Difference between revisions of "CMB and astrophysical component maps"

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== Overview ==
 
== Overview ==
 +
  
 
This section describes the maps of astrophysical components produced from the Planck data.  These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps described above using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of the product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITS file containing the data and associated information.
 
This section describes the maps of astrophysical components produced from the Planck data.  These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps described above using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of the product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITS file containing the data and associated information.
All the details can be found in <cite>#planck2013-p06</cite>.
+
All the details can be found in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}.
  
 
==CMB maps==
 
==CMB maps==
  
Four pipelines have been used to produce maps of the CMB: Commander-Ruler, NILC, SEVEM and SMICA. The last three have been delivered as Legacy Archive products.
 
  
The front-runner CMB map is the SMICA one. This product is labeled as "Main product" in the Planck Legacy Archive Java interface while the two others (NILC, SEVEM) are labeled as "Additional product".
+
CMB maps have been produced by the SMICA, NILC, SEVEM and COMMANDER-Ruler pipelines. Of these, the SMICA product is considered the preferred one overall and is labelled ''Main product'' in the Planck Legacy Archive, while the other two are labeled as ''Additional product''.
  
The component separation pipelines are described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation|CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Section 3 and Appendices A-D of <cite>#planck2013-p06</cite> {{P2013|12}} and references therein.
+
SMICA and NILC also produce ''inpainted'' maps, in which the Galactic Plane, some bright regions and masked point sources are replaced with a constrained CMB realization such that the whole map has the same statistical distribution as the observed CMB.
  
===Product description ===
+
The results of SMICA, NILC and SEVEM pipeline are distributed as a FITS file containing 4 extensions:
 +
# CMB maps and ancillary products (3 or 6 maps)
 +
# CMB-cleaned foreground maps from LFI (3 maps)
 +
# CMB-cleaned foreground maps from HFI (6 maps)
 +
# Effective beam of the CMB maps (1 vector)
  
; SMICA
+
The results of COMMANDER-Ruler are distributed as two FITS files (the high and low resolution) containing the following extensions:
 +
High resolution N$_\rm{side}$=2048 (note that we don't provide the CMB-cleaned foregrounds maps for LFI and HFI because the Ruler resolution (~7.4') is lower than the HFI highest channel and and downgrading it will introduce noise correlation).
 +
# CMB maps and ancillary products (4 maps)
 +
# Effective beam of the CMB maps (1 vector)
  
SMICA produces a CMB map by linearly  combining all Planck input channels
+
Low resolution N$_\rm{side}$=256
(from 30 to 857 GHz) with weights which vary with the multipole.
+
# CMB maps and ancillary products (3 maps)
 +
# 10 example CMB maps used in the montecarlo realization (10 maps)
 +
# Effective beam of the CMB maps (1 vector)
  
The SMICA map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes,  deconvolved from the pixel window.
+
For a complete description of the data structure, see the [[#File names and structure | below]]; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.
It means that, ideally, one would have <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) * B_{(5')}^2</math>, where <math>C_\ell(map)</math> is the angular spectrum of the map,
+
where <math>C_\ell(sky)</math> is the angular spectrum of the CMB and <math>B_{(5')}</math> is a 5-arcminute Gaussian beam function.
+
  
The SMICA map has been inpainted over 3% of the sky using a constrained Gaussian realisation.
 
A binary mask describing the inpainted area is provided.
 
  
We provide a confidence mask which excludes some parts of the Galactic
+
{| class="wikitable"  border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center" style="background:#efefef;"
plane and also the masked point sources.
+
|+ style="background:#eeeeee;" | '''The maps (CMB, noise, masks) contained in the first extension'''
 +
|-
 +
!width=40px | Col name
 +
!width=200px| SMICA
 +
!width=200px| NILC
 +
!width=200px| SEVEM
 +
!width=200px| COMMANDER-Ruler H
 +
!width=200px| COMMANDER-Ruler L
 +
!width=300px| Description / notes
 +
|-
 +
| align="left" | 1: I
 +
| [[File: CMB-smica.png|200px]]
 +
| [[File: CMB-nilc.png|200px]]
 +
| [[File: CMB-sevem.png|200px]]
 +
| [[File: CMB-CR_h.png|200px]]
 +
| [[File: CMB-CR_l.png|200px]]
 +
| Raw CMB anisotropy map.  These are the maps used in the component separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}.
 +
|-
 +
| 2: NOISE
 +
| [[File: CMBnoise-smica.png|200px]]
 +
| [[File: CMBnoise-nilc.png|200px]]
 +
| [[File: CMBnoise-sevem.png|200px]]
 +
| [[File: CMBnoise-CR_h.png|200px]]
 +
| align='center' | not applicable
 +
| Noise map.  Obtained by propagating the half-ring noise through the CMB cleaning pipelines.
 +
|-
 +
| 3: VALMASK
 +
| [[File: valmask-smica.png|200px]]
 +
| [[File: valmask-nilc.png|200px]]
 +
| [[File: valmask-sevem.png|200px]]
 +
| [[File: valmask-cr_h.png|200px]]
 +
| [[File: valmask-cr_l.png|200px]]
 +
| Confidence map. Pixels with an expected low level of foreground contamination.  These maps are only indicative and obtained by different ad hoc methods.  They cannot be used to rank the CMB maps.
 +
|-
 +
| 4: I_MASK
 +
| [[File: cmbmask-smica.png|200px]]
 +
| [[File: cmbmask-nilc.png|200px]]
 +
| align='center' | not applicable
 +
| align='center' | not applicable
 +
| align='center' | not applicable
 +
| Some areas are masked for the production of the raw CMB maps (for NILC: point sources from 44 GHz to 857 GHz; for SMICA: point sources from 30 GHz to 857 GHz, Galatic region and additional bright regions).
 +
|-
 +
| 5: INP_CMB
 +
| [[File: CMBinp-smica.png|200px]]
 +
| [[File: CMBinp-nilc.png|200px]]
 +
| align='center' | not applicable
 +
| align='center' | not applicable
 +
| align='center' | not applicable
 +
| Inpainted CMB map.  The raw CMB maps with some regions (as indicated by INP_MASK) replaced by a constrained Gaussian realization.  The inpainted SMICA map was used for PR.
 +
|-
 +
| 6: INP_MASK
 +
| [[File: inpmask-smica.png|200px]]
 +
| [[File: inpmask-nilc.png|200px]]
 +
| align='center' | not applicable
 +
| align='center' | not applicable
 +
| align='center' | not applicable
 +
| Mask of the inpainted regions.  For SMICA, this is identical to I_MASK.  For NILC, it is not.
 +
|}
  
 +
The component separation pipelines are described in the [[Astrophysical_component_separation#CMB_and_foreground_separation|CMB and foreground separation]] section and also in Section 3 and Appendices A-D of {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}} and references therein.
  
; NILC
+
The union (or common) mask is defined as the union of the confidence masks from the four component separation pipelines, the three listed above and Commander-Ruler. It leaves 73% of the sky available, and so it is denoted as U73.
  
Needlet-ILC (hereafter NILC) produces a CMB map by applying the Internal
 
Linear Combination (ILC) technique  in
 
needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to
 
vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range.
 
  
It uses all Planck channels from 44 to 857 GHz.
+
===Product description ===
  
 +
====SMICA====
  
; SEVEM
+
; Principle
 +
: SMICA produces a CMB map by linearly combining all Planck input channels (from 30 to 857 GHz) with weights which vary with the multipole.  It includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 4000</math>.
 +
; Resolution (effective beam)
 +
: The SMICA map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes truncated at <math>\ell=4000</math> '''and deconvolved from the pixel window'''.  It means that, ideally, one would have <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) * B_\ell(5')^2</math>, where <math>C_\ell(map)</math> is the angular spectrum of the map, where <math>C_\ell(sky)</math> is the angular spectrum of the CMB and <math>B_\ell(5')</math> is a 5-arcminute Gaussian beam function.  Note however that, by convention, the effective beam window function <math>B_\ell(fits)</math> provided in the FITS file does include a pixel window function.  Therefore, it is equal to <math>B_\ell(fits) = B_\ell(5') / p_\ell(2048)</math> where <math>p_\ell(2048)</math> denotes the pixel window function for an Nside=2048 pixelization.
 +
; Confidence mask
 +
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources.  This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel.
 +
; Masks and inpainting
 +
: The raw SMICA CMB map has valid pixels except at the location of masked areas: point sources, Galactic plane, some other bright regions.  Those invalid pixels are indicated with the mask named 'I_MASK'.  The raw SMICA map has been inpainted, producing the map named "INP_CMB".  Inpainting consists in replacing some pixels (as indicated by the mask named INP_MASK) by the values of a constrained Gaussian realization which is computed to ensure good statistical properties of the whole map (technically, the inpainted pixels are a sample realisation drawn under the posterior distribution given the un-masked pixels.
  
The aim of SEVEM is to produce clean CMB maps at one or several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting. The templates are internal, i.e., they are constructed from Planck data, avoiding the need for external data sets, which usually complicates the analyses and may introduce inconsistencies. The method has been successfully applied to Planck simulations Leach et al., 2008 <cite>#leach2008</cite> and to WMAP polarisation data Fernandez-Cobos et al., 2012 <cite>xx</cite>. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust.
+
====NILC====
  
 +
; Principle
 +
: The Needlet-ILC (hereafter NILC) CMB map is constructed from all Planck channels from 44 to 857 GHz and includes multipoles up to <math>\ell = 3200</math>.  It is obtained by applying the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) technique in needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range.
 +
; Resolution (effective beam)
 +
: As in the SMICA product except that there is no abrupt truncation at <math>\ell_{max}= 3200</math> but a smooth transition to <math>0</math> over the range <math>2700\leq\ell\leq 3200</math>.
 +
; Confidence mask
 +
: A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources.  This mask provides a qualitative indication of the cleanliness of a pixel.  The threshold is somewhat arbitrary.
 +
; Masks and inpainting
 +
: The raw NILC map has valid pixels except at the location of masked point sources.  This is indicated with the mask named 'I_MASK'.  The raw NILC map has been inpainted, producing the map named "INP_CMB".  The inpainting consists in replacing some pixels (as indicated by the mask named INP_MASK) by the values of a constrained Gaussian realization which is computed to ensure good statistical properties of the whole map (technically, the inpainted pixels are a sample realisation drawn under the posterior distribution given the un-masked pixels.
  
===Production process===
+
====SEVEM====
  
; SMICA
+
The aim of SEVEM is to produce clean CMB maps at one or several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting. The templates are internal, i.e., they are constructed from Planck data, avoiding the need for external data sets, which usually complicates the analyses and may introduce inconsistencies. The method has been successfully applied to Planck simulations{{BibCite|leach2008}} and to WMAP polarisation data{{BibCite|fernandezcobos2012}}. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust.  Note that unlike the other products, SEVEM does not provide the mask of regions not used in the productions of the CMB ma (''I_MASK'') nor an inpainted version of the map and its associated mask.  On the other hand, it provides ''channel maps'' and 100, 143, and 217 GHz which are used as the building blocks of the final map.
  
The actual implementation of SMICA includes the following steps:
+
====COMMANDER-Ruler====
; Inputs
+
: All nine Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHz, harmonically transformed up to  <math>\ell = 4000 </math>.
+
; Fit
+
: In practice, the SMICA fit,i.e.,the minimization of Eq. (4) in the [[Astrophysical component separation#SMICA|SMICA]] description section, is conducted in three successive steps: We first estimate the CMB spectral law by fitting all model parameters over a clean fraction of sky in the range <math> 100 ≤ \ell ≤ 680</math>  and retaining the best fit value for vector <math> \mathbf{a}</math>. In the second step, we estimate the foreground emissivity by fixing a to its value from the previous step and fitting all the other parameters over a large fraction of sky in the range <math> 4 ≤ \ell  ≤ 150</math>  and retaining the best fit values for the matrix <math> \mathbf{A}</math>. In the last step, we fit all power spectrum parameters; that is, we fix <math>\mathbf{a}</math> and <math>\mathbf{A}</math> to their previously found values and fit for each <math> C_\ell </math>  and  <math>\mathbf{P}_\ell </math>  at each <math>\ell</math>.
+
; Beams
+
: The discussion thus far assumes that all input maps have the same resolution and effective beam. Since the observed maps actually vary in resolution, we process the input maps in the following way. To the <math>i</math>-th input map with effective beam <math>b_i(\ell)</math> and sampled on an HEALPix grid with <math>N^i_{side}</math>, the CMB sky multipole <math>s_{\ell m}</math> actually contributes <math>s_{\ell m}a_i b_i(\ell) p_i(\ell)</math>, where <math>p_i(\ell)</math> is the pixel window function for the grid at <math>N^i_{side}</math>. Seeking a final CMB map at 5-arcmin resolution, the highest resolution of Planck, we work with input spherical harmonics re-beamed to 5 arcmins, <math>\mathbf{\tilde{x}}_{\ell m} </math>; that is, SMICA operates on vectors with entries <math>x ̃^i_{\ell m} = x^i_{\ell m} b_5(\ell) / b_i(\ell) / p_i(\ell)</math>, where <math>b_5(\ell)</math> is a 5 arcmin Gaussian beam function. By construction, SMICA then produces an CMB map with an effective Gaussian beam of 5 arcmin (without the pixel window function).
+
; Pre-processing
+
: We start by fitting point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole in-painted. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, where all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and in-painted. 
+
; Masking and in-painting
+
: In practice, SMICA uses a small Galactic mask leaving 97% of the sky. We deliver a full-sky CMB map in which the masked pixels (Galactic and point-source) are replaced by a constrained Gaussian realization.
+
; Binning
+
: In our implementation, we use binned spectra.
+
; High <math>\ell</math>
+
: Since there is little point trying to model the spectral covariance at high multipoles, because the sample estimate is sufficient, SMICA implements a simple harmonic ILC at <math>\ell > 1500</math>; that is, it applies the filter (Eq. (2) in the [[Astrophysical component separation#SMICA|SMICA]] description section) with <math>\mathbf{R}_\ell = \mathbf{\hat{R}}_\ell</math>.
+
  
Viewed as a filter, SMICA can be summarized by the weights <math>\mathbf{w}_\ell</math> applied to each input map as a function of multipole. In this sense, SMICA is strictly equivalent to co-adding the input maps after convolution by specific axi-symmetric kernels directly related to the corresponding entry of <math>\mathbf{w}_\ell</math>. The SMICA weights used here are shown in the figure below for input maps in units of K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>. They show, in particular, the (expected) progressive attenuation of the lowest resolution channels with increasing multipole.
+
COMMANDER-Ruler is the Planck software implementing a pixel based parametric component separation. Amplitude of CMB and the main diffuse foregrounds along with the relevant spectral parameters for those (see below in the Astrophysical Foreground Section for the latter) are parametrized and fitted in single MCMC chains conducted at $N_\rm{side}$=256 using COMMANDER, implementing a Gibbs Sampling. The CMB amplitude which
 +
is obtained in these runs corresponds to the delivered low resolution CMB component from COMMANDER-Ruler which has a FWHM of 40 arcminutes. The sampling of the foreground parameters is applied to the data at full resolution for obtaining the high resolution CMB component from Ruler which is available on the PLA. In the {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06|1|Planck Component Separation paper}} additional material is discussed, specifically concerning the sky region where the solutions are reliable, in terms of chi2 maps. The products mainly consist of:
  
[[File:smica.jpg|thumb|center|600px|'''Weights <math>w_\ell</math> given by SMICA to the input maps, after they are re-beamed to 5 arcmin and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), as a function of multipole.''']]
+
* Maps of the Amplitudes of the CMB at low resolution, $N_\rm{side}$=256, along with the standard deviations of the outputs, beam profiles derived from the production process.
 +
* Maps of the CMB amplitude, along with the standard deviations, at high resolution, $N_\rm{side}$=2048, beam profiles derived from the production process.
 +
* Mask obtained on the basis of the precision in the fitting procedure; the thresholding is evaluated through the COMMANDER-Ruler likelihood analysis and excludes 13% of the sky, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}.
  
