for the others. The structure is given below for multi-column files. <br />
<br />
Note: Original PSM foreground components has been generated at NSIDE 2048 and using a gaussian beam of 4 arcmin, LFI maps where then smoothed to LFI resolution (32.0, 27.0 and 13.0 arcmin for the 30, 44 and 70 GHz) and donwgraded at NSIDE 1024. LFI CMB maps has been smoothed at 13.0 arcmin (70 GHz resolution) and downgraded at NSIDE 1024. <br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''HFI FITS file structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'SIM-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|F100 || Real*4 || K_CMB || 100GHz signal map<br />
|-<br />
|F143 || Real*4 || K_CMB || 143GHz signal map<br />
|-<br />
|F217 || Real*4 || K_CMB || 217GHz signal map<br />
|-<br />
|F353 || Real*4 || K_CMB || 353GHz signal map<br />
|-<br />
|F545 || Real*4 || MJy/sr || 545GHz signal map<br />
|-<br />
|F857 || Real*4 || MJy/sr || 857GHz signal map<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COMP || string || component || Astrophysical omponent<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC || Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 50331647 || Last pixel number, for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|BAD_DATA || Real*4 || -1.63750E+30 || Healpix bad pixel value <br />
|-<br />
|BEAMTYPE || string || GAUSSIAN || Type of beam <br />
|-<br />
|BEAMSIZE || Real*4 || size || Beam size in arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|PSM-VERS || string || || PSM Versions used <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''LFI FITS file structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'SIM-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|F030 || Real*4 || KCMB || 30GHz signal map<br />
|-<br />
|F044 || Real*4 || KCMB || 44GHz signal map<br />
|-<br />
|F070 || Real*4 || KCMB || 70GHz signal map<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COMP || string || component || Astrophysical omponent<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC || Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12582911 || Last pixel number, for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|BAD_DATA || Real*4 || -1.63750E+30 || Healpix bad pixel value <br />
|-<br />
|BEAMTYPE || string || GAUSSIAN || Type of beam <br />
|-<br />
|BEAMS_30 || Real*4 || 32.0 || Beam size at 30 GHz in arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|BEAMS_44 || Real*4 || 27.0 || Beam size at 44 GHz in arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|BEAMS_70 || Real*4 || 13.0 || Beam size at 70 GHz in arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|PSM-VERS || string || || PSM Versions used <br />
|}<br />
<br />
''' The Fiducial Sky Simulations'''<br />
<br />
<br />
For each detector, fiducial time-ordered data are generated separately for each of the ten PSM components using the LevelS software{{BibCite|reinecke2006}} as follows:<br />
* the detector's beam and PSM map are converted to spherical harmonics using ''beam2alm'' and ''anafast'' respectively;<br />
* the beam-convolved map value is calculated over a 3-dimensional grid of sky locations and beam orientations using ''conviqt'';<br />
* the map-based timelines are calculated sample-by-sample by interpolating over this grid using ''multimod'';<br />
* the catalogue-based timelines are produced sample-by-sample by beam-convolving any point source laying within a given angular distance of the pointing at each sample time using ''multimod''.<br />
<br />
For each frequency, fiducial sky maps are generated for <br />
* the total signal (i.e. sky + instrument noise), for both the nominal mission and the halfrings thereof (see [[Frequency_Maps#Types_of_maps| details]])<br />
* the foreground sky alone (excluding CMB but including noise), <br />
* the point source sky, and <br />
* the noise alone<br />
All maps are built using the ''MADAM'' destriping map-maker{{BibCite|keihanen2010}} interfaced with the ''TOAST'' data abstraction layer . In order to construct the total timelines required by each map, for each detector ''TOAST'' reads the various component timelines separately and sums then, and, where necessary, simulates and adds a noise realization time-stream on the fly. HFI frequencies are mapped at ''HEALPix'' resolution Nside=2048 using ring-length destriping baselines, while LFI frequencies are mapped at Nside=1024 using 1s baselines.<br />
<br />
''' Products delivered '''<br />
<br />
A single simulation is delivered, which is divided into two types of products: <br />
<br />
1. six files of the full sky signal at each HFI and LFI frequency, and their corresponding halfring maps: <br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
: These files have the same structure as the equivalent ''SkyMap'' products described in the [[Frequency_Maps | Frequency Maps ]] chapter, namely one ''BINTABLE'' extension with three columns containing 1) Signal, 2) hit-count, and 3) variance. Units are K<sub>CMB</sub> for all channels.<br />
<br />
2. Three files containing 1) the sum of all astrophysical foregrounds, 2) the point sources alone, and 3) the noise alone: which are subproducts of the above, and are in the form of the PSM maps described in the previous section. <br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_foreground_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_foreground_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_noise_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_noise_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_ps_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_ps_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' <br />
<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_foreground_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_foreground_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits }}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_noise_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_noise_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits }}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_ps_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_ps_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' <br />
<br />
These files have the same structure as the PSM output maps described above, namely a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with 6 columns named ''F100'' -- ''F857'' each containing the given map for that HFI band and with 3 columns named ''F030'', ''F044'', ''F070'' each containing the given map for that LFI band. Units are alway K<sub>CMB</sub>.<br />
<br />
Note that the CMB alone is not delivered as a separate product, but it can be recovered by simple subtraction of the component maps for the total signal map.<br />
<br />
''' Monte Carlo realizations of CMB and of noise'''<br />
<br />
<br />
The CMB MC set is generated using ''FEBeCoP''{{BibCite|mitra2010}}, which generates an effective beam for each pixel in a map at each frequency by accumulating the weights of all pixels within a fixed distance of that pixel, summed over all observations by all detectors at that frequency. It then applies this effective beam pixel-by-pixel to each of 1000 input CMB sky realizations.<br />
<br />
The noise MC set is generated just as the fiducial noise maps, using ''MADAM/TOAST''. In order to avoid spurious correlations within and between the 1000 realizations, each stationary interval for each detector for each realization is generated from a distinct sub-sequence of a single statistically robust, extremely long period, pseudo-random number sequence.<br />
<br />
''' Products delivered '''<br />
<br />
100 realizations of the CMB (lensed) and of the noise are made available. They are named<br />
* ''HFI_SimMap_cmb-{nnnn}_2048_R1.nn_nominal.fits''<br />
* ''HFI_SimMap_noise-{nnnn}_2048_R1.nn_nominal.fits''<br />
* ''LFI_SimMap_cmb-{nnnn}_2048_R1.nn_nominal.fits''<br />
* ''LFI_SimMap_noise-{nnnn}_2048_R1.nn_nominal.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''nnnn'' ranges from 0000 to 0099.<br />
<br />
The FITS file structure is the same as for the other similar products above, with a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with six columns, one for each HFI frequency, named ''F100'', ''F143'', … , ''F857'' and with three columns, one for each LFI frequency, named ''F030'', ''F044'', ''F070''. Units are always microK<sub>CMB</sub> ''(NB: due to an error in the HFI file construction, the unit keywords in the headers indicate K<sub>CMB</sub>, the "micro" is missing there)''.<br />
<br />
''' Lensing Simulations '''<br />
<br />
<br />
''N.B. The information in this section is adapted from the package Readme.txt file.''<br />
<br />
The lensing simulations package contains 100 realisations of the Planck 2013 "MV" lensing potential estimate, as well as the input CMB and lensing potential <math>\phi</math> realizations. They can be used to determine error bars for cross-correlations with other tracers of lensing. These simulations are of the PHIBAR map contained in the [[Specially processed maps#Lensing map | Lensing map]] release file. The production and characterisation of this lensing potential map are described in detail in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p12}}, which describes also the procedure used to generate the realizations given here.<br />
<br />
<br />
''' Products delivered '''<br />
<br />
The simulations are delivered as a single tarball of ~17 GB containing the following directories:<br />
<br />
: obs_plms/dat_plmbar.fits - contains the multipoles of the PHIBAR map in COM_CompMap_Lensing_2048_R1.10.fits<br />
: obs_plms/sim_????_plmbar.fits - simulated relizations of PHIBAR, in Alm format.<br />
: sky_plms/sim_????_plm.fits - the input multipoles of phi for each simulation<br />
: sky_cmbs/sim_????_tlm_unlensed.fits - the input unlensed CMB multipoles for each simulation<br />
: sky_cmbs/sim_????_tlm_lensed.fits - the input lensed CMB multipoles for each simulation.<br />
<br />
: inputs/cls/cltt.dat - Fiducial lensed CMB temperature power spectrum C<sub>l</sub><sup>TT</sup>.<br />
: inputs/cls/clpp.dat - Fiducial CMB lensing potential power spectrum C<sub>l</sub><sup>PP</sup>.<br />
: inputs/cls/cltp.dat - Fiducial correlation between lensed T and P.<br />
: inputs/cls/cltt_unlensed.dat - Fiducial unlensed CMB temperature power spectrum.<br />
: inputs/filt_mask.fits.gz - HEALpix Nside=2048 map containing the analysis mask for the lens reconstructions (equivalent to the MASK column in COM_CompMap_Lensing_2048_R1.10.fits)<br />
<br />
All of the .fits files in this package are HEALPix Alm, to lmax=2048 unless otherwise specified.<br />
<br />
For delivery purposes this package has been split into 2 GB chunks using the unix command<br />
: <tt> split -d -b 2048m </tt><br />
which produced files with names like ''COM_SimMap_Lensing_R1.10.tar.nn'', with nn=00-07. They can be recombined and the maps extracted via <br />
: <tt>cat COM_SimMap_Lensing_R1.10.tar.* | tar xvf - </tt><br />
<br />
<br />
</div><br />
</div><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
= References =<br />
<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|012]]</div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=Simulation_data&diff=14590Simulation data2022-02-14T11:01:53Z<p>Mlopezca: /* Other Releases: 2020-NPIPE, 2015 and 2013 simulated maps */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{DISPLAYTITLE: Simulations}}<br />
<br />
== Introduction ==<br />
<br />
While PR2-2015 simulations ({{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14||FFP8}}) were focused on the reproduction of the flight data Gaussian noise power spectra and their time variations, this new PR3-2018 simulation (FFP10) brings for the first time the realistic simulation of instrumental effects for both HFI and LFI. Moreover these simulated systematic effects are processed in the timelines with the same algorithms (and when possible, codes) as for the flight data.<br />
<br />
The FFP10 dataset is made of several full-sky map sets in FITS format:<br />
<br />
* 1000 realizations of lensed scalar CMB convolved with effective beams per HFI frequency,<br />
* separated input sky components per HFI bolometer and LFI radiometer<br />
* 300 realizations of noise and systematic effect residuals per frequency,<br />
* one fiducial simulation with full sky signal components: lensed scalar CMB, foregrounds, noise and systematic effect residuals, for all frequencies,<br />
<br />
== The end-to-end simulation pipeline ==<br />
<br />
The end-to-end simulation pipeline uses several software components which are described below in the order they are used, as seen in the following schematic. Note that while this schematic is specific to HFI, the main components in the block diagram are similar for both instruments. <br />
<br />
<center><br />
[[File:Simflow2.png]]<br />
</center><br />
<br />
Please note that most of what is written here comes from {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l03}}, which reading is highly recommended for more precisions on technical details and plots, particularly about the characterization of the negligible effects and systematics.<br />
<br />
=== CMB ===<br />
<br />
The FFP10 lensed CMB maps are generated in the same way as for the previous FFP8 release and described in detail in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}. FFP10 simulations only contain the scalar part lensed with independent lensing potential realizations.<br />
<br />
One "fiducial" realization is used as input CMB for the full end-to-end pipeline, and 1000 other realizations are convolved with FEBeCoP{{BibCite|mitra2010}} effective beams to be combined with the 300 noise and systematic residuals maps.<br />
<br />
The cosmological parameters used are:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="8" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left"<br />
|-<br />
! Parameter<br />
! Symbol<br />
! FFP8.1<br />
! FFP10<br />
|-<br />
| Baryon density<br />
| style="text-align:center;" | <math>\omega_b=\Omega_bh^2</math><br />
| <math>0.0223</math><br />
| <math>0.02216571</math><br />
|-<br />
| Cold dark matter density<br />
| style="text-align:center;" | <math>\omega_c=\Omega_ch^2</math><br />
| <math>0.1184</math><br />
| <math>0.1202944</math><br />
|-<br />
| Neutrino energy density<br />
| style="text-align:center;" | <math>\omega_{\nu}=\Omega_{\nu}h^2</math><br />
| <math>0.00065</math><br />
| <math>0.0006451439</math><br />
|-<br />
| Hubble parameter, <math>H_0=100h \mbox{ kms}^{-1} \mbox{ Mpc}^{-1}</math><br />
| style="text-align:center;" | <math>h</math><br />
| <math>0.6712</math><br />
| <math>0.6701904</math><br />
|-<br />
| Thomson optical depth through reionization<br />
| style="text-align:center;" | <math>\tau</math><br />
| <math>0.067</math><br />
| <math>0.06018107</math><br />
|-<br />
| colspan="4" | Primordial curvature perturbation spectrum:<br />
|-<br />
| &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;amplitude<br />
| style="text-align:center;" | <math>A_s</math><br />
| <math>2.14×10^{-9}</math><br />
| <math>2.119631×10^{-9}</math><br />
|-<br />
| &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;spectral index<br />
| style="text-align:center;" | <math>n_s</math><br />
| <math>0.97</math><br />
| <math>0.9636852</math><br />
|}<br />
<br />
=== The Planck Sky Model ===<br />
<br />
The FFP10 simulation input sky is the coaddition of the following sky components generated using the Planck Sky Model (PSM) package (Delabrouille et al. 2013 {{BibCite|delabrouille2012}}). Each of these components is convovled with each HFI bolometer spectral response by the PSM software, using the same spectral responses as in 2015 FFP8. Please note that one important difference with FFP8 is that FFP10 PSM maps are '''not''' smoothed with any beam, while in FFP8 PSM maps were smoothed with a 5’ Gaussian beam.<br />
<br />
==== Diffuse Galactic components ====<br />
<br />
* '''Dust'''<br />
The dust model maps are built as follows. The Stokes I map at 353 GHz is the dust total intensity Planck map obtained by applying the Generalized Needlet Internal Linear Combination (GNILC) method of Remazeilles et al. (2011){{BibCite|remazeilles2011}} to the PR2-2015 release of Planck HFI maps, as described in {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-XLVIII}}, and subtracting the monopole of the Cosmic Infrared Background ({{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a09}}). For the Stokes Q and U maps at 353 GHz, we started with one realization of the statistical model of Vansyngel et al. (2017){{BibCite|vansyngel2017}}. The portions of the simulated Stokes Q and U maps near Galactic plane were replaced by the Planck 353-GHz PR2 data. The transition between data and simulation was made using a Galactic mask with a 5° apodization, which leaves 68% of the sky unmasked at high latitude. Furthermore, on the full sky, the large angular scales in the simulated Stokes Q and U maps were replaced by the Planck data. Specifically, the first ten multipoles came from the Planck 353-GHz PR2 data, while over the <math>\ell=10-20</math> range, the simulations were introduced smoothly using the function <math>(1+{\sin}[\pi(15-\ell)/10])/2</math>.<br />
<br />
To scale the dust Stokes maps from the 353-GHz templates to other Planck frequencies, we follow the FFP8 prescription ({{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}). A different modified blackbody emission law is used for each of the <math>N_{side}=2048</math> HEALPix pixels. The dust spectral index used for scaling in frequency is different for frequencies above and below 353 GHz. For frequencies above 353 GHz, the parameters come from the modified blackbody fit of the dust spectral energy distribution (SED) for total intensity obtained by applying the GNILC method to the PR2 HFI maps ({{PlanckPapers|planck2016-XLVIII}}). These parameter maps have a variable angular resolution that decreases towards high Galactic latitudes. Below 353 GHz, we also use the dust temperature map from {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-XLVIII}}, but with a distinct map of spectral indices from {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06b}}, which has an angular resolution of 30’. These maps introduce significant spectral variations over the sky at high Galactic latitudes, and between the dust SEDs for total intensity and polarization. The spatial variations of the dust SED for polarization in the FFP10 sky model are quantified in {{PlanckPapers|planck2018-LIV}}.<br />
<br />
* '''Synchrotron'''<br />
Synchrotron intensity is modelled by scaling in frequency the 408-MHz template map from Haslam et al. (1982){{BibCite|haslam1982}}, as reprocessed by Remazeilles et al. (2015){{BibCite|remazeilles2015}} using a single power law per pixel. The pixel-dependent spectral index is derived from an analysis of WMAP data by Miville-Deschênes et al. (2008){{BibCite|Miville2008}}. The generation of synchrotron polarization follows the prescription of Delabrouille et al. (2013){{BibCite|delabrouille2012}}.<br />
<br />
* '''Other components'''<br />
Free-free, spinning dust models, and Galactic CO emissions are essentially the same as those used for the FFP8 sky model ({{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}), but the actual synchrotron and free-free maps used for FFP10 are obtained with a different realization of small-scale fluctuations of the intensity. CO maps do not include small-scale fluctuations, and are generated from the spectroscopic survey of Dame et al. (2001){{BibCite|dame2001}}. None of these three components is polarized in the FFP10 simulations.<br />
<br />
==== Unresolved point sources and cosmic infrared background ====<br />
<br />
Catalogues of individual radio and low-redshift infrared sources are generated in the same way as for FFP8 simulations ({{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}), but use a different seed for random number generation. Number counts for three types of galaxies (early-type proto-spheroids, and more recent spiral and starburst galaxies) are based on the model of Cai et al. (2013){{BibCite|cai2013}}. The entire Hubble volume out to redshift <math>z=6</math> is cut into 64 spherical shells, and for each shell we generate a map of density contrast integrated along the line of sight between <math>z_{min}</math> and <math>z_{max}</math>, such that the statistics of these density contrast maps (i.e., power spectrum of linear density fluctuations, and cross-spectra between adjacent shells, as well as with the CMB lensing potential), obey statistics computed using the Cosmic Linear Anisotropy Solving System (CLASS) code (Blas et al. 2011{{BibCite|blas2011}}; Di Dio et al. 2013{{BibCite|didio2013}}). For each type of galaxy, a catalogue of randomly-generated galaxies is generated for each shell, following the appropriate number counts. These galaxies are then distributed in the shell to generate a single intensity map at a given reference frequency, which is scaled across frequencies using the prototype galaxy SED at the appropriate redshift.<br />
<br />
==== Galaxy clusters ====<br />
<br />
A full-sky catalogue of galaxy clusters is generated based on number counts following the method of Delabrouille et al. (2002){{BibCite|Delabrouille2002}}. The mass function of Tinker et al. (2008){{BibCite|Tinker2008}} is used to predict number counts. Clusters are distributed in redshift shells, proportionally to the density contrast in each pixel with a bias <math>b(z, M)</math>, in agreement with the linear bias model of Mo & White (1996){{BibCite|mowhite1996}}. For each cluster, we assign a universal profile based on XMM observations, as described in Arnaud et al. (2010){{BibCite|arnaud2010}}. Relativistic corrections are included to first order following the expansion of Nozawa et al. (1998){{BibCite|Nozawa1998}}. To assign an SZ flux to each cluster, we use a mass bias of <math>M_{Xray}/M_{true}=0.63</math> to match actual cluster number counts observed by Planck for the best-fit cosmological model coming from CMB observations. We use the specific value <math>\sigma_8=0.8159</math>.<br />
<br />
The kinematic SZ effect is computed by assigning to each cluster a radial velocity that is randomly drawn from a centred Gaussian distribution, with a redshift-dependent standard deviation that is computed from the power spectrum of density fluctuations. This neglects correlations between cluster motions, such as bulk flows or pairwise velocities of nearby clusters.<br />
<br />
=== Input sky maps to timelines ===<br />
<br />
The LevelS software package (Reinecke et al. 2006 {{BibCite|reinecke2006}}) is used to convert the input sky maps to timelines for each bolometer.<br />
<br />
* Using '''conviqtv3''', the maps are convolved with the same scanning beams as for FFP8, which were produced by stacking intensity-only observations of planets ({{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}}, appendix B), and to which a fake polarization has been added using a simple model based on each bolometer polarization angle and leakage.<br />
<br />
* The convolved maps are then scanned to timelines with '''multimod''', using the same scanning strategy as the 2018 flight data release. The only difference between the 2018 scanning strategy and the 2015 one is that about 1000 stable pointing periods at the end of the mission are omitted in 2018, because it has been found that the data quality was significantly lower in this interval.<br />
<br />
=== Instrument-specific simulations ===<br />
<br />
The main new aspect of FFP10 is the production of End-to-end (E2E) detector simulations, which include all significant systematic effects, and are used to produce realistic maps of noise and systematic effect residuals. <br />
<br />
==== HFI E2E simulations ====<br />
<br />
The pipeline adds the modelled instrumental systematic effects at the timeline level. It includes noise only up to the time response convolution step, after which the signal is added and the systematics simulated. It was shown in appendix B.3.1 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-XLVI}} that, including the CMB map in the inputs or adding it after mapmaking, leads to differences for the power spectra in CMB channels below the <math>10^{-4}\mu{K}^2</math> level. This justifies the use of CMB swapping even when non-Gaussian systematic effects dominate over the TOI detector noise.<br />
<br />
Here are the main effects included in the FFP10 simulation:<br />
<br />
* '''White noise:''' the noise is based on a physical model composed of photon, phonon, and electronic noises. The time-transfer functions are different for these three noise sources. A timeline of noise only is created, with the level adjusted to agree with the observed TOI white noise after removal of the sky signal averaged per ring.<br />
<br />
* '''Bolometer signal time-response convolution:''' the photon white noise is convolved with the bolometer time response using the same code and same parameters as in the 2015 processing. A second white noise contribution is added to the convolved photon white noise to simulate the electronics noise.<br />
<br />
* '''Noise auto-correlation due to deglitching:''' the deglitching step in the data processing creates noise auto-correlation by flagging samples that are synchronous with the sky. Since we do not simulate the cosmic-ray glitches, we mimic this behaviour by adjusting the noise of samples above a given threshold to simulate their flagging.<br />
<br />
* '''Time response deconvolution:''' the timeline containing the photon and electronic noise contributions is then deconvolved with the bolometer time response and low-pass filtered to limit the amplification of the high-frequency noise, using the same parameters as in the 2015 data processing.<br />
<br />
: The input sky signal timeline is added to the convolved/deconvolved noise timeline and is then put through the instrument simulation. Note that the sky signal is not convolved/deconvolved with the bolometer time response, since it is already convolved with the scanning beam extracted from the 2015 TOI processing output which already contains the low-pass filter and residuals associated with the time-response deconvolution.<br />
<br />
* '''Simulation of the signal non-linearity:''' the first step of electronics simulation is the conversion of the input sky plus noise signal from K<sub>CMB</sub> units to analog-to-digital units (ADU) using the detector response measured on the ground and assumed to be stable in time. The ADU signal is then fed through a simulator of a non-linear analogue-to-digital converter (ADCNL). This step is the one introducing complexity into the signal, inducing time variation of the response, and causing gain differences with respect to the ground-based measurements. This corresponds to specific new correction steps in the mapmaking.<br />
<br />
: The ADCNL transfer-function simulation is based on the TOI processing, with correction from the ground measurements, combined with in-flight measurements. A reference simulation is built for each bolometer, which minimizes the difference between the simulation and the data gain variations, measured in a first run of the mapmaking. Realizations of the ADCNL are then drawn to mimic the variable behaviour of the gains seen in the 2018 data.<br />
<br />
* '''Compression/decompression:''' the simulated signal is compressed by the algorithm required by the telemetry rate allocated to the HFI instrument, with a slight accuracy loss. While very close to the compression algorithm used on-board, the one used in the simulation pipeline differs slightly, due to the non-simulation of the cosmic-ray glitches, together with the use of the average of the signal in the compression slice.<br />
: The same number of compression steps as in flight data, the signal mean of each compression slice and the step value for each sample are then used by the decompression algorithm to reconstruct the modulated signal.<br />
<br />
===== TOI processing =====<br />
<br />
The TOIs issued from the steps above are then processed in the same way as the flight data. Because of the granularity needed and the computational performance required to produce hundreds of realizations, the TOI processing pipeline applied to the simulated data is highly optimized and slightly different from the one used for the data. The specific steps are the following:<br />
<br />
* '''ADCNL correction:''' the ADCNL correction is carried out with the same parameters as the 2015 data TOI processing, and with the same algorithm. The difference between the realizations of ADC transfer function used for simulation and the constant one used for TOI processing is tuned to reproduce the gain variations found in 2015 processed TOI.<br />
<br />
* '''Demodulation:''' signal demodulation is also performed in the same way as the flight TOI processing. First, the signal is converted from ADU to volts. Next, the signal is demodulated by subtracting from each sample the average of the modulated signal over 1 hour and then taking the opposite value for "negative" parity samples.<br />
<br />
* '''Conversion to watts and thermal baseline subtraction:''' the demodulated signal is converted from volts to watts (neglecting the conversion non-linearity of the bolometers and amplifiers, which has been shown to be negligible). Eventually, the flight data thermal baseline, derived from the deglitched signals of the two dark bolometers smoothed over 1 minute, is subtracted.<br />
<br />
* '''1/f noise:''' a 1/f type noise component is added to the signal for each stable pointing period, with parameters (slope and knee frequency) adjusted on the flight data.<br />
<br />
* '''Projection to HPR:''' the signal timeline is then projected and binned to HEALPix pixels for each stable pointing period (HEALPix rings, or HPR) after removal of flight-flagged data (unstable pointing periods, glitches, Solar system objects, planets, etc.).<br />
<br />
* '''4-K line residuals:''' a HPR of the 4-K line residuals for each bolometer, built by stacking the 2015 TOI, is added to the simulation output HPR.<br />
<br />
===== Effects and processings not simulated =====<br />
<br />
* no discrete point sources,<br />
* no glitching/deglitching, only deglitching-induced noise auto-correlation,<br />
* no 4-K line simulation and removal, only addition of their residuals,<br />
* no bolometer volts-to-watts conversion non-linearity from the bolometers and amplifiers,<br />
* no far sidelobes (FSLs),<br />
* reduced simulation pipeline at 545 GHz and 857 GHz<br />
<br />
To be more specific about this last item, the submillimetre channels simulation uses a pipeline without electronics simulation. It only contains photon and electronic noises, deglitching noise auto-correlation, time-response convolution/deconvolution, and 1/f noise. Bolometer by bolometer baseline addition and thermal baseline subtraction, compression/decompression, and 4-K line residuals are not included.<br />
<br />
===== Mapmaking =====<br />
<br />
The next stage is to use the SRoll mapmaking on the stim HPR. The following mapmaking inputs are all the same for simulation as for flight data:<br />
<br />
* thermal dust, CO, and free-free map templates,<br />
* detector NEP and polarization parameters,<br />
* detector pointings,<br />
* bad ring lists and sample flagging<br />
<br />
The FSL removal performed in the mapmaking destriper is not activated (since no FSL contribution is included in the input). The total dipole removed by the mapmaking is the same as the input in the sky TOIs generated by LevelS (given in section 4.2. of {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l03}}).<br />
<br />
===== Post-processing =====<br />
<br />
* '''Noise alignment:''' an additional noise component is added to more accurately align the noise levels of the simulations with the noise estimates built from the 2018 odd minus even ring maps. Of course, this adjustment of the noise level may not satisfy all the other noise null tests. This alignment is different for temperature and for polarization maps, in order to simulate the effect of the noise correlation between detectors within a PSB.<br />
<br />
* '''Monopole adjustment:''' a constant value is added to each simulated map to bring its monopole to the same value as the corresponding 2018 map, which is described in section 3.1.1. of {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l03}}.<br />
<br />
