Difference between revisions of "Catalogues"

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==References==
 
==References==

Revision as of 09:38, 24 October 2016


(2015) Second Catalogue of Compact Sources

The second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources (PCCS2) is a set of single-frequency source catalogues extracted from the Planck full-mission maps in intensity and polarization (LFI(Planck) Low Frequency Instrument_SkyMap_0??_1024_R2.01_full.fits and HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument_SkyMap_???_2048_R2.00_full.fits). The catalogues have been constructed as described in PCCS and in section 2 of Planck-2015-A26[1]. The validation of the catalogues is described in section 3 of Planck-2015-A26[1].

The catalogue at 100 GHz and above has been divided into two sub-catalogues: the PCCS2, here the sources have been detected in regions of the sky where it is possible to estimate the reliability of the detections, either statistically or by using external catalogues; PCCS2, here the detected sources are located in regions of the sky where it is not possible to make an estimate of their reliability.

By definition, the reliability of the whole PCCS2 is ≥ 80%, and a flag is available that allows the user to select a subsample of sources with a higher level of reliability (e.g., 90% or 95%).

The nine Planck full-mission frequency channel maps are used as input to the source detection pipelines. They contain 48 months of data for LFI(Planck) Low Frequency Instrument channels and 29 months of data for HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument channels. Therefore the flux densities of sources obtained from the full-mission maps are the average of at least 8 observations for LFI(Planck) Low Frequency Instrument channels or at least 4 observations for HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument channels. The relevant properties of the frequency maps and main parameters used to generate the catalogues are summarized in Tables 1 and 2.

Four different photometry methods have been used. For one of the methods, the native photometry from the Mexican hat wavelet detection algorithm, the analysis is performed on patches containing tangent plane projections of the map. For the other methods (aperture photometry, point spread function fitting, and Gaussian fitting), the analysis is performed directly on the full-sky maps.

PCCS2 in Intensity
Sky distribution of the PCCS2 intensity sources at three different channels: 30 GHz (red circles), 143 GHz (blue circles) and 857 GHz (green circles). The dimension of the circles is related to the brightness of the sources and the beam size of each channel.
PCCS2E in Intensity
Sky distribution of the PCCS2E intensity sources at three different channels: 143 GHz (blue circles) and 857 GHz (green circles).

The analysis in polarization has been performed in a non-blind fashion, looking at the position of the sources previously detected in intensity. As a result, polarization flux densities and polarization angles have been measured for hundreds of sources with a significance >99.99%. This high threshold in significance has been chosen to minimize the possibility of misinterpreting a peak of the polarized background as a source. This implies that, in general, most of the polarized sources are very bright, introducing an additional selection effect.

PCCS2 in Polarization
Sky distribution of the PCCS2 polarization sources at three different channels: 30GHz (red circles), 44GHz (green circles) and 70GHz (blue circles).
Sky distribution of the PCCS2 polarization sources at three different channels: 100GHz (red circles), 143GHz (blue circles) and 217GHz (green circles) and 353 GHz (black).
PCCS2E in Polarization
Sky distribution of the PCCS2E polarization sources at three different channels: 100GHz (red circles), 143GHz (blue circles) and 217GHz (green circles) and 353 GHz (black).


Table 1: PCCS2 and PCCS2E characteristics.
Channel 30 44 70 100 143 217 353 545 857
Frequency [GHz] 28.4 44.1 70.4 100.0 143.0 217.0 353.0 545.0 857.0
Wavelength [μm] 10561 6807 4260 3000 2098 1382 850 550 350
Number of sources
PCCS2 1560 934 1296 1742 2160 2135 1344 1694 4891
PCCS2E 2487 4139 16842 22665 31068 43290
Union PCCS2+PCCS2E 4229 6299 18977 24009 32762 48181
Number of sources in the extragalactic zonea.
PCCS2 745 367 504 1742 2160 2135 1344 1694 4891
PCCS2E 0 0 26 289 839 2097
Union PCCS2+PCSS2E 1742 2160 2161 1633 2533 6988
Flux densities [mJy] in the extragalactic zonea .
PCCS2
minimumb 376 603 444 232 147 127 242 535 720
90% completeness 426 676 489 269 177 152 304 555 791
uncertainty 87 134 101 55 35 29 55 105 168
PCCS2E
minimumb 189 350 597 939
90% completeness 144 311 557 927
uncertainty 35 73 144 278
Table 1 Notes

a 30-70 GHz: the extragalactic zone is given by |b| > 30°. 100-857 GHz: outside of galactic region where the reliability cannot be accurately assessed. Note that for the PCCS2E the only sources which occur in this region lie in the filament mask.

b Minimum flux density of the catalogue in the extragalactic zone after excluding the faintest 10% of sources.

Table 2: PCCS2 & PCCS2E polarization characteristics for sources with polarized emission significance > 99.99%
Channel 30 44 70 100 143 217 353
Number of significantly polarized sources in PCCS2 122 30 34 20 25 11 1
Minimum polarized flux densitya [mJy] 117 181 284 138 148 166 453
Polarized flux density uncertainty [mJy] 46 88 91 30 26 30 81
Minimum polarized flux density completeness 90% [mJy] 199 412 397 135 100 136 347
Minimum polarized flux density completeness 95% [mJy] 251 468 454 160 111 153 399
Minimum polarized flux density completeness 100% [mJy] 600 700 700 250 147 257 426
Number of significantly polarized sources in PCCS2E 43 111 325 666
Minimum polarized flux densitya [mJy] 121 87 114 348
Polarized flux density uncertainty [mJy] 52 44 55 178
Minimum polarized flux density completeness 90% [mJy] 410 613 270 567
Minimum polarized flux density completeness 95% [mJy] 599 893 464 590
Minimum polarized flux density completeness 100% [mJy] 835 893 786 958
Table 2 Notes

a Minimum polarized flux density of the catalogue of significantly polarised sources after excluding the faintest 10% of sources.

Catalogues

The PCCS2 catalogues are contained in the FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification files:

COM_PCCS_030_R2.04.fits
COM_PCCS_044_R2.04.fits
COM_PCCS_070_R2.04.fits
COM_PCCS_100_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_143_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_217_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_353_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_545_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_857_R2.01.fits

and the PCCS2E catalogues are contained in the FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification files:

COM_PCCS_100-excluded_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_143-excluded_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_217-excluded_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_353-excluded_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_545-excluded_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_857-excluded_R2.01.fits

The structure of these files is as follows:

PCCS2/PCCS2E FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification file structure
Extension 0: Primary header, no data
FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification Keyword Data Type Units Description
INSTRUME String Instrument (LFI(Planck) Low Frequency Instrument / HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument)
VERSION String Version of PCCS (PCCS2 / PCCS2_E)
DATE String Date file created: yyyy-mm-dd
ORIGIN String Name of organization responsible for the data (LFI(Planck) Low Frequency Instrument-DPCData Processing Center / HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument-DPCData Processing Center)
TELESCOP String Telescope (PLANCK)
CREATOR String Pipeline Version
DATE-OBS String days Beginning of the survey: yyyy-mm-dd
DATE-END String days End of the survey: yyyy-mm-dd
FWHMFull-Width-at-Half-Maximum Real*4 arcmin FWHMFull-Width-at-Half-Maximum from an elliptical Gaussian fit to the effective beam
OMEGA_B Real*4 arcmin2 Area of the effective beam
FWHMFull-Width-at-Half-Maximum_EFF Real*4 arcmin FWHMFull-Width-at-Half-Maximum computed from OMEGA_B assuming beam is Gaussian
OMEGA_B1 Real*4 arcmin2 Beam area within a radius of 1 × FWHMFull-Width-at-Half-Maximum_EFF
OMEGA_B2 Real*4 arcmin2 Beam area within a radius of 2 × FWHMFull-Width-at-Half-Maximum_EFF
Extension 1: BINTABLE, EXTNAME = PCCS2_fff (where fff is the frequency channel)
Column Name Data Type Units Description
Identification
NAME String Source name (see note 1)
Source position
GLON Real*8 degrees Galactic longitude based on extraction algorithm
GLAT Real*8 degrees Galactic latitude based on extraction algorithm
RA Real*8 degrees Right ascension (J2000) transformed from (GLON,GLAT)
DEC Real*8 degrees Declination (J2000) transformed from (GLON,GLAT)
Photometry
DETFLUX Real*4 mJy Flux density of source as determined by detection method
DETFLUX_ERR Real*4 mJy Uncertainty (1 sigma) in derived flux density from detection method
APERFLUX Real*4 mJy Flux density of source as determined from the aperture photometry
APERFLUX_ERR Real*4 mJy Uncertainty (1 sigma) in derived flux density from the aperture photometry
PSFFLUX Real*4 mJy Flux density of source as determined from PSF fitting
PSFFLUX_ERR Real*4 mJy Uncertainty (1 sigma) in derived flux density from PSF fitting
GAUFLUX Real*4 mJy Flux density of source as determined from 2-D Gaussian fitting
GAUFLUX_ERR Real*4 mJy Uncertainty (1 sigma) in derived flux density from 2-D Gaussian fitting
GAU_SEMI1 Real*4 arcmin Gaussian fit along axis 1 (FWHMFull-Width-at-Half-Maximum; see note 2 for axis definition)
GAU_SEMI1_ERR Real*4 arcmin Uncertainty (1 sigma) in derived Gaussian fit along axis 1
GAU_SEMI2 Real*4 arcmin Gaussian fit along axis 2 (FWHMFull-Width-at-Half-Maximum)
GAU_SEMI2_ERR Real*4 arcmin Uncertainty (1 sigma) in derived Gaussian fit along axis 2
GAU_THETA Real*4 deg Gaussian fit orientation angle (see note 2)
GAU_THETA_ERR Real*4 deg Uncertainty (1 sigma) in derived gaussian fit orientation angle
GAU_FWHMFull-Width-at-Half-Maximum_EFF Real*4 arcmin Gaussian fit effective FWHMFull-Width-at-Half-Maximum
Polarization measurements (30-353 GHz only)
P Real*4 mJy Polarization flux density of the sources as determined by a matched filter (see note 3)
P_ERR Real*4 mJy Uncertainty (1 sigma) in derived polarization flux density (see note 3)
ANGLE_P Real*4 degrees Orientation of polarization with respect to NGP (see notes 2 and 3)
ANGLE_P_ERR Real*4 degrees Uncertainty (1 sigma) in orientation of polarization (see note 3)
APER_P Real*4 mJy Polarization flux density of the sources as determined by aperture photometry (see note 3)
APER_P_ERR Real*4 mJy Uncertainty (1 sigma) in derived polarization flux density (see note 3)
APER_ANGLE_P Real*4 degrees Orientation of polarization with respect to NGP (see notes 2 and 3)
APER_ANGLE_P_ERR Real*4 degrees Uncertainty (1 sigma) in orientation of polarization (see note 3)
P_UPPER_LIMIT Real*4 mJy Polarization flux density 99.99% upper limit. This is provided only when P column is set to NULL; otherwise this column itself contains a NULL.
APER_P_UPPER_LIMIT Real*4 mJy Polarization flux density 99.99% upper limit. This is provided only when APER_P column is set to NULL; otherwise this column itself contains a NULL.
Marginal polarization measurements (100-353 GHz only) – see note 4
P_STAT Integer*2 Polarization detection status
PX Real*4 mJy Polarization flux density of the sources as determined by a matched filter using Bayesian polarization estimator.
PX_ERR_LOWER Real*4 mJy PX uncertainty; lower 95% error bar
PX_ERR_UPPER Real*4 mJy PX uncertainty; upper 95% error bar
ANGLE_PX Real*4 degrees Orientation of polarization with respect to NGP using Bayesian polarization estimator (see note 2)
ANGLE_PX_ERR_LOWER Real*4 degrees ANGLE_PX uncertainty; lower 95% error bar
ANGLE_PX_ERR_UPPER Real*4 degrees ANGLE_PX uncertainty; upper 95% error bar
Flags and validation
EXTENDED Integer*2 Extended source flag (see note 5)
EXT_VAL Integer*2 External validation flag (see note 6)
ERCSCEarly Release Compact Source Catalog String Name of the ERCSCEarly Release Compact Source Catalog counterpart, if any
PCCS String Name of the PCCS counterpart, if any
Flags and validation (PCCS2 only)
HIGHEST_RELIABILITY_CAT Integer*4 See note 7
Flags and validation (PCCS2E 100-857 GHz only)
WHICH_ZONE Integer*2 See note 8
Flags and validation (217-857 GHz only)
CIRRUS_N Integer*2 Number of sources (S/N > 5) detected at 857 GHz within a 1-degree radius.
SKY_BRIGHTNESS Real*4 MJy/sr The mean 857 GHz brightness within a 2-degree radius. This may be used as another indicator of cirrus contamination.
Flux densities at other frequencies (857 GHz only)
APERFLUX_217 Real*4 mJy Estimated flux density at 217 GHz
APERFLUX_ERR_217 Real*4 mJy Uncertainty in flux density at 217 GHz
APERFLUX_353 Real*4 mJy Estimated flux density at 353 GHz
APERFLUX_ERR_353 Real*4 mJy Uncertainty in flux density at 353 GHz
APERFLUX_545 Real*4 mJy Estimated flux density at 545 GHz
APERFLUX_ERR_545 Real*4 mJy Uncertainty in flux density at 545 GHz
Notes
  1. Format is PCCS2 fff Glll.ll±bb.bb for sources in the PCCS2 and PCCS2E fff Glll.ll±bb.bb for sources in the PCCS2E, where fff is the frequency channel and (l, b) is the position of the source in Galactic coordinates truncated to two decimal places.
  2. We follow the IAU/IEEE convention (Hamaker & Bregman 1996) for defining the angle of polarization of a source, and this convention is also used for the other angles in the catalogue. The angle is measured from the North Galactic Pole in a clockwise direction from -90 to 90 degrees.
  3. Provided when the significance of the polarization measurement is > 99.99% and set to NULL otherwise.
  4. The P_STAT flag gives the status of the marginal polarization detection, possible values are:
    3 – Bright: P field filled in; all PX fields set to NULL.
    2 – Significant: P field is set to NULL; 0 is outside the PX 95% HPD; all PX fields are filled.
    1 – Marginal: P field is set to NULL; 0 is inside the PX 95% HPD, but mode of PX posterior distribution is not 0; all PX fields are filled.
    0 – No detection: P field is set to NULL; mode of PX posterior distribution is 0; PX_ERRL, ANGLE_PX, ANGLE_PX_ERR_LOWER, and ANGLE_PX_ERR_UPPER are set to NULL.
  5. The EXTENDED flag has the value of 0 if the source is compact and the value of 1 is it extended. The source size is determined by the geometric mean of the Gaussian fit FWHMs, with the criterion for extension being sqrt(GAU_FWHMMAJ * GAU_FWHMIN) > 1.5 times the beam FWHMFull-Width-at-Half-Maximum.
  6. The EXT_VAL flag gives the status of the external validation, possible values are:
    3 – The source has a clear counterpart in one of the catalogues used as ancillary data.
    2 – The source does not have a clear counterpart in one of the catalogues used as ancillary data but it has been detected by the internal multi-frequency method.
    1 – The source does not have a clear counterpart in one of the catalogues used as ancillary data and it has not been detected by the internal multi-frequency method, but it has been detected in a previous Planck source catalogue.
    0 – The source does not have a clear counterpart in one of the catalogues used as ancillary data and it has not been detected by the internal multi-frequency method.
  7. The HIGHEST_RELIABILTY_CAT column contains the highest reliability catalogue to which the source belongs. As the full catalogue reliability is ≥ 80%, this is the lowest possible value in this column. Where possible this is provided in steps of 1% otherwise it is in steps of 5%.
  8. The WHICH_ZONE column encodes the zone in which the source lies:
    1 – source lies inside filament mask.
    2 – source lies inside Galactic zone.
    3 – sources lies in both filament mask and Galactic zone.