 +
===Production process===
  
; NILC
+
====SMICA====
  
The ability linearly to combine input maps varying over the sky and over multipoles is called ‘localisation’. In the needlet framework, harmonic localisation is achieved using a set of bandpass filters defining ‘scales’ and spatial localization is achieved, at each scale, by defining zones over the sky. The harmonic localisation used here uses 9 spectral bands covering multipoles up to <math>\ell</math> = 3200 (see figure below). The spatial localisation depends on the scale: at the coarsest scale, which include the multipoles of lowest degree, we use a single zone (no localization) while at the finest scales (which include the highest degree multipoles), the sky is partitioned in up to 20 zones (again, see figure below).
+
; 1) Pre-processing
 +
: All input maps undergo a pre-processing step to deal with point sources.  The point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue are fitted in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole is filled in by a simple diffusive process to ensure a smooth transition and mitigate spectral leakage. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, here all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and filled-in similarly.
 +
; 2) Linear combination
 +
: The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHzare harmonically transformed up to <math>\ell = 4000</math> and co-added with multipole-dependent weights as shown in the figure.
 +
; 3) Post-processing
 +
: The areas masked in the pre-processing step are replaced by a constrained Gaussian realization.
  
<center>
+
Note: The visible power deficit in the raw CMB map around the galactic plane is due to the smooth fill-in of the masked areas in the input maps (the result of the pre-processing). It is not to be confused with the post-processing step of inpainting of the CMB map with a constrained Gaussian realization.
<gallery perrow=2 widths=300px heights=180px>
+
File:Nilc1.jpg | Spectral window functions defining nine ''needlet scales''
+
File:Nilc2.jpg | The 2-zone partition
+
File:Nilc3.jpg | The 4-zone partition
+
File:Nilc4.jpg | The 20-zone partition.
+
</gallery>
+
'''Spectral localization for NILC using with nine spectral window functions defining nine ‘needlet scales’ (top left panel). The scale-dependent spatial localization partitions the sky in 1 zone (for scale 1), 2 zones (for scale 2), 4 zones (for scale 3), or 20 zones (for scales 5, 6, 7, 8, 9).'''
+
</center>
+
  
The NILC method amounts to applying an ILC in each zone of each scale, allowing the ILC weights to adapt naturally to the varying strength of the contaminants as a function of direction and multipole. A complete description of the basic NILC method can be found in Delabrouille et al. (2009) <cite>#delabrouille2009</cite>. In this work, however, we have implemented an important difference for the processing of the coarsest scale.
 
  
The actual processing differs from the above scenario in several respects: pre-processing of point sources, dealing with frequency-dependent beams, and dealing with statistical issues (the ILC bias) in the coarsest scale.
+
[[File:smica.jpg|thumb|center|500px|'''Weights given by SMICA to the input maps (after they are re-beamed to 5 arcmin and expressed in K<math>_\rm{RJ}</math>), as a function of multipole.''']]
* ''Pre-processing of point sources''. Identical to the SMICA pre-processing.
+
* ''Masking and inpainting''. The NILC CMB map is actually produced in a two step process. In a first step, the NILC weights are computed from needlet statistics evaluated using a Galactic mask which covers about 98% of the sky (and is apodiwed at 1 degree). In a second step, those NILC weights on are applied to needlet coefficients computed over the whole sky (the point sources having been subtracted or fitted at the pre-processing stage), yielding a NILC CMB estimate over the whole sky, except for the point source mask. In a final step, those masked pixels are replaced by the values of a constrained Gaussian realization.
+
* ''Beam control and transfer function''. As in the SMICA processing (see that section), the input maps are represented by their spherical harmonic coefficients. By internally rebeaming to a 5 arcmin resolution and by the unbiasedness property of the ILC, the resulting CMB map is automatically synthesized with an effective Gaussian beam of 5 arcmin.
+
* ''ILC bias and spectral statistics for the coarsest scale''. The coarsest scale of the NILC filter is not localized. Therefore, the NILC map at the coarsest scale is equivalent to a plain pixel-based ILC which is known to be quite susceptible to an ‘ILC bias’ due to chance correlations between the CMB and foregrounds. In order to mitigate that effect, the covariance matrix which determines the ILC coefficients at the coarsest scale is not computed as a pixel average but is rather estimated in the spectral domain with a spectral weight which equalizes the power of the CMB modes (based on a fiducial spectrum).
+
* ''Using SMICA recalibration''. In our current rendering, the NILC uses for the CMB emission law the values determined by SMICA.
+
  
 +
====NILC====
  
; SEVEM
+
; 1) Pre-processing
 +
: Same pre-processing as SMICA (except the 30 GHz channel is not used).
 +
; 2) Linear combination
 +
: The pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 44 to 857 GHz are linearly combined with weights which depend on location on the sky and on the multipole range up to <math>\ell = 3200</math>.  This is achieved using a needlet (redundant spherical wavelet) decomposition.  For more details, see {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}}.
 +
; 3) Post-processing
 +
: The areas masked in the pre-processing plus other bright regions step are replaced by a constrained Gaussian realization as in the SMICA post-processing step.
  
The templates are internal, i.e., they are constructed from Planck data, avoiding the need for external data sets, which usually complicates the analyses and may introduce inconsistencies. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. The fitting can be done in real or wavelet space (using a fast wavelet adapted to the HEALPix pixelization; Casaponsa et al. 2011 <cite>#Casaponsa2011</cite>) to properly deal with incomplete sky coverage. By expediency, however, we fill in the small number of unobserved pixels at each channel with the mean value of its neighbouring pixels before applying SEVEM.
+
====SEVEM====
  
We construct our templates by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMB map at that frequency. This is done either in real or in wavelet space (i.e., scale by scale) at each position on the sky:
+
The templates are internal, i.e., they are constructed from Planck data, avoiding the need for external data sets, which usually complicates the analyses and may introduce inconsistencies. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. The fitting can be done in real or wavelet space (using a fast wavelet adapted to the HEALPix pixelization{{BibCite|casaponsa2011}}) to properly deal with incomplete sky coverage. By expediency, however, we fill in the small number of unobserved pixels at each channel with the mean value of its neighbouring pixels before applying SEVEM.
 
+
:<math> \label{eq:eq4}
+
T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x})
+
</math>
+
  
 +
We construct our templates by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMB signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates <math>t_j</math> is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMB map at that frequency. This is done either in real or in wavelet space (i.e., scale by scale) at each position on the sky: <math> T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) </math>
 
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. If the cleaning is performed in real space, the <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. When working in wavelet space, the cleaning is done in the same way at each wavelet scale independently (i.e., the linear coefficients depend on the scale). Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).
 
where <math>n_t</math> is the number of templates. If the cleaning is performed in real space, the <math>α_j</math> coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map <math>T_c</math> outside a given mask. When working in wavelet space, the cleaning is done in the same way at each wavelet scale independently (i.e., the linear coefficients depend on the scale). Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).
  
Line 114: Line 173:
 
Our final CMB map has then been constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.
 
Our final CMB map has then been constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.
  
Moreover, additional CMB clean maps (at frequencies between 44 and 353 GHz) have also been produced using different combinations of templates for some of the analyses carried out in <cite>#planck2013-p09</cite> {{P2013|23}} and <cite>#planck2013-p14</cite> {{P2013|19}}. In particular, clean maps from 44 to 353 GHz have been used for the stacking analysis presented in <cite>#planck2013-p14</cite>, while frequencies from 70 to 217 GHz were used for consistency tests in <cite>#planck2013-p09</cite>.
+
Moreover, additional CMB clean maps (at frequencies between 44 and 353 GHz) have also been produced using different combinations of templates for some of the analyses carried out in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p09}} and {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p14}}. In particular, clean maps from 44 to 353 GHz have been used for the stacking analysis presented in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p14}}, while frequencies from 70 to 217 GHz were used for consistency tests in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p09}}.
  
The method has been successfully applied to Planck simulations <cite>#leach2008</cite> and to WMAP polarisation data <cite>#Fernandez-Cobos2012</cite>.
+
====COMMANDER-Ruler====
  
===Inputs===
+
The production process consist in low and high resolution runs according to the description above.
 +
; Low Resolution Runs: Same as the Astrophysics Foregrounds Section below; The CMB amplitude is fitted along with the other foreground parameters and constitutes the CMB Low Resolution Rendering which is in the PLA.
 +
; Ruler Runs: the sampling at high resolution is used to infer the probability distribution of spectral parameters which is exploited at full resolution in order to obtain the High Resolution CMB Rendering which is in the PLA.
  
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section.
+
==== Masks ====
  
; SMICA
+
Summary table with the different masks that have been used by the component separation methods to pre-process and to process the frequency maps and the CMB maps.
  
SMICA uses all nine Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHz. SMICA uses a pre-processing step in which point sources are subtracted or masked as described above.
+
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:center"
 +
|-
 +
|- bgcolor="ffdead" 
 +
! Commander 2013 (PR1) || Used for diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps || Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map  || Description
 +
|-
 +
|VALMASK || NO || NO || VALMASK is the confidence mask that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside
  
; NILC
+
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits}} and {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits}} for low resolution analyses.
 +
|-
 +
|- bgcolor="800000"
 +
|
 +
! ||
 +
|
 +
|- bgcolor="ffdead" 
 +
! SEVEM 2013 (PR1) || Used diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps || Used for Constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description
 +
|-
 +
|VALMASK || NO || NO || VALMASK is the confidence mask that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside
  
NILC uses eight frequency channels from 44 to 857 GHz and the same pre-processing step as SMICA.
+
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-sevem_2048_R1.12.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-sevem_2048_R1.12.fits}}.
 +
|-
 +
|- bgcolor="800000"
 +
|
 +
! ||
 +
|
 +
|- bgcolor="ffdead"
 +
! NILC 2013 (PR1) || Used for diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps || Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map || Description
 +
|-
 +
|VALMASK || NO || NO || VALMASK is the confidence mask that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits}}.
 +
|-
 +
|I_MASK || NO || NO || I_MASK defines the regions over which CMB is not built. It is a combination of point source masks, Galactic plane mask and other bright regions like LMC, SMC, etc. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits}}.
 +
|- 
 +
|INP_MASK || NO || YES || It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits}}.
 +
|-
 +
|-
 +
|- bgcolor="800000"
 +
|
 +
! ||
 +
|
 +
|- bgcolor="ffdead" 
 +
! SMICA 2013 (PR1) || Used for diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps || Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMB map  || Description
 +
|-
 +
|VALMASK || NO || NO || VALMASK is the confidence mask that defines the region where the reconstructed CMB is trusted. It can be found inside
  
; SEVEM
+
{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits}}.
 +
|-
 +
|I_MASK || YES || YES || I_MASK defines the regions over which CMB is not built. It is a combination of point source masks, Galactic plane mask and other bright regions like LMC, SMC, etc. It can be found inside {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits}}.
 +
|- 
 +
|INP_MASK || YES || YES || INP_MASK for SMICA 2013 release is identical to I_MASK above. 
 +
|-
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
SEVEM uses all nine Planck frequency channel maps. The 30 - 70 GHz and 353 - 857 GHz maps are used to construct templates by taking the differences (30 - 44) GHz, (44 - 70) GHz, (545 - 353) GHz and (857 - 545) GHz, after smoothing to a common resolution. The 100, 143 and 217 GHz maps are cleaned using the templates.
 
  
 +
===Inputs===
 +
 +
The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the [[Frequency Maps | Sky temperature maps]] section. SMICA and SEVEM use all the maps between 30 and 857 GHz; NILC uses the ones between 44 and 857 GHz. Commander-Ruler uses frequency channel maps from 30 to 353 GHz.
  
 
===File names and structure===
 
===File names and structure===
Line 139: Line 246:
 
The FITS files corresponding to the three CMB products are the following:
 
The FITS files corresponding to the three CMB products are the following:
  
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.11.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.11.fits}}
+
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits}}
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-sevem_2048_R1.11.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-sevem_2048_R1.11.fits}}
+
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-sevem_2048_R1.12.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-sevem_2048_R1.12.fits}}
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.11.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.11.fits}}
+
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits}}
 
+
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits}}
and the CMB they contain is shows below.
+
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits}}
  
<center>
 
<gallery perrow=3 widths=260px heights=170px>
 
File: CMB-smica.png | SMICA
 
File: CMB-nilc.png | NILC
 
File: CMB-sevem.png | SEVEM
 
</gallery></center>
 
  
 +
The files contain a minimal primary extension with no data and four ''BINTABLE'' data extensions. Each column of the ''BINTABLE'' is a (Healpix) map; the column names and the most important keywords of each extension are described in the table below; for the remaining keywords, please see the FITS files directly.
  
The files contains a minimal primary extension with no data and four data extensions which are described in the table below:
 
  
 
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px
 
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px
Line 162: Line 263:
 
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description
 
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description
 
|-
 
|-
|I         || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The CMB temperature map
+
|I     || Real*4 || uK_cmb || CMB temperature map
 
|-
 
|-
|NOISE  || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Estimated noise map (Note 1)
+
|NOISE  || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Estimated noise map (note 1)
 
|-
 
|-
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Validity, or confidence mask (note 2)
+
|I_STDEV|| Real*4 || uK_cmb || Standard deviation, ONLY on COMMANDER-Ruler products
 
|-
 
|-
|INPMASK || Byte || none || Inpainted mask (Optional - see Note 3)  
+
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Confidence mask (note 2)
 +
|-
 +
|I_MASK|| Byte || none || Mask of regions over which CMB map is not built (Optional - see note 3)
 +
|-
 +
|INP_CMB || Real*4 || uK_cmb ||  Inpainted CMB temperature map (Optional - see note 3)
 +
|-
 +
|INP_MASK || Byte || none ||  mask of inpainted pixels (Optional - see note 3)
 
|-
 
|-
 
|- bgcolor="ffdead"   
 
|- bgcolor="ffdead"   
Line 183: Line 290:
 
|NSIDE  ||  Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside
 
|NSIDE  ||  Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside
 
|-
 
|-
|METHOD  || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)
+
|METHOD  || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)
 
|-
 
|-
 
|- bgcolor="ffdead"   
 
|- bgcolor="ffdead"   
Line 237: Line 344:
 
|NSIDE  ||  Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside
 
|NSIDE  ||  Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside
 
|-
 
|-
|METHOD  || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)
+
|METHOD  || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)
 
|- bgcolor="ffdead"   
 
|- bgcolor="ffdead"   
 
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)
 
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)
Line 243: Line 350:
 
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description
 
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description
 
|-
 
|-
|BEAM_WF          || Real*4 || uK_cmb || The CMB temperature map
+
|BEAM_WF          || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function.  See Note 5.
 
|-
 
|-
 
|- bgcolor="ffdead"   
 
|- bgcolor="ffdead"   
Line 252: Line 359:
 
|LMAX ||  Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF
 
|LMAX ||  Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF
 
|-
 
|-
|METHOD  || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)
+
|METHOD  || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
 
  
 
Notes:
 
Notes:
 
# The half-ring half-difference (HRHD) map is made by passing the half-ring frequency maps independently through the component separation pipeline, then computing half their difference. It approximates a noise realisation, and gives an indication of the uncertainties due to instrumental noise in the corresponding CMB map.  
 
# The half-ring half-difference (HRHD) map is made by passing the half-ring frequency maps independently through the component separation pipeline, then computing half their difference. It approximates a noise realisation, and gives an indication of the uncertainties due to instrumental noise in the corresponding CMB map.  
 