* '''Signal subtraction:''' from each map, the input sky (CMB and foregrounds) is subtracted to build the “noise and residual systematics frequency maps.” These systematics include additional noise and residuals induced by sky-signal distortion. These maps are part of the FFP10 data set.<br />
<br />
==== LFI E2E simulations ====<br />
<br />
As described in {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l02}}, the LFI systematic effect simulations are done partially at time- line and partially at ring-set level, with the goal of being as modular as possible, in order to create a reusable set of simulations. From the input sky model and according to the pointing information, we create single-channel ring-sets of the pure sky convolved with a suitable instrumental beam. To these we add pure noise (white and 1/ f ) ring-sets generated from the noise power spectrum distributions measured from real data one day at a time. The overall scheme is given in the Figure below:<br />
<br />
[[File:Screen Shot 2018-07-13 at 13.58.58.png|thumb|400px|center]]<br />
<br />
In the same manner, we create ring-sets for each of the specific systematic effects we would like to measure. We add together signal, noise, and systematic ring-sets, and, given models for straylight (based on the GRASP beams) and the orbital dipole, we create “perfectly-calibrated” ring-sets (i.e., calibration constant = 1). We use the gains estimate from the 2018 data release to “de-calibrate” these timelines, i.e., to convert them from kelvins to volts. At this point the calibration pipeline starts, and produces the reconstructed gains that will be different from the ones used in the de-calibration process due to the presence of simulated systematic effects. The calibration pipeline is algorithmically exactly the same as that used at the DPC for product creation, but with a different implementation (based principally on python). The gain-smoothing algorithm is the same as used for the data, and has been tuned to the actual data. This means that there will be cases where reconstructed gains from simulations differ significantly from the input ones. We have verified that this indeed happens, but only for very few pointing periods, and we therefore decided not to consider them in the following analysis. The overall process for estimating gains is given in the figure below:<br />
<br />
[[File:Screen Shot 2018-07-13 at 13.59.17.png|400px|thumb|center]]<br />
<br />
At this point we are able to generate maps for full mission, half-ring, and odd-even-year splits) that include the effects of systematic errors on calibration. In the final step, we produce timelines (which are never stored) starting from the same fiducial sky map, using the same model for straylight and the orbital dipole as in the previous steps, and from generated noise-only timelines created with the same seeds and noise model used before. We then apply the official gains to “de-calibrate” the timelines, which are immediately calibrated with the reconstructed gains in the previous step. The nominal destriping mapmaking algorithm is then used to create final maps. The complete data flow is given in the figure below:<br />
<br />
[[File:Screen Shot 2018-07-13 at 14.03.40.png|400px|thumb|center]]<br />
<br />
<br />
== Delivered Products ==<br />
<br />
=== Input sky components ===<br />
<br />
The separated input sky components generated by the Planck Sky Model are available for all frequencies, at HEALPix <math>N_{side}=1024</math> or <math>2048</math> or <math>4096</math>, depending on frequency:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left"<br />
!<br />
! 100GHz<br />
! 143GHz<br />
! 217GHz<br />
! 353GHz<br />
! 545GHz<br />
! 857GHz<br />
|-<br />
! fiducial lensed scalar CMB<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! CO<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! free-free<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! synchrotron<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! far infrared background<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! kinetic SZ<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_kineticsz-ffp10-skyinbands-100_2048_R3.00_full.fits 100GHz&nbsp;kineticsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_kineticsz-ffp10-skyinbands-143_2048_R3.00_full.fits 143GHz&nbsp;kineticsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_kineticsz-ffp10-skyinbands-217_2048_R3.00_full.fits 217GHz&nbsp;kineticsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_kineticsz-ffp10-skyinbands-353_2048_R3.00_full.fits 353GHz&nbsp;kineticsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_kineticsz-ffp10-skyinbands-545_2048_R3.00_full.fits 545GHz&nbsp;kineticsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_kineticsz-ffp10-skyinbands-857_2048_R3.00_full.fits 857GHz&nbsp;kineticsz]<br />
|-<br />
! Thermal SZ<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_thermalsz-ffp10-skyinbands-100_2048_R3.00_full.fits 100GHz&nbsp;thermalsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_thermalsz-ffp10-skyinbands-143_2048_R3.00_full.fits 143GHz&nbsp;thermalsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_thermalsz-ffp10-skyinbands-217_2048_R3.00_full.fits 217GHz&nbsp;thermalsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_thermalsz-ffp10-skyinbands-353_2048_R3.00_full.fits 353GHz&nbsp;thermalsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_thermalsz-ffp10-skyinbands-545_2048_R3.00_full.fits 545GHz&nbsp;thermalsz]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_thermalsz-ffp10-skyinbands-857_2048_R3.00_full.fits 857GHz&nbsp;thermalsz]<br />
|-<br />
! faint&nbsp;infrared&nbsp;point&nbsp;sources<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintirps-ffp10-skyinbands-100_4096_R3.00_full.fits 100GHz&nbsp;faintirps]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintirps-ffp10-skyinbands-143_4096_R3.00_full.fits 143GHz&nbsp;faintirps]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintirps-ffp10-skyinbands-217_4096_R3.00_full.fits 217GHz&nbsp;faintirps]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintirps-ffp10-skyinbands-353_4096_R3.00_full.fits 353GHz&nbsp;faintirps]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintirps-ffp10-skyinbands-545_4096_R3.00_full.fits 545GHz&nbsp;faintirps]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintirps-ffp10-skyinbands-857_4096_R3.00_full.fits 857GHz&nbsp;faintirps]<br />
|-<br />
! faint radio point sources<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintradiops-ffp10-skyinbands-100_4096_R3.00_full.fits 100GHz&nbsp;faintradiops]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintradiops-ffp10-skyinbands-143_4096_R3.00_full.fits 143GHz&nbsp;faintradiops]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintradiops-ffp10-skyinbands-217_4096_R3.00_full.fits 217GHz&nbsp;faintradiops]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintradiops-ffp10-skyinbands-353_4096_R3.00_full.fits 353GHz&nbsp;faintradiops]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintradiops-ffp10-skyinbands-545_4096_R3.00_full.fits 545GHz&nbsp;faintradiops]<br />
| [http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_faintradiops-ffp10-skyinbands-857_4096_R3.00_full.fits 857GHz&nbsp;faintradiops]<br />
|-<br />
! thermal dust<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=== CMB realizations ===<br />
<br />
The 1000 lensed scalar CMB map realizations are convolved with the FEBeCoP effective beams computed using the 2015 scanning beams ({{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}}, appendix B), and the updated scanning strategy described in the [[#PSM maps to timelines]] section above. Each CMB realization is available for the full-mission span only, at each frequency, which means 1000 realizations x 9 frequencies = 9000 CMB maps, which can be retrieved using the following link template:<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=febecop_ffp10_lensed_scl_cmb_{frequency}_mc_{realization}.fits</pre><br />
<br />
where:<br />
* '''{frequency}''' is any of frequency: 30, 44, 70, 100, 143, 217, 353, 545 or 857,<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realisation number, between 0000 and 0999, padded to four digits with leading zeros<br />
<br />
For example: http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=febecop_ffp10_lensed_scl_cmb_100_mc_0000.fits<br />
<br />
<br />
=== Noise and instrumental effect residual maps ===<br />
<br />
==== HFI E2E maps ====<br />
<br />
As described above, 300 realizations of full end-to-end simulations have been produced, to which the full sky signal part (CMB+foregrounds) have been subtracted in post-processing, to give maps of noise and systematic residuals only. For each realization and frequency, five data cuts are provided:<br />
<br />
* full-mission,<br />
* first and second half-missions,<br />
* odd and even stable pointing periods (rings)<br />
<br />
In addition to all 6 HFI frequencies, a special detector set made of only 353 GHz polarized bolometers (a.k.a 353_psb) is also published, to match the 2018 flight data set, for a total of 300 realizations x 5 data cuts x 7 HFI detector sets = 10,500 maps.<br />
<br />
The noise maps can be retrieved from PLA using the following naming convention:<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=ffp10_noise_{frequency}_{ring_cut}_map_mc_{realization}.fits</pre><br />
<br />
where:<br />
* '''{frequency}''' is any of HFI frequency: 100, 143, 217, 353, 353_psb, 545 or 857,<br />
* '''{ring_cut}''' is the ring selection scheme, one of: full, hm1, hm2, oe1, oe2<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realisation number, between 00000 and 00299, padded to five digits with leading zeros<br />
<br />
For example: http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=ffp10_noise_100_full_map_mc_00000.fits<br />
<br />
Please note that due to the specific polarization orientation of 100GHz bolometers, odd and even ring maps are badly conditionned for HEALPix <math>N_{side}=2048</math> and are therefore also available at <math>N_{side}=1024</math> by just replacing "_map_mc_" with "_map_1024_mc_" in the file link name.<br />
<br />
<br />
==== LFI E2E maps ====<br />
<br />
For LFI, a similar approach is followed as for HFI in terms of number and formatting of the E2E noise+systematics simulations.<br />
<br />
=== Fiducial simulation ===<br />
<br />
A separate full end-to-end simulation with a different CMB realization is also provided, with the full sky signal included and the same data cuts and detector sets as the 300 noise and systematic residual maps, to serve as a reference for whatever you would need it to. Please don't overlook the important warning below about thermal dust.<br />
<br />
'''TODO: fiducial naming scheme'''<br />
<br />
== Two important warnings about noise and thermal dust ==<br />
<br />
=== Noise ===<br />
<br />
As stated in the introduction, FFP10 focus is on the simulation and correction of the main instrumental effects and systematics. It uses a noise model which doesn't vary in time, contrary to FFP8 simulations which used realizations of one noise power spectrum per stable pointing period and per detector. Doing so, all systematic residuals in FFP8 are considered as Gaussian noise, which time variations should follow the flight data.<br />
<br />
If interested in Gaussian noise variations following flight data rather than non-Gaussian instrumental effects and systematic residuals, the user may want to check whether FFP8 noise maps better suit their needs. This is particularly true for 545 GHz and 857 GHz, for which FFP10 doesn't contain all instrumental effects and systematics and in which detectors' time response deconvolution is simulated at the noise-alignment post-processing step.<br />
<br />
=== Thermal dust ===<br />
<br />
After the production of the 300 realizations of noise and systematic residual simulations, a bug has been found in the PSM thermal dust template used as input, which led to a 10% intensity mismatch in temperature at 353 GHz due to a missing color correction. The same dust template has been correctly used for the simulations and for the sky subtraction post-processing, so the produced and published residual maps are not affected.<br />
<br />
Note however, that the thermal dust maps provided as PSM input sky and the one used in the fiducial simulation are the fixed version of the PSM thermal dust, which slightly differs from the one used (and removed) in the 300 noise and systematic residual simulations.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<br />
<References /><br />
= Other Releases: 2020-NPIPE, 2015 and 2013 simulated maps =<br />
<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="background-color: #9ef542;width:80%"><br />
'''2020 Release of simulated maps (NPIPE)'''<br />
<div class="mw-collapsible-content"><br />
The NPIPE release includes 600 simulated full-frequency and detector-set Monte Carlo realizations. 100 of those realizations include single-detector and half-ring maps. <br />
<br />
NPIPE simulations include all of the reprocessing steps, but only approximate the effects of preprocessing. The approximation is based on simulating the detector noise from a power spectral density (PSD) measured from preprocessed time-ordered data.<br />
<br />
The components of the full signal simulations are:<br />
* CMB signal, consisting of independent CMB realisations convolved on-the-fly with the asymmetric detector beams and including the solar system and orbital dipole;<br />
* foregrounds, consisting of a Commander sky model evaluated at each frequency;<br />
* zodiacal light, based on fits of the zodiacal templates on real data;<br />
* bandpass mismatch, based on real data fits of the mismatch templates;<br />
* LFI gain fluctuations, consisting of smoothed versions of the noisy fits of real data;<br />
* instrumental noise, based on measured noise in preprocessed data, including cross-detector correlated noise.<br />
<br />
In addition, fitting for the full suite of reprocessing templates adds all potential template degeneracies and pipeline transfer function effects.<br />
<br />
Each full signal simulation is accompanied with a symmetric beam-convolved CMB map, foreground map, and a residual (noise) map created by regressing out the input signals from the full map.<br />
<br />
Simulated NPIPE maps derive from a time-domain simulation that includes beam-convolved CMB, bandpass-mismatched foregrounds, and instrumental 1/<i>f</i> noise with realistic intra horn correlations. Seasonal gain fluctuations are added into the simulated LFI signal by smoothing the measured real data gain fluctuation. The data are processed with the same reprocessing module as the real data, introducing similar large-scale systematics and correlations.<br />
<br />
'''CMB'''<br />
<br />
The simulated CMB is the same as used in PR3 simulations. Instead of processing the CMB in the map-domain, NPIPE uses [https://github.com/hpc4cmb/libconviqt libconviqt] to convolve the CMB with individual detector beams at appropriate orientations. Simulating full time-domain processing allows the user to assess potential pipeline transfer function effects relevant to their analysis. This is in contrast to PR3 where the CMB simulations were performed in the map domain.<br />
<br />
The parameters of the simulated CMB are shown in the following table, reproduced from A&A 643, A42 (2020).<br />
<br />
[[File:Ffp10 params.png|400px|frameless|none|Simulated CMB parameters]]<br />
<br />
'''Foregrounds'''<br />
<br />
Unlike the CMB, there is only one realization of the foregrounds. They are based on the Commander sky model, evaluated at the nominal central frequency for each band. Sky-model component maps that are noise-dominated outside the Galactic plane are smoothed to remove unphysical levels of small-scale structure from the simulation. Without this smoothing the simulated 30-GHz maps showed a significant excess of extra-Galactic power when compared to the real data maps.<br />
<br />
Bandpass mismatch is simulated by adding bandpass-mismatch templates to the frequency map before sampling it into the map domain. The template amplitudes are based on real data fits.<br />
<br />
Since the Commander sky model used as input already includes beam smoothing, we do not convolve with the instrumental beam as we do with the CMB.<br />
<br />
'''Noise'''<br />
<br />
Instrumental noise is simulated from mission-averaged noise PSDs. We use the Fourier technique to create noise realizations that conform to the full PSD, not just a parametrized noise model. Correlated noise between detectors in a single horn reduces the horn's sensitivity to sky temperature but not polarization. We use the measured detector cross-spectra to account for this phenomenon. <br />
<br />
'''Simulated maps'''<br />
<br />
100 Monte Carlo realizations are available on the PLA. These include full-frequency maps, A/B splits, and single-detector maps. For convenience, we provide total signal and residual maps. Matching SEVEM-processed CMB and noise maps are also made available.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''CMB realizations'''<br />
<br />
Input CMB maps convolved with a symmetrized beam are available using the following link template:<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20{subset}_cmb_input_{frequency}_map_mc_{realization}.fits</pre><br />
<br />
Here:<br />
* '''{subset}''' is "", "A", or "B";<br />
* '''{frequency}''' is any of 030, 044, 070, 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, or 857;<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realization number, between 0200 and 0299, padded to four digits with leading zeros.<br />
<br />
For example: http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20_cmb_030_A_mc_0200.fits<br />
<br />
'''Foreground maps'''<br />
<br />
Foreground maps used in the simulation can be downloaded with<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20_foreground_input_{frequency}_map.fits</pre><br />
Here:<br />
* '''{frequency}''' is any of: 030, 044, 070, 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, or 857.<br />
<br />
'''Single-detector maps'''<br />
<br />
Simulated single-detector maps can be downloaded with this link template:<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20_total_{detector}_map_mc_{realization}.fits</pre><br />
<br />
Here:<br />
* '''{detector}''' is any valid Planck detector;<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realization number, between 0200 and 0299, padded to four digits with leading zeros.<br />
<br />
For example: http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20_total_LFI28M_map_mc_0200.fits<br />
<br />
'''Total-signal maps'''<br />
<br />
Simulated total-signal maps can be downloaded using the following link template:<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20{subset}_total_{frequency}_map_mc_{realization}.fits</pre><br />
<br />
Here:<br />
* '''{subset}''' is "", "A", or "B";<br />
* '''{frequency}''' is any of: 030, 044, 070, 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, or 857;<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realization number, between 0200 and 0299, padded to four digits with leading zeros.<br />
<br />
For example: http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20_total_143_map_mc_0200.fits<br />
<br />
'''Residual maps'''<br />
<br />
Simulated residual maps (output - input) can be downloaded with the following link template:<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20{subset}_noise_{frequency}_map_mc_{realization}.fits</pre><br />
<br />
Here:<br />
* '''{subset}''' is "", "A", or "B";<br />
* '''{frequency}''' is any of: 030, 044, 070, 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, or 857;<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realization number, between 0200 and 0299, padded to four digits with leading zeros.<br />
<br />
For example: http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20B_noise_070_map_mc_0200.fits<br />
<br />
'''SEVEM maps'''<br />
<br />
Simulated SEVEM CMB and noise maps are available at<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20{subset}_sevem_cmb_mc_{realization}_raw.fits</pre><br />
and<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20{subset}_sevem_noise_mc_{realization}_raw.fits</pre><br />
<br />
Here:<br />
* '''{subset}''' is "", "A", or "B";<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realization number, between 0200 and 0299, padded to four digits with leading zeros.<br />
<br />
Matching foreground-subtracted frequency maps can be retrieved with<br />
<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20{subset}_sevem_{frequency}_cmb_mc_{realization}_raw.fits</pre><br />
and<br />
<pre style="white-space: pre;">http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=npipe6v20{subset}_sevem_{frequency}_noise_mc_{realization}_raw.fits</pre><br />
<br />
Here:<br />
* '''{subset}''' is "", "A", or "B";<br />
* '''{frequency}''' is any of 070, 100, 143, or 217;<br />
* '''{realization}''' is the realization number, between 0200 and 0299, padded to four digits with leading zeros.<br />
<br />
<br />
</div><br />
</div><br />
<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="background-color: #FFDAB9;width:80%"><br />
'''2015 Release of simulated maps'''<br />
<div class="mw-collapsible-content"><br />
<br />
''' Introduction '''<br />
<br />
The 2015 Planck data release is supported by a set of simulated maps of the sky, by astrophysical component, and of that sky as seen by Planck (fiducial mission realizations), together with separate sets of Monte Carlo realizations of the CMB and the instrument noise. <br />
<br />
Currently, only a subset of these simulations is available from the Planck Legacy Archive. In particular:<br />
* 18000 full mission CMB simulations: 1000 for each of the nine Planck frequencies, and for two different sets of cosmological parameters.<br />
* 9000 full mission noise simulations: 1000 for each of the nine Planck frequencies.<br />
* 18 full mission sky simulated maps: two sets of sky maps with and without bandpass corrections applied.<br />
<br />
The first two types of simulations, CMB and noise, that are only partially available in the PLA, and the sky simulated maps, have been highlighted in red in Table 1. <br />
<br />
The full set of Planck simulations can be found in the NERSC supercomputing center. Instructions on how to access and retrieve the data can be found in [http://crd.lbl.gov/departments/computational-science/c3/c3-research/cosmic-microwave-background/cmb-data-at-nersc/ HERE]. <br />
<br />
They contain the dominant instrumental (detector beam, bandpass, and correlated noise properties), scanning (pointing and flags), and analysis (map-making algorithm and implementation) effects. These simulations have been described in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}.<br />
<br />
In addition to the baseline maps made from the data from all detectors at a given frequency for the entire mission, there are a number of data cuts that are mapped both for systematics tests and to support cross-spectral analyses. These include:<br />
<br />
* '''detector subsets''' (“detsets”), comprising the individual unpolarized detectors and the polarized detector quadruplets corresponding to each leading trailing horn pair. Note that HFI sometimes refers to full channels as detset0; here detset only refers to subsets of detectors.<br />
* '''mission subsets''', comprising the surveys, years, and half-missions, with exact boundary definitions given in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a03}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}} for LFI and HFI, respectively.<br />
* '''half-ring subsets''', comprising the data from either the first or the second half of each pointing-period ring<br />
<br />
The various combinations of these data cuts then define 1134 maps, as enumerated in the top section of Table 1 from {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}. The different types of map are then named according to their included detectors (channel or detset), interval (mission, half-mission, year or survey), and ring-content (full or half-ring); for example the baseline maps are described as channel/mission/full, etc.<br />
<br />
The simulation process consists of <br />
* modelling each astrophysical component of the sky emission for each Planck detector, using Planck data and the relevant characteristics of the Planck instruments. <br />
* simulating each detector's observation of each sky component following the Planck scanning strategy and using the best estimates of the detector's beam and noise properties (obtained in flight), then combining these timelines into a single one per detector, and projecting these simulated timelines onto ''observed'' maps (the ''fiducial'' sky), as is done with the on-orbit data;<br />
* generating Monte Carlo realizations of the CMB and of the noise, again following the Planck scanning strategy and using our best estimates of the detector beams and noise properties respectively. <br />
The first step is performed by the ''Planck Sky Model'' (PSM), and the last two by the ''Planck Simulation Tools'' (PST), both of which are described in the sections below. <br />
<br />
The production of a full focal plane (FFP) simulation, and including the many MC realizations of the CMB and the noise, requires both HFI and LFI data and includes large, computationally challenging, MC realizations. They are too large to be generated on either of the DPC's own cluster. Instead the PST consists of three distinct tools, each designed to run on the largest available supercomputers, that are used to generate the fiducial sky realization, the CMB MC, and the noise MC respectively. The simulations delivered here are part of the 8th generation FFP simulations, known as FFP8. They were primarily generated on the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) in the USA and at CSC–IT Center for Science (CSC) in Finland.<br />
<br />
The fiducial realizations include instrument noise, astrophysical foregrounds, and the lensed scalar, tensor, and non-Gaussian CMB components, and are primarily designed to support the validation and verification of analysis codes. To test our ability to detect tensor modes and non-Gaussianity, we generate five CMB realizations with various cosmologically interesting &mdash; but undeclared &mdash; values of the tensor-to-scalar ratio '''r''' and non-Gaussianity parameter '''f<sub>NL</sub>'''. To investigate the impact of differences in the bandpasses of the detectors at any given frequency, the foreground sky is simulated using both the individual detector bandpasses and a common average bandpass, to include and exclude the effects of bandpass mismatch. To check that the PR2-2015 results are not sensitive to the exact cosmological parameters used in FFP8 we subsequently generated FFP8.1, exactly matching the PR2-2015 cosmology.<br />
<br />
Table 1 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}. The numbers of fiducial, MC noise and MC CMB maps at each frequency by detector subset, data interval, and data cut.<br />
<br />
[[File:A14_Table1_1_col.png|center|900px]]<br />
[[File:A14_Table1_2_col.png|center|900px]]<br />
[[File:A14_Table1_3_col.png|center|900px]]<br />
<br />
Since mapmaking is a linear operation, the easiest way to generate all of these different realizations is to build the full set of maps of each of six components:<br />
<br />
# the lensed scalar CMB (''cmb_scl'');<br />
# the tensor CMB (''cmb_ten'');<br />
# the non-Gaussian complement CMB (''cmb_ngc'');<br />
# the forgreounds including bandpass mismatch (''fg_bpm'');<br />
# the foregrounds excluding bandpass mismatch (''fg_nobpm'');<br />
# the noise.<br />
<br />
We then sum these, weighting the tensor and non-Gaussian complement maps with <math>\sqrt{r}</math> and f<sub>NL</sub>, respectively, and including one of the two foreground maps, to produce 10 total maps of each type. The complete fiducial data set then comprises 18,144 maps.<br />
<br />
While the full set of maps can be generated for the fiducial cases, for the 10<sup>4</sup>-realization MC sets this would result in some 10<sup>7</sup> maps and require about 6 PB of storage. Instead, therefore, the number of realizations generated for each type of map is chosen to balance the improved statistics it supports against the computational cost of its generation and storage. The remaining noise MCs sample broadly across all data cuts, while the additional CMB MCs are focused on the channel/half-mission/full maps and the subset of the detset/mission/full maps required by the "commander" component separation code {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}}.<br />
<br />
''' Mission and instrument characteristics '''<br />
The goal of FFP8 is to simulate the Planck mission as accurately as possible; however, there are a number of known systematic effects that are not included, either because they are removed in the pre-processing of the time-ordered data (TOD), or because they are insufficiently well-characterized to simulate reliably, or because their inclusion (simulation and removal) would be too computationally expensive. These systematic effects are discussed in detail in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a03}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}} and include:<br />
* cosmic ray glitches (HFI);<br />
* spurious spectral lines from the 4-K cooler electronics (HFI);<br />
* non-linearity in the analogue-to-digital converter (HFI);<br />
* imperfect reconstruction of the focal plane geometry.<br />
<br />
Note that if the residuals from the treatment of any of these effects could be mapped in isolation, then maps of such systematics could simply be added to the existing FFP8 maps to improve their correspondence to the real data.<br />
<br />
''' Pointing '''<br />
The FFP8 detector pointing is calculated by interpolating the satellite attitude to the detector sample times and by applying a fixed rotation from the satellite frame into the detector frame. The fixed rotations are determined by the measured focal plane geometry as shown in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a05}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}}, while the satellite attitude is described in the Planck attitude history files (AHF). The FFP pointing expansion reproduces the DPC pointing to sub-arcsecond accuracy, except for three short and isolated instances during Surveys 6&mdash;8 where the LFI sampling frequency was out of specification. Pixelization of the information causes the pointing error to be quantized to either zero (majority of cases) or the distance between pixel centres (3.4' and 1.7' for LFI and HFI, respectively). Since we need a single reconstruction that will serve both instruments efficiently in a massively parallel environment, we use the pointing provided by the Time Ordered Astrophysics Scalable Tools (Toast) package.<br />
<br />
''' Noise '''<br />
We require simulated noise realizations that are representative of the noise in the flight data, including variations in the noise power spectral density (PSD) of each detector over time. To obtain these we developed a noise estimation pipeline complementary to those of the DPCs. The goal of DPC noise estimation is to monitor instrument health and to derive optimal noise weighting, whereas our estimation is optimized to feed into noise simulation. Key features are the use of full mission maps for signal subtraction, long (about 24 hour) realization length, and the use of auto-correlation functions in place of Fourier transforms to handle flagged and masked data (HFI).<br />
<br />
''' Beams '''<br />
The simulations use the so-called scanning beams (e.g., {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p03}}), which give the point-spread function of for a given detector including all temporal data processing effects: sample integration, demodulation, ADC non-linearity residuals, bolometric time constant residuals, etc. In the absence of significant residuals (LFI), the scanning beams may be estimated from the optical beams by smearing them in the scanning direction to match the finite integration time for each instrument sample. Where there are unknown residuals in the timelines (HFI), the scanning beam must be measured directly from observations of strong point-like sources, namely planets. If the residuals are present but understood, it is possible to simulate the beam measurement and predict the scanning beam shape starting from the optical beam.<br />
<br />