Zone map

For each HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument frequency channel there is an associated map which defines the quantified-reliability (PCCS2) and unquantified-reliability (PCCS2E) zones are on the sky.

The files are called:

COM_PCCS_100-zoneMask_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_143-zoneMask_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_217-zoneMask_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_353-zoneMask_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_545-zoneMask_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_857-zoneMask_R2.01.fits

The structure of the files is as follows:

Zone map FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification file structure
Extension 0: Primary header, no data
FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification Keyword Data Type Units Description
DATE String Date of creation of file
Extension 1: BINTABLE, HEALPix([http://healpix.sourceforge.net Hierarchical Equal Area isoLatitude Pixelation of a sphere], {{BibCite|gorski2005}}) pixelation used to produce Planck sky maps (and HFI HPR). map (see note 1)
FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification keyword Data Type Value Description
PIXTYPE String HEALPIX HEALPix([http://healpix.sourceforge.net Hierarchical Equal Area isoLatitude Pixelation of a sphere], {{BibCite|gorski2005}}) pixelation used to produce Planck sky maps (and HFI HPR). pixelation
ORDERING String RING Pixel ordering
NSIDE Int*4 2048 HEALPix([http://healpix.sourceforge.net Hierarchical Equal Area isoLatitude Pixelation of a sphere], {{BibCite|gorski2005}}) pixelation used to produce Planck sky maps (and HFI HPR). resolution parameter
NPIX Int*4 50331648 Number of pixels
COORDSYS String G Coordinate system
FREQ_CHL String Frequency channel
Notes
  1. This FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification extension contains an integer HEALPix([http://healpix.sourceforge.net Hierarchical Equal Area isoLatitude Pixelation of a sphere], {{BibCite|gorski2005}}) pixelation used to produce Planck sky maps (and HFI HPR). map which encodes the information on which of 4 possible regions on the sky each pixel belongs to:
    0 – quantified-reliability zone (PCCS2).
    1 – filament mask.
    2 – Galactic zone.
    3 – filament mask and Galactic zone.

S/N threshold map

For each HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument frequency channel there are a number of maps which contains the S/N threshold used to accept sources into the PCCS2 and PCCS2E catalogues.

For the full catalogue (80% reliability in the quantified reliability zone) they are:

COM_PCCS_100-SN-threshold_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_143-SN-threshold_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_217-SN-threshold_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_353-SN-threshold_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_545-SN-threshold_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_857-SN-threshold_R2.01.fits

For 85% reliability they are:

COM_PCCS_100-SN-threshold-85pc-reliability_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_143-SN-threshold-85pc-reliability_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_217-SN-threshold-85pc-reliability_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_353-SN-threshold-85pc-reliability_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_545-SN-threshold-85pc-reliability_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_857-SN-threshold-85pc-reliability_R2.01.fits

For 90% reliability they are:

COM_PCCS_100-SN-threshold-90pc-reliability_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_143-SN-threshold-90pc-reliability_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_217-SN-threshold-90pc-reliability_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_353-SN-threshold-90pc-reliability_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_545-SN-threshold-90pc-reliability_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_857-SN-threshold-90pc-reliability_R2.01.fits

For 95% reliability they are:

COM_PCCS_100-SN-threshold-95pc-reliability_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_143-SN-threshold-95pc-reliability_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_217-SN-threshold-95pc-reliability_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_353-SN-threshold-95pc-reliability_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_545-SN-threshold-95pc-reliability_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_857-SN-threshold-95pc-reliability_R2.01.fits

The structure of the files is as follows:

Zone map FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification file structure
Extension 0: Primary header, no data
FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification Keyword Data Type Units Description
DATE String Date of creation of file
Extension 1: BINTABLE, HEALPix([http://healpix.sourceforge.net Hierarchical Equal Area isoLatitude Pixelation of a sphere], {{BibCite|gorski2005}}) pixelation used to produce Planck sky maps (and HFI HPR). map (see note 1)
FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification keyword Data Type Value Description
PIXTYPE String HEALPIX HEALPix([http://healpix.sourceforge.net Hierarchical Equal Area isoLatitude Pixelation of a sphere], {{BibCite|gorski2005}}) pixelation used to produce Planck sky maps (and HFI HPR). pixelation
ORDERING String RING Pixel ordering
NSIDE Int*4 2048 HEALPix([http://healpix.sourceforge.net Hierarchical Equal Area isoLatitude Pixelation of a sphere], {{BibCite|gorski2005}}) pixelation used to produce Planck sky maps (and HFI HPR). resolution parameter
NPIX Int*4 50331648 Number of pixels
COORDSYS String G Coordinate system
FREQ_CHL String Frequency channel
Notes
  1. This FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification extension contains a single precision HEALPix([http://healpix.sourceforge.net Hierarchical Equal Area isoLatitude Pixelation of a sphere], {{BibCite|gorski2005}}) pixelation used to produce Planck sky maps (and HFI HPR). map of the S/N threshold applied in the generation of the catalogue at that position on the sky.

Noise map

For each HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument frequency channel there is an associated map which contains the detection noise as a function of position on the sky.

The files are called:

COM_PCCS_100-noise-level_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_143-noise-level_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_217-noise-level_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_353-noise-level_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_545-noise-level_R2.01.fits
COM_PCCS_857-noise-level_R2.01.fits

The structure of the files is as follows:

Zone map FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification file structure
Extension 0: Primary header, no data
FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification Keyword Data Type Units Description
DATE String Date of creation of file
Extension 1: BINTABLE, HEALPix([http://healpix.sourceforge.net Hierarchical Equal Area isoLatitude Pixelation of a sphere], {{BibCite|gorski2005}}) pixelation used to produce Planck sky maps (and HFI HPR). map (see note 1)
FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification keyword Data Type Value Description
PIXTYPE String HEALPIX HEALPix([http://healpix.sourceforge.net Hierarchical Equal Area isoLatitude Pixelation of a sphere], {{BibCite|gorski2005}}) pixelation used to produce Planck sky maps (and HFI HPR). pixelation
ORDERING String RING Pixel ordering
NSIDE Int*4 2048 HEALPix([http://healpix.sourceforge.net Hierarchical Equal Area isoLatitude Pixelation of a sphere], {{BibCite|gorski2005}}) pixelation used to produce Planck sky maps (and HFI HPR). resolution parameter
NPIX Int*4 50331648 Number of pixels
COORDSYS String G Coordinate system
FREQ_CHL String Frequency channel
Notes
  1. This FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification extension contains a single precision HEALPix([http://healpix.sourceforge.net Hierarchical Equal Area isoLatitude Pixelation of a sphere], {{BibCite|gorski2005}}) pixelation used to produce Planck sky maps (and HFI HPR). map of the detection noise at each location on the sky, in units of Jy.


(2015) Second SZSunyaev-Zel'dovich Catalogue

The Planck SZSunyaev-Zel'dovich catalogue is constructed as described in SZ catalogue and in sections 2 and 3 of Planck-2015-A27[2]. Three pipelines are used to detect SZSunyaev-Zel'dovich clusters: two independent implementations of the Matched Multi-Filter (MMF1 and MMF3), and PowellSnakes (PwS). The main catalogue is constructed as the union of the catalogues from the three detection methods. The completeness and reliability of the catalogues have been assessed through internal and external validation as described in section 4 of Planck-2015-A27[2].