# The confidence mask indicates where the CMB map is considered valid.  
 
# The confidence mask indicates where the CMB map is considered valid.  
# NILC and SMICA CMB maps have been inpainted in the Galactic plane and around some bright sources with a constrained realisation of the signal. The inpainted area covers approximately 3% of the sky. This column is not present in the SEVEM product file.
+
# This column is not present in the SEVEM and COMMANDER-Ruler product file.  For SEVEM these three columns give the CMB channel maps at 100, 143, and 217 GHz (columns ''C100'', ''C143'', and ''C217'', in units of K_cmb.
# The subtraction of the CMB from the sky maps in order to produce the foregrounds map is done after convolving the CMB map to the resolution of the given frequency.
+
# The subtraction of the CMB from the sky maps in order to produce the foregrounds map is done after convolving the CMB map to the resolution of the given frequency. Those columns are not present in the COMMANDER-Ruler product file.
 +
# The beam window function <math>B_\ell</math> given here includes the  pixel window function <math>p_\ell</math> for the Nside=2048  pixelization.  It means that, ideally, <math>C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2</math>.
 +
 
 +
The low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler CMB product is organized in the following way:
 +
{| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" align="center" style="text-align:left" width=800px
 +
|+ '''CMB low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler map file data structure'''
 +
|- bgcolor="ffdead" 
 +
! colspan="4" | Ext. 1. EXTNAME = ''COMP-MAP'' (BINTABLE)
 +
|- bgcolor="ffdead" 
 +
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description
 +
|-
 +
|I    || Real*4 || uK_cmb || CMB temperature map obtained as average over 1000 samples
 +
|-
 +
|I_stdev  || Real*4 || uK_cmb || Corresponding Standard deviation amongst the 1000 samples
 +
|-
 +
|VALMASK|| Byte || none || Confidence mask
 +
|-
 +
|- bgcolor="ffdead" 
 +
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description
 +
|-
 +
|PIXTYPE ||  String || HEALPIX ||
 +
|-
 +
|COORDSYS ||  String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system
 +
|-
 +
|ORDERING || String || NESTED  || Healpix ordering
 +
|-
 +
|NSIDE  ||  Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside
 +
|-
 +
|METHOD  || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)
 +
|-
 +
|- bgcolor="ffdead" 
 +
!colspan="4" | Ext. 2. EXTNAME = ''CMB-Sample'' (BINTABLE)
 +
|- bgcolor="ffdead" 
 +
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description
 +
|-
 +
|I_SIM01  || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin
 +
|-
 +
|I_SIM02  || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin
 +
|-
 +
|I_SIM03  || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin
 +
|-
 +
|I_SIM04  || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin
 +
|-
 +
|I_SIM05  || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin
 +
|-
 +
|I_SIM06  || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin
 +
|-
 +
|I_SIM07  || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin
 +
|-
 +
|I_SIM08  || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin
 +
|-
 +
|I_SIM09  || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin
 +
|-
 +
|I_SIM10  || Real*4 || K_cmb || CMB Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin
 +
|-
 +
|- bgcolor="ffdead" 
 +
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description
 +
|-
 +
|PIXTYPE ||  String || HEALPIX ||
 +
|-
 +
|COORDSYS ||  String || GALACTIC ||Coordinate system
 +
|-
 +
|ORDERING || String || NESTED  || Healpix ordering
 +
|-
 +
|NSIDE  ||  Int || 1024 || Healpix Nside
 +
|-
 +
|METHOD  || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)
 +
|- bgcolor="ffdead" 
 +
!colspan="4" | Ext. 4. EXTNAME = ''BEAM_WF'' (BINTABLE)
 +
|- bgcolor="ffdead" 
 +
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description
 +
|-
 +
|BEAM_WF          || Real*4 || none || The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function.
 +
|-
 +
|- bgcolor="ffdead" 
 +
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description
 +
|-
 +
|LMIN ||  Int || value || First multipole of beam WF
 +
|-
 +
|LMAX ||  Int || value || Lsst multipole of beam WF
 +
|-
 +
|METHOD  || String ||name || Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
 
 +
The FITS files containing the ''union'' (or common) maks is:
 +
* {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_Mask_CMB-union_2048_R1.10.fits|link=COM_Mask_CMB-common}}
 +
which contains a single ''BINTABLE'' extension with a single column (named ''U73'') for the mask, which is boolean (FITS ''TFORM = B''), in GALACTIC coordinates, NESTED ordering, and Nside=2048.
 +
 
 +
For the benefit of users who are only looking for a small file containing the SMICA cmb map with no additional information (noise or masks) we provide such a file here
 +
*{{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits|link=COM_CompMap_CMB-smica-field-I_2048_R1.20.fits}}
 +
This file contains a single extension with a single column containing the SMICA cmb temperature map.
  
 
===Cautionary notes===
 
===Cautionary notes===
Line 271: Line 469:
 
== Astrophysical foregrounds from parametric component separation ==
 
== Astrophysical foregrounds from parametric component separation ==
  
We describe diffuse foreground products for the Planck 2013 release. See Planck Component Separation paper <cite>#planck2013-p06</cite> {{P2013|12}} for a detailed description and astrophysical discussion of those.
+
 
 +
We describe diffuse foreground products for the Planck 2013 release. See Planck Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}} for a detailed description and astrophysical discussion of those.
  
 
===Product description===
 
===Product description===
Line 289: Line 488:
 
frequency channels is reduced to N$_\rm{side}$=256 first. Parameters related to the foreground scaling with frequency are estimated at that resolution  
 
frequency channels is reduced to N$_\rm{side}$=256 first. Parameters related to the foreground scaling with frequency are estimated at that resolution  
 
by using Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis using Gibbs sampling. The foreground parameters make the foreground mixing matrix which is  
 
by using Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis using Gibbs sampling. The foreground parameters make the foreground mixing matrix which is  
applied to the data at full resolution in order to obtain the provided products at N$_\rm{side}$=2048. In the Planck Component Separation paper <cite>#planck2013-p06</cite> {{p2013|12}}additional material is discussed, specifically concerning the sky region where the solutions are reliable, in terms of chi2 maps.
+
applied to the data at full resolution in order to obtain the provided products at N$_\rm{side}$=2048. In the Planck Component Separation paper {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06}} additional material is discussed, specifically concerning the sky region where the solutions are reliable, in terms of chi2 maps.
  
 
===Inputs===
 
===Inputs===
  
Nominal frequency maps at 30, 44, 70, 100, 143, 217, 353 GHz ({{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=30|period=Nominla|link=LFI 30 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=44|link=LFI 44 GHz frequency maps}} and {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=70|link=LFI 70 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=100|link=HFI 100 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=143|link=HFI 143 GHz frequency maps}},{{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=217|link=HFI 217 GHz frequency maps}} and {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=353|link=HFI 353 GHz frequency maps}}) and their II column corresponding to the noise covariance matrix.  
+
Nominal frequency maps at 30, 44, 70, 100, 143, 217, 353 GHz ({{PLAFreqMaps|inst=LFI|freq=30|period=Nominal|link=LFI 30 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=44|period=Nominal|link=LFI 44 GHz frequency maps}} and {{PLAMaps|inst=LFI|freq=70|period=Nominal|link=LFI 70 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=100|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 100 GHz frequency maps}}, {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=143|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 143 GHz frequency maps}},{{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=217|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 217 GHz frequency maps}} and {{PLAMaps|inst=HFI|freq=353|period=Nominal|zodi=uncorr|link=HFI 353 GHz frequency maps}}) and their II column corresponding to the noise covariance matrix.  
 
Halfrings at the same frequencies. Beam window functions as reported in the [[The RIMO#Beam Window Functions|LFI and HFI RIMO]].
 
Halfrings at the same frequencies. Beam window functions as reported in the [[The RIMO#Beam Window Functions|LFI and HFI RIMO]].
  
Line 302: Line 501:
 
===File names===
 
===File names===
  
* Low frequency component at N$_\rm{side}$ 256:
+
* Low frequency component at N$_\rm{side}$ 256: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits}}
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits}}
+
* Low frequency component at N$_\rm{side}$ 2048: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits}}
* Low frequency component at N$_\rm{side}$ 2048:
+
* Thermal dust at N$_\rm{side}$ 256: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits}}
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits}}
+
* Thermal dust at N$_\rm{side}$ 2048: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits}}
* Thermal dust at N$_\rm{side}$ 256:
+
* Mask: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Mask-rulerminimal_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Mask-rulerminimal_2048_R1.00.fits}}
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits}}
+
* Thermal dust at N$_\rm{side}$ 2048:  
+
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits}}
+
 
+
* Mask:
+
: {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=COM_CompMap_Mask-rulerminimal_2048_R1.00.fits|link=COM_CompMap_Mask-rulerminimal_2048_R1.00.fits}}
+
  
 
===Meta Data===
 
===Meta Data===
Line 318: Line 511:
 
====Low frequency foreground component====
 
====Low frequency foreground component====
  
=====Low frequency component at N$_\rm{side}$ 256=====
+
=====Low frequency component at N$_\rm{side}$ = 256=====
  
 
File name: COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits
 
File name: COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits
Line 327: Line 520:
 
|+ FITS header
 
|+ FITS header
 
|-
 
|-
 +
|- bgcolor="ffdead" 
 
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description
 
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description
 
|-
 
|-
Line 342: Line 536:
 
: Comment: The intensity was estimated during mixing matrix estimation
 
: Comment: The intensity was estimated during mixing matrix estimation
  
Below an example of the header.
+
=====Low frequency component at N$_\rm{side}$ = 2048=====
<!--pre>
+
XTENSION= 'BINTABLE'          / binary table extension
+
BITPIX  =                    8 / 8-bit bytes
+
NAXIS  =                    2 / 2-dimensional binary table
+
NAXIS1  =                  16 / width of table in bytes
+
NAXIS2  =              786432 / number of rows in table
+
PCOUNT  =                    0 / size of special data area
+
GCOUNT  =                    1 / one data group (required keyword)
+
TFIELDS =                    4 / number of fields in each row
+
TTYPE1  = 'I      '          / label for field  1
+
TFORM1  = 'E      '          / data format of field: 4-byte REAL
+
TUNIT1  = 'uK_CMB  '          / physical unit of field
+
TTYPE2  = 'I_stdev '          / label for field  2
+
TFORM2  = 'E      '          / data format of field: 4-byte REAL
+
TUNIT2  = 'uK_CMB  '          / physical unit of field
+
TTYPE3  = 'Beta    '          / label for field  3
+
TFORM3  = 'E      '          / data format of field: 4-byte REAL
+
TUNIT3  = 'none    '          / physical unit of field
+
TTYPE4  = 'B_stdev '          / label for field  4
+
TFORM4  = 'E      '          / data format of field: 4-byte REAL
+
TUNIT4  = 'none    '          / physical unit of field
+
EXTNAME = 'COMP-MAP'
+
DATE    = '2013-02-13T13:26:14' / file creation date (YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss UT)
+
CHECKSUM= 'QXaaRVZTQVaZQVYZ'  / HDU checksum updated 2013-02-13T13:26:14
+
DATASUM = '2752450756'        / data unit checksum updated 2013-02-13T13:26:14
+
COMMENT
+
COMMENT *** Planck params ***
+
COMMENT
+
PIXTYPE = 'HEALPIX '          / HEALPIX pixelisation
+
ORDERING= 'NESTED  '          / Pixel ordering scheme, either RING or NESTED
+
NSIDE  =                  256 / Resolution parameter for HEALPIX
+
FIRSTPIX=                    0 / First pixel # (0 based)
+
LASTPIX =              786431 / Last pixel # (0 based)
+
INDXSCHM= 'IMPLICIT'          / Indexing: IMPLICIT or EXPLICIT
+
COORDSYS= 'GALACTIC'
+
FILENAME= 'COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits'
+
COMMENT ---------------------------------------------------------------------
+
COMMENT The intensity is normalized at 30GHz
+
COMMENT The intensity was estimated during mixing matrix estimation
+
COMMENT Object:
+
COMMENT /sci_planck/lfi_dpc_test/ashdown/repository/compsep_outputs/commander-ru
+
COMMENT ler/delta_dx9/planck/dx9delta_v1_synch_amp_mean.fits
+
COMMENT /sci_planck/lfi_dpc_test/ashdown/repository/compsep_outputs/commander-ru
+
COMMENT ler/delta_dx9/planck/dx9delta_v1_synch_amp_stddev.fits
+
COMMENT /sci_planck/lfi_dpc_test/ashdown/repository/compsep_outputs/commander-ru
+
COMMENT ler/delta_dx9/planck/dx9delta_v1_synch_beta_mean.fits
+
COMMENT /sci_planck/lfi_dpc_test/ashdown/repository/compsep_outputs/commander-ru
+
COMMENT ler/delta_dx9/planck/dx9delta_v1_synch_beta_stddev.fits
+
COMMENT ---------------------------------------------------------------------
+
END
+
</pre -->
+
 
+
=====Low frequency component at N$_\rm{side}$ 2048=====
+
  
 
: File name: COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits
 
: File name: COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits
Line 406: Line 547:
 
|+ FITS header
 
|+ FITS header
 
|-
 
|-
 +
|- bgcolor="ffdead" 
 
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description
 
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description
 
|-
 
|-
Line 427: Line 569:
 
|+ FITS header
 
|+ FITS header
 
|-
 
|-
 +
|- bgcolor="ffdead" 
 
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description
 
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description
 
|-
 
|-
Line 434: Line 577:
 
; Notes:
 
; Notes:
 
: Comment: Beam window function used in the Component separation process
 
: Comment: Beam window function used in the Component separation process
 
Below an example of the header of the first and second extension respectively.
 
<!-- pre>
 
XTENSION= 'BINTABLE'          / binary table extension
 
BITPIX  =                    8 / 8-bit bytes
 
NAXIS  =                    2 / 2-dimensional binary table
 
NAXIS1  =                  32 / width of table in bytes
 
NAXIS2  =            50331648 / number of rows in table
 
PCOUNT  =                    0 / size of special data area
 
GCOUNT  =                    1 / one data group (required keyword)
 
TFIELDS =                    4 / number of fields in each row
 
TTYPE1  = 'I      '          / label for field  1
 
TFORM1  = 'D      '          / data format of field: 8-byte DOUBLE
 
TUNIT1  = 'uK_CMB  '          / physical unit of field
 
TTYPE2  = 'I_stdev '          / label for field  2
 
TFORM2  = 'D      '          / data format of field: 8-byte DOUBLE
 
TUNIT2  = 'uK_CMB  '          / physical unit of field
 
TTYPE3  = 'I_hr1  '          / label for field  3
 
TFORM3  = 'D      '          / data format of field: 8-byte DOUBLE
 
TUNIT3  = 'uK_CMB  '          / physical unit of field
 
TTYPE4  = 'I_hr2  '          / label for field  4
 
TFORM4  = 'D      '          / data format of field: 8-byte DOUBLE
 
TUNIT4  = 'uK_CMB  '          / physical unit of field
 
EXTNAME = 'COMP-MAP'
 
DATE    = '2013-02-15T17:12:04' / file creation date (YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss UT)
 
CHECKSUM= 'dlA5ei24di94di94'  / HDU checksum updated 2013-02-15T17:12:13
 
DATASUM = '3117718572'        / data unit checksum updated 2013-02-15T17:12:13
 
COMMENT
 
COMMENT *** Planck params ***
 
COMMENT
 
PIXTYPE = 'HEALPIX '          / HEALPIX pixelisation
 
ORDERING= 'NESTED  '          / Pixel ordering scheme, either RING or NESTED
 
NSIDE  =                2048 / Resolution parameter for HEALPIX
 
FIRSTPIX=                    0 / First pixel # (0 based)
 
LASTPIX =            50331647 / Last pixel # (0 based)
 
INDXSCHM= 'IMPLICIT'          / Indexing: IMPLICIT or EXPLICIT
 
BAD_DATA=          -1.6375E+30
 
COORDSYS= 'GALACTIC'
 
FILENAME= 'COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits'
 
COMMENT ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 
COMMENT The intensity was computed after mixibg matrix application
 
COMMENT Objects used:
 