For FFP8, the scanning beams are expanded in terms of their spherical harmonic coefficients, <math>b_{\ell m}</math>, with the order of the expansion (maximum <math>\ell</math> and m considered) representing a trade-off between the accuracy of the representation and the computational cost of its convolution. The LFI horns have larger beams with larger sidelobes (due to their location on the outside of the focal plane), and we treat them as full <math>4\pi</math> beams divided into main (up to 1.9&deg;, 1.3&deg;, and 0.9&deg; for 30, 44, and 70 GHz, respectively), intermediate (up to 5&deg;), and sidelobe (above 5&deg;) components {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a05}}. This division allows us to tune the expansion orders of the three components separately. HFI horns are limited to the main beam component, measured out to 100 arc minutes {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}}. Since detector beams are characterized independently, the simulations naturally include differential beam and pointing systematics.<br />
<br />
''' Bandpasses '''<br />
Both the LFI and HFI detector bandpasses are based on ground measurements (see {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p03d}}, respectively), although flight data processing for LFI now uses in-flight top-hat approximations rather than the ground measurements that were found to contain systematic errors. Differences in the bandpasses of detectors nominally at the same frequency (the so-called bandpass mismatch) generate spurious signals in the maps, since each detector is seeing a slightly different sky while the mapmaking algorithms assume that the signal in a pixel is the same for all detectors. To quantify the effect of these residuals, in FFP8 we generate detector timelines from foreground maps in two ways, one that incorporates the individual detector bandpasses, the other using an average bandpass for all the detectors at a given frequency.<br />
<br />
This effect of the bandpass mismatch can be roughly measured from either flight or simulated data using so-called spurious component mapmaking, which provides noisy all-sky estimates of the observed sky differences (the spurious maps), excluding polarization, between individual detectors and the frequency average. We compare the amount of simulated bandpass mismatch to flight data. The spurious component approach is detailed in the Appendix of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}. Mismatch between FFP8 and flight data is driven by inaccurate bandpass description (LFI) and incomplete line emission simulation (HFI). The noisy pixels that align with the Planck scanning rings in the HFI maps are regions where the spurious map solution is degenerate with polarization due to insufficient observation orientations.<br />
<br />
''' The Planck Sky Model '''<br />
<br />
The Planck Sky Model, PSM, consists of a set of data and of code used to simulate sky emission at millimeter-wave frequencies; it is described in detail in Delabrouille et al., (2013){{BibCite|delabrouille2012}}, henceforth the PSM paper.<br />
<br />
The Planck Sky Model is available here:<br />
http://www.apc.univ-paris7.fr/~delabrou/PSM/psm.html<br />
<br />
The main simulations used to test and validate the Planck data analysis pipelines (and, in particular, component separation) makes use of simulations generated with version 1.9 of the PSM software. The total sky emission is built from the CMB plus ten foreground components, namely thermal dust, spinning dust, synchrotron, CO lines, free-free, thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect (with first order relativistic corrections), kinetic SZ effect, radio and infrared sources, Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB).<br />
<br />
The CMB is modelled using [http://camb.info CAMB]. It is based on adiabatic initial perturbations, with the following cosmological parameters as listed in Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a08}}<br />
<br />
[[File:A14_Table3_CosmoParams.png|center|800px]]<br />
<br />
''' Galactic and extragalactic components '''<br />
<br />
The '''Galactic ISM emission''' comprises five components: thermal dust, spinning dust, synchrotron, free-free, CO lines (the J=1->0, J=2->1, and J=3->2 lines at 115.27, 230.54, and 345.80 GHz, respectively), and plus the cosmic infrared background (CIB), emission from radio sources, and the thermal and kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effects.<br />
<br />
The '''thermal dust''' emission is modelled using single-frequency template maps of the intensity and polarization, together with a pixel-dependent emission law. For FFP8 the thermal dust emission templates are derived from the Planck 353 GHz observations. This update of the original PSM dust model is necessary to provide a better match to the emission observed by Planck. While one option would be simply to use the dust opacity map obtained in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06b}}, this map still suffers from significant contamination by CIB anisotropies and infrared point sources. Using it as a 353 GHz dust template in simulations would result in an excess of small scale power (from CIB and infrared sources) scaling exactly as thermal dust across frequencies. The resulting component represents correctly neither dust alone (because of an excess of small scale power) nor the sum of dust and infrared sources (because the frequency scaling of the CIB and infrared sources is wrong). For simulation purposes, the main objective is not to have an exact map of the dust, but instead a map that has the right statistical properties. Hence we produce a template dust map at 353 GHz by removing that fraction of the small-scale power that is due to CIB emission, infra-red sources, CMB, and noise.<br />
<br />
The '''spinning-dust''' map used for FFP8 simulations is a simple realization of the spinning dust model, post-processed to remove negative values occurring in a few pixels because of the generation of small-scale fluctuations on top of the spinning dust template extracted from WMAP data.<br />
<br />
The FFP8 '''synchrotron''' emission is modelled on the basis of the template emission map observed at 408 MHz by Haslam et al. (1982). This template synchrotron map is extrapolated in frequency using a spectral index map corresponding to a simple power law.<br />
<br />
The '''free-free''' spectral dependence is modelled in FFP8 by assuming a constant electron temperature <math>T_{e}</math> = 7000 K. Electron-ion interactions in the ionized phase of the ISM produce emission that is in general fainter than both the synchrotron and the thermal dust emission outside of the active star-forming regions in the Galactic plane. The free-free model uses a single template, which is scaled in frequency by a specific emission law. The free-free spectral index is a slowly varying function of frequency and depends only slightly on the local value of the electron temperature.<br />
<br />
The '''radio sources''' are modelled in FFP8 in a different way from the pre-launch versions of the PSM. <br />
<br />
For '''strong radio sources''' (<math>S_{30}</math> > 0.5 Jy), we use radio sources at 0.84, 1.4, or 4.85 GHz. For sources observed at two of these frequencies, we extrapolate or interpolate to the third frequency assuming the spectral index estimated from two observed. For sources observed at only one frequency, we use differential source counts to obtain the ratio of steep- to flat-spectrum sources in each interval of flux density considered. From this ratio, we assign spectral indices (randomly) to each source within each flux density interval. Fiducial Gaussian spectral index distributions as a function of spectral class are obtained from the literature. These are then adjusted slightly until there is reasonable agreement between the PSM differential counts and the predicted model counts predicted.<br />
<br />
For '''faint radio sources''' (<math>S_{30}</math> <= 0.5 Jy), the pre-launch PSM showed a deficit of sources resulting from inhomogeneities in surveys at different depths. We address this issue by constructing a simulated catalogue of sources at 1.4 GHz. We replace the simulated sources by the observed ones, wherever possible. If, however, in any particular pixel, we have a shortfall of observed sources, we make up the deficit with the simulated sources. Every source in this new catalogue is given a model-derived spectral class. We thus assign a spectral index to each source based on the spectral class, and model the spectrum of each source using four power laws. We also assume some steepening of the spectral index with frequency, with fiducial values of the steepening obtained from the literature.<br />
<br />
We combine the faint and strong radio source catalogues we constructed and compute the differential source counts on these sources between 0.005 Jy and 1 Jy. Finally we also model the polarization of these radio sources using the measured polarization fractions from the literature; for each simulated source we draw a polarization fraction at random from the list of real sources of the same spectral type.<br />
<br />
The '''SZ clusters''' are simulated following the model of Delabrouille, Melin, and Bartlett (DMB) as implemented in the PSM. A catalogue of halos is drawn from a Poisson distribution of the mass function with a limiting mass of M<sub>500,true</sub> > 2x10<sup>13</sup> <math>M_\odot</math>. We use the pressure profile from the literature to model the thermal SZ emission of each halo given its redshift and mass. We determine the cluster temperature and assume that the profiles are isothermal. These steps allow us to compute the first-order thermal relativistic correction and the kinetic SZ effect for each cluster, both of which are included in the simulation. Finally, we inject catalogued clusters following the same model, and remove from the simulation corresponding clusters in each redshift and mass range. Hence the SZ simulation features the majority of known X-ray and optical clusters, and is fully consistent with X-ray scaling laws and observed Planck SZ counts.<br />
<br />
The '''CIB''' model used to simulate FFP8 relies on the distribution of individual galaxies in template maps based on the distribution of dark matter at a range of relevant redshifts. We assume the CIB galaxies can be grouped into three different populations (proto-spheroid, spiral, starburst). Within each population, galaxies have the same SED, while the flux density is randomly distributed according to redshift-dependent number counts obtained from JCMT/SCUBA-2 observations and the Planck ERCSC, as well as observations from Herschel-SPIRE and AzTEC/ASTE. We use the Class software to generate dark matter maps at 17 different redshifts between 1 and 5.5. Since the galaxy distribution does not exactly follow the dark matter distribution, we modify the a<sub>lm</sub> coefficients of dark matter anisotropies given by Class. Template maps generated from the a<sub>lm</sub> coefficients are then exponentiated to avoid negative pixels. Galaxies are randomly distributed with a probability of presence proportional to the pixel values of the template maps. One map is generated for each population, at each redshift, and associated with a redshifted SED depending on the population. The emission of these maps (initially at a reference frequency) can be extrapolated to any frequency using the associated redshifted SED. By summing the emission of all maps, we can generate CIB maps at any frequency in the range of validity of our model. <br />
<br />
See {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}} and references therein for a very detailed explanation of the procedures to simulate each of the components.<br />
<br />
The sky model is simulated at a resolution common to all components by smoothing the maps with an ideal Gaussian beam of FWHM of 4 arcminute. The Healpix [http://healpix.sourceforge.net] pixelization in Galactic coordinates is used for all components, with Nside = 2048 and <math>\ell_{max}</math> = 6000. Sky emission maps are generated by numerically band-integrating the sky model maps (emission law of each component, in each pixel) over the frequency bands both of each detector in the focal plane and &mdash; using an average over the detectors at a given frequency &mdash; of each channel. The band-integrated maps are essentially observations of the model sky simulated by an ideal noiseless instrument with ideal Gaussian beams of FWHM equal to the resolution of the model sky.<br />
<br />
''' The CMB Sky '''<br />
<br />
The CMB sky is simulated in three distinct components, namely lensed scalar, tensor, and non-Gaussian complement. The total CMB sky is then the weighted sum with weights 1, <math>\sqrt{r}</math>, and f_<sub>NL</sub>, respectively. For FFP8, all CMB sky components are produced as spherical harmonic representations of the I, Q, and U skies.<br />
<br />
The FFP8 CMB sky is derived from our best estimate of the cosmological parameters available at the time of its generation, namely those from the first Planck data release {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p01}}, augmented with a judicious choice of reionization parameter <math>\tau</math>, as listed in Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}.<br />
<br />
''' The scalar CMB sky '''<br />
<br />
The scalar component of the CMB sky is generated including lensing, Rayleigh scattering, and Doppler boosting effects. <br />
<br />
* Using the Camb code, we first calculate fiducial unlensed CMB power spectra <math>C_{\ell}^{TT}</math>, <math>C_{\ell}^{EE}</math>, <math>C_{\ell}^{TE}</math>, the lensing potential power spectrum <math>C_{\ell}^{\phi\phi}</math>, and the cross-correlations <math>C_{\ell}^{T\phi}</math> and <math>C_{\ell}^{E\phi}</math>. We then generate Gaussian T, E, and <math>\phi</math> multipoles with the appropriate covariances and cross-correlations using a Cholesky decomposition and three streams of random Gaussian phases. These fields are simulated up to <math>\ell_{max}</math>=5120. <br />
<br />
* Add a dipole component to <math>\phi</math> to account for the Doppler aberration due to our motion with respect to the CMB. <span style="color:#ff0000">UPDATE: Note that although it was intended to include this component in this set of simulations, in the end it was not. It will be included in future versions of the simulation pipeline. </span><br />
<br />
* Compute the effect of gravitational lensing on the temperature and polarization fields, using an algorithm similar to LensPix. We use a fast spherical harmonic transform to compute the temperature, polarization, and deflection fields. The unlensed CMB fields T, Q, and U are evaluated on an equicylindrical pixelization (ECP) grid with <math>N_{\theta}=32\,768</math> and <math>N_{\varphi} = 65\,536</math>, while the deflection field is evaluated on a Healpix Nside=2048 grid. We then calculate the "lensed positions for each Nside=2048 Healpix pixel. We then interpolate T, Q, U at the lensed positions using 2-D cubic Lagrange interpolation on the ECP grid.<br />
<br />
* Incorporate the frequency-dependent Doppler modulation effect {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-pipaberration}}.<br />
<br />
* Evaluate lensed, Doppler boosted <math>T_{\ell m}</math>, <math>E_{\ell m}</math>, and <math>B_{\ell m}</math> up to <math>\ell_{max}=4\,096</math> with a harmonic transform of the Nside=2048 Healpix map of these interpolated T, Q, and U values.<br />
<br />
* Add frequency-dependent Rayleigh scattering effects.<br />
<br />
* Add a second-order temperature quadrupole. Since the main Planck data processing removes the frequency-independent part{{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a09}}, we simulate only the residual frequency-dependent temperature quadrupole. After subtracting the frequency-independent part, the simulated quadrupole has frequency dependence <math>\propto (b_{\nu}-1)/2</math>, which we calculate using the bandpass-integrated <math>b_{\nu}</math> boost factors given in Table 4 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}.<br />
<br />
''' The tensor CMB sky '''<br />
In addition to the scalar CMB simulations, we also generate a set of CMB skies containing primordial tensor modes. Using the fiducial cosmological parameters of Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}, we calculate the tensor power spectra <math>C_{\ell}^{TT, {\rm tensor}}</math>, <math>C_{\ell}^{EE, {\rm tensor}}</math>, and <math>C_{\ell}^{BB, {\rm tensor}}</math> using Camb with a primordial tensor-to-scalar power ratio <math>r=0.2</math> at the pivot scale <math>k=0.05\,Mpc^{-1}</math>. We then simulate Gaussian T, E, and B-modes with these power spectra, and convert these to spherical harmonic representations of the corresponding I, Q and U maps. Note that the default r=0.2 means that building the FFP8a-d maps requires rescaling each CMB tensor map by <math>\sqrt{r/0.2}</math> for each of the values of r in Table 2 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}}.<br />
<br />
''' The non-Gaussian CMB sky '''<br />
We use a new algorithm to generate simulations of CMB temperature and polarization maps containing primordial non-Gaussianity. Non-Gaussian fields in general have a non-vanishing bispectrum contribution sourced by mode correlations. The bispectrum, the Fourier transform of the 3-point correlation function, can then be characterized as a function of three wavevectors, <math>F(k_1, k_2, k_3)</math>. Depending on the physical mechanism responsible for generating the non-Gaussian signal, it is possible to introduce broad classes of model that are categorized by the dependence of F on the type of triangle formed by the three momenta <math>k_i</math>. Here, we focus on non-Gaussianity of local type, where the bulk of the signal comes from squeezed triangle configurations, <math>k_1 \ll k_2 \approx k_3</math>. This is typically predicted by multi-field inflationary models. See Section 3.3.3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}} for further details on the simulation of this components and references.<br />
<br />
''' The FFP8.1 CMB skies '''<br />
<br />
The FFP8 simulations are an integral part of the analyses used to derive PR2-2015, and so were necessarily generated prior to determining that release's cosmological parameters. As such there is inevitably a mismatch between the FFP8 and the PR2-2015 cosmologies, which we address in two ways. The quick-and-dirty fix is to determine a single rescaling factor that minimizes the difference between the PR1-2013 and PR2-2015 TT power spectra and apply it to all of the FFP8 CMB maps; this number is determined to be 1.0134, and the rescaled maps have been used in several repeat analyses to confirm the robustness of various PR2-2015 results.<br />
<br />
More rigorously though, we also generate a second set of CMB realizations based on the PR2-2015 cosmology, dubbed FFP8.1, and perform our reanalyses using these in place of the FFP8 CMB skies in both the fiducial and MC realizations. Table 3 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}} lists the cosmological parameters used for FFP8.1 while Table 1 of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}} enumerates the current status of the FFP8.1 CMB MCs.<br />
<br />
''' The Fiducial Sky Simulations'''<br />
<br />
The FFP8 fiducial realization is generated in two steps: <br />
# Simulation of the full mission TOD for every detector<br />
# Calculation of maps from the various detector subsets, intervals, and data cuts. <br />
<br />
Simulation of explicit TODs allows us to incorporate each detector's full beam (including its far sidelobes) and unique input sky (including its bandpass). As noted above, the fiducial realization is generated in six separate components &mdash; the three CMB components (lensed scalar, tensor, and non-Gaussian complement), two foreground realizations (with and without bandpass mismatch), and noise. The first five of these are simulated as explicit TODs and then mapped, while the noise is generated using the on-the-fly approach described in the noise MC subsection below.<br />
<br />
TOD generation for any detector proceeds by:<br />
# Convolving the appropriate sky component with the beam at every point in a uniformly sampled data cube of Euler angle triplets (encoding the pointing and polarization orientation) to produce the "beamskyset".<br />
# Generating the time-ordered data by interpolating over the beamskyset data cube to the exact pointing and polarization orientation of each sample. <br />
<br />
Previous FFP simulations, including FFP6, accompanying the 2013 Planck data release, used the LevelS software package to do this. However, this required format conversions for the input pointing data and the output time-ordered data, at significant IO and disk space costs. For FFP8 we have therefore embedded the critical parts of these routines into a new code which uses Toast to interface directly with exchange format data. <br />
<br />
All of the FFP8 fiducial maps are produced using Madam/Toast, a Toast port of the Madam generalized destriping code, which allows for destriping with an arbitrary baseline length, with or without a prior on the baseline distribution (or noise filter). Madam is used to produce the official LFI maps, and its destriping parameters can be chosen so that it reproduces the behaviour of Polkapix, the official HFI mapmaking code. Comparison of the official maps and Madam/Toast maps run using exchange data show that mapmaker differences are negligible compared to small differences in pointing and (for HFI) dipole subtraction that do not impact the simulation. The sky components are mapped from the TODs, while the fiducial noise is taken to be realization 10000 of the noise MC (with realizations 0000-9999 reserved for the noise MC itself). <br />
<br />
Summarizing the key differences in the map making parameters for each Planck frequency:<br />
<br />
* 30 GHz is destriped with 0.25 s baselines; 44 and 70 GHz are destriped using 1 s baselines; and 100&mdash;857 GHz are destriped using pointing-period baselines (30-75 min).<br />
<br />
* 30&mdash;70 GHz are destriped with a 1/f-shape noise prior, while 100&mdash;857 GHz are destriped without a noise prior.<br />
<br />
* 30, 44, and 70 GHz have separate destriping masks, while 100&mdash;857 GHz use the same 15% galaxy + point source mask.<br />
<br />
* 30&mdash;70 GHz maps are destriped using baselines derived exclusively from the data going into the particular map, while 100-857 GHz maps are destriped using baselines derived from the full data set.<br />
<br />
''' Noise MC '''<br />
<br />
The FFP8 noise MCs are generated using Madam/Toast, exploiting Toast's on-the-fly noise simulation capability to avoid the IO overhead of writing a simulated TOD to disk only to read it back in to map it. In this implementation, Madam runs exactly as it would with real data, but whenever it submits a request to Toast to provide it with the an interval of the noise TOD, that interval is simply simulated by Toast in accordance with the noise power spectral densities provided in the runconfig, and returned to Madam.<br />
<br />
For a simulation set of this size and complexity, requiring of the order of <math>10^{17}</math> random numbers over <math>10^{12}</math> disjoint and uncorrelated intervals, care must be take with the pseudo-random number generation to ensure that it is fast, reliable (and specifically uncorrelated), and reproducible, in particular enabling any process to generate any element of any subsequence on demand. To achieve this Toast uses a Combined Multiple Recursive Generator (CMRG) that provides more than sufficient period, excellent statistical robustness, and the ability to skip ahead to an arbitrary point in the pseudo-random sequence very quickly. See {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a14}} for further details on the Noise MCs.<br />
<br />
''' CMB MC '''<br />
<br />
The FFP8 CMB MCs are generated using the Febecop software package, which produces beam-convolved maps directly in the pixel domain rather than sample-by-sample, as is done for the fiducial maps. The goal of this approach is to reduce the computational cost by the ratio of time-samples to map-pixels (i.e., the number of hits per pixel).<br />
<br />
The Febecop software package proceeds as follows:<br />
<br />
# Given the satellite pointing and flags and the focal plane (accessed through the Toast interface), for every channel Febecop first re-orders all of the samples in the mission by pixel instead of time, localizing all of the observations of each pixel, and writes the resulting pixel-ordered detector dngles (PODA) to disk. Note that since the PODA also contains the detector, time-stamp, and weight of each observation this is a one-time operation for each frequency, and does not need to be re-run for different time intervals or detector subsets, or for changes in the beam model or its chosen cut-off radius.<br />
<br />
# For every time interval and detector subset to be mapped, and for every pixel in the map, Febecop uses the PODA and the scanning beams to generate an effective-beam for that pixel which is essentially the weighted average of the discretized beam functions for every sample in the pixel included in the time interval and detector subset. The total effective-beam array is also written to disk. Given the PODA, this is a one-time operation for any beam definition.<br />
<br />
# Finally, Febecop applies the effective-beam pixel-by-pixel to every CMB sky realization in the MC set to generate the corresponding beam-convolved CMB map realization.<br />
<br />
The effective-beams provide a direct connection between the true and observed sky, explicitly incorporating the detailed pointing for every detector through a linear convolution. By providing the effective-beams at every pixel, Febecop enables precise control of systematic effects, e.g., the point-spread functions can be fitted at each pixel on the sky and used to determine point source fluxes {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a35}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a36}}<br />
<br />
''' Validation '''<br />
Our goal for the FFP8 simulation set is that it be not only internally self-consistent, but also a good representation of the real data. In addition to the validation steps carried out on all of the inputs individually and noted in their respective sections above, we must also validate the final outputs. A first crude level of validation is provided simply by visual inspection of the FFP8 and real Planck maps where the only immediately apparent difference is the CMB realization.<br />
<br />
While this is a necessary test, it is hardly sufficient, and the next step is to compare the angular power spectra of the simulated and real channel/mission/full maps. As illustrated in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a35}}, LFI channels show excellent agreement across all angular scales, while HFI channels show a significant power deficit at almost all angular scales. Since this missing HFI power is not picked up in the noise estimation, it must be sky-synchronous (frequency bins corresponding to sky-synchronous signals being discarded when fitting the noise PSDs due to their contamination by signal residuals). This is now understood to be a systematic effect introduced in the HFI pre-processing pipeline, and we are working both to incorporate it as a systematic component in existing simulations and to ameliorate if for future data releases.<br />
<br />
Finally, the various analyses of the FFP8 maps in conjunction with the flight data provide powerful incidental validation. To date the only issues observed here are the known mismatch between the FFP8 and PR2-2015 cosmologies, and the missing systematic component in the HFI maps. As noted above, the former is readily addressed by rescaling or using FFP8.1; however, the characterization and reproduction of the latter is an ongoing effort. Specific details of the consequences of this as-yet unresolved issue, such as its impact on null-test failures and ''p''-value stability in studies of non-Gaussianity. In addition, as stated above, the CMB simulations containing only the modulation but not aberration part of the Doppler boost signal.<br />
<br />
''' Delivered products '''<br />
<br />
''' Fiducial Sky '''<br />
<br />
There are 9 PSM simulations of the fiducial sky that correspond to the simulated sky integrated over the average spectral response of each band, but not convolved with the beam. They can be downloaded from the PLA or directly here:<br />
<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-030_1024_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-044_1024_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-070_1024_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-100_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-143_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-217_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-353_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-545_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-bpm-857_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
<br />
In addition, a set of 9 simulations of the fiducial sky corrected for bandpass mismatch (nobpm) can be obtained here:<br />
<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-030_1024_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-044_1024_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-070_1024_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-100_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-143_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-217_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-353_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-545_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?SIMULATED_MAP.FILE_ID=COM_SimMap_sky-ffp8-nobpm-857_2048_R2.00_full.fits<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Sky simulated maps file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'SimMap_Sky' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|TEMPERATURE || Real*4 || K_cmb (30-353 GHz) or MJy/sr (545 and 857 GHz) || The Stokes I map<br />
|-<br />
|Q-POLARISATION || Real*4 || K_cmb (30-353 GHz) || The Stokes Q map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|U-POLARISATION || Real*4 || K_cmb (30-353 GHz) || The Stokes U map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix <math>N_{side}</math> <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12 <math>N_{side}</math><sup>2</sup> – 1 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Note: Original PSM foreground components has been generated at NSIDE 2048 and using a gaussian beam of 4 arcmin. LFI CMB maps has been downgraded at NSIDE 1024.<br />
<br />
''' CMB MC '''<br />
<br />
There are 1000 realizations of the lensed CMB per frequency for FFP8 and FFP9, making a total of 18000 CMB simulations available in the PLA. They are named:<br />
<br />
* ''HFI_SimMap_cmb-ffp8-scl-{nnnn}_2048_R2.00_nominal.fits''<br />
* ''LFI_SimMap_cmb-ffp8-scl-{nnnn}_1024_R2.00_nominal.fits''<br />
<br />
* ''HFI_SimMap_cmb-ffp9-scl-{nnnn}_2048_R2.00_nominal.fits''<br />
* ''LFI_SimMap_cmb-ffp9-scl-{nnnn}_1024_R2.00_nominal.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''nnnn'' ranges from 0000 to 1000.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB FFP8 and FFP9 simulated maps file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'SimMap_cmb-ffp?-scl' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|TEMPERATURE || Real*4 || K_cmb (30-353 GHz) or MJy/sr (545 and 857 GHz) || The Stokes I map<br />
|-<br />
|Q-POLARISATION || Real*4 || K_cmb (30-353 GHz) || The Stokes Q map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|U-POLARISATION || Real*4 || K_cmb (30-353 GHz) || The Stokes U map (optional)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || RING || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix <math>N_{side}</math> <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12 <math>N_{side}</math><sup>2</sup> – 1 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
''' Noise MC '''<br />
<br />
There are 1000 of the noise per frequency for FFP8, making 9000 noise realizations available in the PLA. They are named<br />
<br />
* ''HFI_SimMap_noise-ffp8-{nnnn}_2048_R2.00_nominal.fits''<br />