The size of a detection is given in terms of the scale size, θs, and the flux is given in terms of the total integrated Comptonization parameter, Y = Y5R500. The parameters of the GNFW profile assumed by the detection pipelines are written in the headers of the catalogues. For the sake of convenience, the conversion factor from Y to Y500 is also provided in the header.

The union catalogue contains the coordinates of a detection, its signal-to-noise ratio, an estimate of Y and its uncertainty, together with a summary of the validation information, including external identification of a cluster and its redshift if they are available. The pipeline from which the information is taken is called the reference pipeline. If more than one pipeline makes the same detection, the information is taken from the the pipeline that makes the most significant detection. Where the redshift is known, we provide the SZSunyaev-Zel'dovich mass for the reference pipeline.

The individual catalogues contain the coordinates and the signal-to-noise ratio of the detections, and information on the size and flux of the detections. The entries are cross-referenced to the detections in the union catalogue. The full information on the degeneracy between θs and Y is included in the individual catalogues in the form of the two-dimensional probability distribution for each detection. It is computed on a well-sampled grid to produce a two-dimensional image for each detection. It is provided in this form so it can be combined with a model or external data to produce tighter constraints on the parameters. The individual catalogues also contain Planck measurements of the SZSunyaev-Zel'dovich mass observable, MSZSunyaev-Zel'dovich, as calculated using a Y-M scaling relation and an assumed redshift to break the Y-θs degeneracy. These are provided for each detection as functions of assumed redshift, in the range 0.01 < z < 1, along with the upper and lower 68% confidence limits.

The selection function of the union catalogue, the intersection catalogue and the individual catalogues are provided in additional files. The selection function files contains the probability of detection for clusters of given intrinsic parameters θ500 and Y500. The file includes the definition of the survey area in the form of a HEALPix([http://healpix.sourceforge.net Hierarchical Equal Area isoLatitude Pixelation of a sphere], {{BibCite|gorski2005}}) pixelation used to produce Planck sky maps (and HFI HPR). mask, and is evaluated for a range of signal-to-noise thresholds between 4.5 and 10.

Union catalogue

The union catalogue is contained in HFI_PCCS_SZ-union_R2.08.fits.

Extension 0: Primary header, no data
FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification Keyword Data Type Units Description
INSTRUME String Instrument (HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument)
VERSION String Version of catalogue
DATE String Date file created: yyyy-mm-dd
ORIGIN String Name of organization responsible for the data (HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument-DPCData Processing Center)
TELESCOP String Telescope (PLANCK)
CREATOR String Pipeline version
DATE-OBS String Start date of the survey: yyyy-mm-dd
DATE-END String End date of the survey: yyyy-mm-dd
PROCVER String Data version
PP_ALPHA Real*4 GNFW pressure profile α parameter
PP_BETA Real*4 GNFW pressure profile β parameter
PP_GAMMA Real*4 GNFW pressure profile γ parameter
PP_C500 Real*4 GNFW pressure profile c500 parameter
PP_Y2YFH Real*4 Conversion factor from Y to Y500
Extension 1: BINTABLE, EXTNAME = PSZ2_UNION
Column Name Data Type Units Description
INDEX Int*4 Index used to cross-reference with individual catalogues
NAME String Source name (see note 1)
GLON Real*8 degrees Galactic longitude
GLAT Real*8 degrees Galactic latitude
RA Real*8 degrees Right ascension (J2000) transformed from (GLON,GLAT)
DEC Real*8 degrees Declination (J2000) transformed from (GLON,GLAT)
POS_ERR Real*4 arcmin Position uncertainty (95% confidence interval)
SNR Real*4 Signal-to-noise ratio of the detection
PIPELINE Int*4 Pipeline from which information is taken (reference pipeline): 1= MMF1; 2 = MMF3; 3 = PwS
PIPE_DET Int*4 Pipelines which detect this object (see note 2)
PCCS2 Bool Indicates whether detection matches with any in PCCS2 catalogues
PSZ Int*4 Index of matching detection in PSZ1, or -1 if new detection
IR_FLAG Int*1 Flag denoting heavy infrared contamination
Q_NEURAL Real*4 Neural network quality flag (see note 3)
Y5R500 Real*4 10-3 arcmin2 Mean marginal Y5R500 as determined by reference pipeline
Y5R500_ERR Real*4 10-3 arcmin2 Uncertainty on Y5R500 as determined by reference pipeline
VALIDATION Int*4 External validation status (see note 4)
REDSHIFT_ID String External identifier of cluster associated with redshift measurement (see note 5)
REDSHIFT Real*4 Redshift of cluster (see note 5)
MSZ Real*4 1014 Msol SZSunyaev-Zel'dovich mass proxy (see note 6)
MSZ_ERR_UP Real*4 1014 Msol Upper bound of 68% SZSunyaev-Zel'dovich mass proxy confidence interval (see note 6)
MSZ_ERR_LOW Real*4 1014 Msol Lower bound of 68% SZSunyaev-Zel'dovich mass proxy confidence interval (see note 6)
MCXC String Identifier of X-ray counterpart in the MCXC, if one is present
REDMAPPER String Identifier of optical counterpart in the RedMAPPer catalogue, if one is present
ACT String Identifier of SZSunyaev-Zel'dovich counterpart in the ACT catalogues, if one is present
SPT String Identifier of SZSunyaev-Zel'dovich counterpart in the SPT catalogues, if one is present
WISE_FLAG Int*4 Confirmation flag of WISE overdensity (see note 7)
AMI_EVIDENCE Real*4 Bayesian evidence for AMI counterpart detection (see note 8)
COSMO Bool Indicates whether detection is in the cosmology sample
COMMENT String Comments on this detection
Notes
  1. Format is PSZ2 Glll.ll±bb.b where (l,b) are the Galactic coordinates truncated to 2 decimal places.
  2. The three least significant decimal digits are used to represent detection or non-detection by the pipelines. Order of the digits: hundreds = MMF1; tens = MMF3; units = PwS. If it is detected then the corresponding digit is set to 1, otherwise it is set to 0.
  3. Neural network quality flag is 1-Qbad, following the definitions in Aghanim et al. 2014.
  4. Summary of the external validation, encoding the most robust external identification: 10 = ENO follow-up; 11 = RTT follow-up; 12 = PanSTARRs; 13 = RedMAPPer non-blind; 14 = SDSS high-z; 15 = AMI; 16 = WISE; 20 = legacy identification from the PSZ1; 21 = MCXC; 22 = SPT; 23 = ACT; 24 = RedMAPPer; 25 = legacy identification from PSZ1 with externally updated redshift; 30 = NED; -1 = no known external counterpart.
  5. Redshift source is the most robust external identification listed in the VALIDATION field.
  6. MSZSunyaev-Zel'dovich is the hydrostatic mass assuming the best-fit Y-M scaling relation of Arnaud 2010 as a prior. The uncertainties are statistical and based on the Planck measurement uncertainties only. Not included in the uncertainties are the statistical errors on the scaling relation, the intrinsic scatter in the relation, or systematic errors in data selection for the scaling relation fit.
  7. Assigned by visual inspection: 0 = no significant galaxy overdensity; 1 = possible galaxy overdensity; 2 = probable galaxy overdensity; 3 = significant galaxy overdensity detected; -1 = possible galaxy overdensity (affected by bright star artefacts); -2 = no significant galaxy overdensity (affected by bright star artefacts); -3 = no assessment possible (affected by bright star artefacts); -10 = not analysed.
  8. Defined in the paper.