COMMENT /sci_planck/lfi_dpc_test/ashdown/repository/compsep_outputs/commander-ru
 
COMMENT ler/delta_dx9/planck/dx9_delta_v1_7b_avrg_lowfreq.fits
 
COMMENT /sci_planck/lfi_dpc_test/ashdown/repository/compsep_outputs/CR-temporary
 
COMMENT /dx9delta_stddev/dx9_delta_v1_7b_lowfreq_stddev.fits
 
COMMENT /sci_planck/lfi_dpc_test/ashdown/repository/compsep_outputs/commander-ru
 
COMMENT ler/delta_dx9/planck/dx9_delta_v1_7b_hr1_avrg_lowfreq.fits
 
COMMENT /sci_planck/lfi_dpc_test/ashdown/repository/compsep_outputs/commander-ru
 
COMMENT ler/delta_dx9/planck/dx9_delta_v1_7b_hr2_avrg_lowfreq.fits
 
COMMENT ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 
END
 
</pre>
 
 
<pre>
 
XTENSION= 'BINTABLE'          / binary table extension
 
BITPIX  =                    8 / 8-bit bytes
 
NAXIS  =                    2 / 2-dimensional binary table
 
NAXIS1  =                    4 / width of table in bytes
 
NAXIS2  =                1501 / number of rows in table
 
PCOUNT  =                    0 / size of special data area
 
GCOUNT  =                    1 / one data group (required keyword)
 
TFIELDS =                    1 / number of fields in each row
 
TTYPE1  = 'BeamWF  '          / label for field  1
 
TFORM1  = 'E      '          / data format of field: 4-byte REAL
 
TUNIT1  = 'none    '          / physical unit of field
 
EXTNAME = 'BeamWF  '
 
DATE    = '2013-02-15T17:12:17' / file creation date (YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss UT)
 
CHECKSUM= '74GA849274E97499'  / HDU checksum updated 2013-02-15T17:12:17
 
DATASUM = '3098248385'        / data unit checksum updated 2013-02-15T17:12:17
 
COMMENT
 
COMMENT *** Planck params ***
 
COMMENT
 
MAX-LPOL=                1500 / Maximum L multipole
 
POLAR  =                    T / Polarization included (True/False)
 
BCROSS  =                    T / Magnetic cross terms included (True/False)
 
COMMENT ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 
COMMENT The intensity was computed after mixing matrix application
 
COMMENT
 
COMMENT Objects used:
 
COMMENT
 
COMMENT /sci_planck/lfi_dpc_test/ashdown/repository/compsep_outputs/CR-temporary
 
COMMENT /dx9delta_beams/dx9_delta_v1_7b_lowfreq_beam.fits
 
COMMENT
 
COMMENT ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 
END
 
</pre -->
 
  
 
====Thermal dust====
 
====Thermal dust====
Line 534: Line 590:
 
|+ FITS header
 
|+ FITS header
 
|-
 
|-
 +
|- bgcolor="ffdead" 
 
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description
 
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description
 
|-
 
|-
Line 551: Line 608:
 
; Notes:
 
; Notes:
 
: Comment: The intensity is normalized at 353 GHz
 
: Comment: The intensity is normalized at 353 GHz
 
Below an example of the header.
 
<!-- pre>
 
XTENSION= 'BINTABLE'          / binary table extension
 
BITPIX  =                    8 / 8-bit bytes
 
NAXIS  =                    2 / 2-dimensional binary table
 
NAXIS1  =                  24 / width of table in bytes
 
NAXIS2  =              786432 / number of rows in table
 
PCOUNT  =                    0 / size of special data area
 
GCOUNT  =                    1 / one data group (required keyword)
 
TFIELDS =                    6 / number of fields in each row
 
TTYPE1  = 'I      '          / label for field  1
 
TFORM1  = 'E      '          / data format of field: 4-byte REAL
 
TUNIT1  = 'MJy/sr  '          / physical unit of field
 
TTYPE2  = 'I_stdev '          / label for field  2
 
TFORM2  = 'E      '          / data format of field: 4-byte REAL
 
TUNIT2  = 'MJy/sr  '          / physical unit of field
 
TTYPE3  = 'Em      '          / label for field  3
 
TFORM3  = 'E      '          / data format of field: 4-byte REAL
 
TUNIT3  = 'uK_CMB  '          / physical unit of field
 
TTYPE4  = 'Em_stdev'          / label for field  4
 
TFORM4  = 'E      '          / data format of field: 4-byte REAL
 
TUNIT4  = 'none    '          / physical unit of field
 
TTYPE5  = 'T      '          / label for field  5
 
TFORM5  = 'E      '          / data format of field: 4-byte REAL
 
TUNIT5  = 'uK_CMB  '          / physical unit of field
 
TTYPE6  = 'T_stdev '          / label for field  6
 
TFORM6  = 'E      '          / data format of field: 4-byte REAL
 
TUNIT6  = 'uK_CMB  '          / physical unit of field
 
EXTNAME = 'COMP-MAP'
 
DATE    = '2013-02-13T13:31:15' / file creation date (YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss UT)
 
CHECKSUM= '9OAOJO7N9OANGO7N'  / HDU checksum updated 2013-02-13T13:31:15
 
DATASUM = '4139938263'        / data unit checksum updated 2013-02-13T13:31:15
 
COMMENT
 
COMMENT *** Planck params ***
 
COMMENT
 
PIXTYPE = 'HEALPIX '          / HEALPIX pixelisation
 
ORDERING= 'NESTED  '          / Pixel ordering scheme, either RING or NESTED
 
NSIDE  =                  256 / Resolution parameter for HEALPIX
 
FIRSTPIX=                    0 / First pixel # (0 based)
 
LASTPIX =              786431 / Last pixel # (0 based)
 
INDXSCHM= 'IMPLICIT'          / Indexing: IMPLICIT or EXPLICIT
 
COORDSYS= 'GALACTIC'
 
FILENAME= 'COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits'
 
COMMENT ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 
COMMENT The intensity is normalized at 353 GHz
 
COMMENT Object:
 
COMMENT /sci_planck/lfi_dpc_test/ashdown/repository/compsep_outputs/commander-ru
 
COMMENT ler/delta_dx9/planck/dx9delta_v1_dust_amp_mean.fits
 
COMMENT /sci_planck/lfi_dpc_test/ashdown/repository/compsep_outputs/commander-ru
 
COMMENT ler/delta_dx9/planck/dx9delta_v1_dust_amp_stddev.fits
 
COMMENT /sci_planck/lfi_dpc_test/ashdown/repository/compsep_outputs/commander-ru
 
COMMENT ler/delta_dx9/planck/dx9delta_v1_dust_em_mean.fits
 
COMMENT /sci_planck/lfi_dpc_test/ashdown/repository/compsep_outputs/commander-ru
 
COMMENT ler/delta_dx9/planck/dx9delta_v1_dust_em_stddev.fits
 
COMMENT /sci_planck/lfi_dpc_test/ashdown/repository/compsep_outputs/commander-ru
 
COMMENT ler/delta_dx9/planck/dx9delta_v1_dust_T_mean.fits
 
COMMENT /sci_planck/lfi_dpc_test/ashdown/repository/compsep_outputs/commander-ru
 
COMMENT ler/delta_dx9/planck/dx9delta_v1_dust_T_stddev.fits
 
COMMENT ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 
END
 
</pre -->
 
  
 
=====Thermal dust component at N$_\rm{side}$=2048=====
 
=====Thermal dust component at N$_\rm{side}$=2048=====
Line 625: Line 620:
 
|+ FITS header
 
|+ FITS header
 
|-
 
|-
 +
|- bgcolor="ffdead" 
 
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description
 
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description
 
|-
 
|-
Line 643: Line 639:
 
|+ FITS header
 
|+ FITS header
 
|-
 
|-
 +
|- bgcolor="ffdead" 
 
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description
 
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description
 
|-
 
|-
Line 650: Line 647:
 
; Notes:
 
; Notes:
 
: Comment: Beam window function used in the Component separation process
 
: Comment: Beam window function used in the Component separation process
 
Below an example of the header of the first and second extension respectively.
 
<!--  pre>
 
XTENSION= 'BINTABLE'          / binary table extension
 
BITPIX  =                    8 / 8-bit bytes
 
NAXIS  =                    2 / 2-dimensional binary table
 
NAXIS1  =                  32 / width of table in bytes
 
NAXIS2  =            50331648 / number of rows in table
 
PCOUNT  =                    0 / size of special data area
 
GCOUNT  =                    1 / one data group (required keyword)
 
TFIELDS =                    4 / number of fields in each row
 
TTYPE1  = 'I      '          / label for field  1
 
TFORM1  = 'D      '          / data format of field: 8-byte DOUBLE
 
TUNIT1  = 'MJy/sr  '          / physical unit of field
 
TTYPE2  = 'I_stdev '          / label for field  2
 
TFORM2  = 'D      '          / data format of field: 8-byte DOUBLE
 
TUNIT2  = 'MJy/sr  '          / physical unit of field
 
TTYPE3  = 'I_hr1  '          / label for field  3
 
TFORM3  = 'D      '          / data format of field: 8-byte DOUBLE
 
TUNIT3  = 'MJy/sr  '          / physical unit of field
 
TTYPE4  = 'I_hr2  '          / label for field  4
 
TFORM4  = 'D      '          / data format of field: 8-byte DOUBLE
 
TUNIT4  = 'MJy/sr  '          / physical unit of field
 
EXTNAME = 'COMP-MAP'
 
DATE    = '2013-02-16T10:23:15' / file creation date (YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss UT)
 
CHECKSUM= '6k8A7i826i896i89'  / HDU checksum updated 2013-02-16T10:23:32
 
DATASUM = '3817117839'        / data unit checksum updated 2013-02-16T10:23:32
 
COMMENT
 
COMMENT *** Planck params ***
 
COMMENT
 
PIXTYPE = 'HEALPIX '          / HEALPIX pixelisation
 
ORDERING= 'NESTED  '          / Pixel ordering scheme, either RING or NESTED
 
NSIDE  =                2048 / Resolution parameter for HEALPIX
 
FIRSTPIX=                    0 / First pixel # (0 based)
 
LASTPIX =            50331647 / Last pixel # (0 based)
 
INDXSCHM= 'IMPLICIT'          / Indexing: IMPLICIT or EXPLICIT
 
BAD_DATA=          -1.6375E+30
 
COORDSYS= 'GALACTIC'
 
FILENAME= 'COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits'
 
COMMENT ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 
COMMENT Objects used:
 
COMMENT /sci_planck/lfi_dpc_test/ashdown/repository/compsep_outputs/commander-ru
 
COMMENT ler/delta_dx9/planck/dx9_delta_v1_7b_avrg_dust_flux.fits
 
COMMENT /sci_planck/lfi_dpc_test/ashdown/repository/compsep_outputs/CR-temporary
 
COMMENT /dx9delta_stddev/dx9_delta_v1_7b_dust_stddev.fits
 
COMMENT /sci_planck/lfi_dpc_test/ashdown/repository/compsep_outputs/commander-ru
 
COMMENT ler/delta_dx9/planck/dx9_delta_v1_7b_hr1_avrg_dust_flux.fits
 
COMMENT /sci_planck/lfi_dpc_test/ashdown/repository/compsep_outputs/commander-ru
 
COMMENT ler/delta_dx9/planck/dx9_delta_v1_7b_hr2_avrg_dust_flux.fits
 
COMMENT ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 
END
 
</pre>
 
 
<pre>
 
XTENSION= 'BINTABLE'          / binary table extension
 
BITPIX  =                    8 / 8-bit bytes
 
NAXIS  =                    2 / 2-dimensional binary table
 
NAXIS1  =                    4 / width of table in bytes
 
NAXIS2  =                3001 / number of rows in table
 
PCOUNT  =                    0 / size of special data area
 
GCOUNT  =                    1 / one data group (required keyword)
 
TFIELDS =                    1 / number of fields in each row
 
TTYPE1  = 'BeamWF  '          / label for field  1
 
TFORM1  = 'E      '          / data format of field: 4-byte REAL
 
TUNIT1  = 'none    '          / physical unit of field
 
EXTNAME = 'BeamWF  '
 
DATE    = '2013-02-16T10:23:34' / file creation date (YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss UT)
 
CHECKSUM= 'FBGWI9EWFAEWF7EW'  / HDU checksum updated 2013-02-16T10:23:34
 
DATASUM = '4096860189'        / data unit checksum updated 2013-02-16T10:23:34
 
COMMENT
 
COMMENT *** Planck params ***
 
COMMENT
 
MAX-LPOL=                3000 / Maximum L multipole
 
COMMENT ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 
COMMENT Beam window function used in the Component separation process
 
COMMENT
 
COMMENT Objects used:
 
COMMENT
 
COMMENT /sci_planck/lfi_dpc_test/ashdown/repository/compsep_outputs/CR-temporary
 
COMMENT /dx9delta_beams/dx9_delta_v1_7b_dust_beam.fits
 
COMMENT
 
COMMENT ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 
END
 
</pre -->
 
  
 
====Sky mask====
 
====Sky mask====
Line 745: Line 658:
 
|+ FITS header
 
|+ FITS header
 
|-
 
|-
 +
|- bgcolor="ffdead" 
 
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description
 
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description
 
|-
 
|-
Line 750: Line 664:
 
|}
 
|}
  
Below an example of the header.
+
== Thermal dust emission ==
<!-- pre>
+
XTENSION= 'BINTABLE'          / binary table extension
+
BITPIX  =                   8 / 8-bit bytes
+
NAXIS  =                   2 / 2-dimensional binary table
+
NAXIS1  =                   4 / width of table in bytes
+
NAXIS2  =            50331648 / number of rows in table
+
PCOUNT  =                    0 / size of special data area
+
GCOUNT  =                    1 / one data group (required keyword)
+
TFIELDS =                    1 / number of fields in each row
+
TTYPE1  = 'Mask    '          / label for field  1
+
TFORM1  = 'E      '          / data format of field: 4-byte REAL
+
TUNIT1  = 'none    '          / physical unit of field
+
EXTNAME = 'COMP-MAP'
+
DATE    = '2013-02-16T21:07:43' / file creation date (YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss UT)
+
CHECKSUM= '5fQAAeQ45eQAAeQ3'  / HDU checksum updated 2013-02-16T21:07:44
+
DATASUM = '1075621420'        / data unit checksum updated 2013-02-16T21:07:44
+
COMMENT
+
COMMENT *** Planck params ***
+
COMMENT
+
PIXTYPE = 'HEALPIX '          / HEALPIX pixelisation
+
ORDERING= 'NESTED  '          / Pixel ordering scheme, either RING or NESTED
+
NSIDE  =                2048 / Resolution parameter for HEALPIX
+
FIRSTPIX=                    0 / First pixel # (0 based)
+
LASTPIX =            50331647 / Last pixel # (0 based)
+
INDXSCHM= 'IMPLICIT'          / Indexing: IMPLICIT or EXPLICIT
+
OBJECT  = 'FULLSKY '          / Sky coverage, either FULLSKY or PARTIAL
+
BAD_DATA=          -1.6375E+30
+
COORDSYS= 'GALACTIC'
+
FILENAME= 'COM_CompMap_Mask-rulerminimal_2048.fits'
+
COMMENT ---------------------------------------------------------------------
+
COMMENT Objects used:
+
COMMENT /sci_planck/lfi_dpc_test/ashdown/repository/compsep_outputs/CR-temporary
+
COMMENT /dx9delta_masks/deltadx9_ruler_mask_total_minimal.fits
+
COMMENT ---------------------------------------------------------------------
+
END
+
</pre -->
+
  
== Dust optical depth map and model ==
 
  
Thermal emission from interstellar dust is captured by Planck-HFI over the whole sky, at all frequencies from 100 to 857 GHz. This emission is well modelled by a modified black body in the far-infrared to millimeter range. It is produced by the biggest interstellar dust grain that are in thermal equilibrium with the radiation field from stars. The grains emission properties in the sub-millimeter are therefore directly linked to their absorption properties in the UV-visible range. By modelling the thermal dust emission in the sub-millimeter, a map of dust reddening in the visible can then be constructed.  
+
Thermal emission from interstellar dust is captured by Planck-HFI over the whole sky, at all frequencies from 100 to 857 GHz. This emission is well modelled by a modified black body in the far-infrared to millimeter range. It is produced by the biggest interstellar dust grain that are in thermal equilibrium with the radiation field from stars. The grains emission properties in the sub-millimeter are therefore directly linked to their absorption properties in the UV-visible range. By modelling the thermal dust emission in the sub-millimeter, a map of dust reddening in the visible can then be constructed. The details of the model can be found here {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06b}}.
  