* ''LFI_SimMap_noise-ffp8-{nnnn}_1024_R2.00_nominal.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''nnnn'' ranges from 0000 to 1000.<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Noise simulated maps file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'SimMap_Sky' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|TEMPERATURE || Real*4 || K_cmb || <br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|POLCCONV || String || COSMO || Polarization convention<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 or 2048 || Healpix <math>N_{side}</math> <br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12 <math>N_{side}</math><sup>2</sup> – 1 || Last pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
''' Lensing Simulations '''<br />
<br />
The lensing simulations package contains 100 realisations of the Planck "MV (TT+TE+ET+TB+BT+EE+EB+BE)" lensing potential estimate (November 2014 pipeline v12), as well as the input lensing realizations. They can be used to determine error bars as well eas effective normalizations for cross-correlation with other tracers of lensing. These simulations are of the lensing convergence map contained in the [[Specially processed maps#Lensing map | Lensing map]] release file. The production and characterisation of this lensing potential map are described in detail in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a17}}, which also describes the procedure used to generate the realizations given here.<br />
<br />
<br />
The simulations are delivered as a gzipped tarball of approximately 8 GB in size. For delivery purposes, the package has been split into 4 2GB files using the unix command<br />
: <tt> split -d -b 2048m </tt><br />
<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?COSMOLOGY.FILE_ID=COM_Lensing-SimMap_2048_R2.00.tar.00<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?COSMOLOGY.FILE_ID=COM_Lensing-SimMap_2048_R2.00.tar.01<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?COSMOLOGY.FILE_ID=COM_Lensing-SimMap_2048_R2.00.tar.02<br />
* http://pla.esac.esa.int/pla/aio/product-action?COSMOLOGY.FILE_ID=COM_Lensing-SimMap_2048_R2.00.tar.03<br />
<br />
After downloading the individual chunks, the full tarball can be reconstructed with the command<br />
: <tt>cat COM_Lensing-SimMap_2048_R2.00.tar.* | tar xvf - </tt><br />
<br />
The contents of the tarball are described below:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left"<br />
|+ ''' Contents of COM_Lensing-SimMap_2048_R2.00.tar '''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Filename || Format || Description<br />
|-<br />
| obs_klms/sim_????_klm.fits || HEALPIX FITS format alm, with <math> L_{\rm max} = 2048 </math> || Contains the simulated convergence estimate <math> \hat{\kappa}_{LM} = \frac{1}{2} L(L+1)\hat{\phi}_{LM} </math> for each simulation.<br />
|-<br />
| sky_klms/sim_????_klm.fits || HEALPIX FITS format alm, with <math> L_{\rm max} = 2048 </math> || Contains the input lensing convergence for each simulation.<br />
|-<br />
| inputs/mask.fits.gz || HEALPIX FITS format map, with <math> N_{\rm side} = 2048 </math> || Contains the lens reconstruction analysis mask.<br />
|-<br />
| inputs/cls/cl??.dat || ASCII text file, with columns = (<math>L</math>, <math>C_L </math>) || Contains the fiducial theory CMB power spectra for TT, EE, BB, <math> \kappa \kappa </math> and <math> T \kappa </math>, with temperature and polarization in units of <math> \mu K </math>.<br />
|- <br />
|}<br />
<br />
</div><br />
</div><br />
<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="background-color: #EEE8AA;width:80%"><br />
'''2013 Release of simulated maps'''<br />
<div class="mw-collapsible-content"><br />
<br />
''' Introduction '''<br />
<br />
The 2013 Planck data release is supported by a set of simulated maps of the model sky, by astrophysical component, and of that sky as seen by Planck. The simulation process consists of <br />
# modeling each astrophysical component of the sky emission for each Planck detector, using pre-Planck data and the relevant characteristics of the Planck instruments (namely the detector plus filter transmissions curves). <br />
# simulating each detector's observation of each sky component following the Planck scanning strategy and using the best estimates of the detector's beam and noise properties (now obtained in flight), then combining these timelines into a single one per detector, and projecting these simulated timelines onto ''observed'' maps (the ''fiducial'' sky), as is done with the on-orbit data;<br />
# generating Monte Carlo realizations of the CMB and of the noise, again following the Planck scanning strategy and using our best estimates of the detector beams and noise properties respectively. <br />
The first step is performed by the ''Planck Sky Model'' (PSM), and the last two by the ''Planck Simulation Tools'' (PST), both of which are described in the sections below. <br />
<br />
The production of a full focal plane (FFP) simulation, and including the many MC realizations of the CMB and the noise, requires both HFI and LFI data and includes large, computationally challenging, MC realizations. They are too large to be generated on either of the DPC's own cluster. Instead the PST consists of three distinct tools, each designed to run on the largest available supercomputers, that are used to generate the fiducial sky realization, the CMB MC, and the noise MC respectively. The simulations delivered here are part of the 6th generation FFP simulations, known as FFP6. They were primarily generated on the Hopper and Edison systems at [http://www.nersc.gov NERSC], with some of the LFI noise MCs generated on the Louhi system at [http://www.csc.fi/english CSC].<br />
<br />
While FFP6 includes our best measurements of the detector band-passes, main beams and noise power spectral densities, and is guaranteed to be internally self-consistent, there are a number of differences with the real data that should be borne in mind, although all tests performed to date indicate that these are statistically insignificant:<br />
* the beams do not include far side-lobes;<br />
* the detector noise characteristics are assumed stable: a single noise spectrum per detector is used for the entire mission;<br />
* it assumes perfect calibration, transfer function deconvolution and deglitching;<br />
* it uses the HFI pointing solution for the LFI frequencies, rather than the DPC's two focal plane model.<br />
* it uses a different map-maker to HFI, and as a consequence implements very slightly different data cuts - primarily at ring boundaries - resulting in marginally different hit-maps.<br />
<br />
''' The Planck Sky Model '''<br />
<br />
<br />
''' Overall description '''<br />
<br />
The Planck Sky Model, PSM, consists of a set of data and of code used to simulate sky emission at millimeter-wave frequencies; it is described in detail in Delabrouille et al., (2013){{BibCite|delabrouille2012}}, henceforth the PSM paper..<br />
<br />
The Planck Sky Model is available here:<br />
http://www.apc.univ-paris7.fr/~delabrou/PSM/psm.html<br />
<br />
The main simulations used to test and validate the Planck data analysis pipelines (and, in particular, component separation) makes use of simulations generated with version 1.7.7 of the PSM software. The total sky emission is built from the CMB plus ten foreground components, namely thermal dust, spinning dust, synchrotron, CO lines, free-free, thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect (with first order relativistic corrections), kinetic SZ effect, radio and infrared sources, Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB).<br />
<br />
The CMB is modeled using [http://camb.info CAMB]. It is based on adiabatic initial perturbations, with the following cosmological parameters:<br />
* T_CMB = 2.725<br />
* H = 0.684<br />
* OMEGA_M = 0.292<br />
* OMEGA_B = 0.04724<br />
* OMEGA_NU = 0<br />
* OMEGA_K = 0<br />
* SIGMA_8 = 0.789<br />
* N_S = 0.9732<br />
* N_S_RUNNING = 0<br />
* N_T = 0<br />
* R = 0.0844<br />
* TAU_REION = 0.085<br />
* HE_FRACTION = 0.245<br />
* N_MASSLESS_NU = 3.04<br />
* N_MASSIVE_NU = 0<br />
* W_DARK_ENERGY = -1<br />
* K_PIVOT = 0.002<br />
* SCALAR_AMPLITUDE = 2.441e-9<br />
and all other parameters are set to the default standard of the Jan 2012 version of CAMB. In addition, this simulated CMB contains non-Gaussian corrections of the local type, with an f<sub>NL</sub> parameter of 20.4075.<br />
<br />
The Galactic ISM emission comprises five components: thermal dust, spinning dust, synchrotron, CO lines, and free-free emission. We refer the reader to the PSM publication for details. For the simulations generated here, however, the thermal dust model has been modified in the following way: instead of being based on the 100 micron map of Schlegel, Finkbeiner and Davis (2008){{BibCite|schlegel1998}}, henceforth SFB, the dust template uses an internal release of the 857 GHz Planck observed map itself, in which point sources have been subtracted, and which has been locally filtered to remove CIB fluctuations in the regions of lowest column density. A caveat is that while this reduces the level of CIB fluctuations in the dust map in some of the regions, in regions of moderate dust column density the CIB contamination is actually somewhat larger than in the SFD map (by reason of different emission laws for dust and CIB, and of the higher resolution of the Planck map).<br />
<br />
The other emissions of the galactic ISM are simulated using the prescription described in the PSM paper. Synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust emission are based on WMAP observations, as analyzed by Miville-Deschenes et al. (2008){{BibCite|Miville2008}}. Small scale fluctuations have been added to increase the variance on small scales and compensate the lower resolution of WMAP as compared to Planck (in particular for the HFI channels). The main limitation of these maps is the presence at high galactic latitude of fluctuations that may be attributed to WMAP noise. The presence of noise and of added Gaussian fluctuations on small scales may result in a few occasional pixels being negative (e.g. in the spinning dust maps). Low frequency foreground maps are also contaminated by some residuals of bright radio sources that have not been properly subtracted from the templates of diffuse emission.<br />
<br />
The CO maps are simulated using the CO J=1-0 observations of Dame et al. (2001){{BibCite|dame2001}}. The main limitations are limited sky coverage, lower resolution than that of Planck high frequency channels, line ratios (J=2-1)/(J=1-0) and (J=3-2)/(J=2-1) constant over the sky. The CO in the simulation is limited to the three lowest <sup>12</sup>CO lines. No CO maps has been simulated at the LFI frequnecy (30, 44 and 70 GHz).<br />
<br />
Galaxy clusters are generated on the basis of cluster number counts, following the Tinker et al. (2008){{BibCite|Tinker2008}} mass function, for the cosmological parameters listed above. Clusters are assumed perfectly spherical, isothermal, and are modeled using the universal pressure profile of Arnaud et al. (2010){{BibCite|arnaud2010}}. Relativistic corrections following Itoh et al. (1998){{BibCite|Nozawa1998}} are included to first order. The simulated kinetic SZ effect assumes no bulk flow, and a redshift-dependent average cluster velocity compatible with the linear growth of structures.<br />
<br />
Point sources comprise radio sources (based on extrapolations across frequencies of radio observations between 800 MHz and 5 GHz) and infrared sources (based on extrapolations in frequencies of IRAS sources). One caveat is that due to the unevenness of the radio source surveys, the equatorial southern part of the sky has less faint radio sources than the northern part. Although all the missing sources are well below the Planck detection level, this induces a small variation of the total emission background over the sky. Check the individual faint point source emission maps if this is a potential problem for your applications. See also the PSM paper for details about the PSM point source simulations. The PSM separates bright and faint point source; the former are initially in a catalog, and the latter in a map, though a map of the former can also be produced. In the processing below, the bright sources are simulated via the catalog, but for convenience they are delivered as a map.<br />
<br />
Finally, the far infrared background due to high redshift galaxies has been simulated using a procedure is based on the distribution of galaxies in shells of density contrast at various redshifts (Castex et al., PhD thesis; paper in preparation). This simulation has been modified by gradually substituting an uncorrelated extra term of CIB emission at low frequencies, artificially added in particular to decorrelate the CIB at frequencies below 217 GHz from the CIB above that frequency, to mimic the apparent decorrelation observed in the Planck Early Paper on CIB power spectrum {{PlanckPapers|planck2011-6-6}}. <br />
<br />
While the PSM simulations described here provide a reasonably representative multi-component model of sky emission, users are warned that it has been put together mostly on the basis of data sets and knowledge pre-existing the Planck observations themselves. While it is sophisticated enough to include variations of emission laws of major components of the ISM emission, different emission laws for most sources, and a reasonably coherent global picture, it is not (and is not supposed to be) identical to the real sky emission. The users are warned to use these simulations with caution.<br />
<br />
''' PSM Products '''<br />
<br />
To build maps corresponding to the Planck channels, the models described above are convolved with the [[Spectral_response | spectral response]] of the channel in question. The products given here are for the full frequency channels, and as such they are not used in the Planck specific simulations, which use only individual detector channels. The frequency channel spectral responses used (given in [[the RIMO|the RIMO]]), are averages of the responses of the detectors of each frequency channel weighted as they are in the mapmaking step. They are provided for the purpose of testing user's own software of simulations and component separation.<br />
<br />
PSM maps of the CMB and of the ten foregrounds are given in the following map products:<br />
<br />
HFI<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_cmb_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_cmb_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_co_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_co_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_firb_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_firb_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_strongps_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_strongps_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_faintps_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_faintps_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_freefree_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_freefree_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_synchrotron_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_synchrotron_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_thermaldust_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_thermaldust_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_spindust_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_spindust_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_kineticsz_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_kineticsz_2048_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_thermalsz_2048_R1.10.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_thermalsz_2048_R1.10.fits}}'' <br />
<br />
LFI<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_cmb_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_cmb_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_firb_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_firb_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_strongps_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_strongps_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_faintps_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_faintps_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_freefree_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_freefree_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_synchrotron_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_synchrotron_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_thermaldust_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_thermaldust_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_spindust_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_spindust_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_kineticsz_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_kineticsz_1024_R1.10.fits}}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_thermalsz_1024_R1.10.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_thermalsz_1024_R1.10.fits}}'' <br />
<br />
<br />
Each file contains a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with either a single map (for the CMB file) or one map for each HFI/LFI frequency (for the foreground components). In the latter case the columns are named ''F030'', ''F044'' ,''F070'',''F100'', ''F143'', … , ''F857''. Units are microK<sub>CMB</sub> for the CMB, K<sub>CMB</sub> at 30, 44 and 70 GHz and MJy/sr for the others. The structure is given below for multi-column files. <br />
<br />
Note: Original PSM foreground components has been generated at NSIDE 2048 and using a gaussian beam of 4 arcmin, LFI maps where then smoothed to LFI resolution (32.0, 27.0 and 13.0 arcmin for the 30, 44 and 70 GHz) and donwgraded at NSIDE 1024. LFI CMB maps has been smoothed at 13.0 arcmin (70 GHz resolution) and downgraded at NSIDE 1024. <br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''HFI FITS file structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'SIM-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|F100 || Real*4 || K_CMB || 100GHz signal map<br />
|-<br />
|F143 || Real*4 || K_CMB || 143GHz signal map<br />
|-<br />
|F217 || Real*4 || K_CMB || 217GHz signal map<br />
|-<br />
|F353 || Real*4 || K_CMB || 353GHz signal map<br />
|-<br />
|F545 || Real*4 || MJy/sr || 545GHz signal map<br />
|-<br />
|F857 || Real*4 || MJy/sr || 857GHz signal map<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COMP || string || component || Astrophysical omponent<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC || Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 50331647 || Last pixel number, for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|BAD_DATA || Real*4 || -1.63750E+30 || Healpix bad pixel value <br />
|-<br />
|BEAMTYPE || string || GAUSSIAN || Type of beam <br />
|-<br />
|BEAMSIZE || Real*4 || size || Beam size in arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|PSM-VERS || string || || PSM Versions used <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''LFI FITS file structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'SIM-MAP' : Data columns<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|F030 || Real*4 || KCMB || 30GHz signal map<br />
|-<br />
|F044 || Real*4 || KCMB || 44GHz signal map<br />
|-<br />
|F070 || Real*4 || KCMB || 70GHz signal map<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || string || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COMP || string || component || Astrophysical omponent<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || string || GALACTIC || Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || string || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 12582911 || Last pixel number, for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|BAD_DATA || Real*4 || -1.63750E+30 || Healpix bad pixel value <br />
|-<br />
|BEAMTYPE || string || GAUSSIAN || Type of beam <br />
|-<br />
|BEAMS_30 || Real*4 || 32.0 || Beam size at 30 GHz in arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|BEAMS_44 || Real*4 || 27.0 || Beam size at 44 GHz in arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|BEAMS_70 || Real*4 || 13.0 || Beam size at 70 GHz in arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|PSM-VERS || string || || PSM Versions used <br />
|}<br />
<br />
''' The Fiducial Sky Simulations'''<br />
<br />
<br />
For each detector, fiducial time-ordered data are generated separately for each of the ten PSM components using the LevelS software{{BibCite|reinecke2006}} as follows:<br />
* the detector's beam and PSM map are converted to spherical harmonics using ''beam2alm'' and ''anafast'' respectively;<br />
* the beam-convolved map value is calculated over a 3-dimensional grid of sky locations and beam orientations using ''conviqt'';<br />
* the map-based timelines are calculated sample-by-sample by interpolating over this grid using ''multimod'';<br />
* the catalogue-based timelines are produced sample-by-sample by beam-convolving any point source laying within a given angular distance of the pointing at each sample time using ''multimod''.<br />
<br />
For each frequency, fiducial sky maps are generated for <br />
* the total signal (i.e. sky + instrument noise), for both the nominal mission and the halfrings thereof (see [[Frequency_Maps#Types_of_maps| details]])<br />
* the foreground sky alone (excluding CMB but including noise), <br />
* the point source sky, and <br />
* the noise alone<br />
All maps are built using the ''MADAM'' destriping map-maker{{BibCite|keihanen2010}} interfaced with the ''TOAST'' data abstraction layer . In order to construct the total timelines required by each map, for each detector ''TOAST'' reads the various component timelines separately and sums then, and, where necessary, simulates and adds a noise realization time-stream on the fly. HFI frequencies are mapped at ''HEALPix'' resolution Nside=2048 using ring-length destriping baselines, while LFI frequencies are mapped at Nside=1024 using 1s baselines.<br />
<br />
''' Products delivered '''<br />
<br />
A single simulation is delivered, which is divided into two types of products: <br />
<br />
1. six files of the full sky signal at each HFI and LFI frequency, and their corresponding halfring maps: <br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_100_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_143_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_217_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_353_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_545_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_857_2048_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_030_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_044_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|-<br />
| ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_1.fits }}'' || ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_070_1024_R1.10_nominal_ringhalf_2.fits }}''<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
: These files have the same structure as the equivalent ''SkyMap'' products described in the [[Frequency_Maps | Frequency Maps ]] chapter, namely one ''BINTABLE'' extension with three columns containing 1) Signal, 2) hit-count, and 3) variance. Units are K<sub>CMB</sub> for all channels.<br />
<br />
2. Three files containing 1) the sum of all astrophysical foregrounds, 2) the point sources alone, and 3) the noise alone: which are subproducts of the above, and are in the form of the PSM maps described in the previous section. <br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_foreground_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_foreground_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_noise_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_noise_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=HFI_SimMap_ps_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=HFI_SimMap_ps_2048_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' <br />
<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_foreground_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_foreground_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits }}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_noise_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_noise_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits }}''<br />
* ''{{PLASingleFile | fileType=file | name=LFI_SimMap_ps_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits | link=LFI_SimMap_ps_1024_R1.10_nominal.fits }}'' <br />
<br />
These files have the same structure as the PSM output maps described above, namely a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with 6 columns named ''F100'' -- ''F857'' each containing the given map for that HFI band and with 3 columns named ''F030'', ''F044'', ''F070'' each containing the given map for that LFI band. Units are alway K<sub>CMB</sub>.<br />
<br />
Note that the CMB alone is not delivered as a separate product, but it can be recovered by simple subtraction of the component maps for the total signal map.<br />
<br />
''' Monte Carlo realizations of CMB and of noise'''<br />
<br />
<br />
The CMB MC set is generated using ''FEBeCoP''{{BibCite|mitra2010}}, which generates an effective beam for each pixel in a map at each frequency by accumulating the weights of all pixels within a fixed distance of that pixel, summed over all observations by all detectors at that frequency. It then applies this effective beam pixel-by-pixel to each of 1000 input CMB sky realizations.<br />
<br />
The noise MC set is generated just as the fiducial noise maps, using ''MADAM/TOAST''. In order to avoid spurious correlations within and between the 1000 realizations, each stationary interval for each detector for each realization is generated from a distinct sub-sequence of a single statistically robust, extremely long period, pseudo-random number sequence.<br />
<br />
''' Products delivered '''<br />
<br />
100 realizations of the CMB (lensed) and of the noise are made available. They are named<br />
* ''HFI_SimMap_cmb-{nnnn}_2048_R1.nn_nominal.fits''<br />
* ''HFI_SimMap_noise-{nnnn}_2048_R1.nn_nominal.fits''<br />
* ''LFI_SimMap_cmb-{nnnn}_2048_R1.nn_nominal.fits''<br />
* ''LFI_SimMap_noise-{nnnn}_2048_R1.nn_nominal.fits''<br />
<br />
where ''nnnn'' ranges from 0000 to 0099.<br />
<br />
The FITS file structure is the same as for the other similar products above, with a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with six columns, one for each HFI frequency, named ''F100'', ''F143'', … , ''F857'' and with three columns, one for each LFI frequency, named ''F030'', ''F044'', ''F070''. Units are always microK<sub>CMB</sub> ''(NB: due to an error in the HFI file construction, the unit keywords in the headers indicate K<sub>CMB</sub>, the "micro" is missing there)''.<br />
<br />
''' Lensing Simulations '''<br />
<br />
<br />
''N.B. The information in this section is adapted from the package Readme.txt file.''<br />
<br />
The lensing simulations package contains 100 realisations of the Planck 2013 "MV" lensing potential estimate, as well as the input CMB and lensing potential <math>\phi</math> realizations. They can be used to determine error bars for cross-correlations with other tracers of lensing. These simulations are of the PHIBAR map contained in the [[Specially processed maps#Lensing map | Lensing map]] release file. The production and characterisation of this lensing potential map are described in detail in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p12}}, which describes also the procedure used to generate the realizations given here.<br />
<br />
<br />
''' Products delivered '''<br />
<br />
The simulations are delivered as a single tarball of ~17 GB containing the following directories:<br />
<br />
: obs_plms/dat_plmbar.fits - contains the multipoles of the PHIBAR map in COM_CompMap_Lensing_2048_R1.10.fits<br />
: obs_plms/sim_????_plmbar.fits - simulated relizations of PHIBAR, in Alm format.<br />
: sky_plms/sim_????_plm.fits - the input multipoles of phi for each simulation<br />
: sky_cmbs/sim_????_tlm_unlensed.fits - the input unlensed CMB multipoles for each simulation<br />
: sky_cmbs/sim_????_tlm_lensed.fits - the input lensed CMB multipoles for each simulation.<br />
<br />
: inputs/cls/cltt.dat - Fiducial lensed CMB temperature power spectrum C<sub>l</sub><sup>TT</sup>.<br />
: inputs/cls/clpp.dat - Fiducial CMB lensing potential power spectrum C<sub>l</sub><sup>PP</sup>.<br />
: inputs/cls/cltp.dat - Fiducial correlation between lensed T and P.<br />
: inputs/cls/cltt_unlensed.dat - Fiducial unlensed CMB temperature power spectrum.<br />
: inputs/filt_mask.fits.gz - HEALpix Nside=2048 map containing the analysis mask for the lens reconstructions (equivalent to the MASK column in COM_CompMap_Lensing_2048_R1.10.fits)<br />
<br />
All of the .fits files in this package are HEALPix Alm, to lmax=2048 unless otherwise specified.<br />
<br />
For delivery purposes this package has been split into 2 GB chunks using the unix command<br />
: <tt> split -d -b 2048m </tt><br />
which produced files with names like ''COM_SimMap_Lensing_R1.10.tar.nn'', with nn=00-07. They can be recombined and the maps extracted via <br />
: <tt>cat COM_SimMap_Lensing_R1.10.tar.* | tar xvf - </tt><br />
<br />
<br />
</div><br />
</div><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
= References =<br />
<br />
<References /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Mission products|012]]</div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=Foreground_maps&diff=14589Foreground maps2021-10-22T17:33:13Z<p>Mlopezca: /* 2015 Compton y parameter map */</p>
<hr />
<div>= 2018 Astrophysical Components=<br />
<br />
== Overview ==<br />
This section describes the maps of astrophysical components produced from the Planck data. These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps described above using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of each product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITS file containing the data and associated information.<br />
All the details can be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l04}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l08}}.<br />
<br />
== Commander-derived astrophysical foreground maps ==<br />
As discussed in detail in {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l04}}, the main Planck 2018 frequency sky maps have significantly lower systematic errors than earlier versions. At the same time, these maps are also associated with a significant limitation, in that no robust single detector or detector set maps are available. As described in {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l03}}, such maps do not contain the full signal content of the true sky. As a result, only full frequency maps are distributed and used in the 2018 analysis. <br />
<br />
For polarization analysis, this is not a significant issue, and the 2018 polarization foreground products therefore supersede the 2015 release in all respects. However, for temperature analysis the lack of single-detector maps strongly limits the ability to extract CO line emission from the data set, and it is also not possible to exclude known detector outliers; see {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}} for details. For these reasons, we consider the parametric foreground products from 2015 to represent a more accurate description of the true sky than the corresponding 2018 version. '''As a result, we do not release parametric temperature foreground products from the 2018 data set, but rather recommend continued usage of the 2015 temperature model. For polarization, we recommend usage of the 2018 model.'''<br />
<br />
<br />
Two Commander-based polarization foreground products are provided for the Planck 2018 releaes, namely synchrotron and thermal dust emission. For synchrotron emission, a spatially constant spectral index of &beta;=-3.1 is adopted. For thermal dust emission, the dust temperature is fixed to that derived from the corresponding 2018 intensity analysis, while the spectral index is fitted directly from the polarization measurements, smoothed to 3 degrees FWHM. For both synchrotron and thermal dust emission, we provide results derived from both the full-mission data set, and from the half-mission and odd-even splits.<br />
<br />
In addition to the real observations, we also provide 300 end-to-end noise simulations processed through the algorithm with the same spectral parameters as derived from the data for each of the data splits. The filenames of these simulations have the following format:<br />