Individual catalogues

The individual pipeline catalogues are contained in the FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification files

Their structure is as follows:

FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification file structure
Extension 0: Primary header, no data
FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification Keyword Data Type Units Description
INSTRUME String Instrument (HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument)
VERSION String Version of catalogue
DATE String Date file created: yyyy-mm-dd
ORIGIN String Name of organization responsible for the data (HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument-DPCData Processing Center)
TELESCOP String Telescope (PLANCK)
CREATOR String Pipeline version
DATE-OBS String Start time of the survey: yyyy-mm-dd
DATE-END String End time of the survey: yyyy-mm-dd
PROCVER String Data version
PP_ALPHA Real*4 GNFW pressure profile α parameter
PP_BETA Real*4 GNFW pressure profile β parameter
PP_GAMMA Real*4 GNFW pressure profile γ parameter
PP_C500 Real*4 GNFW pressure profile c500 parameter
PP_Y2YFH Real*4 Conversion factor from Y to Y500
Extension 1: BINTABLE, EXTNAME = PSZ2_INDIVIDUAL
Column Name Data Type Units Description
INDEX Int*4 Index from union catalogue
NAME String Source name (see note 1)
GLON Real*8 degrees Galactic longitude
GLAT Real*8 degrees Galactic latitude
RA Real*8 degrees Right ascension (J2000) transformed from (GLON, GLAT)
DEC Real*8 degrees Declination (J2000) transformed from (GLON, GLAT)
POS_ERR Real*4 arcmin Position uncertainty (95% confidence interval)
SNR Real*4 Signal-to-noise ratio of detection
TS_MIN Real*4 Minimum value of θs in grid in second extension HDU (see note 2)
TS_MAX Real*4 Maximum value of θs in grid in second extension HDU (see note 2)
Y_MIN Real*4 Minimum value of Y in grid in second extension HDU (see note 2)
Y_MAX Real*4 Maximum value of Y in grid in second extension HDU (see note 2)
Keyword Data Type Value Description
PIPELINE String Name of detection pipeline
Extension 2: IMAGE, EXTNAME = PSZ2_PROBABILITY (see note 2)
Keyword Data Type Value Description
NAXIS1 Integer 256 Dimension 1
NAXIS2 Integer 256 Dimension 2
NAXIS3 Integer Ndet Dimension 3 = Number of detections
Keyword Data Type Value Description
PIPELINE String Name of detection pipeline
Extension 3: IMAGE, EXTNAME = PSZ2_MSZ_ARRAY (see note 3)
Keyword Data Type Value Description
NAXIS1 Integer 100 Dimension 1
NAXIS2 Integer 4 Dimension 2
NAXIS3 Integer Ndet Dimension 3 = Number of detections
Keyword Data Type Value Description
PIPELINE String Name of detection pipeline
Notes
  1. Format PSZ2 Glll.ll±bb.bb where (l, b) are the Galactic coordinates truncated to 2 decimal places.
  2. Extension 2 contains a three-dimensional image with the two-dimensional probability distribution in θs and Y for each detection. The probability distributions are evaluated on a 256 × 256 linear grid between the limits specified in extension 1. The limits are determined independently for each detection. The dimension of the 3D image is 256 × 256 × Ndet, where Ndet is the number of detections. The first dimension is θs and the second dimension is Y.
  3. Extension 3 contains a three-dimensional image with the information on the MSZSunyaev-Zel'dovich observable per cluster as a function of assumed redshift. The image dimensions are 100 × 4 × Ndet, where Ndet is the number of detections. The first dimension is the assumed redshift. The second dimension has size 4: the first element is the assumed redshift value corresponding to the MSZSunyaev-Zel'dovich values. The second element is the MSZSunyaev-Zel'dovich lower 68% confidence bound, the third element is the MSZSunyaev-Zel'dovich estimate and the fourth element is the MSZSunyaev-Zel'dovich upper 68% confidence bound, all in units of 1014 Msol. These uncertainties are based on the Planck measurement uncertainties only. Not included in the error estimates are the statistical errors on the scaling relation, the intrinsic scatter in the relation, or systematic errors in data selection for the scaling relation fit.

Selection function

The selection function for the union, intersection and individual pipeline catalogues are contained in the FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification files:

Their structure is as follows:

FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification file structure
Extension 0: Primary header, no data
FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification Keyword Data Type Units Description
INSTRUME String Instrument (HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument)
VERSION String Version of catalogue
DATE String Date file created: yyyy-mm-dd
ORIGIN String Name of organization responsible for the data (HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument-DPCData Processing Center)
TELESCOP String Telescope (PLANCK)
CREATOR String Pipeline version
DATE-OBS String Start time of the survey: yyyy-mm-dd
DATE-END String End time of the survey: yyyy-mm-dd
PROCVER String Data version
JOIN String Join type (UNION, INTERSEC, MMF1, MMF3, PwS)
MASK String Mask name (SURVEY, COSMOLOG)
Extension 1: BINTABLE, HEALPix([http://healpix.sourceforge.net Hierarchical Equal Area isoLatitude Pixelation of a sphere], {{BibCite|gorski2005}}) pixelation used to produce Planck sky maps (and HFI HPR). map (see note 1)
FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification keyword Data Type Value Description
PIXTYPE String HEALPIX HEALPix([http://healpix.sourceforge.net Hierarchical Equal Area isoLatitude Pixelation of a sphere], {{BibCite|gorski2005}}) pixelation used to produce Planck sky maps (and HFI HPR). pixelation
ORDERING String RING Pixel ordering
NSIDE Int*4 2048 HEALPix([http://healpix.sourceforge.net Hierarchical Equal Area isoLatitude Pixelation of a sphere], {{BibCite|gorski2005}}) pixelation used to produce Planck sky maps (and HFI HPR). resolution parameter
NPIX Int*4 50331648 Number of pixels
COORDSYS String G Coordinate system
Extension 2: IMAGE, EXTNAME = SELFUNC (see note 2)
Keyword Data Type Value Description
NAXIS1 Integer 30 Dimension 1
NAXIS2 Integer 32 Dimension 2
NAXIS3 Integer 12 Dimension 3
Keyword Data Type Value Description
AXIS1 String CY500 Name of axis 1
AXIS2 String T500 Name of axis 2
AXIS3 String SNRCUT Name of axis 3
UNITS String PERCENT Units of selection function
COMPTYPE String DIFF Type of selection function (differential)
Extension 3: IMAGE, EXTNAME = YGRID (see note 3)
Keyword Data Type Value Description
NAXIS1 Integer 30 Dimension 1
Keyword Data Type Value Description
COL1 String CY500 Grid values of Y500
Extension 4: IMAGE, EXTNAME = TGRID (see note 4)
Keyword Data Type Value Description
NAXIS1 Integer 32 Dimension 1
Keyword Data Type Value Description
COL1 String T500 Grid values of θ500
Extension 5: IMAGE, EXTNAME = SNR_THRESH (see note 5)
Keyword Data Type Value Description
NAXIS1 Integer 12 Dimension 1
Keyword Data Type Value Description
COL1 String S/N Grid values of S/N threshold
Notes
  1. Extension 1 contains a mask defining the survey region, given by an Nside = 2048 ring-ordered HEALPix([http://healpix.sourceforge.net Hierarchical Equal Area isoLatitude Pixelation of a sphere], {{BibCite|gorski2005}}) pixelation used to produce Planck sky maps (and HFI HPR). map in GALACTIC coordinates. Pixels in the survey region have the value 1.0 while pixels outside of the survey region have value 0.0.
  2. Extension 2 contains a three-dimensional image containing the survey completeness probability distribution for various S/N thresholds. The information is stored in an image of size 30 × 32 × 12. The first dimension is Y500, the second dimension is θ500 and the third dimension is the signal-to-noise threshold. The units are percent and lie in the range 0-100 and denote the detection probability of a cluster in the given (Y500, θ500) bin.
  3. Extension 3 contains the Y500 grid values for the completeness data cube in the second extension. It has length 30 and spans the range from 1.12480 × 10-4 arcmin2 to 7.20325 × 10-2 arcmin2 in logarithmic steps.
  4. Extension 4 contains the θ500 grid values for the completeness data cube in the second extension. It has length 32 and spans the range from 0.9416 arcmin to 35.31 arcmin in logarithmic steps.
  5. Extension 5 contains the signal-to-noise threshold grid values for the completeness data cube in the second extension. It has length 12 and contains thresholds from 4.5 to 10.0 in steps of 0.5.