; Model of thermal dust emission
+
=== Model of all-sky thermal dust emission ===
  
The model of the thermal dust emission is based on a modify black body fit to the data $I_\nu$
+
The model of the thermal dust emission is based on a modified black body (MBB) fit to the data <math>I_\nu</math>
  
$I_\nu = A\, B_\nu(T)\, \nu^\beta$
+
: <math>I_\nu = A\, B_\nu(T)\, \nu^\beta</math>
  
where B_nu(T) is the Planck function for dust equilibirum temperature T, A is the amplitude of the MBB and beta the dust spectral index. The dust optical depth at frequency nu is
+
where <math>B_\nu(T)</math> is the Planck function for dust equilibirum temperature <math>T</math>, <math>A</math> is the amplitude of the MBB and <math>\beta</math> the dust spectral index. The dust optical depth at frequency <math>\nu</math> is
  
$\tau_\nu = I_\nu / B_\nu(T) = A\, \nu^\beta$
+
: <math>\tau_\nu = I_\nu / B_\nu(T) = A\, \nu^\beta</math>
  
The dust parameters provided are $T$, beta and $\tau_{353}$. They were obtained by fitting the Planck data at 353, 545 and 857 GHz together with the IRAS (IRIS) 100 micron data. All maps (in Healpix N$_\rm{side}$=2048) were smoothed to a common resolution of 5 arcmin. The CMB anisotropies, clearly visible at 353 GHz, were removed from all the HFI maps using the SMICA map.  An offset was removed from each map to obtained a meaningful Galactic zero level, using a correlation with the LAB 21 cm data in diffuse areas of the sky ($N_{HI} < 2\times10^{20} cm^{-2}$). Because the dust emission is so well correlated between frequencies in the Rayleigh-Jeans part of the dust spectrum, the zero level of the 545 and 353 GHz were improved by correlating with the 857 GHz over a larger mask ($N_{HI} < 3\times10^{20} cm^{-2}$). Faint residual dipole structures, identified in the 353 and 545 GHz maps, were removed prior to the fit.
+
The dust parameters provided are <math>T</math>, <math>\beta</math> and <math>\tau_{353}</math>. They were obtained by fitting the Planck data at 353, 545 and 857 GHz (from which the Planck zodiacal light model was removed) together with the IRAS 100 micron data. The latter is a combination of the 100 micron maps from IRIS (Miville-Deschenes & Lagache, 2005) and from Schlegel et al. (1998), SFD1998. The IRIS (SFD1998) map is used at scales smaller (larger) than 30 arcmin; this combination allows to take advantage of the higher angular resolution and better control of gain variations of the IRIS map and of the better removal of the zodiacal light emission of the SFD1998 map.
  
The MBB fit was performed using a chi-square minimization, assuming errors for each data point that include instrumental noise, calibration uncertainties (on both the dust emission and the CMB anisotropies) and uncertainties on the zero level. Because of the known degeneracy between $T$ and $\beta$ in the presence of noise, we produced a model of dust emission using data smoothed to 35 arcmin; at such resolution no systematic bias of the parameters is observed. The map of the spectral index $\beta$ at 35 arcmin was than used to fit the data for $T$ and $\tau_{353}$ at 5 arcmin.  
+
All maps (in Healpix Nside=2048 were smoothed to a common resolution of 5 arcmin. The CMB anisotropies, clearly visible at 353 GHz, were removed from all the HFI maps using the SMICA map.  An offset was removed from each map to set a Galactic zero level, using a correlation with the LAB 21 cm data in diffuse areas of the sky (<math>N_{HI} < 2\times10^{20} cm^{-2}</math>). Because the dust emission is so well correlated between frequencies in the Rayleigh-Jeans part of the dust spectrum, the zero level of the 545 and 353 GHz were improved by correlating with the 857 GHz over a larger mask (<math>N_{HI} < 3\times10^{20} cm^{-2}</math>). Faint residual dipole structures, identified in the 353 and 545 GHz maps, were removed prior to the fit.
  
; The $E(B-V)$ map
+
The MBB fit was performed using a <math>\chi^2</math> minimization method, assuming errors for each data point that include instrumental noise, calibration uncertainties (on both the dust emission and the CMB anisotropies) and uncertainties on the zero levels. Because of the known degeneracy between <math>T</math> and <math>\beta</math> in the presence of noise, we performed tge fit in two steps. First we produced a model of dust emission using data smoothed to 30 arcmin; at such resolution no systematic bias of the parameters is observed. In a second step the map of the spectral index <math>\beta</math> at 30 arcmin was used to fit the data for <math>T</math> and <math>\tau_{353}</math> at 5 arcmin.  
For the production of the $E(B-V)$ map, we used Planck and IRAS data from which point sources in diffuse areas were removed to avoid contamination by galaxies. In the hypothesis of constant dust emission cross-section, the optical depth map $\tau_{353}$ is proportional to dust column density. It can then be used to estimate E(B-V), also proportional to dust column density in the hypothesis of a constant differential absorption cross-section between the B and V bands. Given those assumptions, $ E(B-V) = q\, \tau_{353}$.
+
  
To estimate the calibration factor q, we followed a method similar to <cite>#mortsell2013</cite> based on SDSS reddening measurements ($E(g-r)$ which corresponds closely to $E(B-V)$) of 77 429 Quasars <cite>#schneider2007</cite>. The interstellar HI column densities covered on the lines of sight of this sample ranges from $0.5$ to $10\times10^{20}\,cm^{-2}$. Therefore this sample allows to estimate q in the diffuse ISM where dust properties are expected to vary less than in denser clouds where coagulation and grain growth might modify dust emission and absorption cross sections.  
+
=== The <math>E(B-V)</math> map for extra-galactic studies===
 +
For the production of the <math>E(B-V)</math> map, we used a MBB fit to Planck and IRAS data from which point sources were removed to avoid contamination by galaxies.  In the hypothesis of constant dust emission cross-section, the optical depth map <math>\tau_{353}</math> is proportional to dust column density and therefore often used to estimate E(B-V). The analysis of Planck data revealed that the ratio <math>\tau_{353}/N_{HI}</math> and <math>\tau_{353}/E(B-V)</math> are not constant, even in the diffuse ISM, but that they depend on <math>T</math> revealing possible spatial variations of the dust emission cross-section. It appears that the dust radiance, <math>R</math>, i.e. the dust emission integrated in frequency, is a better tracer of column density in the diffuse ISM, implying small spatial variations of the radiation field strength at high Galactic latitude.
 +
Given those results, we also deliver the map of <math>R</math> as a dust product and we propose to use it as an estimator of Galactic dust reddening for extra-galactic studies: <math>E(B-V) = q\, R</math>.
  
; Dust optical depth products
+
To estimate the calibration factor q, we followed a method similar to{{BibCite|mortsell2013}} based on SDSS reddening measurements of quasars in the u, g, r, i and z bands{{BibCite|schneider2007}}. We used a sample of 53 399 quasars, selecting objects at redshifts for which Ly<math>\alpha</math> does not enter the SDSS filters. The interstellar HI column densities covered on the lines of sight of this sample ranges from <math>0.5</math> to <math>10\times10^{20}\,cm^{-2}</math>. Therefore this sample allows us to estimate q in the diffuse ISM where this map of E(B-V) is intended to be used.
  
The characteristics of the dust model maps are the following.
+
=== Dust optical depth products ===
* Dust optical depth at 353 GHz : N$_\rm{side}$=2048, fwhm=5 arcmin, no units
+
The dust model maps are found in the file {{PLASingleFile|fileType=map|name=HFI_CompMap_ThermalDustModel_2048_R1.20.fits|link=HFI_CompMap_ThermalDustModel_2048_R1.20.fits}} (see the note [[#noteOnDust|below]] for an important clarification regarding the thermal dust model); its characteristics are:
* Dust reddening E(B-V) : N$_\rm{side}$=2048, fwhm=5 arcmin, units=magnitude, obtained with data from which point sources were removed.
+
* Dust optical depth at 353 GHz: Nside=2048, fwhm=5', no units
* Dust temperature : N$_\rm{side}$ 2048, fwhm=5 arcmin, units=Kelvin
+
* Dust temperature: Nside 2048, fwhm=5', units=Kelvin
* Dust spectral index : N$_\rm{side}$=2048, fwhm=35 arcmin, no units
+
* Dust spectral index: Nside=2048, fwhm=30', no units
 +
* Dust radiance: Nside=2048, fwhm=5', units=Wm<sup>-2</sup>sr<sup>-1</sup>
 +
* E(B-V) for extragalactic studies: Nside=2048, fwhm=5', units=magnitude, obtained with data from which point sources were removed.
  
  
Line 827: Line 707:
 
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description
 
! Column Name || Data Type || Units || Description
 
|-
 
|-
| TAU353 || Real*4 || none || The opacity at 353GHz
+
| TAU353 || Real*4 || none || The optical depth at 353GHz
 
|-
 
|-
| TAU353ERR || Real*4 || none || Error in the opacity
+
| ERR_TAU || Real*4 || none || Error on the optical depth
 
|-
 
|-
| EBV || Real*4 || mag || E(B-V)
+
| EBV || Real*4 || mag || E(B-V) for extra-galactic studies
 
|-
 
|-
| EBV_ERR || Real*4 || mag || Error in E(B-V)
+
| RADIANCE || Real*4 || Wm<sup>-2</sup>sr<sup>-1</sup> || Integrated emission
 
|-
 
|-
|T_HF || Real*4 || K || Temperature for the high frequency correction
+
|TEMP || Real*4 || K || Dust temperature
 
|-
 
|-
|T_HF_ERR || Real*4 || K || Error on the temperature
+
|ERR_TEMP || Real*4 || K || Error on the temperature
 
|-
 
|-
| BETAHF || Real*4 || none || Beta for the high frequency correction
+
| BETA || Real*4 || none || Dust spectral index
 
|-
 
|-
| BETAHFERR || Real*4 || none || Error on beta
+
| ERR_BETA || Real*4 || none || Error on Beta
 
|-
 
|-
 
|- bgcolor="ffdead"   
 
|- bgcolor="ffdead"   
 
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description
 
! Keyword || Data Type || Value || Description
 
|-
 
|-
| AST-COMP ||  String || DUST-OPA|| Astrophysical compoment name
+
| AST-COMP ||  String || DUST|| Astrophysical compoment name
 
|-
 
|-
 
| PIXTYPE ||  String || HEALPIX ||
 
| PIXTYPE ||  String || HEALPIX ||
Line 854: Line 734:
 
| ORDERING || String || NESTED  || Healpix ordering
 
| ORDERING || String || NESTED  || Healpix ordering
 
|-
 
|-
| NSIDE  ||  Int || 2048 || Healpix N$_\rm{side}$ for LFI and HFI, respectively
+
| NSIDE  ||  Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside for LFI and HFI, respectively
 
|-
 
|-
 
| FIRSTPIX ||  Int*4 ||          0 || First pixel number
 
| FIRSTPIX ||  Int*4 ||          0 || First pixel number
Line 860: Line 740:
 
| LASTPIX ||  Int*4 || 50331647 || Last pixel number, for LFI and HFI, respectively
 
| LASTPIX ||  Int*4 || 50331647 || Last pixel number, for LFI and HFI, respectively
 
|}
 
|}
 +
 +
 +
 +
<div id="noteOnDust"></div><span style="font-size:120%"> <span style="color:Red"><b>IMPORTANT NOTE:</b></span></span> The dust model has recently (4 December 2013) been updated and the new model is the one being distributed by default. A detailed description of the model can be found here {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p06b}}. Users interested in the old dust model map should contact the [http://www.sciops.esa.int/helpdesk_pia PLA help desk].
  
 
== CO emission maps ==
 
== CO emission maps ==
  
CO rotational transition line emission is present in all HFI bands but for the 143 GHz channel. It is especially significant in the 100, 217 and 353 GHz channels (due to the 115 (1-0), 230 (2-1) and 345 GHz (3-2) CO transitions). This emission comes essentially from the Galactic interstellar medium and is mainly located at low and intermediate Galactic latitudes. Three approaches (summarised below) have been used to extract CO velocity-integrated emission maps from HFI maps and to make three types of CO products. An introduction is given in [[Science#CO_maps|Section]] and a full description of these products is given in <cite>#planck2013-p03a</cite>.
 
* Type 1 product: it is based on a single channel approach using the fact that each CO line has a slightly different transmission in each bolometer at a given frequency channel. These transmissions can be evaluated from bandpass measurements that were performed on the ground or empirically determined from the sky using existing ground-based CO surveys. From these, the J=1-0, J=2-1 and J=3-2 CO lines can be extracted independently. As this approach is based on individual bolometer maps of a single channel, the resulting Signal-to-Noise ratio (SNR) is relatively low. The benefit, however, is that these maps do not suffer from contamination from other HFI channels (as is the case for the other approaches) and are more reliable, especially in the Galactic Plane.
 
  
* Type 2 product: this product is obtained using a multi frequency approach. Three frequency channel maps are combined to extract the J=1-0 (using the 100, 143 and 353 GHz channels) and J=2-1 (using the 143, 217 and 353 GHz channels) CO maps. Because frequency channels are combined, the spectral behaviour of other foregrounds influences the result. The two type 2 CO maps produced in this way have a higher SNR than the type 1 maps at the cost of a larger possible residual contamination from other diffuse foregrounds.
+
CO rotational transition line emission is present in all HFI bands but for the 143 GHz channel. It is especially significant in the 100, 217 and 353 GHz channels (due to the 115 (1-0), 230 (2-1) and 345 GHz (3-2) CO transitions). This emission comes essentially from the Galactic interstellar medium and is mainly located at low and intermediate Galactic latitudes. Three approaches (summarised below) have been used to extract CO velocity-integrated emission maps from HFI maps and to make three types of CO products. A full description of how these products were produced is given in {{PlanckPapers|planck2013-p03a}}.
  
 +
* Type 1 product: it is based on a single channel approach using the fact that each CO line has a slightly different transmission in each bolometer at a given frequency channel. These transmissions can be evaluated from bandpass measurements that were performed on the ground or empirically determined from the sky using existing ground-based CO surveys. From these, the J=1-0, J=2-1 and J=3-2 CO lines can be extracted independently. As this approach is based on individual bolometer maps of a single channel, the resulting Signal-to-Noise ratio (SNR) is relatively low. The benefit, however, is that these maps do not suffer from contamination from other HFI channels (as is the case for the other approaches) and are more reliable, especially in the Galactic Plane.
 +
* Type 2 product: this product is obtained using a multi frequency approach. Three frequency channel maps are combined to extract the J=1-0 (using the 100, 143 and 353 GHz channels) and J=2-1 (using the 143, 217 and 353 GHz channels) CO maps. Because frequency channels are combined, the spectral behaviour of other foregrounds influences the result. The two type 2 CO maps produced in this way have a higher SNR than the type 1 maps at the cost of a larger possible residual contamination from other diffuse foregrounds.
 
* Type 3 product: using prior information on CO line ratios and a multi-frequency component separation method, we construct a combined CO emission map with the largest possible SNR. This type 3 product can be used as a sensitive finder chart for low-intensity diffuse CO emission over the whole sky.
 
* Type 3 product: using prior information on CO line ratios and a multi-frequency component separation method, we construct a combined CO emission map with the largest possible SNR. This type 3 product can be used as a sensitive finder chart for low-intensity diffuse CO emission over the whole sky.
  