*dx12_v3_commander_{synch,dust}_noise_{full,hm1,hm2,oe1,oe2}_00???_raw.fits<br />
<br />
====Inputs====<br />
<br />
The following data products are used for the full-mission polarization analysis (corresponding data are used for the data split products):<br />
* Full-mission 30 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=30|period=Full|link=LFI 30 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 44 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=44|period=Full|link=LFI 44 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 70 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=70|period=Full|link=LFI 70 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 100 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=100|period=Full|link=HFI 100 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 143 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=143|period=Full|link=HFI 143 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 217 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=217|period=Full|link=HFI 217 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 353 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=353|period=Full|link=HFI 353 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
<br />
====Outputs====<br />
=====Synchrotron emission=====<br />
<br />
: Full-mission file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-commander_2048_R3.00_full.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-commander_2048_R3.00_full.fits}}<br />
: First half-mission split file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-commander_2048_R3.00_hm1.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-commander_2048_R3.00_hm1.fits}}<br />
: Second half-mission split file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-commander_2048_R3.00_hm2.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-commander_2048_R3.00_hm2.fits}}<br />
: Odd ring split file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-commander_2048_R3.00_oe1.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-commander_2048_R3.00_oe1.fits}}<br />
: Even ring split file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-commander_2048_R3.00_oe2.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-commander_2048_R3.00_oe2.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 40 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 30 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STOKES || Real*4 || &mu;K_RJ || Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_STOKES || Real*4 || &mu;K_RJ || Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====Thermal dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: Full-mission file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-commander_2048_R3.00_full.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-commander_2048_R3.00_full.fits}}<br />
: First half-mission split file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-commander_2048_R3.00_hm1.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-commander_2048_R3.00_hm1.fits}}<br />
: Second half-mission split file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-commander_2048_R3.00_hm2.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-commander_2048_R3.00_hm2.fits}}<br />
: Odd ring split file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-commander_2048_R3.00_oe1.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-commander_2048_R3.00_oe1.fits}}<br />
: Even ring split file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-commander_2048_R3.00_oe2.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-commander_2048_R3.00_oe2.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 5 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 353 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STOKES || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Full-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_STOKES || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Full-mission Stokes U posterior maximum<br />
|-<br />
|BETA || Real*4 || || Spectral index (full mission only) <br />
|}<br />
<br />
== SMICA-derived astrophysical foreground maps ==<br />
<br />
Two SMICA-based polarization foreground products are provided, namely synchrotron and thermal dust emission. These are derived using the usual SMICA spectral matching method, tuned specifically for the reconstruction of two polarized foregrounds. Specifically, three coherent components (plus noise) are fitted at the spectral level with the first one constrained to have CMB emissivity. No assumptions are made regarding the other two components: they are not assumed to have a specific emissivity or angular spectrum, nor are they assumed to be uncorrelated. This leaves a degenerate model but that degeneracy can be entirely fixed after the spectral fit by assuming that synchrotron emission is negligible at 353 GHz and that thermal dust emission is negligible at 30 GHz. For both synchrotron and thermal dust emission, we provide results derived from both the full-mission data set, and from the half-mission and odd-even splits.<br />
<br />
In addition to the real observations, we also provide 300 end-to-end noise simulations processed through the algorithm with the same spectral parameters as derived from the data for each of the data splits. The filenames of these simulations have the following format:<br />
*dx12_v3_smica_{synch,dust}_noise_{full,hm1,hm2,oe1,oe2}_00???_raw.fits<br />
====Inputs====<br />
<br />
The following data products are used for the full-mission polarization analysis (corresponding data are used for the data split products):<br />
* Full-mission 30 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=30|period=Full|link=LFI 30 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 44 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=44|period=Full|link=LFI 44 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 70 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=70|period=Full|link=LFI 70 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 100 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=100|period=Full|link=HFI 100 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 143 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=143|period=Full|link=HFI 143 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 217 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=217|period=Full|link=HFI 217 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 353 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=353|period=Full|link=HFI 353 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
<br />
====Outputs====<br />
=====Synchrotron emission=====<br />
<br />
: Full-mission file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-smica_2048_R3.00_full.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-smica_2048_R3.00_full.fits}}<br />
: First half-mission split file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-smica_2048_R3.00_hm1.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-smica_2048_R3.00_hm1.fits}}<br />
: Second half-mission split file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-smica_2048_R3.00_hm2.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-smica_2048_R3.00_hm2.fits}}<br />
: Odd ring split file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-smica_2048_R3.00_oe1.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-smica_2048_R3.00_oe1.fits}}<br />
: Even ring split file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-smica_2048_R3.00_oe2.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-smica_2048_R3.00_oe2.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 40 arcmin<br />
: Reference frequency: Integrated 30 GHz band; no colour corrections have been applied<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STOKES || Real*4 || mK_RJ || Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_STOKES || Real*4 || mK_RJ || Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====Thermal dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: Full-mission file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-smica_2048_R3.00_full.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-smica_2048_R3.00_full.fits}}<br />
: First half-mission split file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-smica_2048_R3.00_hm1.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-smica_2048_R3.00_hm1.fits}}<br />
: Second half-mission split file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-smica_2048_R3.00_hm2.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-smica_2048_R3.00_hm2.fits}}<br />
: Odd ring split file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-smica_2048_R3.00_oe1.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-smica_2048_R3.00_oe1.fits}}<br />
: Even ring split file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-smica_2048_R3.00_oe2.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-smica_2048_R3.00_oe2.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 12 arcmin<br />
: Reference frequency: Integrated 353 GHz band; no colour corrections have been applied<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STOKES || Real*4 || mK_RJ || Full-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_STOKES || Real*4 || mK_RJ || Full-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
==GNILC thermal dust maps==<br />
<br />
The 2018 GNILC thermal dust products are provided as single files that include both intensity and polarization, 3x3 IQU noise covariance matrices per pixel, and as well as local smoothing scale for the variable resolution map. The structure of the data files is the following:<br />
<br />
: Uniform resolution file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_IQU_thermaldust-gnilc-unires_2048_R3.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_IQU_thermaldust-gnilc-unires_2048_R3.00.fits}}<br />
: Variable resolution file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_IQU_thermaldust-gnilc-varres_2048_R3.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_IQU_thermaldust-gnilc-varres_2048_R3.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 80 arcmin FWHM, or variable<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: Integrated 353 GHz band; no colour corrections have been applied<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb || Stokes I estimate <br />
|-<br />
|Q_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb || Stokes Q estimate<br />
|-<br />
|U_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb || Stokes U estimate<br />
|-<br />
|II_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb^2 || Covariance matrix II element <br />
|-<br />
|IQ_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb^2 || Covariance matrix IQ element <br />
|-<br />
|IU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb^2 || Covariance matrix IU element <br />
|-<br />
|QQ_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb^2 || Covariance matrix QQ element <br />
|-<br />
|QU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb^2 || Covariance matrix QU element <br />
|-<br />
|UU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb^2 || Covariance matrix UU element <br />
|-<br />
|FWHM || Real*4 || arcmin || Local FWHM smoothing scale <br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
= Previous Releases: (2015) and (2013) Foreground Maps =<br />
<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="background-color: #FFDAB9;width:80%"><br />
'''Astrophysical components based on the 2015 data release'''<br />
<div class="mw-collapsible-content"><br />
<br />
== Overview ==<br />
This section describes the maps of astrophysical components produced from the Planck data. These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps described above using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of each product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITS file containing the data and associated information.<br />
All the details can be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}} and {PlanckPapers|planck20}}.<br />
<br />
== Astrophysical foregrounds from parametric component separation ==<br />
We describe diffuse foreground products for the Planck 2015 release. See the Planck Foregrounds Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}} for a detailed description of these products. Further scientific discussion and interpretation may be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a31}}.<br />
<br />
'''Low-resolution temperature products'''<br />
<br />
: The Planck 2015 astrophysical component separation analysis combines Planck observations with the 9-year WMAP temperature sky maps (Bennett et al. 2013) and the 408 MHz survey by Haslam et al. (1982). This allows a direct decomposition of the low-frequency foregrounds into separate synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust components without strong spatial priors. <br />
<br />
'''Inputs'''<br />
<br />
The following data products are used for the low-resolution analysis:<br />
* Full-mission 30 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=30|period=Full|link=LFI 30 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 44 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=44|period=Full|link=LFI 44 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 70 GHz ds1 (18+23), ds2 (19+22), and ds3 (20+21) detector-set maps<br />
* Full-mission 100 GHz ds1 and ds2 detector set maps<br />
* Full-mission 143 GHz ds1 and ds2 detector set maps and detectors 5, 6, and 7 maps<br />
* Full-mission 217 GHz detector 1, 2, 3 and 4 maps<br />
* Full-mission 353 GHz detector set ds2 and detector 1 maps<br />
* Full-mission 545 GHz detector 2 and 4 maps<br />
* Full-mission 857 GHz detector 2 map<br />
* Beam-symmetrized 9-year WMAP K-band map [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/skymap_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
* Beam-symmetrized 9-year WMAP Ka-band map [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/skymap_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
* Default 9-year WMAP Q1 and Q2 differencing assembly maps [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/skymap_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
* Default 9-year WMAP V1 and V2 differencing assembly maps [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/skymap_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
* Default 9-year WMAP W1, W2, W3, and W4 differencing assembly maps [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/skymap_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
* Re-processed 408 MHz survey map, Remazeilles et al. (2014) [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/foreground/2014_haslam_408_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
All maps are smoothed to a common resolution of 1 degree FWHM by deconvolving their original instrumental beam and pixel window, and convolving with the new common Gaussian beam, and repixelizing at Nside=256.<br />
<br />
'''Outputs'''<br />
<br />
===Synchrotron emission===<br />
<br />
<!--<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=800px heights=500px> <br />
File:commander_synch_amp.png | '''Commander low-resolution synchrotron amplitude'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center>--><br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: 408 MHz<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-Synchrotron<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- SYNC-TEMP<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|nu || Real*4 || Hz || Frequency <br />
|-<br />
|intensity || Real*4 || W/Hz/m2/sr || GALPROP z10LMPD_SUNfE spectrum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
===Free-free emission===<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: NA<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-freefree<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|EM_ML || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|EM_MEAN || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|EM_RMS || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_ML || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_MEAN || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_RMS || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
===Spinning dust emission===<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The spinning dust component has two independent constituents, each corresponding to one spdust2 component, but with different peak frequencies. The two components are stored in the two first FITS extensions, and the template frequency spectrum is stored in the third extension. <br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 22.8 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-AME1<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_ML || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_MEAN || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_RMS || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 41.0 GHz<br />
: Peak frequency: 33.35 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- COMP-MAP-AME2<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 2 -- SPINNING-DUST-TEMP<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|nu || Real*4 || GHz || Frequency <br />
|-<br />
|j_nu/nH || Real*4 || Jy sr-1 cm2/H || spdust2 spectrum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
===CO line emission===<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CO-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CO-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The CO line emission component has three independent objects, corresponding to the J1->0, 2->1 and 3->2 lines, stored in separate extensions. <br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-co10<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- COMP-MAP-co21<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 2 -- COMP-MAP-co32<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===94/100 GHz line emission===<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_xline-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_xline-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-xline<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Note: The amplitude of this component is normalized according to the 100-ds1 detector set map, ie., it is the amplitude as measured by this detector combination.<br />
<br />
===Thermal dust emission===<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_dust-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_dust-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 545 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-dust<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_ML || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_MEAN || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_RMS || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_MEAN || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_RMS || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich emission around the Coma and Virgo clusters===<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_SZ-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_SZ-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-SZ<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Y_ML || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Y_MEAN || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|Y_RMS || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
'''High-resolution temperature products'''<br />
<br />
High-resolution foreground products at 7.5 arcmin FWHM are derived with the same algorithm as for the low-resolution analyses, but including frequency channels above (and including) 143 GHz. <br />
<br />
'''Inputs'''<br />
<br />
The following data products are used for the low-resolution analysis:<br />
* Full-mission 143 GHz ds1 and ds2 detector set maps and detectors 5, 6, and 7 maps<br />
* Full-mission 217 GHz detector 1, 2, 3 and 4 maps<br />
* Full-mission 353 GHz detector set ds2 and detector 1 maps<br />
* Full-mission 545 GHz detector 2 and 4 maps<br />
* Full-mission 857 GHz detector 2 map<br />
All maps are smoothed to a common resolution of 7.5 arcmin FWHM by deconvolving their original instrumental beam and pixel window, and convolving with the new common Gaussian beam, and repixelizing at Nside=2048.<br />
<br />
'''Outputs'''<br />
<br />
'''CO J2->1 emission'''<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CO21-commander_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CO21-commander_2048_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 7.5 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-CO21<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_FULL || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Full-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "First year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "Second year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
'''Thermal dust emission'''<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_ThermalDust-commander_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_ThermalDust-commander_2048_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 7.5 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 545 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-dust<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_FULL || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Full-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "First year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "Second year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_FULL || Real*4 || NA || Full-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || NA || First half-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || NA || Second half-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || NA || First half-ring emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || NA || Second half-ring emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || NA || "First year" emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || NA || "Second year" emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
'''Polarization products'''<br />
<br />
Two polarization foreground products are provided, namely synchrotron and thermal dust emission. The spectral models are assumed identical to the corresponding temperature spectral models.<br />
<br />
'''Inputs'''<br />
<br />
The following data products are used for the polarization analysis:<br />
* (Only low-resolution analysis) Full-mission 30 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=30|period=Full|link=LFI 30 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* (Only low-resolution analysis) Full-mission 44 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=44|period=Full|link=LFI 44 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* (Only low-resolution analysis) Full-mission 70 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=70|period=Full|link=LFI 70 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 100 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=100|period=Full|link=HFI 100 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 143 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=143|period=Full|link=HFI 143 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 217 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=217|period=Full|link=HFI 217 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 353 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=353|period=Full|link=HFI 353 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
In the low-resolution analysis, all maps are smoothed to a common resolution of 40 arcmin FWHM by deconvolving their original instrumental beam and pixel window, and convolving with the new common Gaussian beam, and repixelizing at Nside=256. In the high-resolution analysis (including only CMB and thermal dust emission), the corresponding resolution is 10 arcmin FWHM and Nside=1024.<br />
<br />
'''Outputs'''<br />
'''Synchrotron emission'''<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_SynchrotronPol-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_SynchrotronPol-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 40 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 30 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-SynchrotronPol<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_FULL || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Full-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_FULL || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Full-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "First year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "First year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "Second year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "Second year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
'''Thermal dust emission'''<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_DustPol-commander_1024_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_DustPol-commander_1024_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 1024<br />
: Angular resolution = 10 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 353 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-DustPol<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_FULL || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Full-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_FULL || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Full-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "First year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "First year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "Second year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "Second year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
''' Modelling of the thermal dust emission with the Draine and Li dust model '''<br />
<br />
The Planck, IRAS, and WISE infrared observations were fit with the dust model presented by Draine & Li in 2007 (DL07).<br />
The input maps, the DL07 model, and the fitting procedure and results are presented in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-XXIX}}. <br />
Here, we describe the input maps and the output maps, which are made available on the Planck Legacy Archive.<br />
<br />
'''Inputs'''<br />
<br />
The following data have been fit:<br />
<br />
* WISE 12 micron map<br />
* IRAS 60 micron map<br />
* IRAS 100 micron map<br />
* Full-mission 353 GHz PR2 map<br />
* Full-mission 545 GHz PR2 map<br />
* Full-mission 857 GHz PR2 map<br />
<br />
The CIB monopole, the CMB anisotropries and the zodiacal light were subtracted to obtain dust emission maps from the sky emission maps.<br />
All maps were smoothed to a common angular resolution of 5'.<br />
<br />
'''Model Parameters'''<br />
<br />
For each pixel of the inputs maps, we have fitted four parameters of the DL07 model:<br />
<br />
* the dust mass surface density, Sigma_Mdust, <br />
* the dust mass fraction in small PAH grains, q_PAH, <br />
* the fraction of the total luminosity from dust heated by intense radiation fields, f_PDR,<br />
* the starlight intensity heating the bulk of the dust, U_min.<br />
<br />
The parameter maps and their uncertainties are gathered in one file. This file also includes the <br />
chi2 of the fit per degree of freedom.<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Dust-DL07-Parameters_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Dust-DL07-Parameters_2048_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 5 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-Dust-DL07-Parameters<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Sigma_Mdust || Real*4 || Solar masses/kpc^2 || Dust mass surface density<br />
|-<br />
|Sigma_Mdust_unc || Real*4 || Solar masses/kpc^2 || Uncertainty (1 sigma) on Sigma_Mdust<br />
|-<br />
|q_PAH || Real*4 || dimensionless || Dust mass fraction in small PAH grains <br />
|-<br />
|q_PAH_unc || Real*4 || dimensionless || Uncertainty (1 sigma) on q_PAH<br />
|-<br />
|f_PDR || Real*4 || dimensionless || Fraction of the total luminosity from dust heated by intense radiation fields<br />
|-<br />
|f_PDR_unc || Real*4 || dimensionless || Uncertainty (1 sigma) on f_PDR<br />
|-<br />
|U_min || Real*4 || dimensionless || Starlight intensity heating the bulk of the dust <br />
|-<br />
|U_min_unc || Real*4 || dimensionless || Uncertainty (1 sigma) on U_min<br />
|-<br />
|Chi2_DOF || Real*4 || dimensionless || Chi2 of the fit per degree of freedom<br />
|}<br />
<br />
'''Visible extinction maps'''<br />
<br />
We provide two exinctions maps at the visible V band: the value from the model (Av_DL) and the <br />
renormalized one (Av_RQ) that matches extinction estimates for quasars (QSOs) derived from the Sloan digital sky survey (SDSS) data.<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Dust-DL07-AvMaps_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Dust-DL07-AvMaps_2048_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 5 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-Dust-DL07-AvMaps<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Av_DL || Real*4 || magnitude || Extinction in the V band from the DL model <br />
|-<br />
|Av_DL_unc || Real*4 || magnitude || Uncertainty (1 sigma) on Av_DL<br />
|-<br />
|Av_RQ || Real*4 || magnitude || Extinction in the V band renormalized to match estimates from QSO SDSS observations <br />
|-<br />
|Av_RQ_unc || Real*4 || magnitude || Uncertainty (1 sigma) on Av_RQ<br />
|}<br />
<br />
'''Model Fluxes'''<br />
<br />
We provide the model predicted fluxes in the following file.<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Dust-DL07-ModelFluxes_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Dust-DL07-ModelFluxes_2048_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 5 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-Dust-DL07-ModelFluxes<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Planck_857 || Real*4 || MJy/sr || Model flux in the Planck 857 GHz band<br />
|-<br />
|Planck_545 || Real*4 || MJy/sr || Model flux in the Planck 545 GHz band <br />
|-<br />
|Planck_353 || Real*4 || MJy/sr || Model flux in the Planck 353 GHz band<br />
|-<br />
|WISE_12 || Real*4 || MJy/sr || Model flux in the WISE 12 micron band <br />
|-<br />
|IRAS_60 || Real*4 || MJy/sr || Model flux in the IRAS 60 micron band <br />
|-<br />
|IRAS_100 || Real*4 || MJy/sr || Model flux in the IRAS 100 micron band <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
== Thermal dust and CIB all-sky maps from GNILC component separation ==<br />
We describe diffuse foreground products for the Planck 2015 release produced with the GNILC component separation method. See the Planck paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-XLVIII}} for a detailed discussion on these products. <br />
<br />
===Method===<br />
<br />
: The basic idea behind the Generalized Needlet Internal Linear Combination (GNILC) component-separation method ([http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011MNRAS.418..467R Remazeilles et al, MNRAS 2011]) is to disentangle specific components of emission not on the sole basis of the spectral (frequency) information but also on the basis of their distinct spatial information (angular power spectrum). The GNILC method has been applied to Planck data in order to disentangle Galactic dust emission and Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) anisotropies. Both components have a similar spectral signature but a distinct angular power spectrum (spatial signature). The spatial information used by GNILC is under the form of priors for the angular power spectra of the CIB, the CMB, and the instrumental noise. No assumption is made on the Galactic signal, neither spectral or spatial. In that sense, GNILC is a blind component-separation method. GNILC operates on a needlet (spherical wavelet) frame, therefore adapting the component separation to the local conditions of contamination both over the sky and over the angular scales.<br />
<br />
===Data===<br />
<br />
: The data used by GNILC for the analysis are the Planck data release 2 (PR2) frequency maps from 30 to 857 GHz, and a 100 micron hybrid map combined from the SFD map ([http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998ApJ...500..525S Schlegel et al, ApJ 1998]) at large angular scales (> 30') and the IRIS map ([http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ApJS..157..302M Miville-Deschênes et al, ApJS 2005]) at small angular scales (< 30'). This special 100 micron map can be obtained in the External Maps section of the PLA.<br />