Planck Catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps

The Planck Catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCC) is a list of 13188 Galactic sources and 54 sources located in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds. The sources have been identified in Planck data as sources colder than their environment. It has been buit using the 48 months Planck data at 857, 545, and 353 GHz combined with the 3 THz IRAS data, as it is described in Planck-2015-A28[3].

The all-sky distribution of the PGCC sources is shown below on top of the 857 GHz emission shown in logarithmic scale between 10-2 to 102 MJy/sr.

All-sky distribution of the PGCC sources.

Sources are divided into three categories based on the reliability of the flux density estimates in IRAS 3 THz and Planck 857, 545, and 353 GHz bands.

  • FLUX_QUALITY=1 : sources with flux density estimates S/N > 1 in all bands ;
  • FLUX_QUALITY=2 : sources with flux density estimates S/N > 1 only in 857, 545, and 353 GHz Planck bands, considered as very cold source candidates ;
  • FLUX_QUALITY=3 : sources without any reliable flux density estimates, listed as poor candidates.

The all-sky distributions of the PGCC sources per FLUX_QUALITY category are shown below on top of the 857 GHz map in grey scale shown in logarithmic scale between 10-2 to 102 MJy/sr.

All-sky distribution of the PGCC sources with FLUX_QUALITY=1.
All-sky distribution of the PGCC sources with FLUX_QUALITY=2.
All-sky distribution of the PGCC sources with FLUX_QUALITY=3.

Distance estimates have been obtained on 5574 PGCC sources using seven different methods/technics, as described in Planck-2015-A28[3]. A flag is raised to quantify the quality of the distance estimates, defined as follows:

  • DIST_QUALITY=0 : No distance estimate ;
  • DIST_QUALITY=1 : Single distance estimate ;
  • DIST_QUALITY=2 : Multiple distance estimates which are consistent within 1[math]\sigma[/math] ;
  • DIST_QUALITY=3 : Multiple distance estimates which are not consistent within 1[math]\sigma[/math] ;
  • DIST_QUALITY=4 : Single upper limits.

The all-sky distribution of the sources with robust distance estimates is shown below.

All-sky distribution of the 4655 PGCC sources for which a distance estimate with a DIST_QUALITY flag equal to 1 or 2 is available. The various types of distance estimates are defined as follows : kinematic (purple), optical extinction (blue), near-infrared extinction (green), molecular complex association (orange), and Herschel HKP-GCC (red). We also show the distribution of the 664 sources with an upper-limit estimate (DIST_QUALITY=4) provided by the near-infrared extinction method (light green). Molecular complexes are outlined with black contours.

The catalogue is contained in the FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification file HFI_PCCS_GCC_R2.02.fits. It structure is as follows:

FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification file structure
Identification
FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification Keyword Data Type Units Description
NAME String Source Name
SNR real*8 Maximum S/N over the 857, 545, and 353 GHz Planck cold residual maps
SNR_857 real*8 S/N of the cold residual detection at 857 GHz
SNR_545 real*8 S/N of the cold residual detection at 545 GHz
SNR_353 real*8 S/N of the cold residual detection at 353 GHz
Source position
FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification Keyword Data Type Units Description
GLON real*8 deg Galactic longitude based on morphology fitting
GLAT real*8 deg Galactic latitude based on morphology fitting
RA real*8 deg Right ascension (J2000) in degrees transformed from (GLON, GLAT)
DEC real*8 deg Declination (J2000) in degrees transformed from (GLON, GLAT)
Morphology
FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification Keyword Data Type Units Description
GAU_MAJOR_AXIS real*8 arcmin FWHMFull-Width-at-Half-Maximum along the major axis of the elliptical Gaussian
GAU_MAJOR_AXIS_SIG real*8 arcmin 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty on the FWHMFull-Width-at-Half-Maximum along the major axis
GAU_MINOR_AXIS real*8 arcmin FWHMFull-Width-at-Half-Maximum along the minor axis of the elliptical Gaussian
GAU_MINOR_AXIS_SIG real*8 arcmin 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty on the FWHMFull-Width-at-Half-Maximum along the minor axis
GAU_POSITION_ANGLE real*8 rad Position angle of the elliptical gaussian (see note 1)
GAU_POSITION_ANGLE_SIG real*8 rad 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty on the position angle
Photometry
FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification Keyword Data Type Units Description
FLUX_3000_CLUMP real*8 Jy Flux density of the clump at 3 THz
FLUX_3000_CLUMP_SIG real*8 Jy 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty on the flux density of the clump at 3 THz
FLUX_857_CLUMP real*8 Jy Flux density of the clump at 857 GHz
FLUX_857_CLUMP_SIG real*8 Jy 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty on the flux density of the clump at 857 GHz
FLUX_545_CLUMP real*8 Jy Flux density of the clump at 545 GHz
FLUX_545_CLUMP_SIG real*8 Jy 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty on the flux density of the clump at 545 GHz
FLUX_353_CLUMP real*8 Jy Flux density of the clump at 353 GHz
FLUX_353_CLUMP_SIG real*8 Jy 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty on the flux density of the clump at 353 GHz
FLUX_3000_WBKG real*8 Jy Flux density of the warm background at 3 THz (see note 2)
FLUX_3000_WBKG_SIG real*8 Jy 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty on the flux density of warm background at 3 THz
FLUX_857_WBKG real*8 Jy Flux density of the warm background at 857 GHz
FLUX_857_WBKG_SIG real*8 Jy 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty on the flux density of the warm background at 857 GHz
FLUX_545_WBKG real*8 Jy Flux density of the warm background at 545 GHz
FLUX_545_WBKG_SIG real*8 Jy 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty on the flux density of the warm background at 545 GHz
FLUX_353_WBKG real*8 Jy Flux density of the warm background at 353 GHz
FLUX_353_WBKG_SIG real*8 Jy 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty on the flux density of the warm background at 353 GHz
FLUX_QUALITY int*4 1-3 Category of flux density reliability (see note 3)
FLUX_BLENDING int*4 0/1 1 if blending issue with flux density estimate (see note 4)
FLUX_BLENDING_IDX int*8 Catalogue index of the closest source responsible for blending
FLUX_BLENDING_ANG_DIST real*8 arcmin Angular distance to the closest source responsible for blending
FLUX_BLENDING_BIAS_3000 real*8  % Relative bias of the flux density at 3000 GHz due to blending
FLUX_BLENDING_BIAS_857 real*8  % Relative bias of the flux density at 857 GHz due to blending
FLUX_BLENDING_BIAS_545 real*8  % Relative bias of the flux density at 545 GHz due to blending
FLUX_BLENDING_BIAS_353 real*8  % Relative bias of the flux density at 353 GHz due to blending
Distance
FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification Keyword Data Type Units Description
DIST_KINEMATIC real*8 kpc Distance estimate [1] using kinematics
DIST_KINEMATIC_SIG real*8 kpc 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty on the distance estimate [1] using kinematics
DIST_OPT_EXT_DR7 real*8 kpc Distance estimate [2] using optical extinction on SDSS DR7
DIST_OPT_EXT_DR7_SIG real*8 kpc 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty on the distance estimate [2] using optical extinction on SDSS DR7
DIST_OPT_EXT_DR9 real*8 kpc Distance estimate [3] using optical extinction on SDSS DR9
DIST_OPT_EXT_DR9_SIG real*8 kpc 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty on the distance estimate [3] using optical extinction on SDSS DR9
DIST_NIR_EXT_IRDC real*8 kpc Distance estimate [4] using near-infrared extinction towards IRDCs
DIST_NIR_EXT_IRDC_SIG real*8 kpc 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty on the distance estimate [4] using near-infrared extinction towards IRDCs
DIST_NIR_EXT real*8 kpc Distance estimate [5] using near-infrared extinction
DIST_NIR_EXT_SIG real*8 kpc 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty on the distance estimate [5] using near-infrared extinction
DIST_MOLECULAR_COMPLEX real*8 kpc Distance estimate [6] using molecular complex association
DIST_MOLECULAR_COMPLEX_SIG real*8 kpc 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty on the distance estimate [6] using molecular complex association
DIST_HKP_GCC real*8 kpc Distance estimate [7] from the Herschel Key-Programme Galactic Cold Cores
DIST_HKP_GCC_SIG real*8 kpc 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty on the distance estimate [7] from the Herschel Key-Programme Galactic Cold Cores
DIST_OPTION int*4 0-7 Option of the best distance estimate used in other physical properties
DIST_QUALITY int*4 0-4 Quality Flag of the consistency between distance estimates (see note 5)
DIST real*8 kpc Best distance estimate used for further physical properties
DIST_SIG real*8 kpc 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty on the best distance estimate
Temperature
FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification Keyword Data Type Units Description
TEMP_CLUMP real*8 K Temperature of the clump with [math]\beta[/math] as a free parameter
TEMP_CLUMP_SIG real*8 K 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty on the clump temperature with [math]\beta[/math] free
TEMP_CLUMP_LOW1 real*8 K Lower 68% confidence limit of the clump temperature with [math]\beta[/math] free
TEMP_CLUMP_UP1 real*8 K Upper 68% confidence limit of the clump temperature with [math]\beta[/math] free
BETA_CLUMP real*8 Spectral index [math]\beta[/math] of the clump
BETA_CLUMP_SIG real*8 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty (from MCMC) on the emissivity spectral index [math]\beta[/math] of the clump
BETA_CLUMP_LOW1 real*8 Lower 68% confidence limit of the emissivity spectral index [math]\beta[/math] of the clump
BETA_CLUMP_UP1 real*8 Upper 68% confidence limit of the emissivity spectral index [math]\beta[/math] of the clump
TEMP_BETA2_CLUMP real*8 K Temperature of the clump with [math]\beta[/math] = 2
TEMP_BETA2_CLUMP_SIG real*8 K 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty on the temperature of the clump with [math]\beta[/math] = 2
TEMP_BETA2_CLUMP_LOW1 real*8 K Lower 68% confidence limit of the clump temperature with [math]\beta[/math] = 2
TEMP_BETA2_CLUMP_UP1 real*8 K Upper 68% confidence limit of the clump temperature with [math]\beta[/math] = 2
TEMP_WBKG real*8 K Temperature of the warm background with [math]\beta[/math] as a free parameter (see note 6)
TEMP_WBKG_SIG real*8 K 1[math]\sigma[/math] dispersion of the warm background temperature with [math]\beta[/math] free
TEMP_WBKG_LOW1 real*8 K Lower 68% confidence limit of the warm background temperature with [math]\beta[/math] free
TEMP_WBKG_UP1 real*8 K Upper 68% confidence limit of the warm background temperature with [math]\beta[/math] free
BETA_WBKG real*8 Spectral index [math]\beta[/math] of the warm background (see note 6)
BETA_WBKG_SIG real*8 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty (from MCMC) of the emissivity spectral index [math]\beta[/math] of the warm background
BETA_WBKG_LOW1 real*8 Lower 68% confidence limit of the emissivity spectral index [math]\beta[/math] of the warm background
BETA_WBKG_UP1 real*8 Upper 68% confidence limit of the emissivity spectral index [math]\beta[/math] of the warm background
TEMP_BETA2_WBKG real*8 K Temperature of the warm background with [math]\beta[/math] = 2
TEMP_BETA2_WBKG_SIG real*8 K 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty on the temperature of the warm background with [math]\beta[/math] = 2
TEMP_BETA2_WBKG_LOW1 real*8 K Lower 68% confidence limit of the warm background temperature with [math]\beta[/math] = 2
TEMP_BETA2_WBKG_UP1 real*8 K Upper 68% confidence limit of the warm background temperature with [math]\beta[/math] = 2
Physical properties
FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification Keyword Data Type Units Description
NH2 real*8 cm-2 Column density [math]N_{H_2}[/math] of the clump
NH2_SIG real*8 cm-2 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty on the column density
NH2_LOW[1,2,3] real*8 cm-2 Lower 68%, 95% and 99% confidence limit of the column density
NH2_UP[1,2,3] real*8 cm-2 Upper 68%, 95% and 99% confidence limit of the column density
MASS real*8 [math]M_{o}[/math] Mass estimate of the clump
MASS_SIG real*8 [math]M_{o}[/math] 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty on the mass estimate of the clump
MASS_LOW[1,2,3] real*8 [math]M_{o}[/math] Lower 68%, 95% and 99% confidence limit of the mass estimate
MASS_UP[1,2,3] real*8 [math]M_{0}[/math] Upper 68%, 95% and 99% confidence limit of the mass estimate
DENSITY real*8 cm-3 Mean density of the clump
DENSITY_SIG real*8 cm-3 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty on the mean density estimate of the clump
DENSITY_LOW[1,2,3] real*8 cm-3 Lower 68%, 95% and 99% confidence limit of the mean density estimate
DENSITY_UP[1,2,3] real*8 cm-3 Upper 68%, 95% and 99% confidence limit of the mean density estimate
SIZE real*8 pc Physical size of the clump
SIZE_SIG real*8 pc 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty on the physical size estimate of the clump
SIZE_LOW[1,2,3] real*8 pc Lower 68%, 95% and 99% confidence limit of the physical size estimate
SIZE_UP[1,2,3] real*8 pc Upper 68%, 95% and 99% confidence limit of the physical size estimate
LUMINOSITY real*8 Lo Luminosity of the clump
LUMINOSITY_SIG real*8 Lo 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty on the luminosity estimate of the clump
LUMINOSITY_LOW[1,2,3] real*8 Lo Lower 68%, 95% and 99% confidence limit of the luminosity estimate
LUMINOSITY_UP[1,2,3] real*8 Lo Upper 68%, 95% and 99% confidence limit of the luminosity estimate
Flags
FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification Keyword Data Type Units Description
XFLAG_LMC int*4 0/1 1 if part of the LMC
XFLAG_SMC int*4 0/1 1 if part of the SMC
XFLAG_ECC int*4 0/1 1 if present in the ECC
XFLAG_PCCS_857 int*4 0/1 1 if present in the PCCS 857 GHz band
XFLAG_PCCS_545 int*4 0/1 1 if present in the PCCS 545 GHz band
XFLAG_PCCS_353 int*4 0/1 1 if present in the PCCS 353 GHz band
XFLAG_PCCS_217 int*4 0/1 1 if present in the PCCS 217 GHz band
XFLAG_PCCS_143 int*4 0/1 1 if present in the PCCS 143 GHz band
XFLAG_PCCS_100 int*4 0/1 1 if present in the PCCS 100 GHz band
XFLAG_PCCS_70 int*4 0/1 1 if present in the PCCS 70 GHz band
XFLAG_PCCS_44 int*4 0/1 1 if present in the PCCS 44 GHz band
XFLAG_PCCS_30 int*4 0/1 1 if present in the PCCS 30 GHz band
XFLAG_PSZ int*4 0/1 1 if present in the PCCS PSZ
XFLAG_PHZ int*4 0/1 1 if present in the PCCS HZ
XFLAG_HKP_GCC int*4 0/1 1 if present in the Herschel HKP-GCC


Notes:

  • 1: The position angle of the 2D ellipse is defined as the angle between the axis parallele to the Galactic plane and the major axis, counted clockwise.
  • 2: The warm bakcground flux densities are computed using the same solid angle as for the clumps flux densities, but on the warm conponent map.
  • 3: See text above for a full description of the FLUX_QUALITY flag, for which 1 is best.
  • 4: This relative bias due to blending provides a rough estimate of the factor that should be applied on the clumpds flux densities to get a corrected estimate. It has been obtained on a very simple modelling of clumps morphology and the local environment. It has therefore to be taken very carefully.
  • 5: See text above for a full description of the DIST_QUALITY flag.
  • 6: Temperature and spectral index of the warm background are based on the warm background flux density estimates obtained on the same solid angle used for clumps

(2015) Planck List of high-redshift source candidates

The Planck list of high-redshift source candidates (PHZ) is a list of 2151 sources located in the cleanest 26% of the sky and identified as point sources exhibiting an excess in the submillimeter compared to their environment. It has been built using the 48 months Planck data at 857, 545, 353 and 217 GHz combined with the 3 THz IRAS data, as it is described in Planck-2015-XXXIX[4]. These sources are considered as high-z source candidates (z>1.5-2), given the very low contamination by Galactic cirrus, and their typical colour-colour ratio. A subsample of the PHZ list has already been followed-up with Herschel, and chararcterized as overdensities of red galaxies for more than 93% of the population, and as strongly lensed galaxies in 3% of the cases, as detailed in Planck-2014-XXVIII[5].