The released Type 1 CO maps have been produced using the MILCA-b algorithm, Type 2 maps using a specific implementation of the Commander algorithm, and the Type 3 map using the full Commander-Ruler component separation pipeline (see [[Astrophysical_component_maps#Maps_of_astrophysical_foregrounds|above]]).
+
The released Type 1 CO maps have been produced using the MILCA-b algorithm, Type 2 maps using a specific implementation of the Commander algorithm, and the Type 3 map using the full Commander-Ruler component separation pipeline (see [[CMB_and _astrophysical_component_maps#Maps_of_astrophysical_foregrounds | above]]).
  
Characteristics of the released maps are the following. We provide Healpix maps with N$_\rm{side}$=2048. For one transition, the CO velocity-integrated line signal map is given in K_RJ.km/s units. A conversion factor from this unit to the native unit of HFI maps (K_CMB) is provided in the header of the data files and in the RIMO. Four maps are given per transition and per type:
+
Characteristics of the released maps are the following. We provide Healpix maps with Nside=2048. For one transition, the CO velocity-integrated line signal map is given in K_RJ.km/s units. A conversion factor from this unit to the native unit of HFI maps (K_CMB) is provided in the header of the data files and in the RIMO. Four maps are given per transition and per type:
 
* The signal map
 
* The signal map
 
* The standard deviation map (same unit as the signal),  
 
* The standard deviation map (same unit as the signal),  
Line 926: Line 810:
 
|ORDERING || String || NESTED  || Healpix ordering
 
|ORDERING || String || NESTED  || Healpix ordering
 
|-
 
|-
|NSIDE  ||  Int || 2048 || Healpix N$_\rm{side}$ for LFI and HFI, respectively
+
|NSIDE  ||  Int || 2048 || Healpix Nside for LFI and HFI, respectively
 
|-
 
|-
 
|FIRSTPIX ||  Int*4 ||                  0 || First pixel number
 
|FIRSTPIX ||  Int*4 ||                  0 || First pixel number
Line 1,023: Line 907:
  
 
== References ==
 
== References ==
<biblio force=false>
+
 
#[[References]]
+
 
</biblio>
+
<References />
 +
 +
 +
 
  
  
  
 
[[Category:Mission products|007]]
 
[[Category:Mission products|007]]

Latest revision as of 10:26, 20 June 2016

Overview

This section describes the maps of astrophysical components produced from the Planck data. These products are derived from some or all of the nine frequency channel maps described above using different techniques and, in some cases, using other constraints from external data sets. Here we give a brief description of the product and how it is obtained, followed by a description of the FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification file containing the data and associated information. All the details can be found in Planck-2013-XII[1].

CMBCosmic Microwave background maps

CMBCosmic Microwave background maps have been produced by the SMICA, NILC, SEVEM and COMMANDER-Ruler pipelines. Of these, the SMICA product is considered the preferred one overall and is labelled Main product in the Planck Legacy Archive, while the other two are labeled as Additional product.

SMICA and NILC also produce inpainted maps, in which the Galactic Plane, some bright regions and masked point sources are replaced with a constrained CMBCosmic Microwave background realization such that the whole map has the same statistical distribution as the observed CMBCosmic Microwave background.

The results of SMICA, NILC and SEVEM pipeline are distributed as a FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification file containing 4 extensions:

  1. CMBCosmic Microwave background maps and ancillary products (3 or 6 maps)
  2. CMBCosmic Microwave background-cleaned foreground maps from LFI(Planck) Low Frequency Instrument (3 maps)
  3. CMBCosmic Microwave background-cleaned foreground maps from HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument (6 maps)
  4. Effective beam of the CMBCosmic Microwave background maps (1 vector)

The results of COMMANDER-Ruler are distributed as two FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification files (the high and low resolution) containing the following extensions: High resolution N$_\rm{side}$=2048 (note that we don't provide the CMBCosmic Microwave background-cleaned foregrounds maps for LFI(Planck) Low Frequency Instrument and HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument because the Ruler resolution (~7.4') is lower than the HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument highest channel and and downgrading it will introduce noise correlation).

  1. CMBCosmic Microwave background maps and ancillary products (4 maps)
  2. Effective beam of the CMBCosmic Microwave background maps (1 vector)

Low resolution N$_\rm{side}$=256

  1. CMBCosmic Microwave background maps and ancillary products (3 maps)
  2. 10 example CMBCosmic Microwave background maps used in the montecarlo realization (10 maps)
  3. Effective beam of the CMBCosmic Microwave background maps (1 vector)

For a complete description of the data structure, see the below; the content of the first extensions is illustrated and commented in the table below.


The maps (CMBCosmic Microwave background, noise, masks) contained in the first extension
Col name SMICA NILC SEVEM COMMANDER-Ruler H COMMANDER-Ruler L Description / notes
1: I CMB-smica.png CMB-nilc.png CMB-sevem.png CMB-CR h.png CMB-CR l.png Raw CMBCosmic Microwave background anisotropy map. These are the maps used in the component separation paper Planck-2013-XII[1].
2: NOISE CMBnoise-smica.png CMBnoise-nilc.png CMBnoise-sevem.png CMBnoise-CR h.png not applicable Noise map. Obtained by propagating the half-ring noise through the CMBCosmic Microwave background cleaning pipelines.
3: VALMASK Valmask-smica.png Valmask-nilc.png Valmask-sevem.png Valmask-cr h.png Valmask-cr l.png Confidence map. Pixels with an expected low level of foreground contamination. These maps are only indicative and obtained by different ad hoc methods. They cannot be used to rank the CMBCosmic Microwave background maps.
4: I_MASK Cmbmask-smica.png Cmbmask-nilc.png not applicable not applicable not applicable Some areas are masked for the production of the raw CMBCosmic Microwave background maps (for NILC: point sources from 44 GHz to 857 GHz; for SMICA: point sources from 30 GHz to 857 GHz, Galatic region and additional bright regions).
5: INP_CMBCosmic Microwave background CMBinp-smica.png CMBinp-nilc.png not applicable not applicable not applicable Inpainted CMBCosmic Microwave background map. The raw CMBCosmic Microwave background maps with some regions (as indicated by INP_MASK) replaced by a constrained Gaussian realization. The inpainted SMICA map was used for PR.
6: INP_MASK Inpmask-smica.png Inpmask-nilc.png not applicable not applicable not applicable Mask of the inpainted regions. For SMICA, this is identical to I_MASK. For NILC, it is not.

The component separation pipelines are described in the CMB and foreground separation section and also in Section 3 and Appendices A-D of Planck-2013-XII[1] and references therein.

The union (or common) mask is defined as the union of the confidence masks from the four component separation pipelines, the three listed above and Commander-Ruler. It leaves 73% of the sky available, and so it is denoted as U73.


Product description

SMICA

Principle
SMICA produces a CMBCosmic Microwave background map by linearly combining all Planck input channels (from 30 to 857 GHz) with weights which vary with the multipole. It includes multipoles up to [math]\ell = 4000[/math].
Resolution (effective beam)
The SMICA map has an effective beam window function of 5 arc-minutes truncated at [math]\ell=4000[/math] and deconvolved from the pixel window. It means that, ideally, one would have [math]C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) * B_\ell(5')^2[/math], where [math]C_\ell(map)[/math] is the angular spectrum of the map, where [math]C_\ell(sky)[/math] is the angular spectrum of the CMBCosmic Microwave background and [math]B_\ell(5')[/math] is a 5-arcminute Gaussian beam function. Note however that, by convention, the effective beam window function [math]B_\ell(fits)[/math] provided in the FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification file does include a pixel window function. Therefore, it is equal to [math]B_\ell(fits) = B_\ell(5') / p_\ell(2048)[/math] where [math]p_\ell(2048)[/math] denotes the pixel window function for an Nside=2048 pixelization.
Confidence mask
A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative (and subjective) indication of the cleanliness of a pixel.
Masks and inpainting
The raw SMICA CMBCosmic Microwave background map has valid pixels except at the location of masked areas: point sources, Galactic plane, some other bright regions. Those invalid pixels are indicated with the mask named 'I_MASK'. The raw SMICA map has been inpainted, producing the map named "INP_CMBCosmic Microwave background". Inpainting consists in replacing some pixels (as indicated by the mask named INP_MASK) by the values of a constrained Gaussian realization which is computed to ensure good statistical properties of the whole map (technically, the inpainted pixels are a sample realisation drawn under the posterior distribution given the un-masked pixels.

NILC

Principle
The Needlet-ILC (hereafter NILC) CMBCosmic Microwave background map is constructed from all Planck channels from 44 to 857 GHz and includes multipoles up to [math]\ell = 3200[/math]. It is obtained by applying the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) technique in needlet space, that is, with combination weights which are allowed to vary over the sky and over the whole multipole range.
Resolution (effective beam)
As in the SMICA product except that there is no abrupt truncation at [math]\ell_{max}= 3200[/math] but a smooth transition to [math]0[/math] over the range [math]2700\leq\ell\leq 3200[/math].
Confidence mask
A confidence mask is provided which excludes some parts of the Galactic plane, some very bright areas and the masked point sources. This mask provides a qualitative indication of the cleanliness of a pixel. The threshold is somewhat arbitrary.
Masks and inpainting
The raw NILC map has valid pixels except at the location of masked point sources. This is indicated with the mask named 'I_MASK'. The raw NILC map has been inpainted, producing the map named "INP_CMBCosmic Microwave background". The inpainting consists in replacing some pixels (as indicated by the mask named INP_MASK) by the values of a constrained Gaussian realization which is computed to ensure good statistical properties of the whole map (technically, the inpainted pixels are a sample realisation drawn under the posterior distribution given the un-masked pixels.

SEVEM

The aim of SEVEM is to produce clean CMBCosmic Microwave background maps at one or several frequencies by using a procedure based on template fitting. The templates are internal, i.e., they are constructed from Planck data, avoiding the need for external data sets, which usually complicates the analyses and may introduce inconsistencies. The method has been successfully applied to Planck simulations[2] and to WMAP polarisation data[3]. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. Note that unlike the other products, SEVEM does not provide the mask of regions not used in the productions of the CMBCosmic Microwave background ma (I_MASK) nor an inpainted version of the map and its associated mask. On the other hand, it provides channel maps and 100, 143, and 217 GHz which are used as the building blocks of the final map.

COMMANDER-Ruler

COMMANDER-Ruler is the Planck software implementing a pixel based parametric component separation. Amplitude of CMBCosmic Microwave background and the main diffuse foregrounds along with the relevant spectral parameters for those (see below in the Astrophysical Foreground Section for the latter) are parametrized and fitted in single MCMC chains conducted at $N_\rm{side}$=256 using COMMANDER, implementing a Gibbs Sampling. The CMBCosmic Microwave background amplitude which is obtained in these runs corresponds to the delivered low resolution CMBCosmic Microwave background component from COMMANDER-Ruler which has a FWHMFull-Width-at-Half-Maximum of 40 arcminutes. The sampling of the foreground parameters is applied to the data at full resolution for obtaining the high resolution CMBCosmic Microwave background component from Ruler which is available on the PLAPlanck Legacy Archive. In the Planck Component Separation paper[1] additional material is discussed, specifically concerning the sky region where the solutions are reliable, in terms of chi2 maps. The products mainly consist of:

  • Maps of the Amplitudes of the CMBCosmic Microwave background at low resolution, $N_\rm{side}$=256, along with the standard deviations of the outputs, beam profiles derived from the production process.
  • Maps of the CMBCosmic Microwave background amplitude, along with the standard deviations, at high resolution, $N_\rm{side}$=2048, beam profiles derived from the production process.
  • Mask obtained on the basis of the precision in the fitting procedure; the thresholding is evaluated through the COMMANDER-Ruler likelihood analysis and excludes 13% of the sky, see Planck-2013-XII[1].

Production process

SMICA

1) Pre-processing
All input maps undergo a pre-processing step to deal with point sources. The point sources with SNR > 5 in the PCCS catalogue are fitted in each input map. If the fit is successful, the fitted point source is removed from the map; otherwise it is masked and the hole is filled in by a simple diffusive process to ensure a smooth transition and mitigate spectral leakage. This is done at all frequencies but 545 and 857 GHz, here all point sources with SNR > 7.5 are masked and filled-in similarly.
2) Linear combination
The nine pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 30 to 857 GHzare harmonically transformed up to [math]\ell = 4000[/math] and co-added with multipole-dependent weights as shown in the figure.
3) Post-processing
The areas masked in the pre-processing step are replaced by a constrained Gaussian realization.

Note: The visible power deficit in the raw CMBCosmic Microwave background map around the galactic plane is due to the smooth fill-in of the masked areas in the input maps (the result of the pre-processing). It is not to be confused with the post-processing step of inpainting of the CMBCosmic Microwave background map with a constrained Gaussian realization.


Weights given by SMICA to the input maps (after they are re-beamed to 5 arcmin and expressed in K[math]_\rm{RJ}[/math]), as a function of multipole.

NILC

1) Pre-processing
Same pre-processing as SMICA (except the 30 GHz channel is not used).
2) Linear combination
The pre-processed Planck frequency channels from 44 to 857 GHz are linearly combined with weights which depend on location on the sky and on the multipole range up to [math]\ell = 3200[/math]. This is achieved using a needlet (redundant spherical wavelet) decomposition. For more details, see Planck-2013-XII[1].
3) Post-processing
The areas masked in the pre-processing plus other bright regions step are replaced by a constrained Gaussian realization as in the SMICA post-processing step.

SEVEM

The templates are internal, i.e., they are constructed from Planck data, avoiding the need for external data sets, which usually complicates the analyses and may introduce inconsistencies. In the cleaning process, no assumptions about the foregrounds or noise levels are needed, rendering the technique very robust. The fitting can be done in real or wavelet space (using a fast wavelet adapted to the HEALPix([http://healpix.sourceforge.net Hierarchical Equal Area isoLatitude Pixelation of a sphere], {{BibCite|gorski2005}}) pixelation used to produce Planck sky maps (and HFI HPR). pixelization[4]) to properly deal with incomplete sky coverage. By expediency, however, we fill in the small number of unobserved pixels at each channel with the mean value of its neighbouring pixels before applying SEVEM.

We construct our templates by subtracting two close Planck frequency channel maps, after first smoothing them to a common resolution to ensure that the CMBCosmic Microwave background signal is properly removed. A linear combination of the templates [math]t_j[/math] is then subtracted from (hitherto unused) map d to produce a clean CMBCosmic Microwave background map at that frequency. This is done either in real or in wavelet space (i.e., scale by scale) at each position on the sky: [math] T_c(\mathbf{x}, ν) = d(\mathbf{x}, ν) − \sum_{j=1}^{n_t} α_j t(\mathbf{x}) [/math] where [math]n_t[/math] is the number of templates. If the cleaning is performed in real space, the [math]α_j[/math] coefficients are obtained by minimising the variance of the clean map [math]T_c[/math] outside a given mask. When working in wavelet space, the cleaning is done in the same way at each wavelet scale independently (i.e., the linear coefficients depend on the scale). Although we exclude very contaminated regions during the minimization, the subtraction is performed for all pixels and, therefore, the cleaned maps cover the full-sky (although we expect that foreground residuals are present in the excluded areas).

An additional level of flexibility can also be considered: the linear coefficients can be the same for all the sky, or several regions with different sets of coefficients can be considered. The regions are then combined in a smooth way, by weighting the pixels at the boundaries, to avoid discontinuities in the clean maps. Since the method is linear, we may easily propagate the noise properties to the final CMBCosmic Microwave background map. Moreover, it is very fast and permits the generation of thousands of simulations to character- ize the statistical properties of the outputs, a critical need for many cosmological applications. The final CMBCosmic Microwave background map retains the angular resolution of the original frequency map.

There are several possible configurations of SEVEM with regard to the number of frequency maps which are cleaned or the number of templates that are used in the fitting. Note that the production of clean maps at different frequencies is of great interest in order to test the robustness of the results. Therefore, to define the best strategy, one needs to find a compromise between the number of maps that can be cleaned independently and the number of templates that can be constructed.