<br />
===Pre-processing===<br />
<br />
: The point-sources with a signal-to-noise ratio, S/N > 5, in each individual frequency map (30 to 857 GHz, and 100 micron) have been pre-processed by a minimum curvature surface inpainting technique ([http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.451.4311R Remazeilles et al, MNRAS 2015]) prior to performing component separation with GNILC.<br />
<br />
===GNILC thermal dust and CIB products===<br />
<br />
The result of GNILC component separation are thermal dust and CIB maps at 353, 545, and 857 GHz. In addition, by fitting a modified blackbody model to the GNILC thermal dust products at 353, 545, 857, and 100 micron, we have created all-sky maps of the dust optical depth, dust temperature, and dust emmissivity index. Note that the thermal dust maps have a variable angular resolution over the sky with an effective beam FWHM varying from 21.8' to 5'. The dust beam FWHM map is also released as a product.<br />
<br />
====Thermal dust maps====<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-DUST<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! File Name || Nside || Units || Reference frequency || Angular resolution || Description<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Dust-GNILC-F353_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Dust-GNILC-F353_2048_R2.00.fits}} || 2048 || MJy/sr || 353 GHz || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Dust-GNILC-Beam-FWHM_0128_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Dust-GNILC-Beam-FWHM_0128_R2.00.fits}} || Thermal dust amplitude at 353 GHz<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Dust-GNILC-F545_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Dust-GNILC-F545_2048_R2.00.fits}} || 2048 || MJy/sr || 545 GHz || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Dust-GNILC-Beam-FWHM_0128_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Dust-GNILC-Beam-FWHM_0128_R2.00.fits}} || Thermal dust amplitude at 545 GHz<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Dust-GNILC-F857_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Dust-GNILC-F857_2048_R2.00.fits}} || 2048 || MJy/sr || 857 GHz || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Dust-GNILC-Beam-FWHM_0128_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Dust-GNILC-Beam-FWHM_0128_R2.00.fits}} || Thermal dust amplitude at 857 GHz<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Dust-GNILC-Model-Opacity_2048_R2.01.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Dust-GNILC-Model-Opacity_2048_R2.01.fits}} (version 2.01 includes the error map)<br>{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Dust-GNILC-Model-Opacity_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Dust-GNILC-Model-Opacity_2048_R2.00.fits}}|| 2048 || NA || 353 GHz || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Dust-GNILC-Beam-FWHM_0128_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Dust-GNILC-Beam-FWHM_0128_R2.00.fits}} || Thermal dust optical depth at 353 GHz<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Dust-GNILC-Model-Spectral-Index_2048_R2.01.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Dust-GNILC-Model-Spectral-Index_2048_R2.01.fits}} (version 2.01 includes the error map)<br>{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Dust-GNILC-Model-Spectral-Index_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Dust-GNILC-Model-Spectral-Index_2048_R2.00.fits}} || 2048 || NA || NA || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Dust-GNILC-Beam-FWHM_0128_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Dust-GNILC-Beam-FWHM_0128_R2.00.fits}} || Thermal dust emissivity index<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Dust-GNILC-Model-Temperature_2048_R2.01.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Dust-GNILC-Model-Temperature_2048_R2.01.fits}} (version 2.01 includes the error map)<br>{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Dust-GNILC-Model-Temperature_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Dust-GNILC-Model-Temperature_2048_R2.00.fits}} || 2048 || K || NA || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Dust-GNILC-Beam-FWHM_0128_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Dust-GNILC-Beam-FWHM_0128_R2.00.fits}} || Thermal dust temperature<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Dust-GNILC-Radiance_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Dust-GNILC-Radiance_2048_R2.00.fits}} || 2048 || W/m<sup>2</sup>/sr || NA || {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Dust-GNILC-Beam-FWHM_0128_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Dust-GNILC-Beam-FWHM_0128_R2.00.fits}} || Thermal dust radiance<br />
|-<br />
| {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Dust-GNILC-Beam-FWHM_0128_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Dust-GNILC-Beam-FWHM_0128_R2.00.fits}} || 128 || Arcminute || NA || NA || Effective dust beam FWHM<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
====CIB maps====<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-CIB<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! File Name || Nside || Units || Reference frequency || Angular resolution || Description<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CIB-GNILC-F353_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CIB-GNILC-F353_2048_R2.00.fits}} || 2048 || MJy/sr || 353 GHz || 5 arcmin || CIB amplitude at 353 GHz<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CIB-GNILC-F545_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CIB-GNILC-F545_2048_R2.00.fits}} || 2048 || MJy/sr || 545 GHz || 5 arcmin || CIB amplitude at 545 GHz<br />
|-<br />
|{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CIB-GNILC-F857_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CIB-GNILC-F857_2048_R2.00.fits}} || 2048 || MJy/sr || 857 GHz || 5 arcmin || CIB amplitude at 857 GHz<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
== Other Special maps ==<br />
<br />
===Introduction===<br />
<br />
This section describes the map-based products that required special processing.<br />
<br />
<br />
=== 2015 Compton <i>y</i> parameter map ===<br />
<br />
We distribute here the Planck full mission Compton parameter maps (<i>y</i>-maps hereafter) obtained using the NILC and MILCA component-separation algorithms as described in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a28}}. We also provide the ILC weights per scale and per frequency that were used to produce these <i>y</i>-maps. IDL routines are also provided to allow the user to apply those weights [[:File: milca_nilc_IDL_routines.zip]]. Compton parameters produced by keeping either the first or the second half of stable pointing periods are also provided; we call these the FIRST and LAST <i>y</i>-maps. Additionally we construct noise estimates of full mission Planck <i>y</i>-maps from the half difference of the FIRST and LAST <i>y</i>-maps. These estimates are used to construct standard deviation maps of the noise in the full mission Planck <i>y</i>-maps, which are also provided. To complement this we also provide the power spectra of the noise estimate maps after correcting for inhomogeneities using the standard deviation maps. We also deliver foreground masks including point-source and Galactic masks. <br />
<br />
<span style="color:#ff0000"> Update 04 Aug 2017:</span> The file containing the masks named ''COM_CompMap_Compton-SZMap-masks_2048_R2.00.fits'' has been updated with the file ''COM_CompMap_Compton-SZMap-masks_2048_R2.01.fits''. The difference between the two is that in the R2.00 version a region around the Galactic pole had been masked, while only the Galactic plane should be masked. This has been fixed in version R2.01. The full updated data set is contained in a single gzipped tarball named ''COM_CompMap_YSZ_R2.01.fits.tgz''. The R2.00 version of the mask is not available in the PLA anymore, but can be requested via the PLA Helpdesk.<br />
<br />
<span style="color:#ff0000"> Update 30 July 2018:</span> The angular power spectra homogeneous noise files nilc_homnoise_spect.fits and milca_homnoise_spect.fits in COM_CompMap_YSZ_R2.01.fits.tgz have been updated. A new version of the COM_CompMap_SZ_R2.02.fits.tgz package is available in the PLA.<br />
<br />
The contents of the full data set are described below.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left"<br />
|+ ''' Contents of COM_CompMap_YSZ_R2.02.fits.tgz '''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Filename || Format || Description<br />
|-<br />
| nilc_ymaps.fits || HEALPix FITS format map in Galactic coordinates with <math>N_{\rm side}=2048 </math>|| Contains the NILC full mission, FIRST and LAST <i>y</i>-maps.<br />
|-<br />
| milca_ymaps.fits || HEALPix FITS format map in Galactic coordinates with <math> N_{\rm side} = 2048 </math> || Contains the MILCA full mission, FIRST and LAST <i>y</i>-maps.<br />
|-<br />
| nilc_weights_BAND.fits || HEALPix FITS format map in Galactic coordinates with <math> N_{\rm side} = 128 </math>|| Contains the NILC ILC weights for the full mission <i>y</i>-map for band BAND 0 to 9. For each band we provide a weight map per frequency.<br />
|-<br />
| milca_FREQ_Csz.fits || HEALPix FITS format map in Galactic coordinates with <math> N_{\rm side} = 2048 </math> || Contains the MILCA ILC weights for the full mission <i>y</i>-map for frequency FREQ (100, 143, 217, 353, 545, 857). For each frequency we provide a weight map per filter band.<br />
|-<br />
| nilc_stddev.fits || HEALPix FITS format map in Galactic coordinates with <math> N_{\rm side} = 2048 </math>|| Contains the stddev map for the NILC full mission <i>y</i>-map.<br />
|-<br />
| milca_stddev.fits || HEALPix FITS format map in Galactic coordinates with <math> N_{\rm side} = 2048 </math> || Contains the stddev maps for the MILCA full mission <i>y</i>-map.<br />
|-<br />
| nilc_homnoise_spect.fits || ASCII table FITS format || Contains the angular power spectrum of the homogeneous noise in the NILC full mission <i>y</i>-map.<br />
|-<br />
| milca_homnoise_spect.fits || ASCII table FITS format || Contains the angular power spectrum of the homogeneous noise in the MILCA full mission <i>y</i>-map.<br />
|-<br />
| masks.fits || HEALPix FITS format map, with <math> N_{\rm side} = 2048 </math> || Contains foreground masks.<br />
|-<br />
| nilc_bands.fits || ASCII table FITS format || Contains NILC wavelet bands in multipole space<br />
|}<br />
<br />
=== 2015 Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect map ===<br />
<br />
We distribute estimates of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) maps presented in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a26}} as part of the 2015 data release. These map represents an estimate of the ISW anisotropies using different data sets:<br />
<br />
* SEVEM DX11 CMB map, together with all the large-scale structure tracers considered in the ISW paper, namely: NVSS, SDSS, WISE, and the Planck lensing map<br />
* Using only the large-scale structure tracers mentioned above<br />
* SEVEM DX11 CMB map, together with NVSS and the Planck lensing maps (since these two tracers capture most of the information, as compared to SDSS and WISE)<br />
<br />
For all the three cases, the reconstruction is provided on approximately 85% of the sky, and they are produced using the LCB filter described in the Planck ISW paper (Section 5), described in detail in [http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2008ISTSP...2..747B| Barreiro et al. 2008] and [http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/doi/10.1093/mnras/stw415| Bonavera et al. 2016].<br />
<br />
These ISW maps, together with their corresponding uncertainties maps and masks, are given in a file named ''{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_ISW_0064_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_ISW_0064_R2.00.fits}}''. Its contents are described below.<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left"<br />
|+ ''' Contents of the ISW maps file: COM_CompMap_ISW_0064_R2.00.fits '''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Extension || Format || Description || Used data sets <br />
|-<br />
| 0 || HEALPix FITS format map with three components, <math>N_{\rm side}=64</math>, Ordering='Nest' || Contains three components: i) ISW map [Kelvin], ii) Error map [Kelvin], iii) Mask map || SEVEM DX11 CMB + NVSS + SDSS + WISE + Planck lensing.<br />
|-<br />
| 1 || HEALPix FITS format map with three components, <math>N_{\rm side}=64</math>, Ordering='Nest' || Contains three components: i) ISW map [Kelvin], ii) Error map [Kelvin], iii) Mask map || NVSS + SDSS + WISE + Planck lensing.<br />
|-<br />
| 2 || HEALPix FITS format map with three components, <math>N_{\rm side}=64</math>, Ordering='Nest' || Contains three components: i) ISW map [Kelvin], ii) Error map [Kelvin], iii) Mask map || SEVEM DX11 CMB + NVSS + Planck lensing.<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
=== 2015 Low-frequency foregrounds maps (Planck only & Planck+WMAP) ===<br />
1) CMB/free-free/Dust Nulled ILC at 28.4 GHz (Planck only)<br />
<br />
Linear combination of Planck 28.4, 44.1, 143 and 353 GHz maps (all at 1 degree resolution), with weights listed in column w_2 of Table 1 in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a31}}. These weights exactly null the CMB, almost exactly null free-free emission, and null thermal dust emission to high accuracy except along the inner Galactic plane,where the brightness is uncertain by around 20% due to variation in the dust spectrum. The normalisation leaves a beta = -3 power law at the same amplitude as in the Planck 28.4 GHz map. (As presented in Fig. 3a of Planck 2015 Results XXV.)<br />
<br />
2) CMB/free-free/Dust Nulled ILC at 28.4 GHz (Planck + WMAP)<br />
Linear combination of WMAP K, Ka, and Q band, and Planck 28.4, 44.1, 143 and 353 GHz maps (all at 1 degree resolution), with weights listed in column w_3 of Table 1 in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a31}}. These weights exactly null the CMB, almost exactly null free-free emission, and null thermal dust emission to high accuracy except along the inner Galactic plane, where the brightness is uncertain by around 20% due to variation in the dust spectrum. The normalisation leaves a beta = -3 power law at the same amplitude as in the Planck 28.4 GHz map. (As presented in Fig. 3b of {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a31}}.)<br />
<br />
</div><br />
</div><br />
<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="background-color: #EEE8AA;width:80%"><br />
'''Astrophysical components based on the 2013 data release'''<br />
<div class="mw-collapsible-content"><br />
<br />
''' Overview '''<br />
<br />
This section describes the maps of astrophysical components produced from the Planck data. These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps described above using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of the product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITS file containing the data and associated information.<br />
All the details can be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}.<br />
<br />
'''CMB maps'''<br />
<br />
<br />
CMB maps have been produced by the SMICA, NILC, SEVEM and COMMANDER-Ruler pipelines. Of these, the SMICA product is considered the preferred one overall and is labelled ''Main product'' in the Planck Legacy Archive, while the other two are labeled as ''Additional product''.<br />
<br />
SMICA and NILC also produce ''inpainted'' maps, in which the Galactic Plane, some bright regions and masked point sources are replaced with a constrained CMB realization such that the whole map has the same statistical distribution as the observed CMB. <br />
<br />
The results of SMICA, NILC and SEVEM pipeline are distributed as a FITS file containing 4 extensions:<br />
# CMB maps and ancillary products (3 or 6 maps)<br />
# CMB-cleaned foreground maps from LFI (3 maps)<br />
# CMB-cleaned foreground maps from HFI (6 maps)<br />
# Effective beam of the CMB maps (1 vector)<br />
<br />
The results of COMMANDER-Ruler are distributed as two FITS files (the high and low resolution) containing the following extensions: <br />
High resolution N$_\rm{side}$=2048 (note that we don't provide the CMB-cleaned foregrounds maps for LFI and HFI because the Ruler resolution (~7.4') is lower than the HFI highest channel and and downgrading it will introduce noise correlation). <br />
# CMB maps and ancillary products (4 maps)<br />
# Effective beam of the CMB maps (1 vector)<br />
<br />
Low resolution N$_\rm{side}$=256<br />
# CMB maps and ancillary products (3 maps)<br />
# 10 example CMB maps used in the montecarlo realization (10 maps)<br />
# Effective beam of the CMB maps (1 vector)<br />
<br />
For a complete description of the data structure, see the [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.<br />
<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable" border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center" style="background:#efefef;"<br />
|+ style="background:#eeeeee;" | '''The maps (CMB, noise, masks) contained in the first extension'''<br />
|-<br />
!width=40px | Col name<br />
!width=200px| SMICA<br />
!width=200px| NILC<br />
!width=200px| SEVEM <br />
!width=200px| COMMANDER-Ruler H<br />
!width=200px| COMMANDER-Ruler L <br />
!width=300px| Description / notes<br />
|-<br />
| align="left" | 1: I<br />
| [[File: CMB-smica.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMB-nilc.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMB-sevem.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMB-CR_h.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMB-CR_l.png|200px]]<br />
| Raw CMB anisotropy map. These are the maps used in the component separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}.<br />
|-<br />
| 2: NOISE<br />
| [[File: CMBnoise-smica.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMBnoise-nilc.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMBnoise-sevem.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMBnoise-CR_h.png|200px]]<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| Noise map. Obtained by propagating the half-ring noise through the CMB cleaning pipelines.<br />
|-<br />
| 3: VALMASK<br />
| [[File: valmask-smica.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: valmask-nilc.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: valmask-sevem.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: valmask-cr_h.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: valmask-cr_l.png|200px]]<br />
| Confidence map. Pixels with an expected low level of foreground contamination. These maps are only indicative and obtained by different ad hoc methods. They cannot be used to rank the CMB maps.<br />
|-<br />
| 4: I_MASK<br />
| [[File: cmbmask-smica.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: cmbmask-nilc.png|200px]]<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| Some areas are masked for the production of the raw CMB maps (for NILC: point sources from 44 GHz to 857 GHz; for SMICA: point sources from 30 GHz to 857 GHz, Galatic region and additional bright regions).<br />
|-<br />
| 5: INP_CMB<br />
| [[File: CMBinp-smica.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: CMBinp-nilc.png|200px]]<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| Inpainted CMB map. The raw CMB maps with some regions (as indicated by INP_MASK) replaced by a constrained Gaussian realization. The inpainted SMICA map was used for PR.<br />
|-<br />
| 6: INP_MASK<br />
| [[File: inpmask-smica.png|200px]]<br />
| [[File: inpmask-nilc.png|200px]]<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| align='center' | not applicable<br />
| Mask of the inpainted regions. For SMICA, this is identical to I_MASK. For NILC, it is not.<br />
|}<br />
<br />
The component separation pipelines are described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation|CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Section 3 and Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}} and references therein.<br />
<br />
The union (or common) mask is defined as the union of the confidence masks from the four component separation pipelines, the three listed above and Commander-Ruler. It leaves 73% of the sky available, and so it is denoted as U73.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''Product description '''<br />
<br />
'''SMICA'''<br />
<br />
; Principle<br />
: SMICA produces a CMB map by linearly combining all Planck input channels (from 30 to 857 GHz) with weights which vary with the multipole. It includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: The SMICA map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math> '''and deconvolved from the pixel window'''. It means that, ideally, one would have <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) * B_\ell(5')^2</math>, where <math>C_\ell(map)</math> is the angular spectrum of the map, where <math>C_\ell(sky)</math> is the angular spectrum of the CMB and <math>B_\ell(5')</math> is a 5-arcminute Gaussian beam function. Note however that, by convention, the effective beam window function <math>B_\ell(fits)</math> provided in the FITS file does include a pixel window function. Therefore, it is equal to <math>B_\ell(fits) = B_\ell(5') / p_\ell(2048)</math> where <math>p_\ell(2048)</math> denotes the pixel window function for an Nside=2048 pixelization.<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. <br />
; Masks and inpainting<br />
: The raw SMICA CMB map has valid pixels except at the location of masked areas: point sources, Galactic plane, some other bright regions. Those invalid pixels are indicated with the mask named 'I_MASK'. The raw SMICA map has been inpainted, producing the map named "INP_CMB". Inpainting consists in replacing some pixels (as indicated by the mask named INP_MASK) by the values of a constrained Gaussian realization which is computed to ensure good statistical properties of the whole map (technically, the inpainted pixels are a sample realisation drawn under the posterior distribution given the un-masked pixels.<br />
<br />
'''NILC'''<br />
<br />
; Principle<br />
: The Needlet-ILC (hereafter NILC) CMB map is constructed from all Planck channels from 44 to 857 GHz and includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 3200</math>. It is obtained by applying the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) technique in needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range.<br />
; Resolution (effective beam)<br />
: As in the SMICA product except that there is no abrupt truncation at <math>\ell_{max}= 3200</math> but a smooth transition to <math>0</math> over the range <math>2700\leq\ell\leq 3200</math>.<br />
; Confidence mask<br />
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. The threshold is somewhat arbitrary.<br />
; Masks and inpainting<br />
: The raw NILC map has valid pixels except at the location of masked point sources. This is indicated with the mask named 'I_MASK'. The raw NILC map has been inpainted, producing the map named "INP_CMB". The inpainting consists in replacing some pixels (as indicated by the mask named INP_MASK) by the values of a constrained Gaussian realization which is computed to ensure good statistical properties of the whole map (technically, the inpainted pixels are a sample realisation drawn under the posterior distribution given the un-masked pixels.<br />
<br />
'''SEVEM'''<br />
<br />
The aim of SEVEM is to produce clean CMB maps at one or several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting. The templates are internal, i.e., they are constructed from Planck data, avoiding the need for external data sets, which usually complicates the analyses and may introduce inconsistencies. The method has been successfully applied to Planck simulations{{BibCite|leach2008}} and to WMAP polarisation data{{BibCite|fernandezcobos2012}}. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. Note that unlike the other products, SEVEM does not provide the mask of regions not used in the productions of the CMB ma (''I_MASK'') nor an inpainted version of the map and its associated mask. On the other hand, it provides ''channel maps'' and 100, 143, and 217 GHz which are used as the building blocks of the final map.<br />
<br />
'''COMMANDER-Ruler'''<br />
<br />
COMMANDER-Ruler is the Planck software implementing a pixel based parametric component separation. Amplitude of CMB and the main diffuse foregrounds along with the relevant spectral parameters for those (see below in the Astrophysical Foreground Section for the latter) are parametrized and fitted in single MCMC chains conducted at $N_\rm{side}$=256 using COMMANDER, implementing a Gibbs Sampling. The CMB amplitude which <br />
is obtained in these runs corresponds to the delivered low resolution CMB component from COMMANDER-Ruler which has a FWHM of 40 arcminutes. The sampling of the foreground parameters is applied to the data at full resolution for obtaining the high resolution CMB component from Ruler which is available on the PLA. In the {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06|1|Planck Component Separation paper}} additional material is discussed, specifically concerning the sky region where the solutions are reliable, in terms of chi2 maps. The products mainly consist of: <br />
<br />
* Maps of the Amplitudes of the CMB at low resolution, $N_\rm{side}$=256, along with the standard deviations of the outputs, beam profiles derived from the production process. <br />
* Maps of the CMB amplitude, along with the standard deviations, at high resolution, $N_\rm{side}$=2048, beam profiles derived from the production process. <br />
* Mask obtained on the basis of the precision in the fitting procedure; the thresholding is evaluated through the COMMANDER-Ruler likelihood analysis and excludes 13% of the sky, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}.<br />
<br />
'''Production process'''<br />
<br />
'''SMICA'''<br />
<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: All input maps undergo a pre-processing step to deal with point sources. The point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue are fitted in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole is filled in by a simple diffusive process to ensure a smooth transition and mitigate spectral leakage. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, here all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and filled-in similarly.<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHzare harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> and co-added with multipole-dependent weights as shown in the figure.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: The areas masked in the pre-processing step are replaced by a constrained Gaussian realization.<br />
<br />
Note: The visible power deficit in the raw CMB map around the galactic plane is due to the smooth fill-in of the masked areas in the input maps (the result of the pre-processing). It is not to be confused with the post-processing step of inpainting of the CMB map with a constrained Gaussian realization.<br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:smica.jpg|thumb|center|500px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input maps (after they are re-beamed to 5 arcmin and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), as a function of multipole.''']]<br />
<br />
'''NILC'''<br />
<br />
; 1) Pre-processing<br />
: Same pre-processing as SMICA (except the 30 GHz channel is not used).<br />
; 2) Linear combination<br />
: The pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 44 to 857 GHz are linearly combined with weights which depend on location on the sky and on the multipole range up to <math>\ell = 3200</math>. This is achieved using a needlet (redundant spherical wavelet) decomposition. For more details, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}.<br />
; 3) Post-processing<br />
: The areas masked in the pre-processing plus other bright regions step are replaced by a constrained Gaussian realization as in the SMICA post-processing step.<br />
<br />
'''SEVEM'''<br />
<br />
The templates are internal, i.e., they are constructed from Planck data, avoiding the need for external data sets, which usually complicates the analyses and may introduce inconsistencies. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. The fitting can be done in real or wavelet space (using a fast wavelet adapted to the HEALPix pixelization{{BibCite|casaponsa2011}}) to properly deal with incomplete sky coverage. By expediency, however, we fill in the small number of unobserved pixels at each channel with the mean value of its neighbouring pixels before applying SEVEM.<br />
<br />
We construct our templates by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMB map at that frequency. This is done either in real or in wavelet space (i.e., scale by scale) at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math><br />
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. If the cleaning is performed in real space, the <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. When working in wavelet space, the cleaning is done in the same way at each wavelet scale independently (i.e., the linear coefficients depend on the scale). Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).<br />
<br />
An additional level of flexibility can also be considered: the linear coefficients can be the same for all the sky, or several regions with different sets of coefficients can be considered. The regions are then combined in a smooth way, by weighting the pixels at the boundaries, to avoid discontinuities in the clean maps.<br />
Since the method is linear, we may easily propagate the noise properties to the final CMB map. Moreover, it is very fast and permits the generation of thousands of simulations to character- ize the statistical properties of the outputs, a critical need for many cosmological applications. The final CMB map retains the angular resolution of the original frequency map.<br />
<br />
There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of clean maps at different frequencies is of great interest in order to test the robustness of the results. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned independently and the number of templates that can be constructed.<br />
<br />
In particular, we have cleaned the 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps using four templates constructed as the difference of the following Planck channels (smoothed to a common resolution): (30-44), (44-70), (545-353) and (857-545). For simplicity, the three maps have been cleaned in real space, since there was not a significant improvement when using wavelets (especially at high latitude). In order to take into account the different spectral behaviour of the foregrounds at low and high galactic latitudes, we have considered two independent regions of the sky, for which we have used a different set of coefficients. The first region corresponds to the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission, whereas the second region is defined by the remaining 97 per cent of the sky. For the first region, the coefficients are actually estimated over the whole sky (we find that this is more optimal than perform the minimisation only on the 3 per cent brightest region, where the CMB emission is very sub-dominant) while for the second region, we exclude the 3 per cent brightest region of the sky, point sources detected at any frequency and those pixels which have not been observed at all channels.<br />
Our final CMB map has then been constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.<br />
<br />
Moreover, additional CMB clean maps (at frequencies between 44 and 353 GHz) have also been produced using different combinations of templates for some of the analyses carried out in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p09}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p14}}. In particular, clean maps from 44 to 353 GHz have been used for the stacking analysis presented in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p14}}, while frequencies from 70 to 217 GHz were used for consistency tests in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p09}}.<br />
<br />
'''COMMANDER-Ruler'''<br />
<br />
The production process consist in low and high resolution runs according to the description above. <br />