The all-sky distribution of the PHZ sources is shown below on orthographic projection.

All-sky distribution of the 2151 PHZ sources in orthographic projection.


The PHZ source list is contained in the FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification file HFI_PCCS_HZ_R2.00.fits. Its structure is as follows:

FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification file structure
Identification
FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification Keyword Data Type Units Description
NAME String Source Name
SNR_X545 real*8 S/N in the 545 GHz excess map
SNR_D857 real*8 S/N in the 857 GHz cleaned map
SNR_D545 real*8 S/N in the 545 GHz cleaned map
SNR_D353 real*8 S/N in the 353 GHz cleaned map
Source position
FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification Keyword Data Type Units Description
GLON real*8 deg Galactic longitude based on morphology fitting
GLAT real*8 deg Galactic latitude based on morphology fitting
RA real*8 deg Right ascension (J2000) in degrees transformed from (GLON, GLAT)
DEC real*8 deg Declination (J2000) in degrees transformed from (GLON, GLAT)
Morphology
FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification Keyword Data Type Units Description
GAU_MAJOR_AXIS real*8 arcmin FWHMFull-Width-at-Half-Maximum along the major axis of the elliptical Gaussian
GAU_MAJOR_AXIS_SIG real*8 arcmin 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty on the FWHMFull-Width-at-Half-Maximum along the major axis
GAU_MINOR_AXIS real*8 arcmin FWHMFull-Width-at-Half-Maximum along the minor axis of the elliptical Gaussian
GAU_MINOR_AXIS_SIG real*8 arcmin 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty on the FWHMFull-Width-at-Half-Maximum along the minor axis
GAU_POSITION_ANGLE real*8 rad Position angle of the elliptical gaussian (see note 1)
GAU_POSITION_ANGLE_SIG real*8 rad 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty on the position angle
Photometry
FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification Keyword Data Type Units Description
FLUX_CLEAN_857 real*8 Jy Flux density of the clump at 857 GHz
FLUX_CLEAN_857_SIG_SKY real*8 Jy 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty at 857 GHz due to sky confusion
FLUX_CLEAN_857_SIG_DATA real*8 Jy 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty at 857 GHz due to measurement error
FLUX_CLEAN_857_SIG_GEOM real*8 Jy 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty at 857 GHz due to elliptical Gaussian fit accuracy
FLUX_CLEAN_545 real*8 Jy Flux density of the clump at 545 GHz
FLUX_CLEAN_545_SIG_SKY real*8 Jy 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty at 545 GHz due to sky confusion
FLUX_CLEAN_545_SIG_DATA real*8 Jy 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty at 545 GHz due to measurement error
FLUX_CLEAN_545_SIG_GEOM real*8 Jy 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty at 545 GHz due to elliptical Gaussian fit accuracy
FLUX_CLEAN_353 real*8 Jy Flux density of the clump at 353 GHz
FLUX_CLEAN_353_SIG_SKY real*8 Jy 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty at 353 GHz due to sky confusion
FLUX_CLEAN_353_SIG_DATA real*8 Jy 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty at 353 GHz due to measurement error
FLUX_CLEAN_353_SIG_GEOM real*8 Jy 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty at 353 GHz due to elliptical Gaussian fit accuracy
FLUX_CLEAN_217 real*8 Jy Flux density of the clump at 217 GHz
FLUX_CLEAN_217_SIG_SKY real*8 Jy 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty at 217 GHz due to sky confusion
FLUX_CLEAN_217_SIG_DATA real*8 Jy 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty at 217 GHz due to measurement error
FLUX_CLEAN_217_SIG_GEOM real*8 Jy 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty at 217 GHz due to elliptical Gaussian fit accuracy
Physical Properties
FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification Keyword Data Type Units Description
PROB_COLCOL real*8 Colour-colour selection probability
EBV_MEAN real*8 Mean extinction [math]E(B − V)_{xgal}[/math] within the source PSF
EBV_APER real*8 Aperture estimate of the extinction [math]E(B − V)_{xgal}[/math] within the source PSF
EBV_APER_SIG real*8 1[math]\sigma[/math] uncertainty of the aperture extinction [math]E(B − V)_{xgal}[/math] within the source PSF
ZPHOT_[25,30,35,40,45,50]K real*8 Submm photometric redshift estimate with [math]T_{xgal}[/math] = 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 K
ZPHOT_[25,30,35,40,45,50]K_LOW real*8 Lower limit of the 68 % confidence level
ZPHOT_[25,30,35,40,45,50]K_UP real*8 Upper limit of the 68 % confidence level
ZPHOT_[25,30,35,40,45,50]K_CHI2 real*8 Reduced [math]\chi^2[/math] of the best fit
LFIR_[25,30,35,40,45,50]K real*8 L[math]_{\odot}[/math] FIR luminosity estimate with [math]T_{xgal}[/math] = 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 K
LFIR_[25,30,35,40,45,50]K_LOW real*8 L[math]_{\odot}[/math] Lower limit of the 68 % confidence level
LFIR_[25,30,35,40,45,50]K_UP real*8 L[math]_{\odot}[/math] Upper limit of the 68 % confidence level
SFR_[25,30,35,40,45,50]K real*8 M[math]_{\odot}[/math]yr-1 Star Formation Rate estimate with [math]T_{xgal}[/math] = 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 K
SFR_[25,30,35,40,45,50]K_LOW real*8 M[math]_{\odot}[/math]yr-1 Lower limit of the 68 % confidence level
SFR_[25,30,35,40,45,50]K_UP real*8 M[math]_{\odot}[/math]yr-1 Upper limit of the 68 % confidence level
Flags
FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification Keyword Data Type Units Description
XFLAG_PLANCK string Contains the list of Planck catalogues matching the source: PCCS 857-, 545-, 353-, 217-, 143-, 100-, 70-, 44-, 33-GHz, PSZ, and PGCC
XFLAG_HERSCHEL int*4 0/1 1 if present in the Herschel Follow-up programme

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Planck 2015 results. XXVI. The second Planck catalogue of compact sources, Planck Collaboration, 2016, A&A, 594, A26.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Planck 2015 results. XXVII. The second Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources, Planck Collaboration, 2016, A&A, 594, A27.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Planck 2015 results. XXVIII. The Planck catalogue of Galactic cold clumps, Planck Collaboration, 2016, A&A, 594, A28.
  4. Planck intermediate results. XXXIX. The Planck list of high-redshift source candidates, Planck Collaboration Int. XXXIX A&A, 596, A100, (2016).
  5. Planck intermediate results. XXVIII. Interstellar gas and dustin the Chamaeleon clouds as seen by Fermi LAT and Planck, Planck Collaboration Int. XXVIII, A&A, 582, A30, (2015).