In particular, we have cleaned the 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps using four templates constructed as the difference of the following Planck channels (smoothed to a common resolution): (30-44), (44-70), (545-353) and (857-545). For simplicity, the three maps have been cleaned in real space, since there was not a significant improvement when using wavelets (especially at high latitude). In order to take into account the different spectral behaviour of the foregrounds at low and high galactic latitudes, we have considered two independent regions of the sky, for which we have used a different set of coefficients. The first region corresponds to the 3 per cent brightest Galactic emission, whereas the second region is defined by the remaining 97 per cent of the sky. For the first region, the coefficients are actually estimated over the whole sky (we find that this is more optimal than perform the minimisation only on the 3 per cent brightest region, where the CMBCosmic Microwave background emission is very sub-dominant) while for the second region, we exclude the 3 per cent brightest region of the sky, point sources detected at any frequency and those pixels which have not been observed at all channels. Our final CMBCosmic Microwave background map has then been constructed by combining the 143 and 217 GHz maps by weighting the maps in harmonic space taking into account the noise level, the resolution and a rough estimation of the foreground residuals of each map (obtained from realistic simulations). This final map has a resolution corresponding to a Gaussian beam of fwhm=5 arcminutes.

Moreover, additional CMBCosmic Microwave background clean maps (at frequencies between 44 and 353 GHz) have also been produced using different combinations of templates for some of the analyses carried out in Planck-2013-XXIII[5] and Planck-2013-XIX[6]. In particular, clean maps from 44 to 353 GHz have been used for the stacking analysis presented in Planck-2013-XIX[6], while frequencies from 70 to 217 GHz were used for consistency tests in Planck-2013-XXIII[5].

COMMANDER-Ruler

The production process consist in low and high resolution runs according to the description above.

Low Resolution Runs
Same as the Astrophysics Foregrounds Section below; The CMBCosmic Microwave background amplitude is fitted along with the other foreground parameters and constitutes the CMBCosmic Microwave background Low Resolution Rendering which is in the PLAPlanck Legacy Archive.
Ruler Runs
the sampling at high resolution is used to infer the probability distribution of spectral parameters which is exploited at full resolution in order to obtain the High Resolution CMBCosmic Microwave background Rendering which is in the PLAPlanck Legacy Archive.

Masks

Summary table with the different masks that have been used by the component separation methods to pre-process and to process the frequency maps and the CMBCosmic Microwave background maps.

Commander 2013 (PR1) Used for diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMBCosmic Microwave background map Description
VALMASK NO NO VALMASK is the confidence mask that defines the region where the reconstructed CMBCosmic Microwave background is trusted. It can be found inside

COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits and COM_CompMap_CMB-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits for low resolution analyses.

SEVEM 2013 (PR1) Used diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps Used for Constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMBCosmic Microwave background map Description
VALMASK NO NO VALMASK is the confidence mask that defines the region where the reconstructed CMBCosmic Microwave background is trusted. It can be found inside

COM_CompMap_CMB-sevem_2048_R1.12.fits.

NILC 2013 (PR1) Used for diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMBCosmic Microwave background map Description
VALMASK NO NO VALMASK is the confidence mask that defines the region where the reconstructed CMBCosmic Microwave background is trusted. It can be found inside COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits.
I_MASK NO NO I_MASK defines the regions over which CMBCosmic Microwave background is not built. It is a combination of point source masks, Galactic plane mask and other bright regions like LMC, SMC, etc. It can be found inside COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits.
INP_MASK NO YES It can be found inside COM_CompMap_CMB-nilc_2048_R1.20.fits.
SMICA 2013 (PR1) Used for diffuse inpainting of input frequency maps Used for constrained Gaussian realization inpaiting of CMBCosmic Microwave background map Description
VALMASK NO NO VALMASK is the confidence mask that defines the region where the reconstructed CMBCosmic Microwave background is trusted. It can be found inside

COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits.

I_MASK YES YES I_MASK defines the regions over which CMBCosmic Microwave background is not built. It is a combination of point source masks, Galactic plane mask and other bright regions like LMC, SMC, etc. It can be found inside COM_CompMap_CMB-smica_2048_R1.20.fits.
INP_MASK YES YES INP_MASK for SMICA 2013 release is identical to I_MASK above.

Inputs

The input maps are the sky temperature maps described in the Sky temperature maps section. SMICA and SEVEM use all the maps between 30 and 857 GHz; NILC uses the ones between 44 and 857 GHz. Commander-Ruler uses frequency channel maps from 30 to 353 GHz.

File names and structure

The FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification files corresponding to the three CMBCosmic Microwave background products are the following:


The files contain a minimal primary extension with no data and four BINTABLE data extensions. Each column of the BINTABLE is a (Healpix) map; the column names and the most important keywords of each extension are described in the table below; for the remaining keywords, please see the FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification files directly.


CMBCosmic Microwave background map file data structure
Ext. 1. EXTNAME = COMP-MAP (BINTABLE)
Column Name Data Type Units Description
I Real*4 uK_cmb CMBCosmic Microwave background temperature map
NOISE Real*4 uK_cmb Estimated noise map (note 1)
I_STDEV Real*4 uK_cmb Standard deviation, ONLY on COMMANDER-Ruler products
VALMASK Byte none Confidence mask (note 2)
I_MASK Byte none Mask of regions over which CMBCosmic Microwave background map is not built (Optional - see note 3)
INP_CMBCosmic Microwave background Real*4 uK_cmb Inpainted CMBCosmic Microwave background temperature map (Optional - see note 3)
INP_MASK Byte none mask of inpainted pixels (Optional - see note 3)
Keyword Data Type Value Description
AST-COMP String CMBCosmic Microwave background Astrophysical compoment name
PIXTYPE String HEALPIX
COORDSYS String GALACTIC Coordinate system
ORDERING String NESTED Healpix ordering
NSIDE Int 2048 Healpix Nside
METHOD String name Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)
Ext. 2. EXTNAME = FGDS-LFI(Planck) Low Frequency Instrument (BINTABLE) - Note 4
Column Name Data Type Units Description
LFI(Planck) Low Frequency Instrument_030 Real*4 K_cmb 30 GHz foregrounds
LFI(Planck) Low Frequency Instrument_044 Real*4 K_cmb 44 GHz foregrounds
LFI(Planck) Low Frequency Instrument_070 Real*4 K_cmb 70 GHz foregrounds
Keyword Data Type Value Description
PIXTYPE String HEALPIX
COORDSYS String GALACTIC Coordinate system
ORDERING String NESTED Healpix ordering
NSIDE Int 1024 Healpix Nside
METHOD String name Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM)
Ext. 3. EXTNAME = FGDS-HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument (BINTABLE) - Note 4
Column Name Data Type Units Description
HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument_100 Real*4 K_cmb 100 GHz foregrounds
HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument_143 Real*4 K_cmb 143 GHz foregrounds
HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument_217 Real*4 K_cmb 217 GHz foregrounds
HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument_353 Real*4 K_cmb 353 GHz foregrounds
HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument_545 Real*4 MJy/sr 545 GHz foregrounds
HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument_857 Real*4 MJy/sr 857 GHz foregrounds
Keyword Data Type Value Description
PIXTYPE String HEALPIX
COORDSYS String GALACTIC Coordinate system
ORDERING String NESTED Healpix ordering
NSIDE Int 2048 Healpix Nside
METHOD String name Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)
Ext. 4. EXTNAME = BEAM_WF (BINTABLE)
Column Name Data Type Units Description
BEAM_WF Real*4 none The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function. See Note 5.
Keyword Data Type Value Description
LMIN Int value First multipole of beam WF
LMAX Int value Lsst multipole of beam WF
METHOD String name Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)

Notes:

  1. The half-ring half-difference (HRHD) map is made by passing the half-ring frequency maps independently through the component separation pipeline, then computing half their difference. It approximates a noise realisation, and gives an indication of the uncertainties due to instrumental noise in the corresponding CMBCosmic Microwave background map.
  2. The confidence mask indicates where the CMBCosmic Microwave background map is considered valid.
  3. This column is not present in the SEVEM and COMMANDER-Ruler product file. For SEVEM these three columns give the CMBCosmic Microwave background channel maps at 100, 143, and 217 GHz (columns C100, C143, and C217, in units of K_cmb.
  4. The subtraction of the CMBCosmic Microwave background from the sky maps in order to produce the foregrounds map is done after convolving the CMBCosmic Microwave background map to the resolution of the given frequency. Those columns are not present in the COMMANDER-Ruler product file.
  5. The beam window function [math]B_\ell[/math] given here includes the pixel window function [math]p_\ell[/math] for the Nside=2048 pixelization. It means that, ideally, [math]C_\ell(map) = C_\ell(sky) \, B_\ell^2 \, p_\ell^2[/math].

The low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler CMBCosmic Microwave background product is organized in the following way:

CMBCosmic Microwave background low resolution COMMANDER-Ruler map file data structure
Ext. 1. EXTNAME = COMP-MAP (BINTABLE)
Column Name Data Type Units Description
I Real*4 uK_cmb CMBCosmic Microwave background temperature map obtained as average over 1000 samples
I_stdev Real*4 uK_cmb Corresponding Standard deviation amongst the 1000 samples
VALMASK Byte none Confidence mask
Keyword Data Type Value Description
PIXTYPE String HEALPIX
COORDSYS String GALACTIC Coordinate system
ORDERING String NESTED Healpix ordering
NSIDE Int 2048 Healpix Nside
METHOD String name Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)
Ext. 2. EXTNAME = CMBCosmic Microwave background-Sample (BINTABLE)
Column Name Data Type Units Description
I_SIM01 Real*4 K_cmb CMBCosmic Microwave background Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin
I_SIM02 Real*4 K_cmb CMBCosmic Microwave background Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin
I_SIM03 Real*4 K_cmb CMBCosmic Microwave background Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin
I_SIM04 Real*4 K_cmb CMBCosmic Microwave background Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin
I_SIM05 Real*4 K_cmb CMBCosmic Microwave background Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin
I_SIM06 Real*4 K_cmb CMBCosmic Microwave background Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin
I_SIM07 Real*4 K_cmb CMBCosmic Microwave background Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin
I_SIM08 Real*4 K_cmb CMBCosmic Microwave background Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin
I_SIM09 Real*4 K_cmb CMBCosmic Microwave background Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin
I_SIM10 Real*4 K_cmb CMBCosmic Microwave background Sample, smoothed to 40 arcmin
Keyword Data Type Value Description
PIXTYPE String HEALPIX
COORDSYS String GALACTIC Coordinate system
ORDERING String NESTED Healpix ordering
NSIDE Int 1024 Healpix Nside
METHOD String name Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)
Ext. 4. EXTNAME = BEAM_WF (BINTABLE)
Column Name Data Type Units Description
BEAM_WF Real*4 none The effective beam window function, including the pixel window function.
Keyword Data Type Value Description
LMIN Int value First multipole of beam WF
LMAX Int value Lsst multipole of beam WF
METHOD String name Cleaning method (SMICA/NILC/SEVEM/COMMANDER-Ruler)


The FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification files containing the union (or common) maks is:

which contains a single BINTABLE extension with a single column (named U73) for the mask, which is boolean (FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification TFORM = B), in GALACTIC coordinates, NESTED ordering, and Nside=2048.

For the benefit of users who are only looking for a small file containing the SMICA cmb map with no additional information (noise or masks) we provide such a file here

This file contains a single extension with a single column containing the SMICA cmb temperature map.

Cautionary notes

  1. The half-ring CMBCosmic Microwave background maps are produced by the pipelines with parameters/weights fixed to the values obtained from the full maps. Therefore the CMBCosmic Microwave background HRHD maps do not capture all of the uncertainties due to foreground modelling on large angular scales.
  2. The HRHD maps for the HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument frequency channels underestimate the noise power spectrum at high l by typically a few percent. This is caused by correlations induced in the pre-processing to remove cosmic ray hits. The CMBCosmic Microwave background is mostly constrained by the HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument channels at high l, and so the CMBCosmic Microwave background HRHD maps will inherit this deficiency in power.
  3. The beam transfer functions do not account for uncertainties in the beams of the frequency channel maps.

Astrophysical foregrounds from parametric component separation

We describe diffuse foreground products for the Planck 2013 release. See Planck Component Separation paper Planck-2013-XII[1] for a detailed description and astrophysical discussion of those.

Product description

Low frequency foreground component
The products below contain the result of the fitting for one foreground component at low frequencies in Planck bands,along with its spectral behavior parametrized by a power law spectral index. Amplitude and spectral indeces are evaluated at N$_\rm{side}$ 256 (see below in the production process), along with standard deviation from sampling and instrumental noise on both. An amplitude solution at N$_\rm{side}$=2048 is also given, along with standard deviation from sampling and instrumental noise as well as solutions on halfrings. The beam profile associated to this component is also provided as a secondary Extension in the N$_\rm{side}$ 2048 product.
Thermal dust
The products below contain the result of the fitting for one foreground component at high frequencies in Planck bands, along with its spectral behavior parametrized by temperature and emissivity. Amplitude, temperature and emissivity are evaluated at N$_\rm{side}$ 256 (see below in the production process), along with standard deviation from sampling and instrumental noise on all of them. An amplitude solution at N$_\rm{side}$=2048 is also given, along with standard deviation from sampling and instrumental noise as well as solutions on halfrings. The beam profile associated to this component is provided.
Sky mask
The delivered mask is defined as the sky region where the fitting procedure was conducted and the solutions presented here were obtained. It is made by masking a region where the Galactic emission is too intense to perform the fitting, plus the masking of brightest point sources.

Production process

CODE: COMMANDER-RULER. The code exploits a parametrization of CMBCosmic Microwave background and main diffuse foreground observables. The naive resolution of input frequency channels is reduced to N$_\rm{side}$=256 first. Parameters related to the foreground scaling with frequency are estimated at that resolution by using Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis using Gibbs sampling. The foreground parameters make the foreground mixing matrix which is applied to the data at full resolution in order to obtain the provided products at N$_\rm{side}$=2048. In the Planck Component Separation paper Planck-2013-XII[1] additional material is discussed, specifically concerning the sky region where the solutions are reliable, in terms of chi2 maps.

Inputs

Nominal frequency maps at 30, 44, 70, 100, 143, 217, 353 GHz (LFI 30 GHz frequency maps, LFI 44 GHz frequency maps and LFI 70 GHz frequency maps, HFI 100 GHz frequency maps, HFI 143 GHz frequency maps,HFI 217 GHz frequency maps and HFI 353 GHz frequency maps) and their II column corresponding to the noise covariance matrix. Halfrings at the same frequencies. Beam window functions as reported in the LFI and HFI RIMO.

Related products

None.