; Low Resolution Runs: Same as the Astrophysics Foregrounds Section below; The CMB amplitude is fitted along with the other foreground parameters and constitutes the CMB Low Resolution Rendering which is in the PLA. <br />
; Ruler Runs: the sampling at high resolution is used to infer the probability distribution of spectral parameters which is exploited at full resolution in order to obtain the High Resolution CMB Rendering which is in the PLA. <br />
<br />
''' Masks '''<br />
<br />
Summary table with the different masks that have been used by the component separation methods to pre-process and to process the frequency maps and the CMB maps.<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Commander 2013 (PR1) || Used for diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps || Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK || NO || NO || VALMASK is the confidence mask that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside <br />
<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits}} and {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits}} for low resolution analyses.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="800000"<br />
|<br />
! ||<br />
|<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! SEVEM 2013 (PR1) || Used diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps || Used for Constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK || NO || NO || VALMASK is the confidence mask that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside <br />
<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-sevem_2048_R1.12.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-sevem_2048_R1.12.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="800000"<br />
|<br />
! ||<br />
|<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead"<br />
! NILC 2013 (PR1) || Used for diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps || Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK || NO || NO || VALMASK is the confidence mask that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|I_MASK || NO || NO || I_MASK defines the regions over which CMB is not built. It is a combination of point source masks, Galactic plane mask and other bright regions like LMC, SMC, etc. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits}}.<br />
|- <br />
|INP_MASK || NO || YES || It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="800000"<br />
|<br />
! ||<br />
|<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! SMICA 2013 (PR1) || Used for diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps || Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK || NO || NO || VALMASK is the confidence mask that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside <br />
<br />
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits}}.<br />
|-<br />
|I_MASK || YES || YES || I_MASK defines the regions over which CMB is not built. It is a combination of point source masks, Galactic plane mask and other bright regions like LMC, SMC, etc. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits}}.<br />
|- <br />
|INP_MASK || YES || YES || INP_MASK for SMICA 2013 release is identical to I_MASK above. <br />
|-<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
'''Inputs'''<br />
<br />
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. SMICA and SEVEM use all the maps between 30 and 857 GHz; NILC uses the ones between 44 and 857 GHz. Commander-Ruler uses frequency channel maps from 30 to 353 GHz. <br />
<br />
'''File names and structure'''<br />
<br />
The FITS files corresponding to the three CMB products are the following:<br />
<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-sevem_2048_R1.12.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-sevem_2048_R1.12.fits}}<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits}}<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits}}<br />
<br />
<br />
The files contain a minimal primary extension with no data and four ''BINTABLE'' data extensions. Each column of the ''BINTABLE'' is a (Healpix) map; the column names and the most important keywords of each extension are described in the table below; for the remaining keywords, please see the FITS files directly. <br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK_cmb || CMB temperature map<br />
|-<br />
|NOISE || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Estimated noise map (note 1)<br />
|-<br />
|I_STDEV|| Real*4 || uK_cmb || Standard deviation, ONLY on COMMANDER-Ruler products<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Confidence mask (note 2)<br />
|-<br />
|I_MASK|| Byte || none || Mask of regions over which CMB map is not built (Optional - see note 3)<br />
|-<br />
|INP_CMB || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Inpainted CMB temperature map (Optional - see note 3)<br />
|-<br />
|INP_MASK || Byte || none || mask of inpainted pixels (Optional - see note 3)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CMB || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. EXTNAME = ''FGDS-LFI'' (BINTABLE) - Note 4<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LFI_030 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 30 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|LFI_044 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 44 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|LFI_070 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 70 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 3. EXTNAME = ''FGDS-HFI'' (BINTABLE) - Note 4<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|HFI_100 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 100 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|HFI_143 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 143 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|HFI_217 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 217 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|HFI_353 || Real*4 || K_cmb || 353 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|HFI_545 || Real*4 || MJy/sr || 545 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|HFI_857 || Real*4 || MJy/sr || 857 GHz foregrounds<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function. See Note 5.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Notes:<br />
# The half-ring half-difference (HRHD) map is made by passing the half-ring frequency maps independently through the component separation pipeline, then computing half their difference. It approximates a noise realisation, and gives an indication of the uncertainties due to instrumental noise in the corresponding CMB map. <br />
# The confidence mask indicates where the CMB map is considered valid. <br />
# This column is not present in the SEVEM and COMMANDER-Ruler product file. For SEVEM these three columns give the CMB channel maps at 100, 143, and 217 GHz (columns ''C100'', ''C143'', and ''C217'', in units of K_cmb.<br />
# The subtraction of the CMB from the sky maps in order to produce the foregrounds map is done after convolving the CMB map to the resolution of the given frequency. Those columns are not present in the COMMANDER-Ruler product file.<br />
# The beam window function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>.<br />
<br />
The low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler CMB product is organized in the following way:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''CMB low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK_cmb || CMB temperature map obtained as average over 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Corresponding Standard deviation amongst the 1000 samples<br />
|-<br />
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Confidence mask<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. EXTNAME = ''CMB-Sample'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM01 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM02 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM03 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM04 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM05 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM06 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM07 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM08 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM09 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|I_SIM10 || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BEAM_WF || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function.<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|LMIN || Int || value || First multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|LMAX || Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF<br />
|-<br />
|METHOD || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
The FITS files containing the ''union'' (or common) maks is:<br />
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-union_2048_R1.10.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common}}<br />
which contains a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with a single column (named ''U73'') for the mask, which is boolean (FITS ''TFORM = B''), in GALACTIC coordinates, NESTED ordering, and Nside=2048.<br />
<br />
For the benefit of users who are only looking for a small file containing the SMICA cmb map with no additional information (noise or masks) we provide such a file here<br />
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits}}<br />
This file contains a single extension with a single column containing the SMICA cmb temperature map.<br />
<br />
'''Cautionary notes'''<br />
<br />
# The half-ring CMB maps are produced by the pipelines with parameters/weights fixed to the values obtained from the full maps. Therefore the CMB HRHD maps do not capture all of the uncertainties due to foreground modelling on large angular scales.<br />
# The HRHD maps for the HFI frequency channels underestimate the noise power spectrum at high l by typically a few percent. This is caused by correlations induced in the pre-processing to remove cosmic ray hits. The CMB is mostly constrained by the HFI channels at high l, and so the CMB HRHD maps will inherit this deficiency in power.<br />
# The beam transfer functions do not account for uncertainties in the beams of the frequency channel maps.<br />
<br />
''' Astrophysical foregrounds from parametric component separation '''<br />
<br />
<br />
We describe diffuse foreground products for the Planck 2013 release. See Planck Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}} for a detailed description and astrophysical discussion of those.<br />
<br />
'''Product description'''<br />
<br />
; Low frequency foreground component<br />
: The products below contain the result of the fitting for one foreground component at low frequencies in Planck bands,along with its spectral behavior parametrized by a power law spectral index. Amplitude and spectral indeces are evaluated at N$_\rm{side}$ 256 (see below in the production process), along with standard deviation from sampling and instrumental noise on both. An amplitude solution at N$_\rm{side}$=2048 is also given, along with standard deviation from sampling and instrumental noise as well as solutions on halfrings. The beam profile associated to this component is also provided as a secondary Extension in the N$_\rm{side}$ 2048 product.<br />
<br />
; Thermal dust<br />
: The products below contain the result of the fitting for one foreground component at high frequencies in Planck bands, along with its spectral behavior parametrized by temperature and emissivity. Amplitude, temperature and emissivity are evaluated at N$_\rm{side}$ 256 (see below in the production process), along with standard deviation from sampling and instrumental noise on all of them. An amplitude solution at N$_\rm{side}$=2048 is also given, along with standard deviation from sampling and instrumental noise as well as solutions on halfrings. The beam profile associated to this component is provided. <br />
<br />
; Sky mask<br />
: The delivered mask is defined as the sky region where the fitting procedure was conducted and the solutions presented here were obtained. It is made by masking a region where the Galactic emission is too intense to perform the fitting, plus the masking of brightest point sources.<br />
<br />
'''Production process'''<br />
<br />
CODE: COMMANDER-RULER. The code exploits a parametrization of CMB and main diffuse foreground observables. The naive resolution of input <br />
frequency channels is reduced to N$_\rm{side}$=256 first. Parameters related to the foreground scaling with frequency are estimated at that resolution <br />
by using Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis using Gibbs sampling. The foreground parameters make the foreground mixing matrix which is <br />
applied to the data at full resolution in order to obtain the provided products at N$_\rm{side}$=2048. In the Planck Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}} additional material is discussed, specifically concerning the sky region where the solutions are reliable, in terms of chi2 maps.<br />
<br />
'''Inputs'''<br />
<br />
Nominal frequency maps at 30, 44, 70, 100, 143, 217, 353 GHz ({{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=30|period=Nominal|link=LFI 30 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=44|period=Nominal|link=LFI 44 GHz frequency maps}} and {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=70|period=Nominal|link=LFI 70 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=100|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 100 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=143|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 143 GHz frequency maps}},{{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=217|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 217 GHz frequency maps}} and {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=353|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 353 GHz frequency maps}}) and their II column corresponding to the noise covariance matrix. <br />
Halfrings at the same frequencies. Beam window functions as reported in the [[The RIMO#Beam Window Functions|LFI and HFI RIMO]].<br />
<br />
'''Related products'''<br />
<br />
None. <br />
<br />
'''File names'''<br />
<br />
* Low frequency component at N$_\rm{side}$ 256: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits}}<br />
* Low frequency component at N$_\rm{side}$ 2048: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits}}<br />
* Thermal dust at N$_\rm{side}$ 256: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits}}<br />
* Thermal dust at N$_\rm{side}$ 2048: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits}}<br />
* Mask: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Mask-rulerminimal_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Mask-rulerminimal_2048_R1.00.fits}}<br />
<br />
'''Meta Data'''<br />
<br />
'''Low frequency foreground component'''<br />
<br />
'''Low frequency component at N$_\rm{side}$ = 256'''<br />
<br />
File name: COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits<br />
: '''Name HDU -- COMP-MAP'''<br />
<br />
The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || uK<math>_{CMB}</math>|| Intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || uK<math>_{CMB}</math> || standard deviation of intensity <br />
|-<br />
|Beta || Real*4 || || effective spectral index <br />
|-<br />
|B_stdev || Real*4 || || standard deviation on the effective spectral index <br />
|}<br />
<br />
; Notes:<br />
: Comment: The Intensity is normalized at 30 GHz<br />
: Comment: The intensity was estimated during mixing matrix estimation<br />
<br />
'''Low frequency component at N$_\rm{side}$ = 2048'''<br />
<br />
: File name: COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits<br />
<br />
<br />
: '''Name HDU -- COMP-MAP'''<br />
<br />
The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*8 || uK<math>_{CMB}</math>|| Intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*8 || uK<math>_{CMB}</math> || standard deviation of intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_hr1 || Real*8 || uK<math>_{CMB}</math> || Intensity on half ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|I_hr2 || Real*8 || uK<math>_{CMB}</math> || Intensity on half ring 2 <br />
|}<br />
<br />
; Notes:<br />
: Comment: The intensity was computed after mixing matrix application<br />
<br />
<br />
: '''Name HDU -- BeamWF'''<br />
<br />
The Fits second extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BeamWF || Real*4 || || beam profile <br />
|}<br />
<br />
; Notes:<br />
: Comment: Beam window function used in the Component separation process<br />
<br />
'''Thermal dust'''<br />
<br />
'''Thermal dust component at N$_\rm{side}$=256'''<br />
<br />
: File name: COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits<br />
<br />
: '''Name HDU -- COMP-MAP'''<br />
<br />
The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*4 || MJy/sr || Intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*4 || MJy/sr || standard deviation of intensity <br />
|-<br />
|Em || Real*4 || || emissivity <br />
|-<br />
|Em_stdev || Real*4 || || standard deviation on emissivity <br />
|-<br />
|T || Real*4 || uK<math>_{CMB}</math> || temperature <br />
|-<br />
|T_stdev || Real*4 || uK<math>_{CMB}</math> || standard deviation on temerature <br />
|}<br />
<br />
; Notes:<br />
: Comment: The intensity is normalized at 353 GHz<br />
<br />
'''Thermal dust component at N$_\rm{side}$=2048'''<br />
<br />
File name: COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits<br />
<br />
<br />
: '''Name HDU -- COMP-MAP'''<br />
<br />
The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I || Real*8 || MJy/sr || Intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_stdev || Real*8 || MJy/sr || standard deviation of intensity <br />
|-<br />
|I_hr1 || Real*8 || MJy/sr || Intensity on half ring 1 <br />
|-<br />
|I_hr2 || Real*8 || MJy/sr || Intensity on half ring 2 <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
: '''Name HDU -- BeamWF'''<br />
<br />
The Fits second extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|BeamWF || Real*4 || || beam profile <br />
|}<br />
<br />
; Notes:<br />
: Comment: Beam window function used in the Component separation process<br />
<br />
'''Sky mask'''<br />
<br />
File name: COM_CompMap_Mask-rulerminimal_2048.fits<br />
<br />
; '''Name HDU -- COMP-MASK'''<br />
<br />
The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ FITS header<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Mask || Real*4 || || Mask <br />
|}<br />
<br />
''' Thermal dust emission '''<br />
<br />
<br />
Thermal emission from interstellar dust is captured by Planck-HFI over the whole sky, at all frequencies from 100 to 857 GHz. This emission is well modelled by a modified black body in the far-infrared to millimeter range. It is produced by the biggest interstellar dust grain that are in thermal equilibrium with the radiation field from stars. The grains emission properties in the sub-millimeter are therefore directly linked to their absorption properties in the UV-visible range. By modelling the thermal dust emission in the sub-millimeter, a map of dust reddening in the visible can then be constructed. The details of the model can be found here {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06b}}.<br />
<br />
''' Model of all-sky thermal dust emission '''<br />
<br />
The model of the thermal dust emission is based on a modified black body (MBB) fit to the data <math>I_\nu</math><br />
<br />
: <math>I_\nu = A\, B_\nu(T)\, \nu^\beta</math><br />
<br />
where <math>B_\nu(T)</math> is the Planck function for dust equilibirum temperature <math>T</math>, <math>A</math> is the amplitude of the MBB and <math>\beta</math> the dust spectral index. The dust optical depth at frequency <math>\nu</math> is<br />
<br />
: <math>\tau_\nu = I_\nu / B_\nu(T) = A\, \nu^\beta</math><br />
<br />
The dust parameters provided are <math>T</math>, <math>\beta</math> and <math>\tau_{353}</math>. They were obtained by fitting the Planck data at 353, 545 and 857 GHz (from which the Planck zodiacal light model was removed) together with the IRAS 100 micron data. The latter is a combination of the 100 micron maps from IRIS (Miville-Deschenes & Lagache, 2005) and from Schlegel et al. (1998), SFD1998. The IRIS (SFD1998) map is used at scales smaller (larger) than 30 arcmin; this combination allows to take advantage of the higher angular resolution and better control of gain variations of the IRIS map and of the better removal of the zodiacal light emission of the SFD1998 map.<br />
<br />
All maps (in Healpix Nside=2048 were smoothed to a common resolution of 5 arcmin. The CMB anisotropies, clearly visible at 353 GHz, were removed from all the HFI maps using the SMICA map. An offset was removed from each map to set a Galactic zero level, using a correlation with the LAB 21 cm data in diffuse areas of the sky (<math>N_{HI} < 2\times10^{20} cm^{-2}</math>). Because the dust emission is so well correlated between frequencies in the Rayleigh-Jeans part of the dust spectrum, the zero level of the 545 and 353 GHz were improved by correlating with the 857 GHz over a larger mask (<math>N_{HI} < 3\times10^{20} cm^{-2}</math>). Faint residual dipole structures, identified in the 353 and 545 GHz maps, were removed prior to the fit.<br />
<br />
The MBB fit was performed using a <math>\chi^2</math> minimization method, assuming errors for each data point that include instrumental noise, calibration uncertainties (on both the dust emission and the CMB anisotropies) and uncertainties on the zero levels. Because of the known degeneracy between <math>T</math> and <math>\beta</math> in the presence of noise, we performed tge fit in two steps. First we produced a model of dust emission using data smoothed to 30 arcmin; at such resolution no systematic bias of the parameters is observed. In a second step the map of the spectral index <math>\beta</math> at 30 arcmin was used to fit the data for <math>T</math> and <math>\tau_{353}</math> at 5 arcmin. <br />
<br />
''' The <math>E(B-V)</math> map for extra-galactic studies'''<br />
For the production of the <math>E(B-V)</math> map, we used a MBB fit to Planck and IRAS data from which point sources were removed to avoid contamination by galaxies. In the hypothesis of constant dust emission cross-section, the optical depth map <math>\tau_{353}</math> is proportional to dust column density and therefore often used to estimate E(B-V). The analysis of Planck data revealed that the ratio <math>\tau_{353}/N_{HI}</math> and <math>\tau_{353}/E(B-V)</math> are not constant, even in the diffuse ISM, but that they depend on <math>T</math> revealing possible spatial variations of the dust emission cross-section. It appears that the dust radiance, <math>R</math>, i.e. the dust emission integrated in frequency, is a better tracer of column density in the diffuse ISM, implying small spatial variations of the radiation field strength at high Galactic latitude. <br />
Given those results, we also deliver the map of <math>R</math> as a dust product and we propose to use it as an estimator of Galactic dust reddening for extra-galactic studies: <math>E(B-V) = q\, R</math>.<br />
<br />
To estimate the calibration factor q, we followed a method similar to{{BibCite|mortsell2013}} based on SDSS reddening measurements of quasars in the u, g, r, i and z bands{{BibCite|schneider2007}}. We used a sample of 53 399 quasars, selecting objects at redshifts for which Ly<math>\alpha</math> does not enter the SDSS filters. The interstellar HI column densities covered on the lines of sight of this sample ranges from <math>0.5</math> to <math>10\times10^{20}\,cm^{-2}</math>. Therefore this sample allows us to estimate q in the diffuse ISM where this map of E(B-V) is intended to be used. <br />
<br />
''' Dust optical depth products '''<br />
The dust model maps are found in the file {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_CompMap_ThermalDustModel_2048_R1.20.fits|link=HFI_CompMap_ThermalDustModel_2048_R1.20.fits}} (see the note [[#noteOnDust|below]] for an important clarification regarding the thermal dust model); its characteristics are:<br />
* Dust optical depth at 353 GHz: Nside=2048, fwhm=5', no units<br />
* Dust temperature: Nside 2048, fwhm=5', units=Kelvin<br />
* Dust spectral index: Nside=2048, fwhm=30', no units<br />
* Dust radiance: Nside=2048, fwhm=5', units=Wm<sup>-2</sup>sr<sup>-1</sup><br />
* E(B-V) for extragalactic studies: Nside=2048, fwhm=5', units=magnitude, obtained with data from which point sources were removed.<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Dust opacity file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'COMP-MAP' <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
| TAU353 || Real*4 || none || The optical depth at 353GHz<br />
|-<br />
| ERR_TAU || Real*4 || none || Error on the optical depth<br />
|-<br />
| EBV || Real*4 || mag || E(B-V) for extra-galactic studies<br />
|-<br />
| RADIANCE || Real*4 || Wm<sup>-2</sup>sr<sup>-1</sup> || Integrated emission<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature<br />
|-<br />
|ERR_TEMP || Real*4 || K || Error on the temperature<br />
|-<br />
| BETA || Real*4 || none || Dust spectral index<br />
|-<br />
| ERR_BETA || Real*4 || none || Error on Beta<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
| AST-COMP || String || DUST|| Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
| PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
| COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
| ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
| NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
| FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
| LASTPIX || Int*4 || 50331647 || Last pixel number, for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<div id="noteOnDust"></div><span style="font-size:120%"> <span style="color:Red"><b>IMPORTANT NOTE:</b></span></span> The dust model has recently (4 December 2013) been updated and the new model is the one being distributed by default. A detailed description of the model can be found here {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06b}}. Users interested in the old dust model map should contact the [http://www.sciops.esa.int/helpdesk_pia PLA help desk].<br />
<br />
''' CO emission maps '''<br />
<br />
<br />
CO rotational transition line emission is present in all HFI bands but for the 143 GHz channel. It is especially significant in the 100, 217 and 353 GHz channels (due to the 115 (1-0), 230 (2-1) and 345 GHz (3-2) CO transitions). This emission comes essentially from the Galactic interstellar medium and is mainly located at low and intermediate Galactic latitudes. Three approaches (summarised below) have been used to extract CO velocity-integrated emission maps from HFI maps and to make three types of CO products. A full description of how these products were produced is given in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p03a}}.<br />
<br />
* Type 1 product: it is based on a single channel approach using the fact that each CO line has a slightly different transmission in each bolometer at a given frequency channel. These transmissions can be evaluated from bandpass measurements that were performed on the ground or empirically determined from the sky using existing ground-based CO surveys. From these, the J=1-0, J=2-1 and J=3-2 CO lines can be extracted independently. As this approach is based on individual bolometer maps of a single channel, the resulting Signal-to-Noise ratio (SNR) is relatively low. The benefit, however, is that these maps do not suffer from contamination from other HFI channels (as is the case for the other approaches) and are more reliable, especially in the Galactic Plane.<br />
* Type 2 product: this product is obtained using a multi frequency approach. Three frequency channel maps are combined to extract the J=1-0 (using the 100, 143 and 353 GHz channels) and J=2-1 (using the 143, 217 and 353 GHz channels) CO maps. Because frequency channels are combined, the spectral behaviour of other foregrounds influences the result. The two type 2 CO maps produced in this way have a higher SNR than the type 1 maps at the cost of a larger possible residual contamination from other diffuse foregrounds.<br />
* Type 3 product: using prior information on CO line ratios and a multi-frequency component separation method, we construct a combined CO emission map with the largest possible SNR. This type 3 product can be used as a sensitive finder chart for low-intensity diffuse CO emission over the whole sky.<br />
<br />
The released Type 1 CO maps have been produced using the MILCA-b algorithm, Type 2 maps using a specific implementation of the Commander algorithm, and the Type 3 map using the full Commander-Ruler component separation pipeline (see [[CMB_and _astrophysical_component_maps#Maps_of_astrophysical_foregrounds | above]]).<br />
<br />
Characteristics of the released maps are the following. We provide Healpix maps with Nside=2048. For one transition, the CO velocity-integrated line signal map is given in K_RJ.km/s units. A conversion factor from this unit to the native unit of HFI maps (K_CMB) is provided in the header of the data files and in the RIMO. Four maps are given per transition and per type:<br />
* The signal map<br />
* The standard deviation map (same unit as the signal), <br />
* A null test noise map (same unit as the signal) with similar statistical properties. It is made out of half the difference of half-ring maps.<br />
* A mask map (0B or 1B) giving the regions (1B) where the CO measurement is not reliable because of some severe identified foreground contamination.<br />
<br />
All products of a given type belong to a single file.<br />
Type 1 products have the native HFI resolution i.e. approximately 10, 5 and 5 arcminutes for the CO 1-0, 2-1, 3-2 transitions respectively.<br />
Type 2 products have a 15 arcminute resolution<br />
The Type 3 product has a 5.5 arcminute resolution.<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Type-1 CO map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'COMP-MAP' <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I10 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || The CO(1-0) intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|E10 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || Uncertainty in the CO(1-0) intensity<br />
|-<br />
|N10 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || Map built from the half-ring difference maps<br />
|-<br />
|M10 || Byte || none || Region over which the CO(1-0) intensity is considered reliable<br />
|-<br />
|I21 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || The CO(2-1) intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|E21 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || Uncertainty in the CO(2-1) intensity<br />
|-<br />
|N21 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || Map built from the half-ring difference maps<br />
|-<br />
|M21 || Byte || none || Region over which the CO(2-1) intensity is considered reliable<br />
|-<br />
|I32 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || The CO(3-2) intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|E32 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || Uncertainty in the CO(3-2) intensity<br />
|-<br />
|N32 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || Map built from the half-ring difference maps<br />
|-<br />
|M32 || Byte || none || Region over which the CO(3-2) intensity is considered reliable<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || string || CO-TYPE2 || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 50331647 || Last pixel number, for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|CNV 1-0 || Real*4 || value || Factor to convert CO(1-0) intensity to Kcmb (units Kcmb/(Krj*km/s)) <br />
|-<br />
|CNV 2-1 || Real*4 || value || Factor to convert CO(2-1) intensityto Kcmb (units Kcmb/(Krj*km/s)) <br />
|-<br />
|CNV 3-2 || Real*4 || value || Factor to convert CO(3-2) intensityto Kcmb (units Kcmb/(Krj*km/s)) <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Type-2 CO map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'COMP-MAP' <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I10 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || The CO(1-0) intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|E10 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || Uncertainty in the CO(1-0) intensity<br />
|-<br />
|N10 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || Map built from the half-ring difference maps<br />
|-<br />
|M10 || Byte || none || Region over which the CO(1-0) intensity is considered reliable<br />
|-<br />
|-<br />
|I21 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || The CO(2-1) intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|E21 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || Uncertainty in the CO(2-1) intensity<br />
|-<br />
|N21 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || Map built from the half-ring difference maps<br />
|-<br />
|M21 || Byte || none || Region over which the CO(2-1) intensity is considered reliable<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CO-TYPE2 || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 50331647 || Last pixel number, for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|CNV 1-0 || Real*4 || value || Factor to convert CO(1-0) intensity to Kcmb (units Kcmb/(Krj*km/s)) <br />
|-<br />
|CNV 2-1 || Real*4 || value || Factor to convert CO(2-1) intensityto Kcmb (units Kcmb/(Krj*km/s)) <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px<br />
|+ '''Type-3 CO map file data structure'''<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
!colspan="4" | 1. EXTNAME = 'COMP-MAP' <br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|INTEN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || The CO intensity map<br />
|-<br />
|ERR || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || Uncertainty in the intensity<br />
|-<br />
|NUL || Real*4 || K_RJ km/sec || Map built from the half-ring difference maps<br />
|-<br />
|MASK || Byte || none || Region over which the intensity is considered reliable<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description<br />
|-<br />
|AST-COMP || String || CO-TYPE1 || Astrophysical compoment name<br />
|-<br />
|PIXTYPE || String || HEALPIX ||<br />
|-<br />
|COORDSYS || String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system <br />
|-<br />
|ORDERING || String || NESTED || Healpix ordering<br />
|-<br />
|NSIDE || Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|FIRSTPIX || Int*4 || 0 || First pixel number<br />
|-<br />
|LASTPIX || Int*4 || 50331647 || Last pixel number, for LFI and HFI, respectively<br />
|-<br />
|CNV || Real*4 || value || Factor to convert to Kcmb (units Kcmb/(Krj*km/s)) <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
</div><br />
</div><br />
<br />
= References =<br />
<References /></div>Mlopezcahttps://wiki.cosmos.esa.int/planck-legacy-archive/index.php?title=Foreground_maps&diff=14588Foreground maps2021-10-22T17:31:57Z<p>Mlopezca: /* 2015 Compton y parameter map */</p>
<hr />
<div>= 2018 Astrophysical Components=<br />
<br />
== Overview ==<br />
This section describes the maps of astrophysical components produced from the Planck data. These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps described above using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of each product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITS file containing the data and associated information.<br />
All the details can be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l04}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l08}}.<br />
<br />
== Commander-derived astrophysical foreground maps ==<br />
As discussed in detail in {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l04}}, the main Planck 2018 frequency sky maps have significantly lower systematic errors than earlier versions. At the same time, these maps are also associated with a significant limitation, in that no robust single detector or detector set maps are available. As described in {{PlanckPapers|planck2016-l03}}, such maps do not contain the full signal content of the true sky. As a result, only full frequency maps are distributed and used in the 2018 analysis. <br />
<br />
For polarization analysis, this is not a significant issue, and the 2018 polarization foreground products therefore supersede the 2015 release in all respects. However, for temperature analysis the lack of single-detector maps strongly limits the ability to extract CO line emission from the data set, and it is also not possible to exclude known detector outliers; see {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}} for details. For these reasons, we consider the parametric foreground products from 2015 to represent a more accurate description of the true sky than the corresponding 2018 version. '''As a result, we do not release parametric temperature foreground products from the 2018 data set, but rather recommend continued usage of the 2015 temperature model. For polarization, we recommend usage of the 2018 model.'''<br />
<br />
<br />
Two Commander-based polarization foreground products are provided for the Planck 2018 releaes, namely synchrotron and thermal dust emission. For synchrotron emission, a spatially constant spectral index of &beta;=-3.1 is adopted. For thermal dust emission, the dust temperature is fixed to that derived from the corresponding 2018 intensity analysis, while the spectral index is fitted directly from the polarization measurements, smoothed to 3 degrees FWHM. For both synchrotron and thermal dust emission, we provide results derived from both the full-mission data set, and from the half-mission and odd-even splits.<br />
<br />
In addition to the real observations, we also provide 300 end-to-end noise simulations processed through the algorithm with the same spectral parameters as derived from the data for each of the data splits. The filenames of these simulations have the following format:<br />
*dx12_v3_commander_{synch,dust}_noise_{full,hm1,hm2,oe1,oe2}_00???_raw.fits<br />
<br />
====Inputs====<br />
<br />
The following data products are used for the full-mission polarization analysis (corresponding data are used for the data split products):<br />
* Full-mission 30 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=30|period=Full|link=LFI 30 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 44 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=44|period=Full|link=LFI 44 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 70 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=70|period=Full|link=LFI 70 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 100 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=100|period=Full|link=HFI 100 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 143 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=143|period=Full|link=HFI 143 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 217 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=217|period=Full|link=HFI 217 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 353 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=353|period=Full|link=HFI 353 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
<br />
====Outputs====<br />
=====Synchrotron emission=====<br />
<br />
: Full-mission file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-commander_2048_R3.00_full.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-commander_2048_R3.00_full.fits}}<br />
: First half-mission split file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-commander_2048_R3.00_hm1.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-commander_2048_R3.00_hm1.fits}}<br />
: Second half-mission split file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-commander_2048_R3.00_hm2.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-commander_2048_R3.00_hm2.fits}}<br />
: Odd ring split file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-commander_2048_R3.00_oe1.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-commander_2048_R3.00_oe1.fits}}<br />
: Even ring split file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-commander_2048_R3.00_oe2.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-commander_2048_R3.00_oe2.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 40 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 30 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STOKES || Real*4 || &mu;K_RJ || Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_STOKES || Real*4 || &mu;K_RJ || Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====Thermal dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: Full-mission file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-commander_2048_R3.00_full.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-commander_2048_R3.00_full.fits}}<br />
: First half-mission split file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-commander_2048_R3.00_hm1.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-commander_2048_R3.00_hm1.fits}}<br />
: Second half-mission split file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-commander_2048_R3.00_hm2.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-commander_2048_R3.00_hm2.fits}}<br />
: Odd ring split file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-commander_2048_R3.00_oe1.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-commander_2048_R3.00_oe1.fits}}<br />
: Even ring split file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-commander_2048_R3.00_oe2.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-commander_2048_R3.00_oe2.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 5 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 353 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STOKES || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Full-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_STOKES || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Full-mission Stokes U posterior maximum<br />
|-<br />
|BETA || Real*4 || || Spectral index (full mission only) <br />
|}<br />
<br />
== SMICA-derived astrophysical foreground maps ==<br />
<br />
Two SMICA-based polarization foreground products are provided, namely synchrotron and thermal dust emission. These are derived using the usual SMICA spectral matching method, tuned specifically for the reconstruction of two polarized foregrounds. Specifically, three coherent components (plus noise) are fitted at the spectral level with the first one constrained to have CMB emissivity. No assumptions are made regarding the other two components: they are not assumed to have a specific emissivity or angular spectrum, nor are they assumed to be uncorrelated. This leaves a degenerate model but that degeneracy can be entirely fixed after the spectral fit by assuming that synchrotron emission is negligible at 353 GHz and that thermal dust emission is negligible at 30 GHz. For both synchrotron and thermal dust emission, we provide results derived from both the full-mission data set, and from the half-mission and odd-even splits.<br />
<br />
In addition to the real observations, we also provide 300 end-to-end noise simulations processed through the algorithm with the same spectral parameters as derived from the data for each of the data splits. The filenames of these simulations have the following format:<br />
*dx12_v3_smica_{synch,dust}_noise_{full,hm1,hm2,oe1,oe2}_00???_raw.fits<br />
====Inputs====<br />
<br />
The following data products are used for the full-mission polarization analysis (corresponding data are used for the data split products):<br />
* Full-mission 30 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=30|period=Full|link=LFI 30 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 44 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=44|period=Full|link=LFI 44 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 70 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=70|period=Full|link=LFI 70 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 100 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=100|period=Full|link=HFI 100 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 143 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=143|period=Full|link=HFI 143 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 217 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=217|period=Full|link=HFI 217 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 353 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=353|period=Full|link=HFI 353 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
<br />
====Outputs====<br />
=====Synchrotron emission=====<br />
<br />
: Full-mission file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-smica_2048_R3.00_full.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-smica_2048_R3.00_full.fits}}<br />
: First half-mission split file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-smica_2048_R3.00_hm1.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-smica_2048_R3.00_hm1.fits}}<br />
: Second half-mission split file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-smica_2048_R3.00_hm2.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-smica_2048_R3.00_hm2.fits}}<br />
: Odd ring split file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-smica_2048_R3.00_oe1.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-smica_2048_R3.00_oe1.fits}}<br />
: Even ring split file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-smica_2048_R3.00_oe2.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_synchrotron-smica_2048_R3.00_oe2.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 40 arcmin<br />
: Reference frequency: Integrated 30 GHz band; no colour corrections have been applied<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STOKES || Real*4 || mK_RJ || Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_STOKES || Real*4 || mK_RJ || Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
=====Thermal dust emission=====<br />
<br />
: Full-mission file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-smica_2048_R3.00_full.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-smica_2048_R3.00_full.fits}}<br />
: First half-mission split file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-smica_2048_R3.00_hm1.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-smica_2048_R3.00_hm1.fits}}<br />
: Second half-mission split file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-smica_2048_R3.00_hm2.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-smica_2048_R3.00_hm2.fits}}<br />
: Odd ring split file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-smica_2048_R3.00_oe1.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-smica_2048_R3.00_oe1.fits}}<br />
: Even ring split file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-smica_2048_R3.00_oe2.fits|link=COM_CompMap_QU_thermaldust-smica_2048_R3.00_oe2.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 12 arcmin<br />
: Reference frequency: Integrated 353 GHz band; no colour corrections have been applied<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Q_STOKES || Real*4 || mK_RJ || Full-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_STOKES || Real*4 || mK_RJ || Full-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
==GNILC thermal dust maps==<br />
<br />
The 2018 GNILC thermal dust products are provided as single files that include both intensity and polarization, 3x3 IQU noise covariance matrices per pixel, and as well as local smoothing scale for the variable resolution map. The structure of the data files is the following:<br />
<br />
: Uniform resolution file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_IQU_thermaldust-gnilc-unires_2048_R3.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_IQU_thermaldust-gnilc-unires_2048_R3.00.fits}}<br />
: Variable resolution file name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_IQU_thermaldust-gnilc-varres_2048_R3.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_IQU_thermaldust-gnilc-varres_2048_R3.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 80 arcmin FWHM, or variable<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: Integrated 353 GHz band; no colour corrections have been applied<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb || Stokes I estimate <br />
|-<br />
|Q_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb || Stokes Q estimate<br />
|-<br />
|U_STOKES || Real*4 || K_cmb || Stokes U estimate<br />
|-<br />
|II_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb^2 || Covariance matrix II element <br />
|-<br />
|IQ_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb^2 || Covariance matrix IQ element <br />
|-<br />
|IU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb^2 || Covariance matrix IU element <br />
|-<br />
|QQ_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb^2 || Covariance matrix QQ element <br />
|-<br />
|QU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb^2 || Covariance matrix QU element <br />
|-<br />
|UU_COV || Real*4 || K_cmb^2 || Covariance matrix UU element <br />
|-<br />
|FWHM || Real*4 || arcmin || Local FWHM smoothing scale <br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
= Previous Releases: (2015) and (2013) Foreground Maps =<br />
<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="background-color: #FFDAB9;width:80%"><br />
'''Astrophysical components based on the 2015 data release'''<br />
<div class="mw-collapsible-content"><br />
<br />
== Overview ==<br />
This section describes the maps of astrophysical components produced from the Planck data. These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps described above using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of each product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITS file containing the data and associated information.<br />
All the details can be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}} and {PlanckPapers|planck20}}.<br />
<br />
== Astrophysical foregrounds from parametric component separation ==<br />
We describe diffuse foreground products for the Planck 2015 release. See the Planck Foregrounds Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a12}} for a detailed description of these products. Further scientific discussion and interpretation may be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2014-a31}}.<br />
<br />
'''Low-resolution temperature products'''<br />
<br />
: The Planck 2015 astrophysical component separation analysis combines Planck observations with the 9-year WMAP temperature sky maps (Bennett et al. 2013) and the 408 MHz survey by Haslam et al. (1982). This allows a direct decomposition of the low-frequency foregrounds into separate synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust components without strong spatial priors. <br />
<br />
'''Inputs'''<br />
<br />
The following data products are used for the low-resolution analysis:<br />
* Full-mission 30 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=30|period=Full|link=LFI 30 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 44 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=44|period=Full|link=LFI 44 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 70 GHz ds1 (18+23), ds2 (19+22), and ds3 (20+21) detector-set maps<br />
* Full-mission 100 GHz ds1 and ds2 detector set maps<br />
* Full-mission 143 GHz ds1 and ds2 detector set maps and detectors 5, 6, and 7 maps<br />
* Full-mission 217 GHz detector 1, 2, 3 and 4 maps<br />
* Full-mission 353 GHz detector set ds2 and detector 1 maps<br />
* Full-mission 545 GHz detector 2 and 4 maps<br />
* Full-mission 857 GHz detector 2 map<br />
* Beam-symmetrized 9-year WMAP K-band map [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/skymap_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
* Beam-symmetrized 9-year WMAP Ka-band map [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/skymap_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
* Default 9-year WMAP Q1 and Q2 differencing assembly maps [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/skymap_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
* Default 9-year WMAP V1 and V2 differencing assembly maps [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/skymap_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
* Default 9-year WMAP W1, W2, W3, and W4 differencing assembly maps [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/skymap_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
* Re-processed 408 MHz survey map, Remazeilles et al. (2014) [http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/foreground/2014_haslam_408_info.cfm (Lambda)]<br />
All maps are smoothed to a common resolution of 1 degree FWHM by deconvolving their original instrumental beam and pixel window, and convolving with the new common Gaussian beam, and repixelizing at Nside=256.<br />
<br />
'''Outputs'''<br />
<br />
===Synchrotron emission===<br />
<br />
<!--<center><br />
<gallery style="padding:0 0 0 0;" perrow=3 widths=800px heights=500px> <br />
File:commander_synch_amp.png | '''Commander low-resolution synchrotron amplitude'''<br />
</gallery><br />
</center>--><br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Synchrotron-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: 408 MHz<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-Synchrotron<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- SYNC-TEMP<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|nu || Real*4 || Hz || Frequency <br />
|-<br />
|intensity || Real*4 || W/Hz/m2/sr || GALPROP z10LMPD_SUNfE spectrum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
===Free-free emission===<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_freefree-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Reference frequency: NA<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-freefree<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|EM_ML || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|EM_MEAN || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|EM_RMS || Real*4 || cm^-6 pc || Emission measure posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_ML || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_MEAN || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_RMS || Real*4 || K || Electron temperature posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
===Spinning dust emission===<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_AME-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The spinning dust component has two independent constituents, each corresponding to one spdust2 component, but with different peak frequencies. The two components are stored in the two first FITS extensions, and the template frequency spectrum is stored in the third extension. <br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 22.8 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-AME1<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Primary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_ML || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_MEAN || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|FREQ_RMS || Real*4 || GHz || Primary peak frequency posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 41.0 GHz<br />
: Peak frequency: 33.35 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- COMP-MAP-AME2<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Secondary amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 2 -- SPINNING-DUST-TEMP<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|nu || Real*4 || GHz || Frequency <br />
|-<br />
|j_nu/nH || Real*4 || Jy sr-1 cm2/H || spdust2 spectrum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
===CO line emission===<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CO-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CO-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
Note: The CO line emission component has three independent objects, corresponding to the J1->0, 2->1 and 3->2 lines, stored in separate extensions. <br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-co10<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(1-0) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 1 -- COMP-MAP-co21<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(2-1) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ Extension 2 -- COMP-MAP-co32<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || CO(3-2) amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===94/100 GHz line emission===<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_xline-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_xline-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-xline<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Note: The amplitude of this component is normalized according to the 100-ds1 detector set map, ie., it is the amplitude as measured by this detector combination.<br />
<br />
===Thermal dust emission===<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_dust-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_dust-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 545 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-dust<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_MEAN || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|I_RMS || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Amplitude posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_ML || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_MEAN || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|TEMP_RMS || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature posterior rms<br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_MEAN || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_RMS || Real*4 || NA || Emissivity index posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich emission around the Coma and Virgo clusters===<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_SZ-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_SZ-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 60 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-SZ<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Y_ML || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Y_MEAN || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior mean <br />
|-<br />
|Y_RMS || Real*4 || y_SZ || Y parameter posterior rms<br />
|}<br />
<br />
'''High-resolution temperature products'''<br />
<br />
High-resolution foreground products at 7.5 arcmin FWHM are derived with the same algorithm as for the low-resolution analyses, but including frequency channels above (and including) 143 GHz. <br />
<br />
'''Inputs'''<br />
<br />
The following data products are used for the low-resolution analysis:<br />
* Full-mission 143 GHz ds1 and ds2 detector set maps and detectors 5, 6, and 7 maps<br />
* Full-mission 217 GHz detector 1, 2, 3 and 4 maps<br />
* Full-mission 353 GHz detector set ds2 and detector 1 maps<br />
* Full-mission 545 GHz detector 2 and 4 maps<br />
* Full-mission 857 GHz detector 2 map<br />
All maps are smoothed to a common resolution of 7.5 arcmin FWHM by deconvolving their original instrumental beam and pixel window, and convolving with the new common Gaussian beam, and repixelizing at Nside=2048.<br />
<br />
'''Outputs'''<br />
<br />
'''CO J2->1 emission'''<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CO21-commander_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CO21-commander_2048_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 7.5 arcmin<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-CO21<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_FULL || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Full-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "First year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "Second year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
'''Thermal dust emission'''<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_ThermalDust-commander_2048_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_ThermalDust-commander_2048_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 2048<br />
: Angular resolution = 7.5 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 545 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-dust<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_FULL || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Full-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-mission amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || First half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || Second half-ring amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "First year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|I_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || uK_RJ || "Second year" amplitude posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_FULL || Real*4 || NA || Full-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || NA || First half-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || NA || Second half-mission emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || NA || First half-ring emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || NA || Second half-ring emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || NA || "First year" emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|BETA_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || NA || "Second year" emissivity index posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
'''Polarization products'''<br />
<br />
Two polarization foreground products are provided, namely synchrotron and thermal dust emission. The spectral models are assumed identical to the corresponding temperature spectral models.<br />
<br />
'''Inputs'''<br />
<br />
The following data products are used for the polarization analysis:<br />
* (Only low-resolution analysis) Full-mission 30 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=30|period=Full|link=LFI 30 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* (Only low-resolution analysis) Full-mission 44 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=44|period=Full|link=LFI 44 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* (Only low-resolution analysis) Full-mission 70 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=70|period=Full|link=LFI 70 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 100 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=100|period=Full|link=HFI 100 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 143 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=143|period=Full|link=HFI 143 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 217 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=217|period=Full|link=HFI 217 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
* Full-mission 353 GHz frequency map, {{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=353|period=Full|link=HFI 353 GHz frequency maps}}<br />
In the low-resolution analysis, all maps are smoothed to a common resolution of 40 arcmin FWHM by deconvolving their original instrumental beam and pixel window, and convolving with the new common Gaussian beam, and repixelizing at Nside=256. In the high-resolution analysis (including only CMB and thermal dust emission), the corresponding resolution is 10 arcmin FWHM and Nside=1024.<br />
<br />
'''Outputs'''<br />
'''Synchrotron emission'''<br />
<br />
: File name: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_SynchrotronPol-commander_0256_R2.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_SynchrotronPol-commander_0256_R2.00.fits}}<br />
: Nside = 256<br />
: Angular resolution = 40 arcmin<br />
<br />
: Reference frequency: 30 GHz<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"<br />
|+ HDU -- COMP-MAP-SynchrotronPol<br />
|-<br />
|- bgcolor="ffdead" <br />
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description<br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_FULL || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Full-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_FULL || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Full-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-mission Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HM2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-mission Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || First half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-ring Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_HR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || Second half-ring Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "First year" Stokes Q posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|U_ML_YR1 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "First year" Stokes U posterior maximum <br />
|-<br />
|Q_ML_YR2 || Real*4 || K_RJ km/s || "Secon