File names

Meta Data

Low frequency foreground component

Low frequency component at N$_\rm{side}$ = 256

File name: COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits

Name HDU -- COMP-MAP

The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:

FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification header
Column Name Data Type Units Description
I Real*4 uK[math]_{CMB}[/math] Intensity
I_stdev Real*4 uK[math]_{CMB}[/math] standard deviation of intensity
Beta Real*4 effective spectral index
B_stdev Real*4 standard deviation on the effective spectral index
Notes
Comment: The Intensity is normalized at 30 GHz
Comment: The intensity was estimated during mixing matrix estimation
Low frequency component at N$_\rm{side}$ = 2048
File name: COM_CompMap_Lfreqfor-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits


Name HDU -- COMP-MAP

The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:

FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification header
Column Name Data Type Units Description
I Real*8 uK[math]_{CMB}[/math] Intensity
I_stdev Real*8 uK[math]_{CMB}[/math] standard deviation of intensity
I_hr1 Real*8 uK[math]_{CMB}[/math] Intensity on half ring 1
I_hr2 Real*8 uK[math]_{CMB}[/math] Intensity on half ring 2
Notes
Comment: The intensity was computed after mixing matrix application


Name HDU -- BeamWF

The Fits second extension is composed by the columns described below:

FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification header
Column Name Data Type Units Description
BeamWF Real*4 beam profile
Notes
Comment: Beam window function used in the Component separation process

Thermal dust

Thermal dust component at N$_\rm{side}$=256
File name: COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_0256_R1.00.fits
Name HDU -- COMP-MAP

The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:

FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification header
Column Name Data Type Units Description
I Real*4 MJy/sr Intensity
I_stdev Real*4 MJy/sr standard deviation of intensity
Em Real*4 emissivity
Em_stdev Real*4 standard deviation on emissivity
T Real*4 uK[math]_{CMB}[/math] temperature
T_stdev Real*4 uK[math]_{CMB}[/math] standard deviation on temerature
Notes
Comment: The intensity is normalized at 353 GHz
Thermal dust component at N$_\rm{side}$=2048

File name: COM_CompMap_dust-commrul_2048_R1.00.fits


Name HDU -- COMP-MAP

The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:

FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification header
Column Name Data Type Units Description
I Real*8 MJy/sr Intensity
I_stdev Real*8 MJy/sr standard deviation of intensity
I_hr1 Real*8 MJy/sr Intensity on half ring 1
I_hr2 Real*8 MJy/sr Intensity on half ring 2


Name HDU -- BeamWF

The Fits second extension is composed by the columns described below:

FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification header
Column Name Data Type Units Description
BeamWF Real*4 beam profile
Notes
Comment: Beam window function used in the Component separation process

Sky mask

File name: COM_CompMap_Mask-rulerminimal_2048.fits

Name HDU -- COMP-MASK

The Fits extension is composed by the columns described below:

FITSFlexible Image Transfer Specification header
Column Name Data Type Units Description
Mask Real*4 Mask

Thermal dust emission

Thermal emission from interstellar dust is captured by Planck-HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument over the whole sky, at all frequencies from 100 to 857 GHz. This emission is well modelled by a modified black body in the far-infrared to millimeter range. It is produced by the biggest interstellar dust grain that are in thermal equilibrium with the radiation field from stars. The grains emission properties in the sub-millimeter are therefore directly linked to their absorption properties in the UV-visible range. By modelling the thermal dust emission in the sub-millimeter, a map of dust reddening in the visible can then be constructed. The details of the model can be found here Planck-2013-XI[7].

Model of all-sky thermal dust emission

The model of the thermal dust emission is based on a modified black body (MBB) fit to the data [math]I_\nu[/math]

[math]I_\nu = A\, B_\nu(T)\, \nu^\beta[/math]

where [math]B_\nu(T)[/math] is the Planck function for dust equilibirum temperature [math]T[/math], [math]A[/math] is the amplitude of the MBB and [math]\beta[/math] the dust spectral index. The dust optical depth at frequency [math]\nu[/math] is

[math]\tau_\nu = I_\nu / B_\nu(T) = A\, \nu^\beta[/math]

The dust parameters provided are [math]T[/math], [math]\beta[/math] and [math]\tau_{353}[/math]. They were obtained by fitting the Planck data at 353, 545 and 857 GHz (from which the Planck zodiacal light model was removed) together with the IRAS 100 micron data. The latter is a combination of the 100 micron maps from IRIS (Miville-Deschenes & Lagache, 2005) and from Schlegel et al. (1998), SFD1998. The IRIS (SFD1998) map is used at scales smaller (larger) than 30 arcmin; this combination allows to take advantage of the higher angular resolution and better control of gain variations of the IRIS map and of the better removal of the zodiacal light emission of the SFD1998 map.

All maps (in Healpix Nside=2048 were smoothed to a common resolution of 5 arcmin. The CMBCosmic Microwave background anisotropies, clearly visible at 353 GHz, were removed from all the HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument maps using the SMICA map. An offset was removed from each map to set a Galactic zero level, using a correlation with the LAB 21 cm data in diffuse areas of the sky ([math]N_{HI} \lt 2\times10^{20} cm^{-2}[/math]). Because the dust emission is so well correlated between frequencies in the Rayleigh-Jeans part of the dust spectrum, the zero level of the 545 and 353 GHz were improved by correlating with the 857 GHz over a larger mask ([math]N_{HI} \lt 3\times10^{20} cm^{-2}[/math]). Faint residual dipole structures, identified in the 353 and 545 GHz maps, were removed prior to the fit.

The MBB fit was performed using a [math]\chi^2[/math] minimization method, assuming errors for each data point that include instrumental noise, calibration uncertainties (on both the dust emission and the CMBCosmic Microwave background anisotropies) and uncertainties on the zero levels. Because of the known degeneracy between [math]T[/math] and [math]\beta[/math] in the presence of noise, we performed tge fit in two steps. First we produced a model of dust emission using data smoothed to 30 arcmin; at such resolution no systematic bias of the parameters is observed. In a second step the map of the spectral index [math]\beta[/math] at 30 arcmin was used to fit the data for [math]T[/math] and [math]\tau_{353}[/math] at 5 arcmin.

The [math]E(B-V)[/math] map for extra-galactic studies

For the production of the [math]E(B-V)[/math] map, we used a MBB fit to Planck and IRAS data from which point sources were removed to avoid contamination by galaxies. In the hypothesis of constant dust emission cross-section, the optical depth map [math]\tau_{353}[/math] is proportional to dust column density and therefore often used to estimate E(B-V). The analysis of Planck data revealed that the ratio [math]\tau_{353}/N_{HI}[/math] and [math]\tau_{353}/E(B-V)[/math] are not constant, even in the diffuse ISM, but that they depend on [math]T[/math] revealing possible spatial variations of the dust emission cross-section. It appears that the dust radiance, [math]R[/math], i.e. the dust emission integrated in frequency, is a better tracer of column density in the diffuse ISM, implying small spatial variations of the radiation field strength at high Galactic latitude. Given those results, we also deliver the map of [math]R[/math] as a dust product and we propose to use it as an estimator of Galactic dust reddening for extra-galactic studies: [math]E(B-V) = q\, R[/math].

To estimate the calibration factor q, we followed a method similar to[8] based on SDSS reddening measurements of quasars in the u, g, r, i and z bands[9]. We used a sample of 53 399 quasars, selecting objects at redshifts for which Ly[math]\alpha[/math] does not enter the SDSS filters. The interstellar HI column densities covered on the lines of sight of this sample ranges from [math]0.5[/math] to [math]10\times10^{20}\,cm^{-2}[/math]. Therefore this sample allows us to estimate q in the diffuse ISM where this map of E(B-V) is intended to be used.

Dust optical depth products

The dust model maps are found in the file HFI_CompMap_ThermalDustModel_2048_R1.20.fits (see the note below for an important clarification regarding the thermal dust model); its characteristics are:

  • Dust optical depth at 353 GHz: Nside=2048, fwhm=5', no units
  • Dust temperature: Nside 2048, fwhm=5', units=Kelvin
  • Dust spectral index: Nside=2048, fwhm=30', no units
  • Dust radiance: Nside=2048, fwhm=5', units=Wm-2sr-1
  • E(B-V) for extragalactic studies: Nside=2048, fwhm=5', units=magnitude, obtained with data from which point sources were removed.


Dust opacity file data structure
1. EXTNAME = 'COMP-MAP'
Column Name Data Type Units Description
TAU353 Real*4 none The optical depth at 353GHz
ERR_TAU Real*4 none Error on the optical depth
EBV Real*4 mag E(B-V) for extra-galactic studies
RADIANCE Real*4 Wm-2sr-1 Integrated emission
TEMP Real*4 K Dust temperature
ERR_TEMP Real*4 K Error on the temperature
BETA Real*4 none Dust spectral index
ERR_BETA Real*4 none Error on Beta
Keyword Data Type Value Description
AST-COMP String DUST Astrophysical compoment name
PIXTYPE String HEALPIX
COORDSYS String GALACTIC Coordinate system
ORDERING String NESTED Healpix ordering
NSIDE Int 2048 Healpix Nside for LFI(Planck) Low Frequency Instrument and HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument, respectively
FIRSTPIX Int*4 0 First pixel number
LASTPIX Int*4 50331647 Last pixel number, for LFI(Planck) Low Frequency Instrument and HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument, respectively
IMPORTANT NOTE: The dust model has recently (4 December 2013) been updated and the new model is the one being distributed by default. A detailed description of the model can be found here Planck-2013-XI[7]. Users interested in the old dust model map should contact the PLA help desk.

CO emission maps

CO rotational transition line emission is present in all HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument bands but for the 143 GHz channel. It is especially significant in the 100, 217 and 353 GHz channels (due to the 115 (1-0), 230 (2-1) and 345 GHz (3-2) CO transitions). This emission comes essentially from the Galactic interstellar medium and is mainly located at low and intermediate Galactic latitudes. Three approaches (summarised below) have been used to extract CO velocity-integrated emission maps from HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument maps and to make three types of CO products. A full description of how these products were produced is given in Planck-2013-XIII[10].

  • Type 1 product: it is based on a single channel approach using the fact that each CO line has a slightly different transmission in each bolometer at a given frequency channel. These transmissions can be evaluated from bandpass measurements that were performed on the ground or empirically determined from the sky using existing ground-based CO surveys. From these, the J=1-0, J=2-1 and J=3-2 CO lines can be extracted independently. As this approach is based on individual bolometer maps of a single channel, the resulting Signal-to-Noise ratio (SNR) is relatively low. The benefit, however, is that these maps do not suffer from contamination from other HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument channels (as is the case for the other approaches) and are more reliable, especially in the Galactic Plane.
  • Type 2 product: this product is obtained using a multi frequency approach. Three frequency channel maps are combined to extract the J=1-0 (using the 100, 143 and 353 GHz channels) and J=2-1 (using the 143, 217 and 353 GHz channels) CO maps. Because frequency channels are combined, the spectral behaviour of other foregrounds influences the result. The two type 2 CO maps produced in this way have a higher SNR than the type 1 maps at the cost of a larger possible residual contamination from other diffuse foregrounds.
  • Type 3 product: using prior information on CO line ratios and a multi-frequency component separation method, we construct a combined CO emission map with the largest possible SNR. This type 3 product can be used as a sensitive finder chart for low-intensity diffuse CO emission over the whole sky.

The released Type 1 CO maps have been produced using the MILCA-b algorithm, Type 2 maps using a specific implementation of the Commander algorithm, and the Type 3 map using the full Commander-Ruler component separation pipeline (see above).

Characteristics of the released maps are the following. We provide Healpix maps with Nside=2048. For one transition, the CO velocity-integrated line signal map is given in K_RJ.km/s units. A conversion factor from this unit to the native unit of HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument maps (K_CMBCosmic Microwave background) is provided in the header of the data files and in the RIMOreduced IMO. Four maps are given per transition and per type:

  • The signal map
  • The standard deviation map (same unit as the signal),
  • A null test noise map (same unit as the signal) with similar statistical properties. It is made out of half the difference of half-ring maps.
  • A mask map (0B or 1B) giving the regions (1B) where the CO measurement is not reliable because of some severe identified foreground contamination.

All products of a given type belong to a single file. Type 1 products have the native HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument resolution i.e. approximately 10, 5 and 5 arcminutes for the CO 1-0, 2-1, 3-2 transitions respectively. Type 2 products have a 15 arcminute resolution The Type 3 product has a 5.5 arcminute resolution.


Type-1 CO map file data structure
1. EXTNAME = 'COMP-MAP'
Column Name Data Type Units Description
I10 Real*4 K_RJ km/sec The CO(1-0) intensity map
E10 Real*4 K_RJ km/sec Uncertainty in the CO(1-0) intensity
N10 Real*4 K_RJ km/sec Map built from the half-ring difference maps
M10 Byte none Region over which the CO(1-0) intensity is considered reliable
I21 Real*4 K_RJ km/sec The CO(2-1) intensity map
E21 Real*4 K_RJ km/sec Uncertainty in the CO(2-1) intensity
N21 Real*4 K_RJ km/sec Map built from the half-ring difference maps
M21 Byte none Region over which the CO(2-1) intensity is considered reliable
I32 Real*4 K_RJ km/sec The CO(3-2) intensity map
E32 Real*4 K_RJ km/sec Uncertainty in the CO(3-2) intensity
N32 Real*4 K_RJ km/sec Map built from the half-ring difference maps
M32 Byte none Region over which the CO(3-2) intensity is considered reliable
Keyword Data Type Value Description
AST-COMP string CO-TYPE2 Astrophysical compoment name
PIXTYPE String HEALPIX
COORDSYS String GALACTIC Coordinate system
ORDERING String NESTED Healpix ordering
NSIDE Int 2048 Healpix Nside for LFI(Planck) Low Frequency Instrument and HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument, respectively
FIRSTPIX Int*4 0 First pixel number
LASTPIX Int*4 50331647 Last pixel number, for LFI(Planck) Low Frequency Instrument and HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument, respectively
CNV 1-0 Real*4 value Factor to convert CO(1-0) intensity to Kcmb (units Kcmb/(Krj*km/s))
CNV 2-1 Real*4 value Factor to convert CO(2-1) intensityto Kcmb (units Kcmb/(Krj*km/s))
CNV 3-2 Real*4 value Factor to convert CO(3-2) intensityto Kcmb (units Kcmb/(Krj*km/s))

Type-2 CO map file data structure

1. EXTNAME = 'COMP-MAP'
Column Name Data Type Units Description
I10 Real*4 K_RJ km/sec The CO(1-0) intensity map
E10 Real*4 K_RJ km/sec Uncertainty in the CO(1-0) intensity
N10 Real*4 K_RJ km/sec Map built from the half-ring difference maps
M10 Byte none Region over which the CO(1-0) intensity is considered reliable
I21 Real*4 K_RJ km/sec The CO(2-1) intensity map
E21 Real*4 K_RJ km/sec Uncertainty in the CO(2-1) intensity
N21 Real*4 K_RJ km/sec Map built from the half-ring difference maps
M21 Byte none Region over which the CO(2-1) intensity is considered reliable
Keyword Data Type Value Description
AST-COMP String CO-TYPE2 Astrophysical compoment name
PIXTYPE String HEALPIX
COORDSYS String GALACTIC Coordinate system
ORDERING String NESTED Healpix ordering
NSIDE Int 2048 Healpix Nside for LFI(Planck) Low Frequency Instrument and HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument, respectively
FIRSTPIX Int*4 0 First pixel number
LASTPIX Int*4 50331647 Last pixel number, for LFI(Planck) Low Frequency Instrument and HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument, respectively
CNV 1-0 Real*4 value Factor to convert CO(1-0) intensity to Kcmb (units Kcmb/(Krj*km/s))
CNV 2-1 Real*4 value Factor to convert CO(2-1) intensityto Kcmb (units Kcmb/(Krj*km/s))

Type-3 CO map file data structure

1. EXTNAME = 'COMP-MAP'
Column Name Data Type Units Description
INTEN Real*4 K_RJ km/sec The CO intensity map
ERR Real*4 K_RJ km/sec Uncertainty in the intensity
NUL Real*4 K_RJ km/sec Map built from the half-ring difference maps
MASK Byte none Region over which the intensity is considered reliable
Keyword Data Type Value Description
AST-COMP String CO-TYPE1 Astrophysical compoment name
PIXTYPE String HEALPIX
COORDSYS String GALACTIC Coordinate system
ORDERING String NESTED Healpix ordering
NSIDE Int 2048 Healpix Nside for LFI(Planck) Low Frequency Instrument and HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument, respectively
FIRSTPIX Int*4 0 First pixel number
LASTPIX Int*4 50331647 Last pixel number, for LFI(Planck) Low Frequency Instrument and HFI(Planck) High Frequency Instrument, respectively
CNV Real*4 value Factor to convert to Kcmb (units Kcmb/(Krj*km/s))

References

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  7. 7.0 7.1 Planck 2013 results: All-sky model of thermal dust emission, Planck Collaboration XI, A&A, in press, (2014).
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